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ap bio essay 1995 Teacher Sourcebook for Science Teaching. 1. Homeostatic maintenance of optimal blood glucose levels has been intensively studied in vertebrate organisms. (a) Pancreatic hormones regulate blood glucose levels. Identify TWO pancreatic hormones and describe the Essay, effect. of each hormone on blood glucose levels. (b) For ONE of the hormones you identified in (a), identify ONE target cell and discuss the mechanism by which the. hormone can alter activity in that target cell. Include in on Renewable Energy Essay, your discussion a description of reception, cellular. The Romans And Christianity Essay. transduction, and response. (c) Compare the cell-signaling mechanisms of steroid hormones and protein hormones. 3. A molecule of messenger RNA (mRNA) has just been synthesized in the nucleus of a human cell. a) What types of modifications may occur to The Problem With Testimony Essay this RNA before it leaves the nucleus? b) Once in the cytoplasm, how is the mRNA translated to a protein? c) If the cell is a secretory cell, how is the protein from part (b) eventually targeted, packaged, and secreted to the exterior of the cell? 1. A difference between prokaryotes and eukaryotes is seen in the organization of their genetic material. a) DISCUSS the organization of the genetic material in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. b) CONTRAST the following activities in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. - Replicaton of DNA. - Transcription or translation. 4. Scientists seeking to determine which molecule is responsible for the transmission of characteristics from one generation to the next knew that the. (1) copy itself precisely. The Romans. (2) be stable but able to be changed. (3) be complex enough to determine the organism's phenotype.
EXPLAIN how DNA meets each of the write class, three criteria stated above. Select ONE of the criteria stated above and DESCRIBE experimental evidence used to determine that DNA is the hereditary material. The diagram below shows a segment of DNA with a total length of 4,900 base pairs. The arrows indicate reaction sites for restriction enzymes (enzyme X and enzyme Y). segment above. Assume that the digestions occurred under appropriate conditions and went to completion. II. DNA digested with only enzyme Y. III. DNA digested with enzyme X and enzyme Y combined. IV.
Undigested DNA. (1) The mechanism of action of restriction enzymes. (2) The different results you would expect if a mutation occurred at the recognition site for enzyme Y. Biological recognition is important in many processes at and Christianity Essay, the molecular, cellular, and organismal levels. Select three of the following, and for each of the three that you have chosen, explain how the process of recognition occurs and give an how to entry for english class example. b. Neurotransmitters are recognized in Essay, the synapse. Rock Outline. c. Antigens trigger antibody responses. d. Nucleic acids are complementary. e. Target cells respond to The Romans and Christianity Essay specific hormones. Describe the steps of protein synthesis, beginning with the attachments of a messenger RNA molecule to which the theme of myself"? the small subunit of a ribosome and ending with the release of the The Romans and Christianity, polypeptide from the how to a journal class, ribosome. Include in your answer a discussion of how the different types of RNA function in this process. Describe the biochemical composition, structure, and replication of DNA. Discuss how recombinant DNA techniques may be used to correct a point mutation. Describe the operon hypothesis and discuss how it explains the The Romans and Christianity, control of. messenger RNA production and the regulation of protein synthesis in.
Describe the production and processing of a protein that will be exported from a. eukaryotic cell. Begin with the separation of the messenger RNA from the DNA. template and end with the release of the Current State of Drunk Laws State of Illinois, protein at the plasma membrane. Experiments by The Romans, the following scientists provided critical information concerning. DNA. Describe each classical experiment and indicate how it provided evidence. for the chemical nature of the gene. a. Hershey and Chase - bacteriophage replication. b. Griffith and Avery - bacterial transformation. c. Meselson and Stahl - DNA replication in bacteria. A portion of a specific DNA molecule consists of the following sequence of nucleotide triplets: TAC GAA CTT CGG TCC. This DNA sequence codes for the following short polypeptide: methionine - leucine - glutamic acid - proline - arginine. a) Describe the steps in the synthesis of this polypeptide. b) What would be the effect of a deletion or an addition in one of the DNA nucleotides? What would be the effect of a substitution in one of the With Essay, nucleotides? In relation to the chemical nature of the gene, describe: a. the chemical structure of the gene.
b. the replication (self-copying) of the gene. And Christianity. c. gene mutations, including chromosomal aberrations. Proteins are composed of amino acid subunits which form stable. a. Describe how the genetic instructions coded in DNA are translated into the. primary structure (sequence of amino acid subunits) of a protein molecule. b. Explain how interactions among the individual amino acid subunits influence. the best describes of myself"?, transformation of the molecule into its three-dimensional structure and. how they stabilize it. Describe protein synthesis in terms of molecular structures of the. nucleic acids and using a specific example, explain how a new phenotypic. characteristic may result from a change in DNA. Proteins and nucleic acids are fundamental molecules of the living state. a. Write word equations for the synthesis of proteins and nucleic acids, using appropriate subunits. b. A wide variety of The Romans and Christianity, macromolecules exists in proteins and nucleic acids. For each group, explain how it is War Truly a Cold Essay possible to have such great variety of structure with a relatively small number of different subunits. c. Proteins functioning as enzymes exhibit precise specifications. Discuss the levels of and Christianity Essay, structural organization within proteins which are responsible for specific molecular interaction.
The formation of Watson-Crick complementary base pairs between single. strands of molecules of nucleic acids occurs in at least three separate reactions. Discuss each of these reactions from the following points of view: a. the type of Essay on The Driving in the of Illinois, nucleic acids involved. The Romans And Christianity Essay. b. the Was the Cold a Cold War?, role of each nucleic acid in the duplication of cellular. Biologists and biochemists have made outstanding progress within the past. quarter century in The Romans and Christianity Essay, elucidating principles and structures which govern the. activities of living matter. These areas of progress include the Was the Cold War Truly a Cold Essay, structure. and code of the DNA molecule. Discuss this development and its impact on. biological thought and progress.
Your answer should include: b. the names of the most prominent investigators involved. c. the nature of its impact on The Romans and Christianity biology. Discuss the rock outline, role of each of the following in protein synthesis: a. soluble or transfer RNA. b. messenger RNA. Deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA has been described as the The Romans, chemical basis. of heredity. Discuss present-day concepts regarding its: a. chemical nature and physical structure. b. mode of duplication. c. Rock Outline. relationship to protein synthesis. Discuss the gene, with regard to structure, duplication, mutation, and. nature of action. 4. The diagram above shows the succession of communities from annual plants to hardwood trees in a specific area over a period of time. (a) Discuss the expected changes in biodiversity as the stages of succession progress as shown in the diagram above. (b) Describe and explain THREE changes in abiotic conditions over time that lead to the succession, as shown in the diagram above.
(c) For each of the following disturbances, discuss the immediate and long-term effects on ecosystem succession. (i) A volcano erupts, covering a 10-square-kilometer portion of a mature forest with lava. (ii) A 10- square-kilometer portion of a mature forest is clear-cut. 2. An experiment was conducted to measure the reaction rate of the human salivary enzyme #945; -amylase. Ten mL of and Christianity, a concentrated starch solution and 1.0 mL of #945; -amylase solution were placed in a test tube. Was The Essay. The test tube was inverted several times to mix the solution and then incubated at 25°C. The amount of product (maltose) present was measured every 10 minutes for an hour. The results are given in the table below. (a) Graph the The Romans, data on the axes provided and calculate the which best the theme, rate of the reaction for the time period 0 to 30 minutes. (b) Explain why a change in the reaction rate was observed after 30 minutes. (c) Draw and label another line on the graph to and Christianity Essay predict the results if the concentration of #945; -amylase was doubled. Explain your predicted results. (d) Identify TWO environmental factors that can change the rate of an enzyme-mediated reaction. Discuss how each of statement best describes of "song, those two factors would affect the reaction rate of an enzyme.
1. Homeostatic maintenance of optimal blood glucose levels has been intensively studied in vertebrate organisms. The Romans Essay. (a) Pancreatic hormones regulate blood glucose levels. Identify TWO pancreatic hormones and describe the effect. of rock outline, each hormone on blood glucose levels. (b) For ONE of the hormones you identified in and Christianity Essay, (a), identify ONE target cell and discuss the mechanism by how to write, which the. hormone can alter activity in that target cell. Include in your discussion a description of The Romans and Christianity Essay, reception, cellular. transduction, and response. On Investment Energy. (c) Compare the cell-signaling mechanisms of steroid hormones and protein hormones. Biological recognition is important in many processes at the molecular, cellular, and The Romans organismal levels. Select three of the following, and for each of the three that you have chosen, explain how the process of recognition occurs and give an example. Best Describes The Theme Of Myself"?. b. Neurotransmitters are recognized in the synapse. c. Antigens trigger antibody responses. d. Nucleic acids are complementary. e. Target cells respond to specific hormones. 1. The cell cycle is fundamental to the reproduction of eukaryotic cells. (a) Describe the phases of the cell cycle. (b) Explain the role of THREE of the following in mitosis or cytokinesis. ( c) Describe how the cell cycle is regulated and discuss ONE consequence of abnormal regulation. 2006B RUBRIC Scoring commentary Sample Responses. 1. Sexual reproduction requires that half of the chromosomes in a zygote come from one parent and Essay the other half from the second parent. a) DESCRIBE the process by which a germ cell's complement of chromosomes is halved in the formation of gametes. b) Choose ONE organism or group of organisms that reproduce asexually.
DESCRIBE the mode of asexual reproduction in that organism and explain the advantages to the organism of asexual reproduction. c) Choose ONE organism or group of organisms that reproduce sexually. Entry For English. DESCRIBE the mode of sexual reproduction in that organism and explain the advantages to the organism of The Romans and Christianity, sexual reproduction. 1. With Eyewitness Testimony Essay. Meiosis reduces chromosome number and rearranges genetic information. a ) EXPLAIN how the reduction and rearrangement are accomplished in meiosis. The Romans Essay. b) Several human disorders occur as a result of defects in the meiotic process. IDENTIFY ONE such chromosomal abnormality; what effects does it have on the phenotype of people with the disorder? DESCRIBE how this abnormality could result from Was the, a defect in meiosis. c) Production of offspring by parthenogenesis or cloning bypasses the typical meiotic process. DESCRIBE parthenogenesis or cloning and The Romans and Christianity Essay COMPARE the genomes of the offspring with those of the parents. 2008 Q1 RUBRIC Scoring commentary Sample Responses. 1. The physical structure of a protein often reflects and affects its function. How To Write For English. (a) Describe THREE types of chemical bonds/interactions found in proteins. For each type, describe its role in determining protein structure. (b) Discuss how the structure of and Christianity Essay, a protein affects the function of TWO of the write a journal for english, following. Regulation of enzyme activity.
2002 RUBRIC Scoring commentary Sample Responses. Structure related to function is one of the unifying themes in biology. This relationship between structure and function is evident in the macromolecules in living systems. For THREE of the FIVE in the following list, describe the structure of the molecule and explain how that structure aids in its function. a. Starch and glycogen as energy storage molecules. b. Cellulose and The Romans chitin as structural molecules. d. phospholipids and their role in cell membranes. War?. e. DNA and its role in determining characteristics in organisms.
Proteins and The Romans nucleic acids are fundamental molecules of the living state. a. Write word equations for the synthesis of proteins and nucleic acids, using appropriate subunits. b. A wide variety of which best of "song, macromolecules exists in proteins and nucleic acids. For each group, explain how it is possible to have such great variety of. structure with a relatively small number of different subunits. And Christianity. c. Proteins functioning as enzymes exhibit precise specifications. Discuss. the levels of structural organization within proteins which are. The Problem Eyewitness Testimony. responsible for specific molecular interactions. Deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA has been described as the chemical basis. of and Christianity Essay, heredity. Discuss present-day concepts regarding its: a. chemical nature and physical structure. b. mode of duplication. c. Statement Best. relationship to protein synthesis. 1.During an investigation of a freshwater lake, an AP Biology student discovers a previously unknown microscopic organism. Further study shows that the unicellular organism is eukaryotic. (a) Identify FOUR organelles that should be present in The Romans, the eukaryotic organism and describe the function of each organelle. (b) Prokaryotic cells lack membrane-bound organelles found in write a journal class, eukaryotes. However, prokaryotes must perform many of the same functions as eukaryotes. For THREE of the organelles identified in part (a), explain how prokaryotic cells carry out the associated functions. (c) According to the endosymbiotic theory, some organelles are believed to have evolved through a symbiotic relationship between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Describe THREE observations that support the endosymbiotic theory.
2006 RUBRIC Scoring commentary Sample Respones. 1. A major distinction between prokaryotes and The Romans and Christianity Essay eukaryotes is the presences of membrane bound organelles in eukaryotes. a) DESCRIBE the structure and function of TWO eukaryotic membrane-bound organelles other than the nucleus. b) Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells have some non-membrane-bound organelles in on Renewable Essay, common. DESCRIBE the function of TWO of the following and DISCUSS how each differs in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. c) EXPLAIN the endosymbiotic theory of the origin of The Romans and Christianity Essay, eukaryotic cells and DISCUSS an example of evidence supporting this theory. 2002 Q4 RUBRIC Scoring commentary Sample Responses. 4. The following experiment was designed to test whether different concentration gradients affect the rate of diffusion. In this experiment, four solutions (0%, NaCl, 1% NaCl, 5% NaCl, and 10% NaCl) were tested under indentical conditions. Rock Outline. Fifteen milliliters (mL) of 0% NaCl were put. a bag formed of dialysis tubing that is permeable to Na+, Cl-, and waer. The Romans. The same was done for Cold War? each NaCl solution. Each bag was submerged in a. And Christianity Essay. separate beaker containing 300 mL of distilled water. The concentration of NaCl in mg/mL in the water outside each bag was measured in 40-second intervals.
The results from the 5% bag are shown in the table below. a) On the State of Drunk Laws, axes provided, GRAPH the The Romans and Christianity Essay, data for the 5% NaCl solution. b) Using the same set of on Renewable Energy, axes, DRAW and LABEL three additional lines representing the results that you would predict for the 0% NaCl, 1% NaCl, and. and 10% NaCl solutions. The Romans And Christianity. EXPLAIN your predictions. c) Farmlands located near coastal regions are being threatened by encroaching seawater seeping into the soil. In terms of water movement into or out of. Was The. plant cells, EXPLAIN why seawater could decrease crop production. Include a discussion of water potential in your answer. Cells transport substances across their membranes. Choose THREE of the following four types of cellular transport. For each of the three transport types you choose, a) describe the and Christianity, transport process and explain how the write for english class, organization of The Romans Essay, cell membranes functions in the movement of rock outline, specific molecules. across the membrane. b) explain the significance of each type of transport to a specific cell (you may use different cell types as examples.) True-breeding bronze-eyed males were crossed with true-breeding red-eyed females. And Christianity Essay. All the F1 offspring had bronze eyes.
F1 flies were crossed, and the data for the resulting F2 flies are given in the table below. True-breeding normal-winged males were crossed with true-breeding stunted-winged females. All the F1 offspring had stunted wings. F1 flies were crossed, and the data for the resulting F2 flies are given in the table below. True-breeding bronze-eyed, stunted-winged males were crossed with true-breeding red-eyed, normal winged females. All the F1 offspring had bronze eyes and Essay on The Current Driving Laws State stunted wings. And Christianity. The F1 flies were crossed with true breeding red-eyed, normal-winged flies, and the results are shown in the table below. (a) What conclusions can be drawn from cross I and With Testimony cross II? Explain how the data support your conclusions for The Romans each cross. (b) What conclusions can be drawn from the data from cross III?
Explain how the data support your conclusions. (c) Identify and discuss TWO different factors that would affect whether the islands fly population is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for the traits above. True-breeding bronze-eyed males were crossed with true-breeding red-eyed females. All the F1 offspring had bronze eyes. F1 flies were crossed, and the data for the resulting F2 flies are given in the table below.
True-breeding normal-winged males were crossed with true-breeding stunted-winged females. All the F1 offspring had stunted wings. F1 flies were crossed, and the data for the resulting F2 flies are given in the table below. True-breeding bronze-eyed, stunted-winged males were crossed with true-breeding red-eyed, normal winged females. All the F1 offspring had bronze eyes and stunted wings. The F1 flies were crossed with true breeding red-eyed, normal-winged flies, and the results are shown in on Investment on Renewable, the table below. (a) What conclusions can be drawn from cross I and cross II? Explain how the data support your conclusions for each cross. (b) What conclusions can be drawn from the data from cross III? Explain how the data support your conclusions. (c) Identify and discuss TWO different factors that would affect whether the islands fly population is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for the traits above. The Romans Essay. 1. The unique properties (characteristics) of water make life possible on Earth. Select three properties of water and. a) for Essay Current of Drunk Driving in the each property, identify and define the property and explain it in terms of the physical/chemical nature of water. b) for each property, describe one example of how the property affects the functioning of living organisms.
2. Ecological succession describes the pattern of changes in communities over The Romans and Christianity time. The graph below shows changes in plant diversity following the abandonment of an how to write a journal agricultural field in The Romans, a temperate biome. (a) Discuss the differences in plant diversity shown in the graph and explain how the changes affect the animal species composition between years 0 and which statement best 120. (b) Identify TWO biotic and The Romans TWO abiotic factors and discuss how each could influence the pattern of ecological succession. (c) Design a controlled experiment to determine how the diversity of on The Current of Drunk Driving Laws in the State of Illinois, plant species in a newly abandoned field would be affected by large herbivores. 1. The cell cycle is fundamental to the reproduction of eukaryotic cells. (a) Describe the Essay, phases of the cell cycle. (b) Explain the role of THREE of the following in mitosis or cytokinesis. Rock Outline. ( c) Describe how the cell cycle is The Romans and Christianity regulated and discuss ONE consequence of abnormal regulation. 1. Homeostatic maintenance of optimal blood glucose levels has been intensively studied in vertebrate organisms.
(a) Pancreatic hormones regulate blood glucose levels. Identify TWO pancreatic hormones and describe the effect. of each hormone on blood glucose levels. Was The A Cold. (b) For ONE of the hormones you identified in (a), identify ONE target cell and discuss the mechanism by which the. hormone can alter activity in that target cell. Include in your discussion a description of and Christianity Essay, reception, cellular. transduction, and response. (c) Compare the cell-signaling mechanisms of steroid hormones and rock outline protein hormones. 2. An experiment was conducted to measure the The Romans Essay, reaction rate of the human salivary enzyme #945; -amylase. A Journal Entry For English. Ten mL of a concentrated starch solution and 1.0 mL of #945; -amylase solution were placed in a test tube.
The test tube was inverted several times to mix the solution and then incubated at 25°C. The amount of product (maltose) present was measured every 10 minutes for an hour. The results are given in the table below. (a) Graph the data on the axes provided and calculate the rate of the reaction for the time period 0 to 30 minutes. (b) Explain why a change in the reaction rate was observed after 30 minutes. The Romans Essay. (c) Draw and label another line on the graph to predict the results if the Current of Drunk in the, concentration of #945; -amylase was doubled. Explain your predicted results. (d) Identify TWO environmental factors that can change the rate of an Essay enzyme-mediated reaction. Discuss how each of those two factors would affect the reaction rate of an enzyme.
True-breeding bronze-eyed males were crossed with true-breeding red-eyed females. How To Write A Journal For English Class. All the F1 offspring had bronze eyes. F1 flies were crossed, and the data for the resulting F2 flies are given in the table below. And Christianity. True-breeding normal-winged males were crossed with true-breeding stunted-winged females. All the F1 offspring had stunted wings. F1 flies were crossed, and the data for the resulting F2 flies are given in the table below. True-breeding bronze-eyed, stunted-winged males were crossed with true-breeding red-eyed, normal winged females. All the F1 offspring had bronze eyes and stunted wings. The F1 flies were crossed with true breeding red-eyed, normal-winged flies, and the results are shown in the table below. Explain how the data support your conclusions for each cross. (b) What conclusions can be drawn from the data from cross III? Explain how the data support your conclusions. (c) Identify and Was the Cold Essay discuss TWO different factors that would affect whether the islands fly population is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for the traits above.
4. The diagram above shows the succession of communities from annual plants to hardwood trees in a specific area over a period of and Christianity Essay, time. (a) Discuss the expected changes in biodiversity as the stages of succession progress as shown in the diagram above. (b) Describe and explain THREE changes in abiotic conditions over time that lead to the succession, as shown in rock outline, the diagram above. (c) For each of the following disturbances, discuss the immediate and long-term effects on ecosystem succession. (i) A volcano erupts, covering a 10-square-kilometer portion of a mature forest with lava. (ii) A 10- square-kilometer portion of a mature forest is clear-cut. 3. A molecule of messenger RNA (mRNA) has just been synthesized in the nucleus of a human cell. a) What types of modifications may occur to this RNA before it leaves the The Romans Essay, nucleus? b) Once in the cytoplasm, how is the mRNA translated to a protein? c) If the cell is a secretory cell, how is the how to write, protein from part (b) eventually targeted, packaged, and secreted to the exterior of the cell?
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Guest Editorial: Uncounted: Power, inequalities and the post-2015 data revolution. People and groups go uncounted for reasons of power: those without power are further marginalized by The Romans their exclusion from rock outline statistics, while elites and criminals resist the and Christianity, counting of their incomes and wealth. As a result, the pattern of counting can both reflect and exacerbate existing inequalities. Statement The Theme Of Myself"?. The global framework set by the Sustainable Development Goals will be more ambitious, in terms of The Romans and Christianity Essay both the counting and the challenging of inequalities, than anything that has gone before. This article explores the likely obstacles, and the unaddressed weaknesses in Return on Renewable Essay the agreed framework, and suggests a number of measures to strengthen the eventual challenge to inequalities, including by the promotion of tax justice measures. Explains how the current patterns of counting can both reflect and exacerbate existing inequalities, and explores the likely obstacles and the unaddressed weaknesses the and Christianity Essay, 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda. Data: Facts and statistics collected together for reference or analysis. Revolution: A forcible overthrow of a government or social order, in favour of a new system . Oxford English Dictionary.
Counting matters. As the Stiglitz et al. (2009 : 7) report puts it: What we measure affects what we do; and if our measurements are flawed, decisions may be distorted . [I]f our metrics of performance are flawed, so too may be the inferences that we draw. The Commission criticizes at length the use of gross domestic product (GDP) and economic growth as the primary measures of progress, predominantly focusing on rich countries. In development thinking, there is on The State of Drunk Laws in the State of Illinois a comparatively rich and varied history of analysing different measures. The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) represented the first attempt to establish a common set for The Romans Essay all developing countries; the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) takes this further and identifies a universal (global) set of goals, targets and indicators, applicable from 2016 onwards. measures to strengthen the War Truly War?, capacity and The Romans and Christianity coverage of national and the theme sub-national monitoring and evaluation, data collection and analysis. These will need to track the impact of policies, legislation, budgets and and Christianity Essay programmes among those most disadvantaged and excluded; allow for truly participatory assessment of these measures; enable much more systematic disaggregation of information for equity-focused targets and indicators; and Essay State Laws of Illinois provide mechanisms for locally-led citizen monitoring and feedback on and Christianity Essay, progress and performance. ( UNICEF/UNWomen, 2013 : 10) Later that year, the High Level Panel of Eminent Persons confirmed to the UN Secretary General that any new goals should be accompanied by an independent and rigorous monitoring system, [requiring] a data revolution for sustainable development, with an Essay Current State of Drunk Driving Laws, international initiative to improve the quality of statistics and The Romans Essay information available to Essay on The Driving in the, citizens ( UNICEF/UNWomen, 2013 : 21; emphasis in original).
This momentum carried through, albeit somewhat imperfectly, into The Romans and Christianity the SDGs framework, which achieved UN consensus in August 2015. This article evaluates the framework in on The Current Driving in the of Illinois terms of how far that data revolution is likely to reach. The term uncounted is used to describe a politically motivated failure to The Romans Essay, count . This takes two main forms. First, there may be people and groups at the bottom of distributions (e.g., income) whose uncounting adds another level to their marginalization, for example, where they are absent from statistics that inform policy prioritization. Second, there may be people and groups at the top of State of Drunk of Illinois distributions who are further empowered by being able to go uncounted not least by and Christianity Essay hiding income and wealth from Eyewitness taxation and regulation. In either case, the phenomenon is not a random or arbitrary one. The Romans And Christianity Essay. Being uncounted is rock outline not generally a matter of coincidence, but reflects power: the lack of it, or its excess.
As such, the The Romans, term data revolution is most appropriate. The implication is not of a technical reform, but rather of Essay on The of Drunk in the a major political change. And Christianity. If the SDGs were to reach their potential in this regard, a substantial redistribution of how to write class power is and Christianity implied. It is argued here that for a range of reasons, both by Current State of Illinois design and by omission, the SDG framework is likely to go much further in tackling the The Romans and Christianity Essay, phenomenon of Essay on The Current Driving Laws those who are uncounted at the bottom. There are however a number of developments outside the framework that support some optimism about the uncounted at the top also. Importantly, there is still scope to establish additional mechanisms to strengthen the framework and the prospects for empowering political change.
The article is organized as follows. And Christianity Essay. The first section outlines the context of development thought within which the MDGs and SDGs were adopted, highlighting the major differences in emphasis. The second section considers the Return on Investment on Renewable, implications of the SDG approach, as adopted, for those who are uncounted at the bottom: Will the framework really Leave No One Behind? The third section assesses those who are left ahead the uncounted at the top, and the extent to which the SDGs may shed light here in particular from a tax justice perspective. And Christianity Essay. A final section concludes as to the prospects for a post-2015 data revolution, challenging inequalities and tax injustice, and offers two recommendations to strengthen the framework. Evolution of development thought: context for MDGs and SDGs.
The history of development thinking can be seen in a series of evolutionary steps in counting. In each stage, mainstream aims have become more nuanced and more relevant to the lived experience of populations. Inevitably, this greater nuance has driven better counting (i.e., better measurement of Return on Investment Essay a populations lived experience). However, the causality runs in both directions because at the same time, better measurement has revealed important realities that have in turn informed different mainstream priorities. The longstanding preoccupation of much development analysis (and policy) has been GDP, and its growth (or at best, GDP per capita and its growth). With important interventions from UNICEFs Adjustment with a Human Face ( Cornia et al., 1987 ) and UNDPs (1990) first Human Development Report, this focus on poor countries gave way first to a greater emphasis on non-GDP aspects of national human development, and then to Essay, a focus instead on Essay State Driving Laws in the of Illinois, people living in Essay poverty. The World Bank promoted extreme income poverty as the central element, from the subsequent 1990 World Development Report ( World Bank, 1990 ), and its dollar-a-day measure was eventually adopted as the basis for the target of the first UN MDG in 2000. Alongside (and partly in Return on Investment response to) the focus on absolute, monetary poverty came a much wider and richer analysis of (individual and household) poverty that much more closely reflect the UNICEF and UNDP analysis. Ruggeri-Laderchi et al. (2003) identify three main approaches. The capabilities approach (following Sen, 1999 ) treats poverty as the failure to achieve certain minimal capabilities, rather than as the failure to reach a certain consumption or income level.
While the The Romans, emphasis remains on absolute achievements, the capabilities approach is necessarily a multidimensional one, going far beyond income as a proxy for Cold a Cold War? Essay utility. The social exclusion approach, which had by far the most important policy role in the European Union, puts greater emphasis on relative aspects of Essay poverty emphasizing the ability of rock outline people to and Christianity, participate in Essay Current of Drunk Driving Laws a given society. From this approach tends to follow an understanding of poverty as clearly multidimensional, and significant attention to The Romans Essay, group characteristics (since these are frequently the Essay of Drunk Driving Laws State of Illinois, basis for exclusion). Finally, the participatory approach seeks to elicit views from within communities on The Romans, the nature and locus of poverty. Important concerns here reflect issues around eliciting views without introducing external bias; ensuring the views that are heard are genuinely representative (a problem that looms ever larger as attempts are made to take this approach to national scale); and inherent problems of Essay on The Current State Driving of Illinois self-identification (including, e.g., the tendency to identify others as [more] poor). A comparison of and Christianity four approaches to poverty. Social exclusion approach. Unit of analysis. Ideally the Current of Drunk Driving Laws in the of Illinois, individual, de facto the household. Individuals or groups relative to others in their community/society.
Groups and individuals within them. Required or minimum standard identified by. Reference to external information (defined outside the unit); central element food requirements. Reference to lists of dimensions normally assumed to be objectively definable. Reference to those prevailing in society and state obligations. Local peoples own perceptions of well-being and The Romans and Christianity ill-being. Sensitivity to social institutions. None, but assessments can be broken down by group. Emphasis on adequacy rather than sufficiency leaves space for (non-modelled) variations. Reflected in the way poor people analyze their own reality. Importance of processes.
One of the main thrusts of the approach. Critical for achievement of satisfactory methods. Major weaknesses conceptually. Utility is not an adequate measure of well-being, and poverty is on Renewable Energy not an economic category. Elements of arbitrariness in choice of basic capabilities, problems of Essay adding up. Broad framework, susceptible to many interpretations, difficult to compare across countries. Whose perceptions are being elicited, and how representative or consistent are they? How does one deal with disagreements? Problems for cross-country comparisons. Comparability of surveys, of statement the theme of myself"? price indices, of drawing poverty lines. Fewer problems if basic capabilities are defined externally, but adding up difficulties make comparisons difficult with inconsistencies according to adding up methodology.
Lines of social exclusion essentially society-specific; also an The Romans, adding up problem. Cultural difference can make appropriate processes differ across countries, results may not be comparable. Household surveys regularly conducted; omitted observations can be important. Use of national income data but requires assumptions about distribution. Data less regularly collected, but could easily be improved. Currently have to rely on data collected for other purposes. If agreed on basic dimensions, data could be regularly collected. Generally only small purposive samples. Never available nationally, would be difficult to extend method for regular national data collection. Major weaknesses for measurement. Needs to be anchored to external elements.
Impossibility of set evaluation. How to Essay State Laws State of Illinois, deal with multidimensionality even if only of basic functionings. Problems with multidimensionality. How comparable? How representative? Challenge of capturing process.
Interpreted by policymakers as requiring. Emphasis on economic growth and distribution of monetary income. Investments in The Romans extending basic capabilities/basic needs via monetary incomes and public services. Foster processes of inclusion, inclusion in markets and social processes, with particular emphasis on formal labour market. Empowerment of the poor. In both aspects, the MDGs marked a final break from seeing development as a problem of poor countries, and focused instead on poor people. Colliers (2007) The Bottom Billion: Why the Poorest Countries are Failing and What Can Be Done About It can be seen as something of a throwback.
Its main thesis was subsequently demolished in Sumners (2010) work on rock outline, the new bottom billion, showing that the majority of extreme income poverty occurred and and Christianity Essay had done for some time in middle- rather than low-income countries, reflecting within-country inequality rather than countries absolute poverty. The power of the latter analysis has combined with growing political attention to income and wealth inequalities in With Testimony Essay donor countries following the 2008 financial crisis (see, e.g., the unexpected prominence of Piketty, 2014 ). But perhaps the strongest current in development thought since the establishment of the MDGs has been that focused on The Romans Essay, group inequalities. Two inter-related strands can be identified: one intellectual, one data-led. Of the former, much credit is due to the pioneering work on horizontal inequalities of best of myself"? Stewart and the Centre for Research into Inequality, Security and Ethnicity at and Christianity Essay Oxford (see, e.g. Stewart, 2002 ). The MDG Achievement Fund played a major role in funding work that directly addressed potential applications within the SDG framework (in particular Kabeer, 2010 ; Paz Arauco et al., 2014 ). At the same time, the growing availability of relatively consistent survey data has allowed a range of group inequalities to be analyzed. Although the data remain far from perfect, the Was the a Cold Essay, effect has been to The Romans, demonstrate the possibility of a truly global framework with disaggregation in multiple dimensions as reflected in calls from international NGOs such as Christian Aid (e.g. Rock Outline. Cobham et al., 2010 ) and Save the Children (e.g. Espey et al., 2012 ; Roche et al., 2015 ). The Multidimensional Poverty Index (e.g. Alkire and Essay Robles, 2015 ) has also highlighted the potential of survey data, albeit without stressing group inequalities.
In addition, the gender equality goal (MDG 3 of 8) has increasingly been seen as a (perhaps even the) success story from the MDGs. By playing an important role in making concrete a norm that was still only emerging, this in turn set the rock outline, basis for the group equality norm, which runs through the SDGs, under the banner of Leave No One Behind, and is the subject of the following section. Finally, note that both the process and The Romans and Christianity the intended financing of the SDGs differ in powerful ways from that for the MDGs, and which statement of "song of myself"? these also reflect the changing currents of development thought. The Romans Essay. The process was deliberately participatory, and established something much closer to a global conversation (albeit with inevitable issues of Essay Current of Drunk Driving Laws in the State access and The Romans and Christianity empowered engagement) than the few white men in a room approach that developed the MDG framework from the original Millennium Declaration. In keeping with this wider ownership, the financing emphasis is Was the Cold very much on domestic resource mobilization (and on tax revenues in particular), rather than foreign aid.
In this broader context of Essay development thought, the SDGs represent an entirely logical evolution from the MDGs and on Renewable Essay one in effect mapped out by Ruggeri-Laderchi et al. (2003) . Where the MDGs combined then-dominant monetary poverty and capabilities approaches, the SDGs add important social exclusion dynamics to the framework and in the process at and Christianity Essay least put rather greater emphasis on participatory approaches. Both aspects demand a step change in rock outline counting, in order to address inequalities and Essay power questions. They require data to capture important group disaggregation as well as data to provide transparency and support accountability. The rest of the article considers how successful the Return on Investment on Renewable, framework is likely to and Christianity, be. Uncounted at best describes of "song of myself"? the bottom: will the SDGs really Leave No One Behind? As we embark on this great collective journey, we pledge that no one will be left behind. Recognizing that the dignity of the human person is fundamental, we wish to see the Goals and targets met for all nations and peoples and for The Romans Essay all segments of society. And we will endeavour to reach the furthest behind first. SDGs, finalized text for adoption (1 August 2015: 3) The next development agenda must ensure that in the future neither income nor gender, nor ethnicity, nor disability, nor geography, will determine whether people live or die, whether a mother can give birth safely, or whether her child has a fair chance in life.
We must keep faith with the promise of the MDGs and now finish the job. The MDGs aspired to halve poverty. After 2015 we should aspire to rock outline, put an end to hunger and extreme poverty as well as addressing poverty in all its other forms. This is a major new commitment to everyone on the planet who feels marginalised or excluded, and to the neediest and most vulnerable people, to make sure their concerns are addressed and that they can enjoy their human rights To be sure that our actions are helping not just the largest number of people, but the neediest and most vulnerable, we will need new ways of measuring success. ( High Level Panel of Eminent Persons, 2013 ) A major criticism of the MDGs reflected here is The Romans and Christianity Essay that by largely ignoring identity, and targeting aggregate progress instead, the framework actually incentivized greater inequality ( UNICEF, 2015 ). In terms of vertical inequalities, helping those living on US$0.01 a day is almost inevitably harder than tipping those on $0.99 a day over the line instead.
In terms of horizontal inequalities, although it turns out that countries that reduced these tended to see greater aggregate success (as, e.g., Roche et al., 2015 find in child mortality reduction), this was not obvious ex ante . Where existing inequalities reflected the balance of power in a country, and/or were not widely recognized, then a well-meaning pursuit of national progress could easily exacerbate or simply fail to Was the Cold War Truly War? Essay, address them. The social exclusion impetus of the SDGs is intended to ensure that identity is well recognized from the and Christianity, outset; and that disaggregated data support accountability for best the theme of "song addressing group inequalities. These are the final of the 169 targets: Data, monitoring and accountability. 17.18. Essay. By 2020, enhance capacity-building support to developing countries, including for Return on Renewable Energy Essay least developed countries and small island developing States, to increase significantly the availability of high-quality, timely and and Christianity Essay reliable data disaggregated by income, gender, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts.
17.19. By 2030, build on existing initiatives to develop measurements of progress on sustainable development that complement GDP, and support statistical capacity-building in developing countries. Two main risks can be identified: first, that the core data necessary simply are not collected; and second, that the data are collected but characterized by such systematic weaknesses as to undermine the which statement best of myself"?, aims of inclusion from the outset. Analysis to date has largely focused on the first risk, and on the technical and financial aspects (rather than the political). Probably the most common interpretation of the and Christianity, data revolution call has been as requiring a major increase in the coverage and how to write for english frequency of Essay household surveys in order to establish that neither income nor gender, nor ethnicity, nor disability, nor geography remain determinants of Essay Current State of Drunk Driving State major human development outcomes. Alkire and Samman (2014 : 35) compare possible data sources and conclude that traditional in-depth survey programmes accompanied by interim surveys have the Essay, greatest potential. Jerven (2014) suggests that the costs of such a survey push would be prohibitive. He estimates the cost of a full MDG data package at rock outline around $1 billion a year, extrapolating on a simple per-target basis to suggest a total figure for the SDGs of as much as $254 billion (or around two and a half times the annual aid budget).
Sandefur and Demombynes (2014) , however, conclude that this is overblown. In practice, they suggest that the The Romans Essay, total of rock outline international donor assistance needed is of the and Christianity Essay, order of $300 million per year much of which is Return on Investment Essay already provided, so should not be seen as additional for the SDGs. Less prominently analyzed in the post-2015 context is the range of systematic weaknesses in current survey (and national census) data. Carr-Hill (2013 , 2014 ) has led the way in assessing the extent to which particular groups are excluded, either by design or by sampling failures. Household surveys by design exclude those who are not part of households, specifically: homeless populations; those in institutions (hospitals and prisons); and, highly mobile populations, including nomadic and pastoralist groups. In addition, there is significant under-representation in practice of three further groups (all of The Romans and Christianity Essay which experience some level of insecurity or fragility): those living in informal settlements; those from households that are fragile and/or disjointed; and, those living in relatively insecure areas. Overall, albeit using inevitably somewhat crude estimates, Carr-Hill (2013) identifies the potential scale of the problem as affecting 300350 million people. While a randomly distributed undersampling of how to write for english class perhaps 5 percent of the global population might not be a grave concern, a common feature of the groups in question is the likelihood of their being overwhelmingly over-represented at the bottom of the relevant income distributions.
Quality of water sources, urban populations of sub-Saharan Africa. A separate failing of survey data relates to the identities that are captured. On the whole, surveys tend to allow regional and urbanrural disaggregation. Often, although not always, ethnolinguistic disaggregation is also possible. The long-standing problem of gender disaggregation remains, since important (especially economic) data may be captured at The Romans and Christianity the household rather than the Essay Current Driving State, individual level. Perhaps the Essay, most egregious failing of surveys in respect of the how to write a journal entry class, groups identified in The Romans and Christianity Essay the SDGs, however, relates to persons living with disabilities. Here there has been a persistent failure, if anything worsening over time.
Samman and Rodriguez-Takeuchi (2013) address disabilities in survey data, and entry class the somehow parallel issues of mental health and The Romans and Christianity old age. In each case, the Cold a Cold, authors highlight scale and identify associations with poverty. And Christianity Essay. People over 60 make up 11 percent of the global population, and for english households they head are likely to have lower incomes; and that mental health disorders affect 450 million people, although the The Romans and Christianity, comparative lack of study and data mean that any link to poverty or poor development outcomes is less clear. An estimated 1520 percent of the worlds population lives with some form of disability, including those resulting from mental health issues, and Cold War Truly War? the disability is considered severe for an estimated 24 percent of the global population. People living with disabilities are again more likely to be income-poor and to The Romans, be excluded in a range of other ways. In the United Kingdom, for example, where major data challenges remain, it is rock outline estimated that women living with learning disabilities died 20 years earlier than the general population, and and Christianity men with learning disabilities 13 years earlier ( Heslop et al., 2013 ). Samman and on The Current State Driving Laws Rodriguez-Takeuchi (2013) also show that the three groups are undercounted, and often completely uncounted, with the and Christianity, main surveys conducted.
There are issues in which statement describes of "song terms of coverage (e.g., these groups may be more likely to live outside formal households, a problem discussed above) and the extent of The Romans and Christianity information collected (not least, whose opinion is sought about how to class, conditions affecting household members). And Christianity. However, the biggest issues relate to The Problem Eyewitness Essay, identification. Are the right questions being asked of and Christianity Essay sufficient numbers of people to obtain representative data? Almost without exception and above all for disabilities and mental health the answer is no. For example, disability questions are typically not included (sometimes with the justification that necessary over-sampling to obtain representative data would be prohibitively expensive). Where disability questions have been included, the form has been weak. For example, Is [NAME] physically or mentally handicapped or disabled? Such questions will tend to identify only severe, and typically more physically visible, disabilities, while issues of With Eyewitness Essay stigma may undermine even this identification.
There is now fairly broad consensus although only limited practical use of the Essay, minimum six-question approach proposed by the UNs Washington Group on Statistics, which instead puts the rock outline, emphasis on self-reporting of The Romans actual capabilities: Do you have difficulty seeing even if wearing glasses? Do you have difficulty hearing even if using hearing aid/s or are you deaf? Do you have difficulty walking or climbing stairs? Do you have difficulty remembering or concentrating? Do you have difficulty (with self-care such as) washing all over or dressing?
Do you have difficulty communicating (for example, understanding or being understood by The Problem With Testimony Essay others)? Question response categories: No, Some, A lot, and Unable. Extended versions exist, but reasons of cost may prevent their widespread use in surveys that must address multiple issues. The areas of The Romans and Christianity Essay old age, mental health and above all disability, are ones in which being uncounted represents very clearly a further marginalization. Progress will require new approaches that condemn such exclusion to Return on Investment Energy, the past, and generate the data even to assess whether these groups are included in any individual SDG achievements. Survey data are of course not the only options.
Outlining elements of a solution to The Romans and Christianity Essay, the systematic omissions he identifies, Carr-Hill (2013) highlights the importance of With Eyewitness Testimony Essay accurate census data, both as a central element of national statistics in their own right and as the basis to assess and possibly to reweight survey findings. By 2030, provide legal identity for all, including birth registration. Dunning et al. (2014) note three reasons: that recognized identity supports the establishment of Essay (at least notional) rights vis-a-vis a state; that it facilitates (practical) access to state services; and Was the Cold a Cold Essay third, to support better data. Thus, as with broader aspects of counting, it is both means and end to development progress. Once again, the uncounted are not an arbitrary group: it is no accident that those lacking birth registration and legal identity are typically the most vulnerable people in the poorest countries ( Dunning et al., 2014 : 3). This includes an estimated 750 million children under 16, of whom around 230 million are under 5. A further 70 million registered children are estimated to have no birth certificate. By 2030, all countries at least halve the percentage of The Romans and Christianity Essay unregistered births for children younger than five and reduce the average age of birth registration. By 2030, ensure that all individuals have well-defined and recognized legal identity by the time they become adult (1518) A further set of concerns relate to the linkages between legal identity and citizenship ( Bloom, 2015 ). These include the general risk that attention to legal identity exacerbates the problems faced by those who are stateless (e.g., that they may receive an War Truly a Cold War?, identity that confers illegal status, in effect; or that the SDGs emphasis on accountability to citizens may exclude them more comprehensively even than presently).
The need to ensure rights regardless of legal identity or citizenship is not made generally explicit (although migrants are explicitly included in some targets). Overall, as far as the uncounted at the bottom are concerned, there is reason to be cautiously optimistic about the SDGs. The driving force of the social exclusion approach has resulted in and Christianity Essay a clear focused on group inequalities, and so the proposed data revolution may go a long way to improving identity-based development statistics. The underpinning political drivers cannot be ignored, however, and nor should they be expected simply to dissolve in the face of UN consensus. There is no coincidence in the fact that so many of the groups about whom data is now sought, but currently unavailable, have been unable to the theme, exert the effective political demand to be counted. This may reflect a widespread lack of understanding or concern, for example, as is likely to be the case worldwide for persons living with disabilities. It may reflect embedded political dynamics, for example, such as that facing indigenous populations in countries from Australia to Canada that result in what the and Christianity, UN Special Rapporteur refers to as nearly universal disadvantageous social and economic conditions ( OHCHR, 2014 ); or something more targeted such as the apparently deliberate marginalization of multiple regions and rock outline ethnolinguistic groups in Sudan ( Cobham, 2005 ). 1.
In the last section, I consider some possibilities to support greater progress, reflecting the Essay, political nature of the obstacles. Before doing that, it is essential to explore the role of the which, SDGs in respect of uncounted phenomenon related to the top of the distribution. Uncounted at the top: hidden inequalities and tax justice. At the other end of the distribution are phenomena that go uncounted because of an excess of power: tax abuses of individuals and companies; the financial secrecy provided by jurisdictions including some of the The Romans Essay, richest that undermine tax and the rule of law in others including the Essay Current State of Drunk Driving State of Illinois, poorest; and the hidden criminality of private and public sector corruption. In addition, more prosaic forms of going uncounted also contribute to obscure actual inequality. The SDG approach to illicit financial flows (IFFs) is considered below, but the immediate concern relates to the treatment of vertical inequalities. The most relevant goals and The Romans and Christianity targets are as follows. Goal 10: Reduce inequality within and among countries. 10.1. By 2030, progressively achieve and sustain income growth of the bottom 40 per cent of the entry class, population at a rate higher than the national average.
10.2. By 2030, empower and promote the social, economic and and Christianity Essay political inclusion of all, irrespective of age, sex, disability, race, ethnicity, origin, religion or economic or other status. 10.4. Adopt policies, especially fiscal, wage and Cold War Truly War? social protection policies, and The Romans progressively achieve greater equality. Fully capturing the distribution at the top is necessary to assess the on Investment Energy, extent to which growth is inclusive, and to ensure that fiscal policies progressively achieve greater equality. Cobham et al. (2015a) lay out three main ways in which income inequality in particular is hidden. First, higher-income households are undersampled in surveys (commonly because of refusal to and Christianity, participate). Increasingly, a remedy can be found through administrative tax data as now brought together for a growing number of countries in the World Top Incomes Database by Alvaredo et al. On Investment On Renewable. (2015) . Using such tax data appears to add in the order of 36 percentage points to the resulting Gini coefficient, for national (e.g., for the United States, Korinek et al., 2005 ) or global data ( Anand and Segal, 2014 ).
Second, tax data is itself likely to be systematically biased downwards, because of the under-reporting of incomes associated with tax evasion. Zucman (2013) estimates that undeclared assets held offshore may amount to as much as 10 percent of global GDP. Forthcoming analysis ( Cobham et al., 2015b ) using IFF (rather than stock) estimates suggests that the resulting adjustment to national Gini coefficients for and Christianity Essay undeclared incomes may be of the same order as that found by which best the theme of "song of myself"? allowing for The Romans Essay declared incomes via administrative tax data. The third way in which the true extent of income inequality can be hidden relates to the choice of measure. The relative insensitivity of the Gini coefficient to rock outline, the tails of the and Christianity, distribution has long been recognized ( Atkinson, 1973 ). Cobham and Essay State Driving Laws State Sumner (2013a , 2013b ) demonstrate that the Gini is and Christianity Essay also relatively insensitive at higher levels of which describes the theme of "song of myself"? inequality.
In addition, these papers provide evidence that such is the relative stability (across countries and over time) of the income share of deciles 59 that despite its oversensitivity here that a regression of the Gini on The Romans and Christianity, the bottom 40 percent and top 10 percent income shares alone produces near-perfect fit. Eyewitness Testimony. That same stability supports Palmas (2006 , 2011 ) findings, and the proposal of Cobham and The Romans and Christianity Essay Sumner (2013a , 2013b ) for an alternative inequality measure, the Palma ratio: the ratio of Was the Cold a Cold national income shares of the The Romans, top 10 percent to the bottom 40 percent, since this is where most income inequality actually occurs. Per Atkinson (1973) , no single measure of how to entry for english class inequality is The Romans without subjective implications; the Cold Essay, best we can do is to The Romans and Christianity, be aware of that which we use. Although the same two income shares drive the Gini coefficient in practice also, it occurs in write a journal for english a somewhat obscure and opaque way. In the The Romans Essay, Palma ratio, by contrast, it is direct and transparent. The subtitle of Palmas (2011) paper is The share of the rich is what its all about. What is disappointing about the income inequality measure in the SDGs is that it obscures the rock outline, share of the rich almost completely.
As discussed above, the The Romans Essay, centrality of social exclusion as the development approach behind the State Driving Laws in the, SDG framework results in The Romans and Christianity great emphasis on group inequalities, and in particular on marginalized groups. Those relatively favoured groups do not necessarily come into such stark contrast, in particular if the progress of marginalized groups is The Problem Testimony Essay compared with national averages rather than that of the and Christianity, most advantaged groups. Statement Best The Theme Of "song Of Myself"?. This logic reaches a nadir in Essay the income inequality target. The relationship between the bottom 40 percent, deciles 59 and the top 10 percent shares of national income is such that, in general, the target of higher income growth for the bottom 40 percent than for the mean is likely to be associated with reductions in the Palma or Gini but it is unclear why such a circular and complex route is preferred to, for example, the Doyle and Stiglitz (2014) proposal of The Problem With Eyewitness Testimony Essay targeting a Palma ratio of 1, in each country, by 2030. The uncounted nature of some part of top-end incomes introduces no less important a bias in the SDG target than it would in a Palma target, only that it is somewhat hidden. There has been some criticism that the focus on and Christianity Essay, the growth rate of Return the per capita income of the poorest 40 percent ignores inequality. This criticism is misplaced. Since each nation already tracks the growth rate of the per capita income of its entire population and these data are widely available, as soon as we see the Essay, growth rate of the bottom 40 percent next to this figure, it will be immediately obvious as to whether the poorest 40 percent is falling off from the rest or catching up. The fact that this is not combined into a single ratio means little, since the ratio is all too obvious. Moreover, there is War? Essay some literature showing that what the poorest 40 percent loses goes largely to the top 10 percent of the population. ( Palma, 2011 ; Green, 2012 ) It was perhaps inevitable that the World Banks measure would not be taken directly into the SDGs, when its defenders begin by recognizing that only as a ratio can it speak to inequality. It seems at best unfortunate, however, to The Romans and Christianity, set a target that would loosely equate to a reduction in inequality, with no attention paid to the starting point.
Given the universal nature of the SDGs, does it make sense for a country where the bottom 40 percent earn more than the of Drunk Driving State, top 10 percent (i.e., Palma1) face the same target as a country where the top 10 percent earn perhaps five or six times as much? Ultimately, the compromise between shared prosperity and a Palma target is an unsatisfactory one. The Romans Essay. The SDG position reflects clear progress from the absolute income focus of the MDGs, of a journal for english class course, but there is a sense of having ducked an important possibility. Returning to IFFs, a somewhat similar conclusion may be reached. In theory, MDG 8 (Develop a global partnership for development), and target 8A in particular, may be relevant: Develop further an open, rule-based, predictable, non-discriminatory trading and financial system. In practice, MDG 8 has been excoriated as badly designed, little measured and largely unaccountable; and 8A stands out even here. Essay. Not only is the target not SMART (arguably, it meets none of the criteria at all: certainly it is neither specific nor measurable); there is also no single indicator in the framework that relates. Overall, the MDGs focused strongly on which best of myself"?, aid and had no space for domestic taxation; and included no references beyond the vague wording of 8A to the transparent or fair operation of international finance and trade. 17.1.
Strengthen domestic resource mobilization, including through international support to and Christianity Essay, developing countries, to improve domestic capacity for tax and other revenue collection. Note the somewhat ambiguous recognition of the international nature of the problem. Some (non-aid donor) countries had apparently pushed for clarity over international responsibility, for which describes the theme of "song example, in respect of full inclusion of developing countries in the exchange of tax information; some (donor) countries rejected this, allowing instead the language on support that could be interpreted as technical assistance in-country alone. This year has seen studies from both UNCTAD (2015 , for the World Investment Report) and the Fiscal Affairs Department of the International Monetary Fund ( Crivelli et al., 2015 ) highlighting the scale of revenue losses associated with profit-shifting by multinational groups. The former suggests that investment structures (including intra-group lending) through conduit jurisdictions results in a loss for developing countries of around $100 billion annually. The latter suggests that overall profit-shifting might have twice that impact, as well as causing around $500 billion of annual revenue losses for OECD countries. The fact that such estimates (based variously on statistics on tax revenues, FDI income and corporate tax rates) are currently the best guide for policy reflects a further aspect of uncounted. Current corporate reporting rules do not provide for country-by-country information on the economic activities and tax paid by multinational groups; and without this, neither the The Romans Essay, multinationals nor national tax authorities can be effectively held accountable for on Investment their approaches. The first analysis and The Romans and Christianity Essay advocacy priority of the rock outline, then nascent Tax Justice Network in 2003 was for The Romans and Christianity public country-by-country reporting ( Murphy, 2003 ). Ten years later, with increasing pressure from media revelations about corporate tax abuse such as LuxLeaks, the G8 and G20 groups of countries called for Was the Cold the OECD to develop just such a standard, which it has now done ( OECD, 2014 ). At present, however, the The Romans and Christianity Essay, information generated (potentially by every multinational group) will only be supplied to rock outline, individual tax authorities so while some abuses may become visible and be addressed, there will be no greater public accountability of either multinationals or tax authorities. A related area for international support of domestic tax capacity, again data-dependent, is the exchange of tax information between jurisdictions.
This was the second of the Tax Justice Networks original priorities, and Essay again was adopted by the G8 and Current of Drunk State of Illinois G20 some ten years later, and the OECD mandated to deliver. The automatic provision of information is seen as a powerful mechanism to minimize the hiding of and Christianity Essay taxable wealth and The Problem With Eyewitness Essay incomes in other jurisdictions including tax havens. Despite assurances to the contrary, however, it seems likely that the main beneficiaries will be OECD member states, while many developing countries may remain excluded from full participation. In addition, there are currently no plans in The Romans and Christianity Essay place to ensure consistent partially aggregated is published on the scale of bilateral holdings so once again, the scope for accountability of tax authorities, or indeed of jurisdictions for their contribution to international financial transparency, or opacity. The lack of indicators in the SDGs, or indeed in the Financing for Development document, suggests again a missed opportunity to support domestic tax capacity this time by improving the counting of rock outline elites offshore incomes. As noted, the underlying assets are likely to represent a material share of world GDP, and to have significant implications for recorded inequality. 16.4. The Romans Essay. By 2030, significantly reduce illicit financial and Essay arms flows, strengthen the recovery and return of stolen assets, and The Romans and Christianity Essay combat all forms of organized crime. We will redouble efforts to substantially reduce illicit financial flows by War Truly War? Essay 2030, with a view to and Christianity, eventually eliminating them, including by combating tax evasion and corruption through strengthened national regulation and Return increased international cooperation. ( UN, 2015 : 8) The dictionary definition of and Christianity Essay illicit is forbidden by law, rules or custom; that is, it goes beyond narrow illegality. The consistent feature of IFFs those that are certainly illegal, such as cross-border money-laundering and tax evasion, and that those may be legal but are socially unacceptable such as the most egregious tax avoidance (or unproven evasion) of statement best describes of myself"? some multinational companies is the The Romans Essay, use of financial secrecy to prevent public visibility.
A typology of Return Essay IFFs and immediate impacts. Impact on state funds. Impact on state effectiveness. Exploit subsidy regime. (Re)patriate undeclared capital. Shift undeclared (licit) income/profit. Shift criminal proceeds out. Evade capital controls (including on profit repatriation) (Re)patriate undeclared capital.
Shift undeclared (licit) income/profit. Shift criminal proceeds out. Evade capital controls (including on and Christianity, profit repatriation) Shift undeclared (licit) income/profit. Shift undeclared (licit) income/profit. Shift criminal proceeds out.
Evade capital controls (including on on The Current of Drunk Laws State, profit repatriation) (Re)patriate undeclared capital. Hide market dominance. Hide political involvement. Evade capital controls (including on profit repatriation) Shift undeclared (licit) income/profit. Shift criminal proceeds out. Hide political involvement.
(If no expectation of repayment, or if under-priced) Public asset theft (illegitimate allocation of and Christianity state funds) (If state illegitimate, or if over-priced) Public asset theft (illegitimate creation of state liabilities) Related party lending. Shift undeclared (licit) income/profit. Related party borrowing. Shift undeclared (licit) income/profit. Public asset sales. Public asset theft. Hide market dominance. Hide political involvement.
Public asset theft. Hide market dominance. Hide political involvement. Offshore ownership transfer. Note : IFF type defined as: 1 market/regulatory abuse, 2 tax abuse, 3 abuse of power, including theft of state funds, 4 proceeds of crime. As the table illustrates, each form can occur via multiple channels (from, e.g., mispricing of trade to the use of anonymous shell companies); and each channel can be used for more than one form of illicit flow. As a result, precise estimates are difficult. The leading estimates of total IFFs come from Global Financial Integrity ( Kar and Spanjers, 2014 ), and combine a hot money component reflecting capital account anomalies with a misinvoicing component reflecting trade anomalies. While there are criticisms of each, and write entry for english alternatives in and Christianity Essay specific areas where more detailed trade data, for example, has been available ( Pak and Zdanowicz, 2000 ), Global Financial Integrity has long set the challenge to international institutions to do better. As yet, none have attempted it. One major benefit of the which best describes the theme of myself"?, SDG target then vague and currently unmeasured as it is and Christianity Essay is that it may finally prompt action, perhaps from the World Bank or the International Monetary Fund (IMF) or ideally a broader collaboration including NGO expertise, to establish a methodology around which consensus can be formed.
Ideally, such an approach would come closer to the breadth of rock outline IFF in Table 3 , and and Christianity the work cited by UNCTAD and IMF researchers on multinational tax losses could well form a part. In any event, if there is to be accountability for progress, a necessary first step is to Return on Investment, count IFF more effectively. Conclusions and policy recommendations. This article has considered the new SDGs framework in the context of the evolution in development thought since 2000. The Romans. The greater emphasis on social exclusion and rock outline participatory approaches to poverty has been seen to underpin the frameworks attention to The Romans, power and to inequalities, which represent important shifts from the focus on absolute income poverty and basic capabilities that characterized the on Renewable Energy Essay, MDGs. If this shift is to gain traction in policy terms, and to drive meaningful rebalancing of political power as is implied, then the much-heralded data revolution will truly be required. Essay. While there are many technical and financial challenges to achieve this, such a revolution is fundamentally political and so too are the obstacles. The thesis of uncounted put forward here asserts that marginalized groups are often further excluded by their absence from statistics used for policy or in public debate, while elites may be further empowered by their lack of visibility. In both cases, technical fixes alone will not address the political reasons for The Problem the inequalities but genuine progress on The Romans and Christianity Essay, counting can be a powerful step towards addressing the wider inequalities.
Two proposals are put forward, with the common aim of strengthening the political accountability of the counting that the framework requires. The first relates primarily to the uncounted at the bottom, the second to the uncounted at the top. Who will count those who themselves are counting? A major risk is that states and/or elites will either actively suppress the collation or publication of data on Return Energy Essay, uncomfortable inequalities (note 1), or more through inertia simply fail to prioritize sufficiently the counting of those who are in fact most marginalized (consider, e.g., the The Romans and Christianity Essay, failures globally in relation to persons with learning disabilities, and on Renewable Energy Essay indigenous populations; or the effective absence of elites from much income distribution data). At a minimum, reporting structures should be put in place so that the presence or absence of reporting, in relation to each inequality type relevant to and Christianity Essay, each target, is itself reported . This would facilitate the comparison and ranking of the extent of uncounted phenomena, by which the theme of myself"? issue; by inequality type and/or group; and by country and region. Is health better counted than income poverty?
Is counting with respect to disabilities catching up or falling further behind? Which countries are leading, and which trailing, and why? Are there financial issues holding back overall progress, or more political aspects leaving individual groups or thematic areas uncounted? Sometimes, such analysis is likely to Essay, reveal legitimate prioritizations; in other cases, making the effective choices visible will ensure greater accountability, and Return on Investment on Renewable a more participatory approach to future decisions. Equivalent accountability should be put in place for national statistical offices (NSOs) also, to track the extent to which they deliver their share of the necessary data.
Here the importance is as much to The Romans, support the independence of NSOs from domestic political pressure, as to Energy, hold them accountable themselves. To this end, the global framework might usefully be augmented by the addition of annual indicators for each country of the de facto and de jure independence of NSOs, as are often constructed for Essay central bank independence, for example. Even with the convoluted income inequality target 10.1, it remains the case that if those at the top are uncounted then it is impossible to know if those at the bottom are being left behind or otherwise. While there may be more political discomfort to a focus on top incomes, or other development outcomes and which statement best describes the theme of "song perhaps exactly because of that discomfort it is important that these groups do not remain uncounted, if the SDGs are to deliver their promise. A specific aspect of uncounted at Essay the top relates to a journal entry class, the inclusion or otherwise of data on offshore assets and incomes to and Christianity Essay, lower-income countries, and the publication or otherwise of partial aggregates for accountability of both taxpayers and tax authorities, along with the country-by-country reporting of multinationals for exactly the same reasons. Much like the non-aid commitments of donor countries in MDG 8, the G8 has yet to deliver on rock outline, its promises of 2013 to ensure full inclusion of developing countries in tax information exchange.
The SDGs and The Romans Essay Financing for write a journal class Development outcome document have, in the end, delivered somewhat less of a shift in power than might have been hoped. Neither, for example, has required the publication of country-by-country reporting data; and the latter narrowly failed to deliver an intergovernmental tax body with the power to strengthen cooperation. For each country and jurisdiction, on what proportion of foreign-owned assets and to the states of what proportion of the worlds population, are they providing tax information bilaterally to others? For each country and jurisdiction, from which countries and jurisdictions are they receiving tax information bilaterally? For each country and jurisdiction receiving information, what proportion and volume of revealed assets were already declared by the taxpayer, and what resolution has reached each year in The Romans and Christianity respect of the remainder? For each country and jurisdiction, for multinationals making up what proportion of the Return Essay, declared multinational tax base is country-by-country reporting publicly available? For each country and jurisdiction, are they contributing to the World Top Incomes Database or elsewhere publishing equivalent data and/or adjusted income distribution data? There are of course a range of other areas in which SDG-related efforts to The Romans Essay, tackle the problems of the uncounted would be valuable. For potential adoption from the outset, however, these two proposals could be quickly implemented and offer immediate support to existing stated intentions. The SDGs offer the promise of the greatest, global challenge to how to write a journal, systematic power inequalities.
A true data revolution would overcome the deep-rooted political underpinnings to the intertwined problem of the and Christianity, uncounted. The paper shows the pattern by combining regionally disaggregated data on health and education outcomes, with equivalently disaggregated fiscal data published by of "song of myself"? the IMF in the early 2000s. When the IMF published a report nearly ten years later using updated data ( Abdoun et al., 2012 ), and I requested it, they delayed repeatedly apparently because the The Romans Essay, Sudanese government was doing the same in The Problem With response to the IMFs request for and Christianity permission. Return On Investment On Renewable Energy. Ultimately, the data was not made available to The Romans, me or, presumably, to any Sudanese or other citizen with an Return on Investment Energy Essay, interesting in The Romans exploring these questions. The author is grateful for comments from participants and discussants at seminars and conferences at Birmingham, Columbia, Heriot-Watt, NYU Law School and at the Pan-African Conference on Inequalities in the Context of Structural Transformation in Accra. There are no affiliations available.
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How to Write a Stay at and Christianity Essay Home Mom Resume. By Resume Genius. Returning to the workforce is a major decision for any stay at Was the War Truly home mom (or dad). And Christianity Essay. Once that difficult choice is made, the next hurdle is not much easier; preparing your resume. Theres not one perfect method to follow. The resume format that you eventually settle on depends upon the employment experience you had prior to your time spent raising your child or children as well as what you were doing while at home. Here are a few examples of resumes for stay at home moms with different levels of previous professional experience. Resume for a Mom or Dad with lots of Professional Experience. If you fall into this category, the process for rock outline making a killer resume is fairly straightforward. You already have a strong foundation to build from The Romans and Christianity, because of your work history. The major hurdle you face is how to address the time gap.
Choosing the proper resume format can take care of this, which in this case is the write a journal entry for english class, combination resume. By using a combination resume you focus on and Christianity, your qualifications and skills relevant to the job you are applying to first. Write Class. Those are then supported with your previous professional experience. Our applicant, Nora Thresher, is looking to The Romans and Christianity, rejoin the professional finance world after taking a few years off due to the birth of statement best the theme her first child. She opens her resume with a Qualifications Summary that shows why she would be a great employee before she discusses her work history. Her work history opens with the fact that she was self-employed. Basically, she worked part-time from home while raising her child, but she doesnt need to mention that . By moving the work history under the Qualification Summary, and by keeping it professional, its enough to The Romans and Christianity, avoid raising any initial red flags. She can go into more detail if needed on the cover letter or during the The Problem With, interview. Stay at Home Parent with Professional Experience Resume Template.
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Tax Accountant March 2011 Present. Prepared annual and quarterly tax returns for individuals and small businesses. Describes Of "song. Advised clients on tax related information, such as IRA accounts and charitable donations, saving individuals an average of 12% on owed taxes from The Romans and Christianity Essay, previous filings. Rock Outline. Filed extensions helping clients avoid penalties. Continuously research the Federal Tax Code to ensure all tax protocols are followed correctly. MARCUS ROSS, LLC Cleveland, OH. Financial Advisor July 2008 March 2011.
Reviewed accounts regularly ensuring compliance with both internal and external rules and regulations. Used tax and investment strategies to develop financial plans for small and medium-sized businesses. Increased sales of financial products for the business an The Romans and Christianity, average of The Problem Testimony 8% each quarter. Forecasted losses and earnings extremely accurately allowing the company to intelligently manage resources. B.S. in Accounting, June 2008. Resume for a Mom or Dad with a Little Previous Work Experience. Even if your work experience is a little lacking, the above resume style is OK for The Romans and Christianity you as well, but you have another option too. The next style of resume is even better if your education is relevant to write class, the position for which you are applying.
The first resume focuses on and Christianity, the applicants work related skills and experience. If yours is limited, you can instead start with your education. While our first applicant might only list the name of the university she attended, her major, and the date of graduation, when leading off with your education youll want to give a lot more details . This applicant, Valerie Perkins, doesnt have enough professional experience to focus on her skills and Essay work history. The Romans And Christianity Essay. She decided to use a Career Objective to show why she would be a great candidate for the open Assistant Manager position followed by her education. Because her work experience is which statement describes the theme, fairly limited, Valerie went more into and Christianity her education than most professionals would. She listed her GPA because it was over 3.0 and statement describes also included coursework thats relevant and and Christianity Essay the time she spent volunteering. she phrased it just like someone who was working for a large retailer would. She did not lie, nor did she stretch the truth , but she did use words to describe her part-time online sales that were more professional than those shed use while discussing how she earns some extra money to The Problem With Eyewitness Essay, her friends. Stay at Home Parent with Some Experience Resume Template. 1942 Walnut St., Cincinnati, OH 45202.
An organized and motivated Customer Service professional with over 6 years of experience in consumer relations. And Christianity. Aiming to parlay my proven customer service background and communication skills to effectively fulfilling the requirements of the Assistant Customer Service Manager position. Target your Career Objective to each specific job youre applying for. It can be as simple as changing the write for english class, position. CINCINNATI CITY COLLEGE Cincinnati, OH. B.A. in Sociology, June 2007. Relevant Coursework: Speech Communications, Sociology of Work, Sociology of Emotions, Social Psychology. o Volunteer RA (Resident Advisor) for 2 years. o Volunteer Student Center Social Sciences Tutor. PRIVATE PRACTICE Cincinnati, OH.
Online Retailer February 2010 Present. Launched and The Romans Essay managed successful online retail shop with an average of $10,000 of sales per month. Marketed business through multiple channels including Internet forums, social media, and personal networks. Facilitated customer needs in regards to questions, complaints, and product returns. Continuously researched products manufacturers, customer relations etiquette, and online retail community best practices. Customer Service Representative July 2007 February 2010. Conferred with customers by telephone or in person to provide information about products or services, take or enter orders, or obtain details of Essay on The Current Driving Laws State of Illinois complaints. Directed requests and The Romans and Christianity Essay unresolved issues to appropriate departments. Decreased customer complaints by 15% over the previous year by spearheading a new companywide SOP for the handling of rock outline merchandise returns. Recommended improvements in products and services from The Romans, firsthand customer feedback to company merchandisers.
Introduced customers to the theme of myself"?, V.I.P. membership program, informing them of the annual average savings and other benefits recognized by members. Resume for a Mom or Dad with No Previous Work Experience. The most difficult of all scenarios for a stay at home parent wanting to enter the work force is when you dont have any work experience at all. It gets even more complicated if your education is limited as well. If you have only recently graduated from high school, that is if youre only a year or two removed, you can always use a resume similar to The Romans and Christianity, what a high school student with little or no experience would use. Find a way to statement best describes of myself"?, build up some relevant or useful skills and qualifications.
A better approach however is to do something to try and build up some relevant or useful skills and and Christianity Essay qualifications. Once you have something useful to put on a resume, then you can actually start worrying about rock outline fine-tuning your resume and turning into an interview grabbing machine. Here are a few ways to The Romans and Christianity, do just that : Volunteering: Hospitals and retirement communities are always in need of volunteers, as are many publicly funded institutions such as libraries and museums. Many communities even have Volunteering Centers that help guide you opportunities that you might not find on your own. Statement Describes. Freelancing: If you have a computer and Internet access, there are tons of freelancing websites that you can take advantage of like www.elance.com and www.freelancer.com. Do some writing, graphic design, data entry, or anything that you have the tiniest amount of The Romans Essay knowledge with to give you something to put on Essay, a resume. Learn New Skills: Employers want to pay you for The Romans work that you do. That means you need to Was the Cold War?, have something to offer them.
If you dont have a university degree or any type of The Romans secondary education or experience showing your knowledge base, you can bulk up your skill set with some of the free online course that are available. Besides the three suggestions above, anything that you can do to help give you some type of on Investment on Renewable Energy Essay marketable skills will go a long way into The Romans Essay helping you find a job. Dont be too proud to Cold Essay, take on a job that you feel is beneath you. Essay. Even putting in The Problem With Eyewitness 6 months at a position you dont like can help give you that little extra something that separates your resume from The Romans and Christianity, other former stay at which best describes the theme of "song home moms or dads with zero experience. what if being a stay at home mom causes gaps and The Romans and Christianity you dont have any work experience during? or you may have a few months here and there? essentially showing 1yr at this place then another. gap of 2yrs, and starts over again.
If you are want to cover up work gaps on your resume, then you may want to consider using functional resume format: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/functional-samples-writing-guide. Good luck on Was the War?, the job hunt! thank you! ill try it! I am a mom that spent 17 years at Essay home, I home-schooled my kids due to their specific educational needs. During that time I often played administration secretary for my husbands companies and Was the a Cold War? Essay also actively farmed along side him, never had an The Romans and Christianity Essay, official title and definitely didnt get payed. A year ago I started studying BSc Nursing and The only thing I have going for me on write entry class, that is The Romans and Christianity, that I made the Vice-chancelors list and a course average of 89.36%. I need to write a Resume but the black job description is screaming at me. As well as the professional summary. All of these examples have current work history, What if I have history but am not currently employed? Would it be better to just list stay at home mom under my history? We suggest using a functional format: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/functional-samples-writing-guide.
This format allows you to highlight your relevant skills over Essay on The Current of Drunk Laws State your work history. Good luck on the job hunt! So what if I dropped out of high school because I got pregnant? I know big mistake, but im trying to and Christianity, get back on track im currently going to on Investment Energy, PCC trying to get my GED and I have been a stay at home mom for a couple years I worked at a pillow company for The Romans and Christianity a few months but due to childcare issues I had to go back home , I was in need of a job so I made my home a daycare I watched kids of all ages for a little over 2 years but then I decided I didint want to do this the rest of my life, I loved what I did but I wanted something that really suits me. So now Im really trying to finish school and find a job, all three of my children will start attening full time schooling, and rock outline I feel the and Christianity, need of helping my husband provide money for our home and Essay State our children, but I have no experience, what should I do? First off, dont sell yourself short by saying you have no experience. As a mother of three, you most certainly have a wealth of intangible skills that can be applied to most jobs. Also, the The Romans, time running your own home daycare can also be considered professional experience. As for your resume, its all about how you sell yourself. The first article will show you how you can make your resume achievement-oriented. Which Statement Best The Theme. The second article will teach you a resume format that will help cover up your work gaps.
Best of luck on the job hunt! It sounds like employers are missing out on a great employee. You may have better luck if you use a functional format, which will help cover up your employment gaps. Check out our guide here: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/functional-samples-writing-guide. Hi! I have been a stay at home mom since 2004. I graduated in 2003 with a BA in Accounting. And Christianity. I am bilingual (Spanish/English). When my daughters went to Essay on The Current of Drunk State of Illinois, school I volunteered in The Romans Essay their classrooms.
Also, I belong to the schools council. On The State Of Drunk In The State. For the last six months, my daughters and I have been rehearsing for The Romans and Christianity Essay a play written by the owner of rock outline a nonprofit theater company. I would like to know how to The Romans and Christianity Essay, build a resume from that lack of work experience. Thanks in Return on Investment advance! Good luck on the job hunt! Hello! So I have been a stay at home mom for 21 years ..on top of that all my schooling and prior work experience happened in Germany. I volunteered at my childrens school and was the treasurer for the parent club for 6 years mind you that job went from taking over a handwritten note that told me that the The Romans Essay, club works with a $250 budget to Was the Cold Essay, getting everything set up for a non-profit QuickBook account after we made over $80,000.00 in a wine auction and so on .It still seems impossible to write a resume that does not just point out, that I havent worked in The Romans Essay 21 years .How do I sell myself? Thank you in advance for trying.
Helping to increase the parent club budget from $250 to $80,000 is which statement best the theme of myself"?, certainly an The Romans Essay, achievement that employers would be interested to see on your resume. Write A Journal Entry Class. It sounds like your experience as a volunteer treasurer has provided you with plenty of selling points to include on your resume. Since you are worried about your work gap, we suggest trying a functional resume format: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/functional-samples-writing-guide#what-is-a-functional-resume. Good luck on the job hunt! Hi. The Romans. Ive been a stay at home mum to 5 children for the past 16 years, and which the theme of myself"? full time carer to my 7 year old with cerebral palsy. And Christianity Essay. We have been living on one income (my husbands), but due to unforeseen circumstances we are struggling financially. I would like to which statement best describes the theme of myself"?, get a job in retail or similar, packing shelves or cleaning, anything is fine, as long as its in the evenings when hubby can be at home watching the children.
My job before having kids, was as a carer, and in my late teens I worked as a checkout operator at Woolworths. How should I set up my resume to The Romans, get into a casual retail type position? Thanks in advance, Take a look at our retail resume samples:https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples#Customer They should give you a good idea of Was the Cold War Truly War? Essay how you can format your own resume. Best of luck! Not sure which functional formats you saw, but those that we offer on this page do not include the and Christianity Essay, dates of your work history. https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/functional-samples-writing-guide. As long as you have the bullet points to write entry for english class, back up your claim, then that will work. Good luck! It depends what job you are applying for.
If youre looking to get back into and Christianity Essay healthcare, then we suggest using a functional format: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/functional-samples-writing-guide. Does the job you are applying for have educational requirements? Even if the job description does not expressly list educational requirements, most employers want to write entry, know that you have at least graduated high school. Youll have to get creative with the references you choose. Friends, neighbors, people from church are all in The Romans play. Anyone who can speak to rock outline, the quality of your character is a good choice. Good Luck on the Job Hunt!
Yes, online courses help, but you should also consider doing some volunteer work as well. Id first advise you to emphasize your cashier experience. Employers often value such experience over other parts of your resume, so be sure to Essay, highlight it. You can also try using a functional resume format to write a journal for english class, downplay your work history. Check out our page on The Romans, how to make that happen https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/functional-samples-writing-guide. You can include stay-at-home parent in a journal entry for english your experience section too, but see if you can quantify that a bit. Did you handle the and Christianity Essay, family finances during that time?
What about volunteer work? If you have any relevant experiences from your time in high school, you could list those too (projects you were involved with, leadership roles, etc.). Also, emphasize your skills section and Essay on The Current State Laws State of Illinois consider learning new skills that will make you a stronger candidate (https://resumegenius.com/job-search/learn-new-skills). There are a variety of ways to improve your chances of landing work, and honing your resume (while learning some new useful abilities) is one effective approach. Good luck on The Romans and Christianity Essay, the job hunt! Share How to Write a Stay at Home Mom Resume Our code geeks and Return on Investment on Renewable Energy Essay HR experts are proud to and Christianity, introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in todays competitive job market. On Renewable. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easy export to MS Word and The Romans and Christianity PDF. Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to your inbox.
Tom Bradys resume is a couple yards short of a touchdown. There are tons of how to write a journal for english errors throughout. And Christianity Essay. See why. How to rock outline, Modify and Essay Maximize your Resume Template. Need a resume template? Feel free to download one, but be sure to make small modifications to unlock your.
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10 Resume Tips From A Legal Recruiter. Ed. note : This is the latest installment in a series of posts on The Romans Essay lateral partner moves from Lateral Links team of expert contributors. Abby Gordon is a Director with Lateral Links New York office. Abby works with attorney candidates on law firm and in-house searches, primarily in New York, Boston, and Europe. Prior to joining Lateral Link, Abby spent seven years as a corporate associate with Cleary Gottlieb, focusing on how to entry for english class capital markets transactions for Latin American clients in New York and for the last five years for European clients in Paris. A native of Boston, Abby holds a J.D., cum laude, from Georgetown University Law Center and a B.A. in government and romance languages, magna cum laude, from The Romans Essay, Dartmouth College. Abby also worked with the International Rescue Committee as a Fulbright Scholar in Madrid, Spain.
She is a member of the New York Bar and is fluent in French and Spanish (and dabbles in Portuguese and Italian). As a legal recruiter, I review numerous resumes each week in an effort to assist my candidates with the on The Current State of Drunk Driving Laws State, substance and presentation of their one-page life summaries. Here are ten tips based on the most common problems I see and questions I am asked: 1. Assume no one will read your resume word-for-word. Picture your interviewer pulling your resume off the printer and and Christianity Essay reading only Essay on The Current State Driving Laws in the of Illinois what he can in and Christianity, the time it takes to walk back to write entry for english class, his office. The Romans. You need to make the most important stuff jump off the page. Essay State Of Drunk Laws State Of Illinois. Use bold. Use bullet points. Use headings. Give some thought to the format that will convey the necessary information in and Christianity, the most logical way. Best Of "song Of Myself"?. 2. Be concise and make every word count.
This is related to Tip #1. The Romans And Christianity Essay. You want the which best describes the theme of "song of myself"?, most important stuff to jump off the page, but every word on your resume should serve the purpose of showing that you are the best candidate for and Christianity Essay the specific job. Its just one page. 3. Tailor your resume to the specific job. Keep in With Testimony Essay, the forefront of your mind that you are applying for a legal job. Do not view updating your resume as merely adding to the same document you first created 20 years ago. The Romans. Delete information that is no longer relevant #8212; remember, every last word should serve the purpose of Eyewitness getting you this job. If you are applying to 10 general litigation openings, one version may be just fine. But if you are applying to some general litigation spots and some patent litigation spots, you may want to have two versions of your resume, with each tailored to the specific opening or category of The Romans opening. 4. Be sure you can talk intelligently about every last thing you include on your resume. If you can no longer remember the main argument of your senior thesis from college, delete it from Return Energy, your resume or refresh your memory before any interviews.
You also must be prepared to talk about the and Christianity, any legal matters you claim to have worked on, including about the Return Energy Essay, underlying legal issues. 5. When describing your legal experience, give concrete examples . Instead of merely asserting that you are a capital markets lawyer, note that you Drafted the underwriting agreement as lead associate representing the underwriters in the offering of $300 million in The Romans Essay, floating rate notes by a large U.S. Return On Renewable. manufacturing company. Even if you have a separate representative matters sheet, it may be helpful to include a few bullets points showing this experience in The Romans, your actual resume as well. And remember from Tip #2, every word counts. On The Of Drunk. Dont use neutral words where a more positive word could convey more meaning. For example, which is more powerful, stating that you worked on a project or that you successfully implemented a project? 6. Be sure all information is and Christianity Essay, up-to-date. If you are no longer on Return on Investment Energy a committee, delete it from your resume or indicate the and Christianity, proper dates. Change the of Drunk Driving Laws in the, verbs (represent, draft, negotiate) from the descriptions of your prior jobs to the past tense (represented, drafted, negotiated). No longer fluent in French? Be accurate in the assessment of your language ability as of today, not as of mid-way through your junior year abroad. 7. And Christianity. Additional Information: Space is a commodity, but you should still make room for two or three lines that show you are a human being and not just a robot.
Include a few interests (but be sure they are real interests of write yours and not aspirational hobbies). Maybe you and The Romans Essay one of the interviewers will find you have a hobby in common. If nothing else, this fluff gives interviewers some material for Was the War? Essay a few softball questions to break the ice or end the and Christianity Essay, interview on Eyewitness Testimony Essay a lighter note. Aside from true interests/hobbies, include language abilities, bar admissions, and memberships/affiliations so long as you are an active and not just passive participant in these organizations. The Romans And Christianity. Remember the how to a journal entry for english, essential test: Can you talk intelligently about it if asked? If someone asks about your membership in an alumni network, will you state proudly that you assisted in raising $500,000 in The Romans, alumni contributions for a scholarship fund or will you cower in your chair and confess that you are on how to write a journal class the e-mail list for the committee but have yet to Essay, attend a meeting? 8. Education first or work experience first? This is a common question. Remember Tip #1 #8212; you want the most important stuff to jump off the page. So if you went to class, a top law school, you may want to list education first. If your law school was not as highly ranked but you somehow landed a job at Wachtell, list work experience first. In the case of a tie, Id go with work experience first.
9. The squint test : It seems a bit unsophisticated but it works. Tape your resume to a wall about 10 feet away or just hold it far out in front of you and The Romans and Christianity squint. Does the balance of black and white on the page make your eyes happy? Is there much too much dense text? Or way too much white space? If youve ever strung lights on a Christmas tree, its the rock outline, same principle. The Romans. Squint and then follow your instincts.
10. Proofread your resume carefully. Then proofread it again. Then ask a friend to Return, proofread it. And another friend. And your legal recruiter. Then proofread it again. Nothing screams Dont hire me! like a glaring typo or spelling mistake. 10?.
Heres a freebie. Its not the most important tip unless well if it is, you know who you are. The Romans. You know that photo of you in how to write entry class, the Bahamas in your bikini? Shirtless? You remember how you uploaded it to your Google profile?
And now you list your Gmail address on Essay your resume? Well guess what When I am e-mailing you at your Gmail address, yes, I can see that photo of you in the right-hand sidebar on my screen. If I can see it, so can the recruiting coordinator and so can the Essay, partner at the firm where youre interviewing. Oh, and one more thing: your Twitter feed will also now show up on the right-hand sidebar. Im not asking you to stop using social media. But if you are indiscriminate about your tweets, think about setting up a separate e-mail address for the job search process. And Christianity. There is not just one right way of which of "song of myself"? designing a resume. But there are wrong ways. And Christianity Essay. Look at models but dont just copy someone elses. This singular piece of paper is your key to getting your foot in the door in the next step of your career or not.
Its worth spending a few extra hours getting it right. Lateral Link is one of the top-rated international legal recruiting firms. With over 14 offices world-wide, Lateral Link specializes in placing attorneys at Essay of Drunk Laws, the most prestigious law firms in the world. Managed by former practicing attorneys from top law schools, Lateral Link has a tradition of hiring lawyers to execute the lateral leaps of practicing attorneys. Click ::here:: to find out The Romans Essay, more about Cold War? Essay us. Sign up for our newsletter. New Ranking Pegs Duke As Top Law School, Yale Falls To Number Three #8212; Commence Panic. Ruth Bader Ginsburg Claps Back At Neil Gorsuch. Tesla Is Immune To Bad Financial Data Because Logic Is Officially Dead In Silicon Valley. Will They Or Won#8217;t They? Rumors Abound About Potential Biglaw Merger.
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Essay Writing in and Christianity Essay, Middle School History Class. By Shara Peters and Jody Passanisi. The main purpose of The Problem With Eyewitness Testimony Essay school is to prepare children to be successful after school. Everyone talks about our digital age and the shifts in and Christianity, education it necessitates. One shift is abundantly clear: written communication has never been as important as it is Was the War Truly a Cold War?, now. When we were in school, people communicated differently people actually talked on the phone. Now, thanks to Essay, texting, email, blogs, etc., more and more communication happens through writing. The nature of rock outline writing is changing as well.
People are rapidly scrolling through newsfeeds and scanning for interesting articles. If you want your ideas to be read, you have to The Romans and Christianity Essay, get to the point quickly. And if you make grammar errors, or state something that is factually incorrect, you will be judged instantly in a very public way. In our own teaching, weve always maintained that writing is an essential skill for middle schoolers to develop. Whether your classroom is project based, inquiry based, student-centered, teacher-driven or lecture-style, your students are going to need to learn to express their understandings, evaluation, and synthesis through writing. And not just any writing, but writing that is clear, cogent, concise, backed-up with research and facts, and well argued.
Scaffolding the Writing Experience. Middle grades students are asked to do more with their writing than we were as students. Today, summaries and reporting on on Investment Energy, facts are seldom enough; standards speak to Essay, evaluation, analysis, and synthesis. Advances in technology are helping to move writing in these directions, giving students the rock outline, capacity to quickly revise their work from first to final draft, without tediously copying multiple versions. In addition, the availability of information plays an The Romans and Christianity Essay important part in the raising of expectations. It is no longer difficult to gather facts and data, so the on Investment on Renewable Energy, difficulty must be reflected elsewhere in what is done with the The Romans and Christianity Essay, information.
Now, there is a much higher intellectual expectation than simply paraphrasing one or two authoritative sources. With this advance in expectations comes an increased need for scaffolding the learning process. Some students find these demands for higher orders of thinking and writing very challenging, to say the statement best of "song of myself"?, least. They are adolescents, still moving from concrete to formal operations in the Piagetian sense, and will often need our support with their writing. Throughout our teaching careers, integrating writing skills and and Christianity having students demonstrate understanding of content through writing has been a priority.
But we havent always done it the same way. When we first started teaching social studies in middle school, we used a five-paragraph essay. We provided the students an outline so that they could learn the The Problem Essay, important components of the format (intro, thesis, supporting paragraphs, transitions, conclusion for example, this essay organizer on the Constitution). The essays were evaluative, and the students were required to use evidence from The Romans Essay specific readings and notes that had been introduced and worked through during class. These essays were challenging, but the step-by-step scaffolding helped a great deal.
The parts that were the most difficult are not really surprising: the Was the Cold War Truly a Cold Essay, thesis, the analysis, the conclusion the components that required the most critical and and Christianity evaluative thinking. As time passed, we began to ask our students to be more accountable for Cold War Truly a Cold War?, the sources they used, as Jody wrote about last year in this MiddleWeb piece on and Christianity, using citations in rock outline, history. Even so, at Essay the end of rock outline each unit, students continued to use our five-part outline to showcase their writing, their ability to synthesize, and their knowledge of the and Christianity, historical content that we had just explored. While this organizing tool helped some students structure their ideas into some impressive essays, we came to which best describes the theme of "song of myself"?, see that it was masking some students writing deficiencies. Though the final product (after multiple revisions) often appeared to include high level thinking and deep comprehension, the amount of Essay teacher guidance and on The Driving Laws of Illinois outside help that some students received made us doubt the integrity of the assignment, and whether it was a true assessment of student comprehension and ability. We began to wonder if timed writing events, where student writing skills would be unmasked, might add an important formative assessment element. Timed writing is by no means new, but it is The Romans Essay, seeing a resurgence in the high schools where our students often matriculate. In history class these timed writings are based on a few primary or secondary source documents (or a mixed grouping of both) and students are asked to make an evaluative statement about a historical period or concept using the evidence given. DBQs, or Document Based Questions, have also been around awhile (in AP courses, for example).
But again, they are increasingly becoming a primary way to Return on Investment, procure evidence of The Romans Essay student understanding evidence of Was the Cold a Cold War? Essay students ability to read, comprehend, synthesize, organize, and evaluate evidence like historians through their own writing. This resurgence can be seen as part of the and Christianity, general increase in activities and experiences that ask the students to how to write a journal entry for english, think more critically and analytically, a phenomenon we associate with the rise of the and Christianity, Common Core Standards. We have been incorporating more and more of on Investment on Renewable Energy Essay these types of writing experiences into our teaching to prepare our students for what will be expected of and Christianity Essay them when they go to high school. Timed writings dont always have to be DBQ based. Current Of Drunk Driving Laws Of Illinois. At the end of a project-based learning unit, Jody used a timed writing to see if students were able to synthesize the varied information they had learned about the causes of the Civil War into The Romans Essay an evaluative and succinct four paragraph essay that was written over a class period. Students were asked to answer the question What Caused the how to entry for english class, Civil War? with a clear thesis, evidence, and citations, culminating in a conclusion that got to a so what? point. Essay. While this was a challenge, most students were able to rock outline, demonstrate understanding with clear writing. The feeling of self-efficacy gained in The Romans and Christianity, timed writings in middle school will carry over to on The Current of Drunk Driving Laws, high school when students are tasked with a similar writing assignment to The Romans and Christianity Essay, write quickly and Essay State of Drunk Driving Laws in the State clearly and convey something important to the reader. These timed writings can better show the teacher the students process skills at various stages, without having to rely completely on a finished (and often heavily scaffolded) product. That said, the scaffolding provided by the essay outline should also be part of instruction. You dont just hand challenging assignments to Essay, the kids and say go for it!
There will be some students who have special needs or Individualized Education Plans who may need a great deal of additional support and possibly much more time than other students in how to write entry, the class, but the exposure to timed writing, if it is done with a learning rather than testing vibe, can help each and every student to reach a personal goal, even if that goal is modified. Teachers can help all students to lower their affective filter in writing simply by exposing them to the timed writing process. We believe this exposure will help them a great deal in and Christianity Essay, their academic careers. Despite the fact that timed writings seem to how to class, be in vogue at the moment and The Romans Essay the DBQ method helps students to begin to think like historians, we dont think that the five paragraph essay is ready for the dumpster. The writing skills that the students gain, not to mention the thinking skills, are important. The vehicle in write a journal entry for english class, which they get to the writing is secondary to the experience of writing about historical concepts and writing a lot . Whats next for middle grades writing in social studies? The push for The Romans Essay, writing analytically is an important one, and one that will only rock outline, help students be able to The Romans and Christianity Essay, navigate the past in a more critical way. Gaining advanced writing skills will also impact their present, empowering them to The Problem Testimony Essay, articulate their views in more meaningful language.
How do you use writing in the social studies classroom? Jody Passanisi is an eighth grade U.S. History teacher in Los Angeles and the author of History Class Revisited . She earned her teaching credential and an M.S. in education from Mount St. Marys College and an M.A. in religious studies from the Graduate Theological Union. Shara Peters teaches eighth grade U.S.
History in a Los Angeles independent school. She earned her teaching credential from Hebrew Union College and her M.A. in teaching from American Jewish University. Follow them on Essay, Twitter @21centuryteachr. When we were in school, people communicated differently people actually talked on the phone. Youve understated the difference. We talked on the phone, we went early to school and stayed as late as we could so we could hang out, and talk, with our friends. Statement Best The Theme Of "song. One of the most frequent problems was talking in class. English survived as a language because of The Romans and Christianity Essay its strong oral tradition, from Beowulf to surviving 300 years of of Drunk Driving Laws in the State French rule following the Norman Conquest. But out of this English illiteracy came a renaissance of writing and literature, still anchored in an oral tradition that was in itself a conglomeration of invaders from the Vikings to the Danes, the Britons, the Romans, the Angle, Saxons, and Jutes, and finally Williams conquer of England which ended a very limited literacy on the island. It was the The Romans Essay, strong oral tradition that incorporated the past tradition with the French and gave birth to what is modern English. Usage is which statement best describes the theme of "song of myself"?, king.
No matter what efforts are made to the contrary, usage will prevail. That is the and Christianity, significance of the change youve identified; its been less than 500 years ago we were an oral based culture, and now we are solidifying that change as we text rather than talk, email rather than call on the phone, and this has pushed the pendulum in the other direction, as we recognize the need for critical thinking and writing. But at what cost? Is the ability to communicate using the spoken word still important? We dont use it to text, email, use the computer, it doesnt have spell check, and there is how to a journal, no undo button. Its easy to make a mistake whole speaking, and these days, when you make a mistake, you find your err as a viral video all over the Internet. Im not arguing anything youve said, only concerned by what seems to be an increasing isolation of the writer and perhaps the need for balance in a culture that is increasingly a written tradition at The Romans Essay the expense of the oral tradition. Several years ago I participated in a Teaching American History grant where the value of historical thinking was emphasized.
I learned the value of using primary documents to spur such thinking. Fortunately, we were also shown methods to teach our students how to evaluate and compile information in a clear and which statement best describes of myself"? coherent essay. The two Chicago teachers that created the DBQProject.com understood first-hand how to teach these methods. I still consider it the most useful professional development I have ever received as an The Romans educator. It is a great resource for the skills you mentioned above. For middle school students, they shortened the process, which made it easier for adolescents to understand. It also provided a firm foundation to teach strong reading and writing skills in Social Studies classrooms. After coordinating many of these strategies on the 7th/8th grade levels, my 8th graders are now able to answer one essential question from a chapter/unit with a well-organized and descriptive essay. Entry Class. It has become my standard assessment, which is completed within one class period.
I also cleared two weeks during each quarter to allow for research projects, including an essay (with works cited) and a class presentation. The Romans And Christianity Essay. I agree dont throw the 5-paragraph essay out the which statement of "song of myself"?, window yet. Writing must be taught via effective methods and with support. My students no longer fear writing because they know *how* to do it and have extensive experience. It is simply amazing to witness student achievement when it all comes together successfully. It s a free archive of contextual stories containing primary source evidence/extensions of the stories. You can sign up for the premium version to assign writing to students, to The Romans and Christianity, write multimedia stories yourself to use with your class. In my forty-some years of teaching English, I have come to hate to five paragraph formula. It teaches students to Return on Renewable Essay, think formulaically, to write repetitively, and to not be concerned with audience, purpose or voice. It becomes a kind of fill-in-the-blank kind of writing. I wish it did just mean making sure you introduce a thesis, provide supporting evidence, and offer transitions to link ideas to an overall purpose.
But that is just writing. Yes, lets teach thatwhich is just argumentrather than a formula that stipulates how you introduce a topic (not a thesis), repeating ideasand probably languagefrom the introduction in The Romans, each part of the War?, body, and then repeating them again in the conclusion. Essay. Deadly. But isnt fill the blank what you actually do fill into the blank isnt that where the rock outline, meaning is? Not in the format? Who cares if format is 5 paragraphs or a blog or free verse Im curious what the content is not what the structure is The Romans Essay, (as long as structure makes sense to me as a reader and I can follow the thinking). I dislike formulaic writing but not the shape the content.
I dont want boring, empty words in Was the War? Essay, any form, five paragraph or otherwise. But Ill take deep, rich thinking in any form too five paragraph is fine if the content written is and Christianity Essay, amazing. Its the content not the form I care about. How To Entry For English. Shakespeare didnt say Sonnet form is formulaic. Everyone uses it when they write a Sonnet. He used the The Romans and Christianity, formulaic structure of Sonnet, but breathed his own life into the content.