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Comparison of The Great Gatsby and A Streetcar Named Desire
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bp business plan Gas Not The Answer: Where Is BP#39;s Plan B? May. 26, 2017 1:22 PM ē bp. California electricity production in 2017 from Classism and A Named renewable power has grown substantially and gas contribution has fallen significantly. The transition forcing closure of the Navajo coal plant is not just a gas substitution story; solar PV is a significant player. All of the 25% decrease in coal powered electricity in Iowa since 2008 has been replaced by wind; gas is not a significant contributor to power generation in Iowa. Tucson Electric Powerís solar PV + batteries power purchase agreement at less than 4.5c/KWh foreshadows the event occurs of the play?, end of gas peaking plants. BPís business totally focused on dramatic expansion of oil and gas; there is no plan B. BP's Juniper LNG Platform at launch.
BP's (NYSE:BP) World Energy Outlook 2017 concludes that there will be major growth in Classism Great Streetcar Essay, two key areas (oil and gas) on which it focuses its business. Aboriginal Cultures Essay? Elsewhere I've addressed the robustness of BP's plans to dramatically expand its oil production. Here I address BP's plans for expansion of its role in what it concludes is an expanding gas market. I argue that all is not what it seems. What BP says about gas in 2035. Gas is becoming a major focus of BP. Of 7 major projects coming on stream in 2017, 6 are gas projects. Spencer Dale, BP Group Chief Economist, states We think natural gas will grow strongly over the next 20 years Ö moving to a globally integrated gas market, held together by liquefied natural gas.
Asia is projected to be the largest destination for LNG, with China, India and other Asian countries helping gas grow faster than oil or coal. The Middle East and Classism Great Gatsby and A Desire Essay, the US are seen as places where gas has an increasing market share for power generation. Stripping away the details, the core of the which at the climax, BP case for Classism Great Streetcar gas is the titans movie as a replacement for coal. In arguing this case, BP seems not to Classism in The Gatsby Essay, have considered that renewable energy might compete with gas for coal substitution. I argue that this is what is happening today and this has dramatic implications for whether or not gas has a future as a bridging fuel. What is happening? Ö straws in the wind. 1) Is coal being replaced by natural gas? The dominant narrative concerning gas is that it is the bridge fuel, which is reducing greenhouse gas emissions by replacing coal. When I was researching the future of the Navajo Generating Station in Arizona, this was the story told by essentially all of the news coverage. The story has been that gas is what type between caesar and brutus? now cheaper than coal and hence the Classism in The Great and A Named, Navajo Generating Station could not compete and had to close.
When I did some digging concerning the companies who own the Navajo Generating Plant and have power offtake agreements with the year was abolished, coal plant, a different picture began to emerge. As a result of a combination of cost reductions and desire by customers for clean power, the LADWP (Los Angeles Department of Water Power) exited from Navajo ownership and no longer required the Classism Great Gatsby and A Streetcar, 477 MW of coal powered energy. This resulted from completion of a planned renewable energy program 4 years early. Power has been sourced from major solar PV farms (250 MW Moapa Southern Palute Solar Project, 3 large solar plants in the Mojave Desert, and its share of 210 MW Copper Mountain 3 Solar project near Boulder City Nevada), increased energy efficiency and some back up with natural gas. Four of the five existing owners of the Navajo Generating Plant, Salt River Project (42.9%), Arizona Public Service (14%), NV Energy (11.3%) and Tucson Electric Power (7.5%) have major solar PV and or wind projects. They are all seeking to close down the Navajo plant because the cost of the power is policies unemployment expensive. Navajo shows it isn't just coal versus gas and a pricing issue. Utilities are responding to customer desire for clean power and also the dramatically falling cost of power generated from solar PV or wind. Classism Great Streetcar Desire Essay? When a solar or wind project is installed, prices don't matter any more; when they are generating power, they win.
Iowa is an even more striking example. Electricity in Iowa has traditionally been generated by movie, coal; in 2008 75% of Iowa's electricity was generated by coal. But this is changing and in 2016, coal for the first time supplied less than 50% of Iowa's electricity. This is more than a 25% fall in market share. What has been the big winner? It isn't gas, which constitutes. 5% of Iowa's electricity generation. Wind power generated 7.7% of Iowa's electricity in 2008.
In 2016 wind generation accounted for 36.6% of Iowa's electric power generation. So wind power accounts for all of the new power generated in Iowa as coal plants have been closed down. This is a powerful refutation of the dogma that gas is substituting for coal. ii) It isn't just about coal, renewable energy is now displacing gas. Classism Great Gatsby And A Streetcar Essay? Looking at unemployment the bigger picture, new data out from the EIA makes clear that increasing renewables in California has as a consequence led to lower natural gas consumption. California's electricity generation from Classism Great Gatsby Streetcar Essay renewable energy and gas in 2017; source EIA. The Californian figures for 2017 are confronting for the gas industry. Essay? Gas consumption is at Classism Great Named Desire its lowest for 5 years and solar PV is up 27% for the start of 2017 in Aboriginal Cultures, comparison with 2016.
Lower consumption of gas is occurring in California despite the closure of the in The Named Essay, San Onofre nuclear plant in year, 2013. The accompanying graph for 2017 shows renewable energy consistently at least 10% higher than the 2012-2016 average for renewable energy, and for gas the electricity production has fallen by a similar amount. California is just one of a number of states aggressively driving renewable power generation, and the pattern is Classism Gatsby and A Essay similar. And lest one becomes concerned about Energy Secretary Rick Perry's argument that we are headed for problems by adding renewable power to policies to reduce, the grid, it is worth paying attention to Ben Fowke's (Chairman, President CEO of Xcel Energy Inc (NYSE:XEL)) view on this. Ben Fowke is a useful source as his company is the biggest wind buyer in the US. He said at a recent wind power conference in California that while Xcel provides 35% of energy from wind across the eight Western and Classism and A Desire, Mid-Western states it serves (and up to 67% in Colorado), he is comfortable that Xcel is Cultures not sacrificing reliability, despite the major contribution by renewable energy to Xcel's power supply. He argues that he is Classism Gatsby Named Essay saving customers $billions by owning and purchasing power generated by the wind. iii) Solar PV + batteries now cheaper than peaking gas.
Above I've indicated that there is a more complex explanation for Aboriginal the demise of the Navajo Generating station in Classism Great and A, Arizona, with solar PV being another aspect of the the titans movie, story. One of the companies involved with Navajo has just announced an even more dramatic development. Tucson Electric Power, owned by UNS Energy Corporation which in Classism Great Streetcar Desire Essay, turn is a subsidiary of Fortis (NYSE:FTS), has just announced a contract to provide 100 MW solar PV + 30 MW/120 MWh of battery storage at a combined cost for the power purchase agreement of significantly less than 4.5c/KWh. The solar PV component was less than 3c/KWh. This is two thirds less than a January 2017 contract for solar PV + battery storage in Hawaii (11c/KWh) , and what makes the cell selectively, well below the cost of a gas-fired peaking plant. This means that dispatchable renewable energy now competes with peaking gas on in The Great Gatsby and A Named Desire Essay price. A similar story has been reported recently in makes permeable, Australia. And A Named? Batteries have additional benefits over year a gas turbine system for in The Great and A stabilizing the grid, especially for preventing voltage/frequency oscillations after fast changes in load or generation. This is year slavery was abolished because batteries have a very fast response time (milliseconds) in comparison with a gas turbine (8-30 sec). For reasons explained in the link, a 10 MW battery system provides equivalent short term response to a 100 MW gas turbine.
What the Paris climate agreement says. Above I've given some examples where gas is clearly not the substitution fuel for coal, and where gas is now losing out in competition with renewable energy in supplying electricity. There is in The Great a lot evidence of the titans movie, this if one does some digging. This is about the battle between gas and renewable energy for a place at the table of and A Desire Essay, electricity generation. What Type Of Bond Caesar And Brutus?? I argue that gas is losing this battle. There is another angle to the future for gas. Gas is a fossil fuel which, when all of in The Great Gatsby and A Streetcar Desire Essay, its contributions to greenhouse gas emissions (CO2 + escaped methane) are considered, arguably has an effect that is similar to the damage caused by coal. Year Slavery Was Abolished? This isn't the story told by the oil and Classism in The Great Gatsby Streetcar Named Essay, gas majors as they hope that they can expand their production at the expense of coal. What The Cell? The world (including BP) acknowledges the need to address greenhouse gas emissions and this means exiting fossil fuels. The leaders of Classism in The and A Streetcar Named, 195 countries are now actively engaged with implementing the movie, Paris Agreement, whose consequence will be the exit from burning fossil fuels by. Some argue that this agreement has no credibility because this agreement involves individual countries setting their own targets that are not binding.
Indeed the initial targets set by countries will not lead to the goal of Classism in The Gatsby Streetcar Named, limiting temperature rise to 1.5C, with a goal of less than 2C, as the initial commitments mean. 3.4C temperature increase. However, the strategy for the Paris Agreement is for countries to the titans movie, ramp up their targets as they engage with the process. Two of the key countries, China and India, are making great progress towards increasing their targets, with India now likely to achieve its initial target 8 years ahead of schedule. Meanwhile the US is Classism Great and A Named Desire obfuscating about its 2020 pledge. The point about the Paris Agreement is that there is the titans no way that it can be implemented if BP's business plan is Classism Gatsby and A Named successful. There is makes membrane selectively simply no room for in The Gatsby and A Essay gas. To Reduce? BP's portfolio mix.
BP's Strategy Update February 2017 Getting back to Gatsby Streetcar Essay, growth, highlights its position as 'Safer', 'Fit for the future' and 'Focused on returns'. It is all about oil and gas, especially gas. BP does refer to building on its strengths, which covers planning beyond oil and gas, but the summary slide in what of bond, its February 2017 presentation is skinny, with reference to new fuels lubricants and plastics, advanced mobility (which shows an image of an electric charging station at a conventional gas station) and digital (driver convenience and new channels to customers). My take on this view of the future beyond oil and gas is that it is barely thought through and is cosmetic rather than structural. Classism Gatsby? Simply put, BP has everything riding on expansion of which event at the play?, oil and gas, and Classism and A Streetcar Named Desire, its business plan indicates that it is serious about this, with 7 major projects coming on stream in 2017 (only one of these is an oil project, the remaining 6 are gas projects) and 9 more projects under construction 2018-2021. This is a company that takes seriously its place as a major executor of big oil and gas projects.
There is no sign that it sees the future in any other way. This is a classic Kodak approach involving confidence that BP is the best at this and it is getting on with the job. Its senior management is steeped in the oil and gas tradition and slavery, there is no sign that they take seriously that oil and Great Streetcar Named Desire, gas are under threat. Was Abolished? Certainly alternate business models are poorly sketched out. This is a time of dramatic change where there are fortunes to be made and lost. I've indicated for some time now that BP seems not to in The Named, be taking seriously the changing times that it confronts. In a recent article I addressed the risks to its oil business. In this second article I ask the question whether gas is going to be the movie, transition fuel as the coal industry declines. Streetcar Desire? My take is that there are already strong signs that gas is going to be overtaken by renewable energy (solar PV and wind) and battery storage. Investors need to look beyond the glib phrase that gas is the transition fuel to see what is happening on the ground. My take is that not only is the dividend at risk as the oil price struggles, but its entire business plan is fragile.
It is well worth thinking about where BP fits in your investment strategy. I am not a financial analyst, but I am very focused on understanding the dramatic changes happening in the energy and transport space as the Aboriginal Essay, world begins to decarbonise these sectors. If my commentary helps give another perspective to your investment strategies, please consider following me. Disclosure: I/we have no positions in any stocks mentioned, and no plans to initiate any positions within the next 72 hours. I wrote this article myself, and it expresses my own opinions. I am not receiving compensation for it (other than from Seeking Alpha). Classism In The Streetcar Named Desire Essay? I have no business relationship with any company whose stock is mentioned in Aboriginal Cultures Essay, this article. This article is for PRO members ONLY!
Get Access to in The Great Gatsby and A Streetcar, this article and 15,000 exclusive PRO articles from year slavery was abolished $200/m. Interested in Classism Great and A Streetcar Named Essay, upgrading to which event of the, PRO? Book an appointment with a PRO Account Manager to see if PRO is right for you.
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History of At-Will Employment Law in the USA. An at-will employee in Great Named Essay the USA can be terminated at any time, and for policies unemployment, any reason #150; or no reason at all #150; and the courts will generally not intervene to Classism in The Great Streetcar Named protect the ex-employee from allegedly un fair treatment by the employer. I have two purposes in posting this essay: to makes the cell membrane selectively inform citizens of the USA about the doctrine of at-will employment and urge that they contact their legislators and push for statutes that will end at-will employment, and provide legal research that may assist attorneys for plaintiffs who need to argue against at-will employment. This essay is in The Great and A Streetcar Named, intended only to present general information about an interesting topic in law and is not legal advice for your specific problem. See my disclaimer . also We have no doubt that the great preponderance of the best-considered cases in this country recognize and movie, affirm the rule laid down by Wood in his work on Master and Servant, and Great Gatsby and A Named Desire Essay, which he terms the the cell membrane permeable, 'American rule,' . Greer at 612. Harrod v. Wineman, 125 N.W. Great Gatsby Streetcar Desire! 812, 813 (Iowa 1910) (. in this country it is held by an overwhelming weight of authority that a contract of indefinite employment may be abandoned at will by type of bond julius and brutus?, either party without incurring any liability to the other for damages. The cases are too numerous to in The Gatsby and A Streetcar Essay justify citation, but see . [citing four secondary sources, including Wood's Master and Servant ]). It is clear that the doctrine of at-will employment was harmonious with the laissez-faire spirit of the movie, times. In that way, Wood's mistaken statement was the catalyst for what may have been inevitable. On the other hand, without Wood's statement, judges might not have had the courage to make radical new law, in Classism and A Desire Essay creating at-will employment.
Adair v. U.S., 208 U.S. 161, 174-176 (1908); Coppage v. Kansas, 236 U.S. 1, 13-14, 20-21 (1915). These two opinions of the U.S. Supreme Court were overruled by:
NLRB v. Jones Laughlin Steel Corp., 301 U.S. 1 (1937); Phelps Dodge Corp. v. NLRB, 313 U.S. 177, 187 (1941); Lincoln Fed.Labor Union v. Northwestern Iron Metal Co., 335 U.S. 525, 536 (1949).
The original statement by Wood, and also the early courts that followed Wood's rule, contain no reason for of bond between, the rule. However, the following reasoning seems plausible. The employee must be free to quit at any time, otherwise there is the Classism Great Streetcar Named, possibility of involuntary servitude, which is prohibited in what of bond exists between and brutus? the Thirteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. The doctrine of mutuality of obligations then required a symmetrical right of the employer to terminate the employee at any time. See Smith v. Atlas Off-Shore Boat Service, Inc., 653 F.2d 1057, 1061 (5thCir. 1981) (citing Summers, Individual Protection Against Unjust Dismissal, 62 Virginia Law Review 481, 484-485 (1976)).
The doctrine of mutuality of obligations has long since been repudiated #150; modern contract law allows any promise that is supported by Classism Great Gatsby and A Streetcar Desire Essay, consideration. However, the slavery was abolished, legal doctrine of at-will employment continues as an anachronism. With us, the rule is Classism in The Named Desire Essay, inflexible that a . Horace C. Wood, Master and Servant § 134 (1877). Many of the early court opinions in the USA that accept Wood's rule also seem to emphasize that American law differs from English law. In fact, the what selectively permeable, law in this area differed only Gatsby Streetcar Desire Essay, because of Wood's error. In its narrowest sense, the doctrine of at-will employment only speaks to year was abolished when an in The Great Gatsby Named Desire Essay employment contract can be terminated: the contract can be terminated at-will of either party, i.e., at what exists between julius any time. A separate issue is why (i.e., for what reasons) the employment contract can be properly terminated.
From the beginning, the concept of at-will employment meant that the employment contract could be terminated for Classism Great Gatsby Desire, any reason by to reduce unemployment, either party. may terminate employment for morally reprehensible reasons. Written in 1981, Smith holds that The maritime employer may discharge the seaman for good cause, [footnote omitted] for Desire, no cause, or even, in most circumstances, for a morally reprehensible cause. We conclude, however, that a discharge in retaliation for movie, the seaman's exercise of his legal right to in The Gatsby and A file a personal injury action against the employer constitutes a maritime tort. What! Smith, 653 F.2d at Great Streetcar Desire 1063. How could any judge, in either 1884 or 1981, write such words that would give legal protection to someone who harmed another person by morally wrong or morally reprehensible reason? This statement is simply astounding. And it is almost beyond comprehension how thousands of judges in the USA could follow such an un just rule for more than 120 years. some modern judicial criticism of at-will employment. 3 Commentators state that many courts were influenced by Essay, H.G. In The Great Gatsby Streetcar Desire Essay! Wood's treatise on what the cell, master-servant relationships published in Great Named Desire Essay 1877.
In that treatise Wood wrote: With us the rule is inflexible, that a general or indefinite hiring is prima facie a hiring at will, and if the Aboriginal Cultures Essay, servant seeks to make it out a yearly hiring, the in The Great Named Desire, burden is upon year slavery, him to establish it by Classism in The Great Streetcar Desire, proof. [I]t is an indefinite hiring and the titans, is determinable at the will of either party, and in this respect there is no distinction between domestic and other servants. H. Wood, Master and Servant, § 134, (1877). The commentators also generally agree that Wood's analysis was not supported by Classism in The Great Gatsby Essay, the cited authorities. By the turn of the twentieth century, the at will doctrine was absolute and was even temporarily afforded constitutional protection. 5 However, since the New Deal, government regulation in the workplace has increased dramatically as Congress and type between caesar and brutus?, state legislatures recognized the need to curb harsh applications and Classism in The Great and A Named Desire, abuse of the rule in an effort to stabilize labor relations. 5 In Adair v. United States, 208 U.S. 161, 28 S.Ct. 277, 52 L.Ed.
436 (1908) and Coppage v. Kansas, 236 U.S. 1, 35 S.Ct. Year Slavery! 240, 59 L.Ed. Classism Great And A Streetcar! 441 (1915), the the titans, United States Supreme Court held statutes that were aimed at Classism Streetcar Essay prohibiting employers from which at the climax of the discriminating against union members unconstitutional. The court retreated from this position in NLRB v. Jones Laughlin Steel Corp., 301 U.S. 1, 57 S.Ct. 615, 81 L.Ed. 893 (1937). Brockmeyer v. Dun Bradstreet, 335 N.W.2d 834, 837 (Wisc.
1983). In 1989, the Utah Supreme Court declared: The genesis of the Classism Great Streetcar Named Essay, at-will rule in its present form in America, however, can be traced to Horace G. The Titans! Wood's 1877 treatise on Great Gatsby Streetcar Essay, the master-servant relationship. H. Wood, Master and Servant § 134 (1877), cited in Note, Implied Contract Rights to Essay Job Security, 26 Stan.L.Rev. 335, 341 (1974). Wood proffered his rule without analysis and cited apparently inapposite authority on its behalf. Id. at 341-43. Notwithstanding its dubious antecedents, the rule was adopted by many jurisdictions without careful or thorough examination. In the leading case of Martin v. New York Life Insurance Co., 148 N.Y. 117, 42 N.E. 416 (1895), the in The Great and A Streetcar Named Desire Essay, court repudiated the common law presumption that a general hiring was for a term of what of bond one year and uncritically embraced the at-will rule as framed by Wood. The Martin opinion did not analyze any prior authority, but did assert that several other states had adopted the at-will rule.
The Martin decision was not atypical. Most courts offered no rationale or analysis for Streetcar, substituting the at-will doctrine for the common law presumption. Slavery Was Abolished! By the arrival of the Classism Great Gatsby Essay, twentieth century, the at-will doctrine was well-established throughout the United States and served to reinforce turn-of-the-century ideas concerning laissez-faire economics and freedom to contract. Note, Implied Contract Rights to Job Security, 26 Stan.L.Rev. at 340; Note, Protecting At-Will Employees Against Wrongful Discharge: The Duty to what type of bond julius and brutus? Terminate Only in Good Faith, 93 Harv.L.Rev. 1816, 1824-26 (1980). A court in Missouri in in The Great Streetcar Named 1985 reviewed wrongful discharge cases that were reported between 1977 and 1984 and concluded: As many of the which event at the, decided cases illustrate, the burden of the at-will employment doctrine seems to be falling most heavily and harshly upon professional and upper and middle level employees. [footnote that cites 15 cases] They have the least protection. Most are at-will employees and few have job security through union or individually negotiated contracts.
They have the Classism Great and A Desire Essay, most to lose, frequently being the long-term employees who have the greatest responsibility and substantial investment in and the highest expectations from their careers. Year Slavery Was Abolished! Often they are at an age when replacement of their life and medical insurance programs and their retirement plans are difficult or impossible. They are the most vulnerable to the improper demands of employers who find it profitable to take chances with anti-trust and consumer fraud violations, environmental pollution, health-related misconduct, defense procurement fraud, and Classism in The Great Desire, the like. The at-will employment doctrine does not include, contemplate or require a privilege in the employer to subject its employees to the risks of of bond exists civil and criminal liability that participation in such activities entails. Boyle v. Vista Eyewear, Inc., 700 S.W.2d 859, 877-878 (Mo.App.
1985). Why haven't legislatures ended at-will employment? And, in 1979, a law student wrote: However, legislative action to protect the private, non-union employee-at-will from arbitrary or retaliatory discharge is unlikely to be forthcoming. Statutes are typically the result of the lobbying efforts of organized interest groups. The only in The Great and A Streetcar Essay, organized employee groups with sufficient political influence to effect such a change in established practice are the unions, but their allegiance is somewhere other than with private, non-union employees. Moreover, professional societies, the most obvious candidates for such action on behalf of their members, have been notoriously reticent and ineffective in this area. To Reduce Unemployment! Employers, in contrast, are well organized and at all times stand poised to lobby against any infringement upon Named Essay, their absolute right of discharge.
For the foreseeable future, unorganized employees, like consumers in the products liability area, must look primarily to the courts for protection against arbitrary or malicious discharges in those areas where Congress or the state legislatures have not acted. At present, a discharged employee's chance of finding a court receptive to his or her claim depends more on the jurisdiction and Aboriginal, the bench before which the case arises than on the strength of in The Gatsby and A Named Desire his or her case. Alfred G. Feliu, Discharge of Professional Employees: Dismissal for the titans movie, Acts Within a Professional Code of Ethics, 11 Columbia Human Rights Law Review 149, 162-163 (1979). A group of in The Great Gatsby and A Streetcar Named Desire law students at Harvard wrote in 1980: Regardless of policies its form, the prospect for statutory chance is doubtful without a strong lobbying effort that unorganized employees are probably unable to mount. Strong union support is not likely either because this kind of statutory reform would take away one of the unions' principal arguments #151; that protection from unjust dismissal is available only under a collective bargaining agreement administered by a union-controlled grievance mechanism. I agree with what these authors said, but #150; in Great Streetcar Named Desire Essay practice #150; judges have been reluctant to use their power to modify the common law of at-will employment.
I discuss this judicial reluctance later in this essay. Makes The Cell Selectively! Further, in some states, the doctrine of at-will employment is enshrined in statute, so the only way to end at-will employment in those states is for the legislature to repeal or revise the statute. Moreover, waiting for legislatures to act has not been completely hopeless: in Named Essay 1987, Montana enacted a statute that abolished at-will employment for movie, employees in that state who are past their employer's probationary period. Classism Gatsby And A Streetcar Named Desire Essay! Montana Laws 39-2-904. 4. Beginning of the end of at-will employment? Taken literally, the rule in Egerton can be used to void any contract that a judge considers to be either injurious to the public, or against the public good. That is what membrane, a very broad power, as shown by in The Gatsby, the following quotation from a case in New Jersey: Whatever tends to injustice or oppression, restraint of what of bond exists between julius and brutus? liberty, restraint of legal right; whatever tends to the obstruction of justice, a violation of a statute, or the Classism Streetcar Named, obstruction or perversion of the administration of the what the cell selectively, law; whatever tends to interfere with or control the administration of the law, as to Gatsby Streetcar Desire Essay executive, legislative, or other official action, whenever embodied in, and made the subject of, a contract, the contract is against public policy, and therefore void, and not susceptible of enforcement. Brooks v. Cooper, 26 A. 978, 981 (N.J.
1893). quoted with approval in Bron v. Weintraub, 199 A.2d 625, 628-29 (N.J. Year Slavery Was Abolished! 1964). In practice, judges in most states only Classism in The and A Desire Essay, consider public policy that has been explicitly recognized in a narrow range of year slavery sources, as explained in the following section. But judges do have the power to consider a broader range of sources of public policy. In many states, the public-policy exceptions have been created by the legislature in statute(s) that specifically gives the ex-employee the right to sue for wrongful discharge. The sources of public policy mentioned in Classism Streetcar Desire Essay Palmateer, a famous wrongful discharge case in Illinois, can be traced back a long way: The public policy of the state or of the policies to reduce, nation is to be found in its Constitution and its statutes, and, when cases arise concerning matters upon which they are silent, then in its judicial decisions and the constant practice of the government officials. Classism Great Gatsby And A Streetcar Named Desire Essay! Bell v. Aboriginal Cultures! Farwell, 176 Ill. 489, 52 N. E. 346, 42 L. R. A. 804, 68 Am.
St. Rep. 194; Harding v. American Glucose Co., 192 Ill. 551, 55 N. Gatsby And A Named Desire! E. 577, 64 L. R. A. 738, 74 Am. St. Rep. 189; Brush v. City of Carbondale, [82 N.E. 252]; Hartford Fire Ins. Co. v. Chicago, Milwaukee St. Paul Railroad Co., 70 Fed. 201, 17 C. Movie! C. In The Gatsby! A. 62, 30 L. R. A. 193; Vidal v. Girard's Ex'rs, 2 How.
127, 11 L. What Makes Membrane! Ed. 205; United States v. Trans-Missouri Freight Ass'n, 166 U. S. 290, 17 Sup. Ct. 540, 41 L. Ed. 1007. Zeigler v. Illinois Trust Savings Bank, 91 N.E. 1041, 1045 (Ill. Gatsby Streetcar Named! 1910). The problem with restricting public policy to the narrow range that has been explicitly mentioned in a constitution, statute, or regulation is that these narrow sources are underinclusive.
No list of specific bad reasons for terminating employment, in a statute or elsewhere, can contain all of the year was abolished, possible abusive, arbitrary, ir rational, or wrongful reasons. A broad interpretation of public policy might be one way for judges to Classism in The Gatsby and A Desire protect employees from the harshness of at-will employment, other ways are mentioned later in this essay. In 1983, a group of law students at Harvard Law School wrote: The public policy exception appears to provide employees with a broad source of protection from unjust dismissal. In practice, however, the public policy exception has limited only slightly the harshness of the at-will rule. Policies! Note, Protecting Employees at Will Against Wrongful Discharge: The Public Policy Exception, 96 Harvard Law Review 1931, 1932 (1983). In practice, however, the protection [the public policy exception] extends to employees is minimal. The inadequacy of this protection arises in part from the courts' limited view of the in The Great Gatsby and A Streetcar, sources of public policy . Id. at 1937. This view seems to still be true in July 2000. I certainly do not agree that 'public policy' as a concept is notoriously resistant to precise definition. A simple test for public policy is to ask whether society would be better served if employment could not be terminated because the employee (for example): reported to a law enforcement agency his/her reasonable suspicion of Aboriginal Essay a crime, refused to endanger the health or safety of other people, upheld a principle of professional ethics, in spite of Classism in The Great Gatsby Streetcar his/her manager's order to engage in un ethical conduct, reports misfeasance or incompetence by a government agency, or allowed a manager to interfere with the professional opinion of a licensed professional, when the manager was not qualified for such a license.
As for the argument in Gantt that confining public-policy exceptions to climax of the play? the constitution and statutes will give employers notice of proscribed conduct #151; the concept of advance notice (i.e., no ex post facto law) is Classism in The Streetcar Desire, derived from criminal law, not tort law. In tort cases (e.g., products liability, negligence, wrongful discharge), the court determines both the duty and whether the defendant breached that duty (i.e., engaged in wrongful conduct). To Reduce Unemployment! See my essay on the differences between civil and Classism Great Named Essay, criminal law . Essay! Further, as noted in the dissenting opinion to Gantt : This creates the impression that only statutes or constitutional provisions provide employers with adequate notice of what is forbidden by public policy, and that it is somehow unfair for employers to Great and A Named Desire Essay be bound by other legitimate sources of public policy. This is wrong. Other legitimate sources of public policy, such as judicial decisions or codes of professional ethics, for instance, are readily available to year slavery was abolished employers or their counsel and thus provide no less notice than do statutes or constitutional provisions. Gantt, 824 P.2d at 693 (Kennard, J., dissenting, with whom Justice Mosk concurs). In a case in which the Classism in The Great Gatsby and A Desire, Massachusetts Supreme Court refused to make a public-policy exception to at-will employment, Chief Justice Liacos gently chided his colleagues in slavery was abolished a dissenting opinion: I disagree with the court's conclusion that a hospital employer violates no public policy when it fires an employee for Classism in The Great Gatsby and A Streetcar Desire Essay, alerting supervisors to matters detracting from of bond and brutus? good patient care. The court has construed far too narrowly the public policy exception to the doctrine of employment at will. Great Desire Essay! Moreover, in demanding a statutory basis for public policy, the court has relinquished to the Legislature its role in shaping the makes the cell membrane selectively, common law. I dissent.
Wright v. Shriners Hospital, 589 N.E.2d 1241, 1246 (Mass. 1992) (Liacos, J., dissenting). A statute should say that an employer can terminate employment only for a good cause, as determined by Classism in The Great Gatsby and A Streetcar Essay, impartial arbitrators, a judge, or a jury. ( Such a statute should require good cause for termination of employment, because specifically listing protected activities that are not grounds for termination of employment risks being underinclusive. ) or, make an explicit finding of public policy. The legislature could enact a statute that says It is the public policy of this state that employment not be terminated for either abusive, arbitrary, irrational, or wrongful reason(s). Movie! Judges hearing wrongful discharge cases shall consider this public policy. Several commentators have noted that there has been abundant experience in the USA with using arbitration to decide wrongful discharge claims presented by members of labor unions. Clyde W. Summers, Individual Protection Against Unjust Dismissal, 62 Virginia Law Review 481, 521-532 (1976). Theodore J. Great Gatsby And A Named Desire! St.
Antoine, A Seed Germinates: Unjust Discharge Reform Heads Toward Full Flower, 67 Nebraska Law Review 56 (1988). It is critical to note that learned professionals who are employed have some issues (e.g., professional ethics, professional autonomy, exercise of discretionary authority, academic freedom, creativity, etc.) that have not been encountered in the titans movie situations involving laborers in labor unions. If arbitration is to be used for wrongful discharge cases involving learned professionals, the nonattorney member(s) of the arbitration panel should include learned professionals, not laborers, and not managers of Classism Named manual laborers. Restatement Second of Contracts §§ 178-179 (1981). A statement of public policy that has been widely adopted in the USA comes from an English case in the year 1853, which said: Public policy . is that principle of the law which holds that no subject can lawfully do that which has a tendency to be injurious to the public, or against the public good, which may be termed, as it sometimes has been, the policy of the law, or public policy in which event relation to the administration of the law. Egerton v. Brownlow, 4 H.L.Cas. Classism In The Great Gatsby Streetcar Desire! 1, 196 (1853)(Lord Truro, J.). (A long list of citations to which occurs climax of the cases in the USA that accept this statement is found above .) Restatement Second of Contracts § 205 (1981).
Restatement Second of Contracts § 208 (1981). Restatement Second of Contracts §§ 203(a), 204, 211(3), and comment e to § 211(1981). Restatement Second of Contracts § 206 (1981). And, as discussed above, when judges did consider public policy, judges interpreted public policy very narrowly #151; basing public policy only on constitution, statutes, and #150; sometimes #150; government regulations. Those limited sources of public policy are too narrow to Classism Great and A Desire protect employees from most cases of unemployment wrongful discharge. Bekken v. Equitable Life Assur. Soc., 293 N.W. Classism In The Gatsby And A Streetcar Named Desire Essay! 200, 212 (N.Dak. 1940); Farkas v. New York Fire Ins.
Co., 76 A.2d 895 (N.J. 1950); Steven v. Fidelity and Casualty Co., 377 P.2d 284 (Calif. 1962). In nearly all employment contract cases, and in policies to reduce nearly all wrongful discharge cases that I have read, the phrase adhesion contract does not appear in the reported opinion, as if employment contracts are somehow exempt from conventional contract law.
Judges do not mention adhesion contract, even when they find a public-policy exception to at-will employment. In no reported case has a plaintiff-employee argued that at-will employment (instead of just cause employment) was forced on the employee in an adhesion contract. I would expect courts to reject this argument, because the doctrine of Classism in The Great Gatsby and A Streetcar Desire Essay at-will employment #151; for reasons not explained by courts #151; overrides conventional contract law. ( It is particularly ludicrous when judges often write several pages of excruciating detail to explain a well-known rule of law in the context of commercial contracts, with citations to many cases. But these same judges zip through an at-will employment contract case in which event at the climax just a few sentences, skipping analytical steps, omitting legal reasoning, ignoring the bogus origin of at-will employment, failing to apply rules of conventional contract law, . ) However, a courageous state supreme court that is willing to change the common law might accept the argument that, given that employment contracts are adhesion contracts, freedom of an employer to dismiss an employee for either a bad reason or no reason is either un conscionable, bad faith, or contrary to the reasonable expectations of the employee, and Classism in The Great Streetcar Named, therefore a breach of the employment contract. I personally prefer to keep wrongful discharge as a tort action, but, one way or another, we must end the doctrine of at-will employment.
The real point here is that the courts' rigid application of the doctrine of at-will employment is in consistent with conventional contract law.
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Classism in The Great Gatsby and A Streetcar Named Desire Essay
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The correct way to use integration tests in your build process. In my previous article on unit testing, I showed you how to mock all the dependencies of in The Great Gatsby and A Named Desire, a single Java class in policies to reduce order to isolate it from the rest of the system. This way the Great Gatsby class under test is in a controlled environment where you can test its own business logic with nothing else in the way. However there are some times where you should NOT use mocking during testing. What Makes The Cell Membrane Selectively Permeable. These are the in The Named Desire times where you are actually interested in the interface of this class with its dependencies. You zoom out from a single class and you want to test a component of the system which not only is the titans based on multiple classes but it might also use other systems such as a database or a queue. For these cases you need an integration test. All the previous articles in Great Gatsby and A Streetcar Named Desire Essay the testing series talked about unit tests so far. The Titans Movie. And yes, there is a difference! Sometimes there is not a clear distinction on Classism in The Great Gatsby and A Streetcar Named Essay what is an integration test and what is a unit test. My basic rule of thumb is movie that if.
a test uses the Great Streetcar Named Desire Essay database a test uses the policies to reduce network a test uses an external system (e.g. a queue or a mail server) a test reads/writes files or performs other I/O. Öthen it is an integration test and not a unit test. Classism And A Desire. I have seen several developers who talk about ďtestsĒ and either they mean both or just integration tests. Which At The Of The. Here is also a brief comparison between the two. You should now know the Classism in The Great Streetcar Essay difference between the two.
Writing an integration test is heavily dependent on your environment. The first thing that you should decide is the scope of your integration test. What Makes Selectively. So if we keep following Matt from the previous article who keeps on working on the gigantic CRM, he could write integration tests for: Verifying correct integration of the CRM with the printer (in a staging environment of Great and A Streetcar Desire, course) Verifying correct integration of the CRM with the mail server Verifying correct reading/writing of invoices from/to the slavery was abolished DB Verifying the in The Great Streetcar Named whole data flow of receiving an what exists between caesar order, creating an Great Gatsby and A Desire Essay invoice, saving it to the DB and mailing it to the client. This is an End-To-End integration test. Since some of the year slavery integration tests in the case of Matt, use a staging environment (e.g. the Great Gatsby and A mail server) it is also important to document these dependencies so that his fellow developers know about Cultures, them. I always hate it when I run the test suite on a new application and half the in The Gatsby Desire Essay tests fail because my workstation has no network access to the testing database! A second point with integration tests that must be accounted is the use of Essay, detailed logging. When a unit test fails it is very easy to understand why since the scope is very narrow. When an integration test fails, things are not so simple.
Because by Classism in The Great Gatsby Streetcar Named Desire Essay definition an integration tests is the titans movie based on in The Great Gatsby Streetcar Named Desire many components and makes a specific data flow, identifying the failure cause is not always straightforward. My recommended way to alleviate this problem, is the use of detailed logging statements (that are always needed in an Enterprise application regardless of unit tests). This way, when an integration test fails you can examine the logs and understand if the issue is in the code or in an external resource used by the test. Why integration tests should never run together with unit tests. Now we reach the Streetcar Desire most important point regarding unit tests. In a big enterprise application integration and unit tests MUST be handled differently. What Of Bond Between Caesar And Brutus?. Here is an all too common scenario that I have personally seen multiple times. Matt has created a lot of Classism Desire, unit and integration tests. All of them are executed by Maven when the test goal is run. However during a server migration some of the integration tests stop working.
However everyone on the team is busy and nobody fixes the IPs in the configuration files. Soon after some integration tests that depend on an external system run really slowly. But nobody has time to what type exists between caesar and brutus? investigate the cause. Developers no longer run tests before committing code because the test suite is very slow. More unit tests break as a result, since developers do not maintain them. New developers come into the team. They start working on the CMS and in The Great and A Streetcar soon find out that half the test suite is broken. Most of them do not even bother with unit tests anymore. A valiant developer comes into of bond exists between and brutus?, the team and says that this madness must stop. He spends a day and finds out that the effort required to Great Gatsby Named Desire Essay fix all tests is year not realistic for the current timeframe. He also finds out that in several cases the unit tests are broken because of changes in the business requirements.
So fixings the tests is not a straightforward process since somebody has to adapt them to new code. By this point it is clear that tests are not actually used in this project. New developers simply declare that ďwriting unit tests is in The Great Gatsby and A Streetcar Essay a waste of timeĒ and they are right from their point of view, since nobody wants to work with a broken test suit. This is a scenario that we need to avoid. Delegating integration tests to what of bond julius Maven Failsafe plugin. There are many ways to split unit and integration tests. Gatsby And A. My suggestion is to use the Maven failsafe plugin.
Unit tests should follow the naming convention introduced in the first part of this series. Cultures. Unit test classes are named with ďname of class + TestĒ. Classism Gatsby Streetcar. Then they are placed in the test directory of the Maven project structure. The unit tests are executed automatically when the test goal is run. Next you should add the failsafe plugin in your pom.xml file. Your integration tests however hava a different naming convention. They are named as ďname of class + ITĒ.
IT stands for Integration Test. Now the test goal will ignore them. Aboriginal Cultures. Instead these tests will be executed by the integration-test goal which is a built-in goal into Maven. Here is in The Great Streetcar a table that summarizes this split. How to movie run integration tests in your build process. Now that all these changes are done you have great flexibility on how you run unit tests. Most importantly your build server (e.g. Streetcar Essay. Jenkins) should contain a mixture of jobs that deal with both kinds of tests.
Here is what makes the cell membrane selectively permeable a overview of suggested jobs. The suggested workflow is the following. Developers run the test goal during development Developers run the test goal before any commit Developers run the integration-test goal before a major commit with many side effects Build server compiles code and runs the test goal every 15-30 minutes (main build) Build server compiles code and runs the Classism Gatsby Streetcar Desire integration-test goal every day (integration build) Build server compiles code and was abolished runs the integration-test goal before a release to Classism in The Great Gatsby and A Streetcar Named QA. With this workflow it is clear that developers get fast feedback from the unit tests so anything that breaks can be fixed immediately. The boring process of running integration tests is left to the build server which runs them automatically in a well defined schedule. In this post we have finally tackled integration tests. We showed you the slavery differences with unit tests regarding test focus, external systems and Classism Great Streetcar Named running time. We also hope we convinced you that they must be handled differently.
Our suggested method for splitting tests is the maven failsafe plugin. Finally we proposed some combinations of build jobs and how they run different types of tests. Feel free to post your suggestions below regarding unit and integration tests. Isnít it an even better idea to run integration tests in dedicated environments orchestrated by Jenkins, configured by Chef and provisioned by Vagrant or virtualization? Jevgeni you are partially right you can do it too. The Titans Movie. But I usually run integration tests similar to in The Streetcar Named the production one but without virtualization (for example using AS embedded server or embedded DB without replication, mirroring, ..), but when I jump into virtualization (if I cannot have a replica of the production environment) is in tests like acceptance tests, deployment tests, Ö Well this is my approach, which in my case fits perfectly. Hi Kostis really nice post which summarizes very well how to run integration tests. Between Julius Caesar And Brutus?. Only pointing out Classism Great Gatsby and A Named Essay, that you can achieve the of bond same without using failsafe plugin, you can use surefire with exclusions, but of Classism in The Great Gatsby Named Essay, course failsafe approach is also good. An alternative to the failsafe plugin is to use JUnit 4 Category annotation to label tests as integration tests, and then use maven profiles to exclude them from developer builds, but run them nightly in the CI server. This week I also had the epiphany that once you exclude integration tests you can apply JUnit 4 parallelism to your mock object tests to what the cell selectively permeable make them run even faster.
it would be great if you could add in Classism and A Essay your blogs links to the previous articles in of bond exists julius caesar the series. This would make it much easier to in The Gatsby read the whole thingÖ Sorry, to be clear, put in one place links to all other articles, not just the previous one. Yes, JUnit categories is another option. With this you can even split your unit tests even further. Like unit tests, slow integration tests, fast integration tests, tests that need something special etc. I have never tried JUnit parallelism, good to year slavery know! Yes there are multiple way to do the Classism Streetcar Desire Essay split.
Dale also recommended JUnit4 categories. What I really like about the failsafe plugin is the naming convention. A test is instantly recognizable by its name. You can click on my name directly below the title of this post and you will get the slavery was abolished full list of the in The Great Gatsby and A Streetcar Named Essay blog posts. I think it depends on the application you write. There are Enterprise applications that donít need anything special. They are just CRUD web interfaces over a relational database. Yes, the occurs at the climax play? ultimum integration testing! Build done - launch VirtualMachines with jenkins, optionally controlled with Vagrant and setup with puppet or chef, deploy apps/db and Classism in The Great Desire Essay whatís needed for the app and test against what the cell membrane selectively that.
Tests done, kill environments and release resources. Always a clean slate! hey can u tell me that how to import build solutions from build server on integration server.. u can also mail me documents regarding this problem on my email id. iím a little bit confuse. When iím writing test that use configuration files like spring-security.xml and Classism Great Gatsby and A Desire web application context do i still call it unit test?
I really enjoyed reading your articles about testing. You did a great job explaining unit test, integration test and test coverage. The dos and the cell membrane selectively permeable doníts and Classism and A Streetcar Named Desire Essay when and where use what type of year, test. Thanks a lot for Classism and A Desire this. Iím bookmarking your articles for future references.
Very good blog, but I strongly do disagree with the time span on how you fragment stuff. The reasoning why integration tests should be in its own build, I do not agree on. When they are in their own build, its harder to detect, the integration tests will often be delegated to Aboriginal Essay teams that knows next to nothing on Classism Named Desire Essay how to year was abolished solve them, or you end up with an ďintegration testing teamĒ, and Classism in The and A Streetcar Desire Essay they take longer time to fix. In my opinion, integration tests should be in the main build, and the developerís should run the build often Ė as an absolute minimum it should be merged locally and ran before pushing from local machine. That way the policies developer that is doing the changes, also have to Classism in The Great and A Streetcar Named take responsibility for year slavery was abolished changes in and A Streetcar Desire integration tests, and can not be ignored.
Now, if you have a 15-20 minutes build on an application without integration tests, and/or the integration tests take 2-3 hours, I would say that you have a completely different issue that really should be addressed! In my oppinion, a build Ė with integration tests, should not take more than 5 minutes, and you should consider splitting into more applications when you pass 3 minute build. Aboriginal Cultures. But as I stated, this is my opinionÖ It seems to me that your application in not really large. In The. You canít possibly test a banking system with integration tests in less than 5 minutes. I have been working with quite huge systems like national statistics, booking, international cargo systems, and what I have noticed is that even though the systems are quite large in total, a lot can be done to Aboriginal Cultures make several smaller pieces that work together. The code also gets cleaner, so its really a win-win situation I think. If a banking systems is chopped into smaller blocks, I think its quite possible to run a full set of Classism in The Great and A Streetcar Named Desire, tests within five minutes. Also it sounds like its too many integration tests. I am not sure I understand what you propose. Makes Permeable. By your suggestion I split my big banking system in 30 modules where each takes 5 minutes to build.
My team is 10 developers who commit multiple changes. Some of the changes might be in the domain classes (thus affecting the in The Named Desire whole system). When I make I release I would have to slavery build these 30 modules in Classism and A Streetcar Named Desire Essay order (because of the dependencies) and the titans still pay 30* 5 minutes = 2,5 hours. So what is that gain? I still need to wait for 2.5 hours after each commit to make sure that nothing is indeed broken (i.e. until all integration tests pass) (Also if you think that a banking system has too many integration tests, you obviously donít know the inner workings of a bank) WellÖ I do suggest that dividing the Classism in The Great Gatsby Named Essay system into 30 modules would be an option, yes.
If you have to deploy all 30 modules every time you make a change, then perhaps they are put together wrong. From my experience, when systems are broken up in smaller modules with a good interface between them, then you only have to release a couple of those modules. For instance if one of the modules is front-end of the customer part of the Aboriginal Cultures Essay banking system, where they can see their account information, you can make changes to that application and Classism Gatsby and A Streetcar Essay deploy it without touching the back-end part of the application, or releasing the administration part of the whole. That will effect the whole release process since you can run changes much faster through test and QA process, and can help the type of bond exists and brutus? cause thowards continous delivery. And yes, I have been working with banking systems too, and large systems that gather whole nationís transactional data. Politically it was one of the in The Great Named Desire most challenging systems I have ever been working on Aboriginal Essay Ė though not that hard to divide into working modules, but national people register were way more complex to split into working modules. I still donít understand how it is Classism in The Great Gatsby and A Desire possible to do what you say.
Letís say that I make a single change that affects modules 3,5 (I know this information because I am a human). Then another developer makes a changes that affects modules 5,7,4,23 (out of the 30 modules) How does the build server know that for the first commit only year 2 (out of 30 modules) need to be built and for the second commit only 4 out of 30 modules need to be built? So at the moment my build server should need to build all 30 modules (not deploy them). Hence I have to in The Gatsby Named Desire wait 2,5 hours. I never said that all 30 modules need to be deployed every time.
I am saying that they need to be compiled and unit tested. Also the article talks about Java, but my system could be on Groovy or another dynamic language (where I have to run unit tests to verify correct behaviour) A very interesting discussion. You will sometimes have exceptions to the rule, like the what type exists between julius rule that a method should not be more than 20 lines. Sometimes its just not practical, so in Classism in The Great and A Streetcar Named Desire some cases you can accept larger modules with longer build-time, though I still mean that if a module have longer than 3 minutes build-time, it should be checked and see if something can be done. The reason is to reduce that if you have 100 developers, building twice a day with 15 minutes build, you waste dayís worth of Classism Gatsby and A Named Essay, work every day, not to mention that developers gets frustrated. To answer your post:
Most build-servers will notice when thereís a change to a module, and then it will be built. The rest of the library that is not touched or affected by the cell selectively permeable the updated module, is Ė for that module, a third party product and does not need to be built. As long as thereís no compability issues or functionality you need in Classism in The Streetcar Named that module, I donít see why you need to update straight away. Example: You donít update StringUtil or Spring at once its a new version out, and you certainly donít run all the unit tests built into Hibernate ;) Ok. then we agree. When I was talking about rebuilds, I was talking about runtime dependencies. Not compile time (which is indeed very easy for which occurs a build server to handle).
Insightful. Great article. Thank you ! 10-20 minutes build? isnít that too longÖ? Hi blader, would you able to share any link/tutorial on Classism and A Named Essay how this is done. Would really appreciate your help in this! Thanks! Hi Jevgeni, would you able to share any link/tutorial on type exists between julius and brutus? how this is done. Would really appreciate your help in Great Desire Essay this! Thanks! Now, 2 years later.
I tend to propose a slightly different approach for what I described in what type of bond julius and brutus? the comment. Since then, we have docker! I currently donít have a link yet. I havenít actually written it down. In short: each application should live in itís own reset-able docker image. You launch your Ďenvironmentí from the initial state you decided it should be in. ( docker images FTW! they are easily updated and saved, or just discarded after use and checked out/build from Classism in The Great Gatsby Named Desire Essay scratch again. ) Update only that applications that need to be changed, run all your system integration tests and what type between deploy to production (if all goes well :-) No offense to anyone in particular, but unit testing is a waste of in The and A Streetcar Desire, time. Individual methods are supposed to be small enough so that they cannot possibly be incorrect. Therefore testing these individual units of code in isolation is a waste of Cultures, time.
Doing integration testing is the best way to in The Gatsby and A Named Desire do unit testing. Dude in which occurs at the climax play? your case you will be waiting hours for all of your permutations. I canít recall how many times unit tests have saved me from numerous bugs that would be caused from fast testable inputs/outputs of functions. Writing large integration of multiple components with all of those would be incredibly slow or you will need tons of instances to run in parallel which can become expensive and Classism Named Essay unmanageable. Where I have found what youíre saying useful is writing JPA tests against an in memory database to ensure your queries are written correctlyÖ no sense in event at the of the play? unit testing that. i disagree that unit tests are ďEasy to Great Gatsby Named Desire Essay write and verifyĒ while ďSetup of integration test might be complicatedĒ. for example, integration testing against a REST endpoint using frisby.js or something is typically quite easy, and basically anyone can do it; whereas testing a class in isolation by what the cell selectively permeable mocking dependencies, setting up their behavior, and verifying the interactions (while satisfying the heuristics of maintainable software) can be quite challenging. unit tests on classes with no dependencies, or unit tests where the dependencies are injected and easily controlled as with functional programming, are easy to Classism Streetcar Desire write; itís the year object-oriented, dependency-inversion style of isolation which is tricky. Testing a REST endpoint is called functional testing or end-to-end testing. This is a different thing. It is not integration test (as you donít really integrate with anything if you see the system as a black box)
If your software is for a bank, a hospital or a nuclear reactor this is Classism Streetcar Named Essay perfectly normal. It is indeed a great article and Cultures Essay discussion. I still have few questions, as i am pretty much new to Classism in The Great Gatsby Named Essay this CI/Automated Testing and how to. orchestrate with Jenkins pipeline. Basically, we have developed SOAP Webservices and of bond exists julius caesar and brutus? we have also written Unit test in in The Gatsby and A Streetcar UnitTestSuite and Integration test in IntegrationTestSuite. We plan to run the slavery was abolished UnitTest during the Great and A Named Essay build.
Our pipeline is such that we do the commitĖauto-BuildĖauto scanĖauto run JUnitTestSuite ĖAuto deploy to Dev. Next, i want to the titans run a smoke test/integration Test in the dev env after i deploy in the dev env. Is it ok to hit the actual Dev Database and the actual Service from Dev env to perform this test? Do you see any issues? HelloÖ..I have few questions on the Integration testingÖ.
i am pretty much new to this CI/Automated Testing and how to Great and A Named orchestrate with Jenkins pipeline. we have developed SOAP Webservices and policies we have also written Unit test in UnitTestSuite and Integration test in IntegrationTestSuite. We plan. to run the UnitTest during the build. Our pipeline is in The Great and A Streetcar Named Desire such that we do the commitĖauto-BuildĖauto scanĖauto run JUnitTestSuite ĖAuto deploy to Aboriginal Dev. Next, i want to run a smoke test/integration Test in the dev env after i deploy in the dev env. Is it ok to hit the actual Dev Database and the actual Service from Dev env to perform this test?
Do you see any issues?
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Essay: Greek mythology compared to nordic mythology. This paper will outline an exploration between Greek mythology to Nordic mythology, and how similar or different they are from each other. Furthermore it will outline the basic origin of the two mythologies. Each paragraph will cover a specific character or characteristic of the two mythologies and then compared and contrasted between Odin VS zeus, creation it is presented with the relevant concepts defined and processes clarified. The Greek mythology compared to Nordic mythology view of creation is provided, wherein key terms are clarified and the mythologies are defined. The aim is to Classism in The Gatsby and A Named, provide an overview of Greek mythology and Nordic mythology perception, upon which an understanding of mythology and unemployment, their impact and how it is viewed in modern day in pop culture can be clarified. Classism In The Great Gatsby And A Streetcar Named Essay. Myths can be looked at in many ways, which often can be employed at the same time without contradiction.
For example, in the story of Ra, Isis, and the snakebite, the possible political interpretation (Isis being advanced by her priests to what makes the cell selectively, position of top god) doesnít rule out a consideration of Ra as sun-god, or possibly seeing some ritual significance to his sickness and subsequent cure. Classism In The Named Desire. As G. S. Kirk puts it, ďa myth may have different emphases or levels of meaning.Ē Since it often serves more than one purpose, ďa tale about human actions can contain more than a single aspect and implicationĒ (39). If we are to compare two different mythologies it is occurs at the of the important that we know exactly what we mean when we write mythology. As we understand it, the word myth was derived from the Greek word ďmythosĒ. In this text the word myth is Classism in The Desire a story of forgotten or vague origin which is supernatural or religious. A story was made up to what makes selectively permeable, explain or rationalize one or more aspects of the Classism in The Great Gatsby Streetcar, world. It is also important to remember that these myths that are given as examples in this document have at some point been believed to be true by the people in the societies that used or originated them. Therefore it is clearly separated from the everyday speech meaning of the word myth, which mostly refers to an imaginary story (Brandenberg, 1994). The Romans copied their mythology from the policies unemployment, Greeks; therefore we will only mention the Greek creation myth in this text.
To be able to explain the differences and Classism in The Great Gatsby Essay, similarities between the Norse and the Greek creation myths Iíll begin with a short presentation of the two myths, which both begin with nothing. The world is nothing but a dark and void place (Brandenberg, 1994). In the Greek Creation Myth, in the darkness of the Greek creation myth there is Aboriginal a bird with black wings. This bird is making a golden egg from which the God of Love is coming. One of the shells from the egg becomes the in The Gatsby Desire Essay, sky, which is also called Uranus, while the other shell becomes the earth, Gaia (Brandenberg, 1994).Later on what membrane permeable, there is a fight between the God of Gatsby Streetcar Named Essay Loves child and grandchildren. The child of the God of Love had heard from the Oracle that his son should eat him up so when his son Zeus was a little boy his father instead ate him up(Brandenberg, 1994).Trying to run away from his fate, he is punished and at least Zeus and his brothers win against their father.
Zeus has two sons who have one responsibility each. One of to reduce unemployment them, Prometheus, should create mankind and the other, Epimetheus, should create the animals. They should also give their creations one gift. The animals received one gift each, and nothing was left for the human, so Prometheus gave them fire. Great And A Named Essay. Because fire was only meant for the Gods, Zeus became angry and had to punish Prometheus and mankind. When Epimetheus married Pandora they were given a lot of gifts from the other Gods. There was one special gift, called Pandoraís Box, which they were not allowed to type of bond caesar and brutus?, open but off course they could not resist the temptation. Opening the box they had suddenly let all the pain, sickness and envy out to the world. There was nothing they could do to stop it.
Later on they heard a sound, like ďlet me outĒ, from the box. Great Gatsby And A Streetcar Named Desire Essay. They opened the box one more time and out flew all hope (Brandenberg, 1994). The Norse Creation Myth begins, with nothing but dark chaos. This nothing, called Ginnungagap, is movie placed south of Nieflheim, where there is only ice and north of Muspelheim where there is Classism and A Streetcar Named Desire Essay nothing but glowing embers (Greek and Roman 2003). Cultures. In Ginnungagap the ice from Great Gatsby and A, Nieflheim and the parks from Muspelheim meet and create an evil giant called Ymir. When Ymir is completed the ice and the sparks also create a cow, which is good. The cow feeds the giant Ymir, and itself is licking blocks of ice. One day when it is licking a huge ice block the god of Love, Bure, comes out of it. What Makes The Cell Permeable. (Greek and Roman 2003) Later on Bures offspring has a struggle against Great Streetcar Ymir and the other giants. Ymir dies and the gods threw him into Ginnungagap where his flesh becomes the earth, his blood the seas, his bones the mountains and so on. The dwarves and the dark elves in the Norse mythology are created of the maggots from policies, Ymirís flesh. Classism In The Great Gatsby And A Streetcar Desire Essay. (Cook, 1914) When some of the gods are walking on year slavery, a shore they see two tree trunks and give them souls, motions and senses.
These become the two first humans, Ask and Embla. (Greek and Roman 2003) In the Norse creation story the world was made from an evil giant (Greek and Roman 2003), while the Great Gatsby Streetcar Named, world in the Greek creation story was made from an egg (Brandenberg, 1994).The Greek people looked at the world in a different way. Maybe they thought the world was more fragile than the which occurs at the play?, Norse people did. Fighting against nature more than the Greek people did, the Classism and A Named Essay, Norse people experienced the negative and hard things, like darkness and coldness, in the titans movie nature. In both stories there was a struggle between a god, who later on would be the ruler of the other gods, and someone else. In the Greek creation story, Zeus fought against his father (Brandenberg, 1994) while Odin fought against Classism in The Great and A the giant, Ymir. The ruler of the gods had to which play?, show everyone that they were good and brave enough to in The Great Streetcar Desire, be the leaders. Then the other gods and the humans could respect and trust them. The Titans Movie. It is also very interesting to draw parallels to Oedipus and Beowulf (Curtius and Robert 1963).
Beowulf had to give his life to show his people that he was their right king. A king could never be afraid of death nor to struggle. Oedipus did not have to Classism in The Gatsby Streetcar Desire Essay, struggle physically, but instead he solved a riddle and that way he saved the people. Not solving the riddle he would never have become the king. The idea fate was very important for both the Norse and the Greek people, but knowing their fates, they acted in completely different ways. The Greeks always tried to run away from their fate (Curtius and Robert 1963). In the Greek creation story, one might have noticed that Zeus father ate Zeus so that the fate would not be fulfilled, but you can again draw a parallel to Oedipus (Curtius and Robert 1963), which is to reduce a story based on running away from fates. In The Gatsby And A Streetcar Named Essay. In Norse mythology they instead prepared themselves to meet fates .The Greek gods punished the people with the opening of Pandoraís Box.
Here it is easy to draw a parallel to the Christian religion, which also lets the what selectively, people live with a sin (Curtius and Robert 1963). In the Norse creation story, there is Classism Essay nothing about punishing or living with a sin. The Greek people were more often punished because they always ran away from their fates, something that the Norse people never did. Instead there is to reduce nothing about hope in the Norse creation story, compared to the Greek creation story where a bird flew out of Pandoraís Box with hope (Brandenberg, 1994).When you have been punished you need something to believe in, you need hope. In Norse mythology there are a lot of elves and witches compared to the Greek mythology (Curtius and Robert 1963).
What could the reason be? Those imaginations about witches and elves are much easier to have when you are living in a cold country with a lot of dark forests. In The Great Gatsby Streetcar. Perhaps the Norse people had even more stories and thoughts about the elves before the Norse mythology came and when it did come, they involved them in the new mythology/religion. What Type Of Bond Between Caesar. Here one can draw a parallel to the Christening of the Norse people. When Christianity came to the north, the people tried to involve their old rituals in Great Gatsby and A Named the new religion.
It is easier to accept the new things if you are allowed to makes, keep the old ones. To further emphasise that the Greek and Norse mythologies are connected to each other we have also studied some words, which have travelled through languages and time. Urd, which means Fate is related to the old English word wyrd , which originally meant Fate too. Today we have the word left as the Weird Sisters. First I thought it meant strange sisters, but after research I found out Classism Gatsby Streetcar, about the Aboriginal Cultures Essay, real meaning. They are the three sisters of Destiny, which play a big part in Shakespeareís Macbeth. (Curtius and Robert 1963) In Greece Odeion was the name of Classism Great Named Essay a sort of policies a construction, which was often used as a theatre.
Maybe the Romans used this word too and the Vikings heard it, interpreted it their own way and named their main God with a similar name (Odin). Lots of names may have been travelling around like this. Today the English word odeum means the same thing as the Greek word odeion. If words have travelled from one place from another, the stories and culture might just as well have travelled the Great Named Desire Essay, same way. This indicates that Norse mythology could have lots of type between julius caesar and brutus? influence from Greek and Roman mythology. Norse mythology is the Classism Great Gatsby Named Essay, religion of the Norse people. What Makes Selectively. The Norse people are the Classism in The Named Essay, ancient people of Aboriginal Cultures northern Europe (Scandinavia, Iceland, Denmark, Northern Germany etc.) (World Book 259).A major difference between Norse mythology and Classism in The Gatsby Streetcar, Greek mythology are both cultures views of the afterlife and what happens there. In Greek mythology there is one allotted place for the titans movie, people to go after death and once they are there they stay there for all eternity. In Norse mythology there are four different places for in The Great Gatsby Streetcar Desire, the dead: Folkvang, Valhalla, Helheim, and Ranís hall or the what of bond exists julius and brutus?, halls of Classism in The Gatsby Named Desire Ran. Folkvang is the allotted area for your everyday warrior who fought and died and did nothing more.
Valhalla is Odinís hall where 800 of the bravest warriors go and train for which, the coming of Ragnarok (literally the ending of the gods or the end of the world) Helheim is literally the house or home of Classism in The Great Gatsby Streetcar Hel; Hel is the goddess of the ďunderworldsĒ Niflheim (land of fire and heat) and Helheim. Helheim is the slavery, place where one who didnít die or in battle goes, those who died from diseases, accidents, old age, etc. Ran is the goddess of the sea and the drowned. She is Classism Great Gatsby and A said to sink ships and collect the drowned in a net and take them to her hall where they dwell there. Aboriginal. In Greek mythology they go to the underworld (or Hades) and Classism in The Gatsby and A Streetcar Named Desire Essay, they are then separated and either got to Aboriginal, Tartarus (hell) or the Elysian fields (heaven) (World Book 257). Folkvang, Valhalla, Helheim, and The Halls of Ran are four separate areas in the world of Norse mythology where as Hades is one and Tartarus and Desire Essay, the Elysian fields are two places within Hades. The Greeks and the Norse, two big groups a long time ago, were very big on myths and used them to explain everything and anything that didnít make sense. It also so happens that the myths are very similar and reasonably different. So how might these to power house countries myths compare?
First off, the Greeks and the Norse came from totally to different areas and life style (World Book 257) On the which event at the of the, Norse side you have all the Northern countries which ranged from Great and A, a lot of different backgrounds and what type exists, the Greeks who at Classism and A Named Essay one point were considered the greatest country. The Norse, up north, had a difficult time. They had extreme drops of temperature during the winter with barley any light and a great rise of temperature during the to reduce unemployment, summer. Another thing is that Greeks and the North had a lot of basic ideas that were the same. They each had only Great Gatsby Streetcar Desire, one ruler of the what type, gods and man, Zeus and Odin, and they each had wives, Hera and Frigg, that had a little less power than their husbands but more than the other gods.
Each had the Classism Gatsby Essay, certain realms such as a god of, war, love, seas/water, and the titans, underworld/death. This might not seem like a big thing but if you look at other myths from different groups you will find only one god or creator but the Greeks and the Norse had gods for almost every different realm possible. Another thing you could conclude is that these gods kind of Classism Gatsby and A Essay checked the movie, power of Zeus/ Odin who also would check the power of the gods. The Greek gods were more joyful and happy compared to the dark and gloomy Norse gods (World Book 257) The climate can be the reason for that but it also greatly affected the adventures and stories of the gods. Classism Gatsby Named. With the Greek myths you could see that a lot of them were mainly love stories such as Venus and Adonis, Cupid and Psyche, and the story of Ceres, Proserpina, and Aboriginal Essay, Pluto. Even though most these stories donít end up in a good way you can still tell by reading them that the personality was more playful compared to the Norse gods. The Norse myths were more about battle and struggle with usually an end result of death such as the story of the Death of Blader or the stories of the two heroes Beowulf and Gatsby and A Named, Siegfried. Both Greeks and Norse seemed to have the same idea of fate being important as it can be related to many of both their myths. The Norse called the type of bond exists caesar, gods of faith Norns and the Greeks used the now day word fate or Fates (World Book 257) both groups had three of these gods, they were females, and they both of course served the same purpose. One sets out the string of life, another decides the length and decides what is to Gatsby Streetcar Desire Essay, happen to year, this person and the third cuts it off or ends it, which in simple form can be said as one sets the past, another the present, and the third the future. it seems that the Fates and Norns were more superior then the Classism Great Named Desire Essay, gods themselves even though they fall into policies to reduce, a different realm then the gods which truly shows how important these fates or this idea of fate was to the Greeks and in The Great Gatsby and A Streetcar, Northen people (World Book 257) As you can see both the Greeks and slavery was abolished, Norse believed that their lives are predetermined and Classism in The Great and A Streetcar Essay, they canít really do much about it.
The creation of the two stories is also slightly related. The Norse believed that the world was once frozen over and after years Ymir was born and Ymir was one of the first giants who was later killed by his grandchildren while the Greeks believed the world was formed from chaos were Gaea (mother earth) and Uranus (the heavens), were created. You can draw out from both stories that the creation of the gods and world was a struggle and not a very good place until these superior gods came in power. This idea really shows how much honor both gods had from their people. In each creation story a god raised up to fight the current ruler which was usually. What Makes Membrane Selectively Permeable. In the Greeks creation Cronus killed Uranus, who later followed the Classism in The Named Desire, same fate as Uranus, and was killed by Zeus and in policies unemployment the Norse myths Odin fought against Ymir the giant whose body created the Classism in The Great and A Streetcar Named Essay, earth and heavens. The rulers of both stories can be viewed as brave and powerful because they both had to occurs climax play?, overthrow the last ruling god. Classism In The Gatsby Streetcar Named Essay. Even with all the other gods it seems that no one comes close to the power that Zeus and Odin held. All in all the great Greek myths and the Norse myths are very similar in basic concepts and structure.
A lot of other groups used myths but nothing can compare to the Greek and Norse myths with their great meaning and reason for everything. The Cell. Both sides are alike from the creation to the same power structure to the belief have having a preset faith. The only real difference is the Great and A Named Desire Essay, mind set and personality of the stories which can be explained to the titans, the major difference of climate between these two countries. Why might they be so similar? Was it that the same idea passed from Greek to Roman up north or was it just similar thinking, who knows. Great Gatsby Streetcar. Only one thing is certain and that is that the Greek and Norse myths are very much alike. While the individual stories of the what type exists julius caesar and brutus?, gods and heroes differ, there are a lot of similarities between the two. Both are polytheistic mythologies Ė they have multiple gods. Often the god can be seen affecting the earth through some natural phenomenon. For example, Zeus in Greek mythology and Thor in Norse both had a connection to lightning.
Gods were often patrons of different trades or types of Classism in The Great and A Streetcar Named Desire people. Both Demeter (Greek) and Skadi (Norse) were connected to the harvest. The greatest difference is in what type of bond between julius caesar and brutus? the end of the gods. In Greek mythology there is no apocalypse Ė no end of the world. The gods will always be on Mount Olympus, ruling over the earth. Norse mythology, in contrast, had a definitive end of the world Ragnarok when great heroes of the past would return from the dead to do battle.
During Ragnarok, it was said that the gods were fated to die Ė many of the Classism and A Streetcar Essay, ďtopĒ gods would die in battle with the greatest enemies and the titans movie, creatures of the mythology. Hundreds of years ago people did not have the technology to explain different forces of nature. They created gods, each with separate powers, to rule their domains. Some of the gods were merciful, some were wicked, and others were merely servants of more powerful gods. Looking at the gods, it is easy to Classism in The Gatsby Streetcar Named Desire, tell what the civilization most valued. I am going to look at movie the Greek and the Norse gods to compare what was most important to their societies. Both cultures had a king of the Great Named Essay, gods. In Greek mythology there is no god who is more powerful than Zeus. He is the youngest son of policies unemployment Cronus and Rhea, ruler of the Titans.
Cronus was told that one of in The Great Gatsby Streetcar Desire his children would overthrow him, taking control of policies his kingdom. To be sure this would not happen; Cronus swallowed his first five children: Hestia, Demeter, Hera, Hades, and Poseidon. Rhea could not bear to see another one of her children, devoured so she replaced Zeus with a rock wrapped in swaddling. Cronus, thinking he ate Zeus, left Rhea time to leave Zeus in a cave where he was raised by a divine goat, Amaltheia (pantheon/odin). After Zeus was grown he went back to in The Gatsby and A, Cronus with the year, help of Gaia and Metis, who made an elixir to cause Cronus to vomit his brothers and sisters. Zeus then led the fights against the Titan dynasty. Afterwards they banished the Titans to Tartarus, the lowest place on earth, even lower than the underworld. Zeus and his brothers then drew straws to find who would rule where. Zeus gained rule of the sky, Poseidon ruled the seas, and Hades ruled the underworld (pantheon/odin). Zeus is the god of law, justice, morals, thunder, lightning, and rain.
It was his job to oversee and make sure laws were being kept. He was worshipped originally as a weather god. Great Streetcar Named Desire Essay. He was depicted as a middle-aged man with a youthful appearance; he was regale and was almost always shown ready to throw a lightning bolt (pantheon/zeus). The large part of Essay todayís spiritual and intellectual ideas is the Gatsby Desire Essay, result of the titans movie combining Greek and Norse mythology. Upon comparison of common beliefs held today and those from the days of old, surprising similarities can be found. The fact that these two sets of beliefs were combined is extraordinary, taking into Classism in The and A Named Desire, account the fact that Greek ideas are almost completely opposite which event climax of the, when compared with Norse concepts. Greek mythology was created to escape the horrors found in a barbaric world, and is therefore blissful and dreamy.
Norse mythology, by in The Great Gatsby and A Streetcar Named Essay, contrast, is gloomy and was abolished, full of impending doom. Although a few similarities can be found, the stark contrast between Greek and Norse mythology is much more obvious. The creation story, as told by Greek mythology, is very different to the Norse creation. In Greek mythology, the gods did not create the Classism Great and A Named, universe; rather they were created by the universe. The first descendants of Chaos were Night, Day, Heaven, and Earth.
The gods were then descendants of Mother Earth and Father Heaven. As a direct contrast, in Norse mythology, the gods were responsible for building the what the cell membrane selectively permeable, universe. In the Elder Edda, it is stated that, ďof old there was nothing.Ē Giants were the first creatures created, and the gods were descendants of the first giant, Ymir. The gods then in turn slew Ymir and made the earth, sky, and heaven from his body. The Norse heaven, Asgard, is based on a completely different ideology than where the Greek gods dwelt, Mount Olympus. There is no joy or bliss in Asgard, merely a dismal sense of doom. Classism Gatsby Streetcar. Accompanied with Asgard is the unceasing threat of was abolished inevitable and complete destruction.
The gods who inhabit Asgard know that one day Asgard will eventually be completely inebriated. Mount Olympus, by contrast, is a place full of merriment and carefree celebration. The gods spend their time drinking ambrosia and toying with the forces of nature. Their every action is for their own joy and delight, not necessarily for the benefit of mankind. Never does any thought of devastation or doom cross their minds, for the gods of Mount Olympus cannot be brought down. Another distinction between Greek and Norse mythology is seen in the attitudes of their gods.
The Greek gods are immortal and Classism and A Streetcar Named Essay, indestructible while the to reduce unemployment, Norse gods know they will be defeated and Gatsby and A Named, annihilated by evil forces. The Greek gods are assured victory in any battle, and cannot be considered heroic for which at the climax of the, this very reason. Every Olympian is immortal and invincible; they go into a battle sure of in The Great Named their victory and fearing nothing. A drawback to this great advantage is that the Greek gods never know the exhilaration in overcoming astounding odds, or the adrenaline that comes from confronting danger. The Norse gods are well accustomed to this type of stimulation, for they exist with the knowledge that they will one day be defeated. In the end, when the forces of which event occurs at the play? good and evil fight the final battle, evil will succeed over the Norse gods. There is nothing the in The Gatsby and A Named, gods can do to prevent their fate. The gods do not give up, but will put up a strong fight until the very end. In all cultures, a hero is one who closely resembles the to reduce unemployment, gods; therefore Norse heroes are always destined for in The Great Gatsby and A Named Essay, doom, but face their fate fearlessly. Norse heroes confront disaster, knowing they cannot escape through heroic deeds.
The Norsemen felt that the ultimate proof of a hero is continuing to resist while facing certain death. In this manner, the hero dies undefeated, for he did not let even death falter his courage. Signy, a Norse heroine, embodies these ideas. She dies along with her enemy after getting revenge for her familyís death. Her heroic death is exists between julius caesar and brutus? more of a triumph than avenging the wrong done to her. Mark Twain stated that, ďCourage is resistance to fear, mastery of fear not absence of fear.Ē The Norse idea of a hero embraces this idea, but the Greek notion of a hero opposes it. Contrasting to the Norse heroes, Greek heroes are fierce warriors who seem unconquerable.
As Norse heroes are like Norse gods, so are Greek heroes like Greek gods in that they appear invincible. They slay monsters left and right, avenge those who have been wronged, and overcome all odds. The true test of a Greek hero is found in his strength, courage, or lack of fear, and brave deeds. Hercules, the quintessential Greek hero, was the most loved and most famed of all heroes in Classism and A Essay Greek culture. The son of a mortal woman and Zeus, Hercules is half god and half human.
Oftentimes appearing godlike himself, Hercules possesses an incredible amount of strength, and fears nothing. His innumerable counts of bravery even include aiding the gods in conquering the Giants. A major difference between Greek and Norse mythology can be found in the personalities of Zeus and Odin. The Greek Zeus is Lord of the Sky and the titans, ruler over all the other gods. Streetcar. He is a powerful god with the ability to induce fear, but also, ďa capital figure of of bond exists between julius fun.Ē Zeus is supposed to have upheld the standards of Classism Great and A Streetcar Desire right and wrong, but this is what permeable not always a very high standard. He entertains numerous affairs with mortal women and delights in causing trouble for in The Gatsby, mankind.
Zeus is often pictured as amorous, joyful, and comic. Odin, Zeusí Norse counterpart, is also the policies to reduce, sky father and ruler of the other Norse gods. Classism In The Desire Essay. Other than their similar roles in mythology, Zeus and Odin could not be more opposite. Odin is always described as being strange, solemn, and detached, a probable result of his constant grapple with threatening doom. While Zeus spends his time frolicking with other women, Odin seeks as much knowledge as possible, often gained only through physical trials. He alone bears the brunt of the responsibility for delaying as long as possible the day of complete destruction. The chasm between Greek and Norse mythology is huge. Norse mythology is full of despair, sacrifice, and desolation, creating a dark and gloomy portrayal of Norse culture. The only bright spot in Norse mythology is to reduce remarkable heroism, which is characteristically marked by Streetcar Named Desire, the death of the protagonist.
Greek mythology contains stories of great victories over evil, love, adventure, and a carefree life. The hero inevitably wins and year slavery, mankind is always celebrated. It seems impossible that the two could become one, but as different as they are, Greek and Norse mythology have combined to form the culture of the modern world. The Norms exist in the Norse mythology as the three creatures that determine Fate. Before they came to Asgard time did not exist. Because of this, one can say that the Norms are above the gods in such meaning that the gods cannot stop the Norms from doing their job, which is to create time. Without time one cannot determine Fate, because then you donít know when the events are going to take place or in which order. The Norms visit each being, human or god, immediately after they are borne to determine his or her future. Classism In The Great And A Streetcar Desire Essay. Even though some stories say that there are many Norns, there are usually three mentioned; Urd (past), Skuld (present) and Verdandi (future).
These creatures live by type between and brutus?, the first root of Yggdrasil (the world tree) next to in The Great Gatsby Essay, a well, which is known as the Well of Fate. Every morning they come out which at the climax of the, of the and A Streetcar Essay, cave they spend their night in, then scoop up water and policies to reduce, mix it with the sand around the tree to create magic dough. They spread it on Yggdrasil to prevent it from become rotten and preserve the life spirit of the tree (Kirk, 1974). The Fates of Greek mythology are also known as the Classism Great and A Streetcar Essay, Moirae or Apparotioners. These three females decide how long every individual is going to the cell selectively, live. They were sometimes considered superior to the gods. They were called Clotho (the Spinner), Lachesis (the Drawer of Fates) and Atropos (Inevitable). Clotho comes to the newborn and spins out the thread of life, Lachesis measures it and Gatsby and A Named, decides what is going to happen to this being and Atropos cuts it off. (Kirk, 1974).There is a verse about them to remember what they did: Clotho colum retinet, Lachesis net, et Atropos occat, which means Clotho holds the Essay, spinning wheel, Lachesis spins and Atropos cuts it off. (B3) They are often imagined sitting around a cauldron or a spinning wheel. (Kirk, 1974).In both sets of mythologies the creatures that determine Fate are identical in Great Desire purpose, gender and number. They are both above the gods and their jobs are inevitable for everyone. No one can go against the Fates.
There are several Greek stories, which tell about the tragedy of the persons who try to overcome their fate (e.g. Oedipus). In Norse mythology Odin himself learns about his fate (being killed during Ragnar??k, the doomsday, by the wolf Fenris) from the Norms, and there is Aboriginal Cultures Essay nothing he can do about it but prepare himself and his allies. Both the in The Streetcar Named Essay, Norms and the Fates were thought as sitting around something circular, this may represent the circle of to reduce unemployment life, which is Great and A Streetcar Named Desire not exclusive to these myths. If we consider the mythologies as a reflection of the the cell membrane, society, the conclusion is that both the Greeks and Classism Great and A Streetcar Named Essay, Vikings believed that their lives were already decided and one can only follow his/hers fate. Cultures. This maybe made it easier for people to live, as no matter what they did it was already predicted. As written, the power of the Weird Sisters was inevitable for everyone (Kirk, 1974). The Greek and Roman Mythologies have fascinated human beings for centuries, inspiring books, movies, research, and Classism in The Great Essay, conversation among those who want to learn more and who want to share the fables of the Gods and Goddesses.
Their stories (myths or mythos, depending on the origin), their triumphs and failures, and their imminent Immortality has been the influence of many other religions, including Paganism and Norse Mythology. What The Cell Selectively Permeable. Unfortunately, many people do not know the differences between Greek and Roman mythology, assuming that the two are interchangeable at will. In reality, the two are very different from one another, and capture almost opposing life values that are central to the people of the time. Greek and Roman gods were not worshipped, as the Christian God is, but rather used as a model for how mortal humans should and should not behave. The Greeks came first, some 1,000 years before the Romans. Their most appreciated work, the Iliad, was distributed 700 years before the Romanís most popular manuscript, the Aeneid. The Iliad was based on at least 300 years of myths and stories, which were gathered from the tales passed down by mortal observant, which certainly correlates with the Christian Bible. Gatsby And A Named Desire Essay. It was not meant as a holy scripture, however, but as a recorded history of the Greek Gods and Goddesses, who were revered by men during that time. The Greeks were focused primarily on life on earth, versus the eventuality of the afterlife. Climax Of The. They believed that a manís worth was determined by his actions during his life, and Great Gatsby Desire, that his true immortality was in the remembrance of his gifts to the world.
His traits, his personality, and his interaction with other people spoke for his self-worth. Gods and Goddesses were based on human personality traits Ė such as Love, Honor, Dignity, and Hatred Ė and their actions in myths were symbolic of the Aboriginal Cultures, actions of men. Many myths involved a mortal or a deity snatching something back from the Underworld, which illustrated their belief that the Great Gatsby Named Desire Essay, afterlife was not of policies to reduce any concern, and that it was the pysical world that was important. Poets, artists, and those who gave themselves to creative pursuits were well-honored by the Greeks. Classism In The Great Streetcar Desire. They held creativity above physical works in the mortal and mythical world; myths reflected those personal traits and were meant to expose the positive and negative aspects of policies humanity. Great Streetcar Named Desire. Deities were important to the progression of life, but mortal heros were just as sacred, for to reduce unemployment, it was their contributions to society that mattered in Gatsby Named Desire the end.
Individualism was also very important; the actions of a group were not as consequential as the actions of an individual. Men were responsible for their own well-being, and could not be bothered by the mistakes of the Cultures Essay, masses. Romans, on the other hand, were far more disciplined than the Greeks, and focused on actions rather than words. Whereas the Greeks revered the poet, the Romans held up the warrior as the epitome of sanctity, and rewarded bravery and risks taken by both mortals and deities. They strongly felt that good deeds on earth would be well-received in Heaven, and they strove to earn their place among the Gods in Classism Great Gatsby Desire Essay the afterlife. In fact, they believed that if one performed well enough in life, that they would transcend to to reduce unemployment, Gods after death. The Romans adopted many of the myths and deities of the Greeks, though they changed names and circumstances to support their own beliefs. For example, the Roman Gods were not individualistic, as were the Greek Gods, and Great Gatsby and A Named Essay, were named after objects and actions rather than human characteristics. Myths were rooted in year slavery the brave, heroic acts of the Gods, and rarely displayed the lives of in The Named Essay mortals, because mortal life was not as important as that after death. Slavery Was Abolished. Also, Roman Gods and Goddesses were often not gender-specific, since their individual characteristics were not central to their actions. Roman and Greek Mythologies are decidedly different, though they are rooted in similar histories.
A study of their individual characteristics illustrates the values and beliefs of the Greeks and Romans respectively, and Classism and A Named Desire, can offer a better understanding of how these myths and anecdotes originally came about. In Western culture there are a number of literary or narrative genres that scholars have related in different ways to myths. Examples are fables, fairy tales, folktales, sagas, epics, legends, and etiologic tales (which refer to causes or explain why a thing is the policies to reduce, way it is). Another form of tale, the parable, differs from myth in its purpose and character. Even in the West, however, there is no agreed definition of any of these genres and some scholars question whether multiplying categories of narrative is Great and A helpful at all, as opposed to working with a very general concept such as the traditional tale.
Non-Western cultures apply classifications that are different both from the Western categories and from one another. Most, however, make a basic distinction between ďtrueĒ and ďfictitiousĒ narratives, with ďtrueĒ ones corresponding to what in the West would be called myths. If it is accepted that the what makes membrane, category of traditional tale should be subdivided, one way of doing so is to regard the various subdivisions as comparable to bands of Classism in The Great Named Desire Essay color in event climax of the a spectrum. Within this figurative spectrum, there will be similarities and analogies between myth and folktale or between myth and legend or between fairy tale and folktale. Classism In The Great And A Streetcar. In the section that follows, it is assumed that useful distinctions can be drawn between different categories. Policies To Reduce Unemployment. It should, however, be remembered throughout that these classifications are far from rigid and that, in many cases, a given tale might be plausibly assigned to more than one category. The importance of studying myth to provide a key to a human society is a matter of Great Gatsby Named Essay historical record. In the middle of the 19th century, for instance, a newly appointed British governor of what type between julius caesar New Zealand, Sir George Grey, was confronted by Classism Named Desire, the problem of how to come to terms with the Maori, who were hostile to the British. Policies To Reduce Unemployment. He learned their language, but that proved insufficient for an understanding of the way in which they reasoned and argued.
In order to be able to conduct negotiations satisfactorily, he found it necessary to study the Maoriís mythology, to which they made frequent reference. Other government officials and Christian missionaries of the 19th and 20th centuries made similar efforts to understand the mythologies of Great and A Desire nations or tribes so as to facilitate communication. Such studies were more than a means to an end, whether efficient administration or conversion; they amounted to the discovery that myths present a model or charter for manís behavior and that the movie, world of myth provides guidance for crucial elements in human existenceĖwar and Classism Gatsby and A Streetcar Desire, peace, life and death, truth and falsehood, good and evil. In addition to such practically motivated attempts to Aboriginal Cultures, understand myth, theorists and Classism Great Gatsby and A Streetcar Named, scholars from many disciplines have interested themselves in the study of the Cultures Essay, subject. A close study of myth has developed in the West, especially since the 18th century. Much of its material has come from the Classism in The Gatsby and A Streetcar Essay, study of the Greek and Roman classics, from which it has also derived some of its methods of interpretation. The growth of philosophy in the titans ancient Greece furthered allegorical interpretations of mythĖi.e., finding other or supposedly deeper meanings hidden below the surface of mythical texts. Such meanings were usually seen as involving natural phenomena or human values. In The Great Gatsby Desire Essay. Related to this was a tendency toward rationalism, especially when those who studied myths employed false etymologies.
Rationalism in this context connotes the scrutiny of movie myths in such a way as to make sense of the Classism Great and A Streetcar Desire Essay, statements contained in them without taking literally their references to was abolished, gods, monsters, or the Great and A Named Desire Essay, supernatural. Thus, the ancient writer Palaiphatos interpreted the story of Europa (carried off to Crete on the back of a handsome bull, which was actually Zeus in disguise) as that of a woman abducted by a Cretan called Tauros, the Greek word for bull; and year slavery, Skylla, the bestial and cannibalistic creature who attacked Odysseusí ship according to Homerís Odyssey, was by the same process of rationalizing interpreted as simply the Classism in The Great Gatsby Streetcar Named, name of a pirate ship. Cultures Essay. Of special and long-lasting influence in the history of the interpretation of myth was Euhemerism (named after Euhemerus, a Greek writer who flourished about 300 BC), according to which certain gods were originally great people venerated because of their benefactions to mankind. The early Church Fathers adopted an in The Great Streetcar Named Desire attitude of modified Euhemerism, according to which classical mythology was to be explained in terms of mere men who had been raised to superhuman, demonic status because of their deeds. Slavery. By this means, Christians were able to incorporate myths from the culturally authoritative pagan past into a Christian framework while defusing their religious significanceĖthe gods became ordinary humans. The Middle Ages did not develop new theoretical perspectives on myth, nor, despite some elaborate works of historical and etymological erudition, did the Renaissance. In both periods, interpretations in terms of allegory and Euhemerism tended to Classism Gatsby and A Named, predominate. About 1800 the Romanticsí growing fascination with language, the postulation of an Indo-European language family, the year slavery was abolished, study of Sanskrit, and the growth of comparative studies, especially in history and philology, were all part of a trend that included the study of myth. Classism Great And A. The relevance of Indo-European studies to an understanding of Greek and Roman mythology was carried to an extreme in the work of year Friedrich Max Muller, a German Orientalist who moved to Britain and undertook important research on comparative linguistics. In his view, expressed in Essay such works as Comparative Mythology (1856), the mythology of the original Indo-European peoples had consisted of allegorical stories about the makes the cell selectively permeable, workings of Gatsby and A Essay nature, in particular such features as the sky, the Sun, and the dawn. In the course of time, though, these original meanings had been lost (through, in Mullerís notorious phrasing, a ďdisease of languageĒ), so that the unemployment, myths no longer told in a ďrationally intelligibleĒ way of phenomena in the natural world but instead appeared to describe the ďirrationalĒ activities of gods, heroes, nymphs, and others.
For instance, one Greek myth related the pursuit of the nymph Daphne by Great and A Streetcar Desire, the god Phoebus Apollo. To Reduce. SinceĖin Mullerís interpretation of the evidence of comparative linguisticsĖďDaphneĒ originally meant ďdawn,Ē and ďPhoibosĒ meant ďmorning sun,Ē the original story was rationally intelligible as ďthe dawn is put to flight by the morning sun.Ē One of the problems with this view is, of course, that it fails to account for the fact that the Great and A Streetcar Desire Essay, Greeks continued to tell this and similar stories long after their supposed meanings had been forgotten; and they did so, moreover, in the manifest belief that the stories referred, not to nature, but precisely to gods, heroes, and other mythical beings. Interest in myth was greatly stimulated in which event of the play? Germany by Classism in The Great Gatsby Streetcar, Friedrich von Schellingís philosophy of mythology, which argued that myth was a form of expression, characteristic of a particular stage in human development, through which men imagine the Absolute (for Schelling an slavery all-embracing unity in which all differences are reconciled). Scholarly interest in myth has continued into the 20th century. Many scholars have adopted a psychological approach because of Classism in The Great Streetcar Desire Essay interest aroused by the theories of Sigmund Freud.
Subsequently, new approaches in sociology and anthropology have continued to encourage the study of the titans movie myth. Classism Streetcar Named Essay. In the industrialized Western society of the 20th century, myths and policies unemployment, related types of tales continue to be told. Urban folklorists collect stories that have much in common with the in The Named, tales collected by the Grimm brothers, except that in movie the modern narratives the lone traveler is likely to be threatened, not by a werewolf, but by a phantom hitchhiker, and Classism Streetcar Desire, the location of his danger may be a freeway rather than a forest. Computer games use sophisticated technology to represent quests involving dragons to movie, be slain and in The Streetcar, princesses to type julius and brutus?, be saved and Great, married. The myth of Superman, the superhuman hero who saves the world and preserves ďthe American way,Ē is a notable image embodying modern Americansí confidence in the moral values that their culture espouses. Not dissimilar are myths about the early pioneers in the American Wild West, as retold in countless motion pictures. Slavery. Such stories often reinforce stereotypical attitudes about the moral superiority of the settlers to the native Indians, although sometimes such attitudes are called into question in Classism Gatsby Named Desire other movies that attempt to Cultures Essay, demythologize the Wild West. A particular illustration of the power that myths continue to Great and A, exert was provided as late as the 1940s by the belief in the existence of an Aryan racial group, separate from and superior to the Semitic group.
This myth was based in part on the assumption that peoples whose languages are related are also related racially. The fact that this assumption is spurious did not prevent the Aryan myth from gaining wide acceptance in Europe from the 18th century onward, and it was eventually to provide a supposed intellectual justification for the persecution of the Semitic Jews by policies to reduce, their Aryan Germanic ďsuperiorsĒ during the period of Nazi domination. Classism Great Desire Essay. This episode suggests that, in politics, a myth will take hold if it serves the the titans, interests and focuses the aspirations of a particular group; the truth or falsity of the Classism Great Gatsby and A Desire Essay, myth is irrelevant. Aboriginal Essay. In a sense, of course, this function is merely an Classism and A Streetcar extension of its more general role in religion, where a myth, as well as addressing questions such as a societyís place in the cosmos, may serve to movie, justify a particular kind of governmental organization. In conclusion, if we think of myths as true, if we believe in them, then obviously, we are thinking in religious terms. But belief is also psychological: some say humans need to believe in some power greater than them. Others, like Joseph Campbell, see the origins of myth and religion in the psychological response of early man to the trauma of death. Thus, belief in a greater power arises when humans are faced with the mystery of what happens after death. The earliest efforts to rationalize myth by seeing it as disguised history, as disguised philosophy, or as fables illustrating moral truths all proceeded from a desire to make the seemingly irrational and Classism in The Gatsby and A Streetcar Named Desire, immoral actions of gods and men appear rational and moral. Thus, bizarre or grotesque elements in event climax of the play? the stories could be rationalized as disguised history, philosophy, or morality. However, these early rationalizes often ignored elements of the myths which did not fit into their allegorical schemes and made little attempt to in The Gatsby and A Named Essay, look at myths psychologically or symbolically, or to place the them in year was abolished their proper historical context. (The ďhistoryĒ of these early ďeuhemerizersĒ was often mere wishful thinking, as when they saw Zeus as a tribal hero who had been deified.) But myths do embody historical, philosophical, and moral elements; we must search for them more carefully than early mythologists did.
Students should remember, however, that the symbolic, religious, ritual, or magical explanations that myths offer may differ from modern scientific or historical explanations. Something as great as God may be quite difficult for in The, limited human minds to comprehend, Joseph Campbell says we can only know God through stories and symbols, or myth. Year Slavery Was Abolished. But our stories are human and Classism Streetcar Essay, limited, and thus cannot, according to Campbell, tell literal truths, but all can and do tell metaphoric and symbolic truths. The Cell Selectively Permeable. Ritual is another way in which humans attempt to embody or even call upon Gatsby and A Named Desire, the unknown. Ritual patterns may reappear in myths and mythic motifs may be reflected in rituals (Hero 381). But there is no easy rule for tracing the influence of ritual on myth or vice-versa. Mythologists continue to argue whether the what the cell selectively, repetitive patterns of motifs and plot seen in many myths stem from Great Streetcar Essay, ritual patterns (Hero 381), or from psychological archetypes inherent in Cultures humans, or from the Great Gatsby Streetcar Essay, repetition common in oral forms of type between julius caesar and brutus? storytelling (Hero 381). No one way offers a key to the interpretation of myths, but all can offer insights to different motifs and plot elements. And A Streetcar. When interpreting myths, students should remember Campbellís wise advice: ďThere is no final system for the interpretation of myths, and policies to reduce unemployment, there never will be any such thingĒ (Hero 381). This may sound like a cheerless sentence, but cheer up: there may be no foolproof system, but there are ways to trap the truth in myths. According to Classism in The and A Streetcar Named Desire, Campbell, myths are like the god Proteus (sometimes called the Old Man of the Sea) in the Odyssey who ďalways speaks the the titans, truthĒ (Homer 52, my emphasis).
But first you must catch him and hold onto him, which isnít easy because he constantly changes shapes in order to get away. Classism In The And A. ďHe will turn into all sorts of shapes to try you, into all the creatures of that live and move upon the earth, into water, into blazing fire; but you must hold him fast and press him all the harderĒ (Homer 53). Great advice for any student of myth! Hold onto that story, no matter how much it changes or how weird it seems, and eventually it will calm down and answer your questions. But Proteus only answers the what type of bond between julius caesar and brutus?, specific questions put to him. So, to get good answers, you have to ask a lot of different questions. Brandenberg, Aliki .The Greek Gods and Goddesses of Olympus. p. 30. 1994. Burkert, Walter. Ancient Mystery Cults.
Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1987. Campbell, Joseph. The Hero with a Thousand Faces. 2nd ed. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1968. Cook, Zeus Cambridge University Press, 1914, I, figs 397, 398. Curtius, Ernst Robert. European Literature and Classism in The Great Gatsby Named Essay, the Latin Middle Ages. Trans. Willard R. Trask. New York: Harper, 1963.
David Syme Russel. Daniel. (Louisville, Kentucky: Westminster John Knox Press, 1981) 191. Dundes, Alan. ďThe Flood as Male Myth of Creation.Ē The Flood Myth. Ed. Movie. Alan Dundes. Berkeley: U of California P, 1988. 167-182. Durant, The Life of Greece (The Story of Civilization Part II, New York: Simon Schuster) 1939:23.
Eliade, Mircea. The Myth of the Eternal Return or, Cosmos and History. 1949. Trans. Willard R. Trask. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1965. Finley, M. I. The World of Odysseus. New York: Meridian Books, 1959. Gennep, Arnold van. The Rites of Passage. 1909.
Trans. Monika B. Vizedom and G. L. Great Gatsby And A. Caffee. Chicago: U of policies to reduce unemployment Chicago P, 1960. Greek and Classism in The Great Gatsby Desire Essay, Roman MythologyĒ, Mythology: Myths, Legends, Fantasy, Sweet Water Press, 2003, p. 21, ISBN 9781468265903. Thorfinnsson, Snorri . The prose Edda: Norse mythology. London: Penguin, 2005. Print. Hesiod. Works and Days / Theogony. Trans. Stanley Lombardo.
Indianapolis: Hacket, 1993. Homer. The Odyssey. Which At The Of The. Trans. W. Great Named Essay. H. D. Rouse. New York: NAL 1937. Hamilton, Edith .Mythology (1998 ed.). New York: Back Bay Books. p. 467. 1942. ISBN 978-0-316-34114-1.
Jung, Carl Gustav and year, Carl Ker??nyi. Essays on a Science of Mythology. 1949. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1963. Kirk, G. S. The Nature of Greek Myths. New York: Penguin, 1974. Leach, Edmund.
Claude L??vi-Strauss. Classism Desire Essay. New York: Penguin, 1970. Morford, Mark P. O. and Robert J. Lenardon. Classical Mythology. 4th ed. New York: Longman, 1991.
Pointed out by Bernard Clive Dietrich, The Origins of Greek Religion (de Gruyter) 1973:15. Richard Wyatt Hutchinson, Prehistoric Crete, (Harmondsworth: Penguin) 1968:204, mentions that there is type exists between caesar and brutus? no classical reference to the death of Zeus (noted by Dietrich 1973:16 note 78). Rodney Castleden, Minoans: Life in Bronze-Age Crete, ďThe Minoan belief-systemĒ (Routledge) 1990:125. Seznec, Jean. The Survival of the in The Gatsby Desire, Ancient Gods. New York: Harper, 1961. Wells,JohnC. Longman pronunciation dictionary. Harlow, England: Longman.1990.
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