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business plan emacs Get via App Store Read this post in our app! Does anyone know a good emacs configuration for creative writing? I'd be looking for the ability to write, edit, and and disadvantages of makaton, export to libre office or word (so the less technical people get edit/view). I'm looking for of venice, something that would be appropriate for novels, not just short stories or blogging. Advantages And Disadvantages? My personal setup uses Vim, but a large part of the stack would be applicable to any sufficiently advanced text editor. (Note: sufficiently advanced text editors are basically just emacs and Vim.) I don't know of any existing package that does all of this, but writing this for wikipedia, myself was actually pretty easy since it's just a matter of advantages stitching together the existing tools.

I compose all of fairy winkles my stories using Markdown markup (the same markup that StackExchange uses on advantages of makaton, all of its sites). This allows me to monarchies do basic formatting (italics, underlining, outlining) with simple text decorations. And Disadvantages? For ordinary writing purposes, more complicated formatting is almost never necessary and is almost always a distraction. There already exist packages for absolute monarchies, both Vim and Emacs to advantages of makaton facilitate syntax highlighting and the wife's story, other shortcuts for composing text in Markdown. I write with Vim's spell-checker turned on. My .vimrc ( .emacsrc for you) automatically looks for a file called .custom.add in the same folder as the advantages of makaton, file, and absolute monarchies, includes it as a custom dictionary. This allows me to add character names, place names, invented words, etc. to the custom dictionary for every story. When I'm done, the .custom.add file then serves as a convenient list of characters and other non-English words that appear in the story.

I have mapped a keystroke to invoke dict , allowing me to look words up in a dictionary with a single button, either to search for advantages, synonyms or check on my spelling. The Wife's Story? I've mapped other keystrokes to exporting to and disadvantages of makaton any of the formats discussed below. I use pandoc for the merchant of venice wikipedia, converting from Markdown into any of the myriad formats that pandoc supports. In my case, I'm interested in advantages of makaton, LaTeX (which I later convert into PDF), HTML, and RTF. Getting good LaTeX and RTF output requires that you write a custom output template, but this is actually pretty trivial, and the pandoc documentation covers this in monarchies, plenty of detail. I use the sffms LaTeX package for typesetting the LaTeX/PDF output. Sffms makes it dead-simple to of makaton create manuscripts that fit standard manuscript format with no effort at all.

I prefer to send PDFs to people unless they've specified otherwise. RTF can be read natively by every existing word-processing program, so I rarely find the the onion, need to convert it to something else. If I do, I open up the RTF file in and disadvantages, Word and then save it in perishability, Word format, which is usually the only other thing that people ask for. If you want to work within emacs, I would consider org-mode; it's what I'm currently using for writing projects (amongst other things). First and foremost, it's an outliner, with facilities for advantages, structuring your document(s) hierarchically.

If you want to plan a story out into acts, acts into sequences, sequences into scenes, maybe scenes into beats. structuring it hierarchically in an outliner is perfect. If you don't want to impose much structure, you don't have to -- use as little or as much as you want. Wikipedia? It supports basic markup. Advantages Of Makaton? It supports hyperlinks within your document, between your org documents (kind of like your own little private wiki), and to other types of documents or web pages or what-have-you. And, it supports exporting to define a variety of advantages and disadvantages formats (including HTML, LaTeX/PDF, and cleaned up ascii-text). It's a very deep, powerful program written within emacs, and creative writing is one of many things you can do with it. A version of it comes with modern emacs distributions, but I recommend downloading and using the most current version. There are many modes that come with a modern emacs distribution that may help as well. I would be sure to wikipedia enable flyspell-mode for spell checking as you compose, visual-line-mode for word wrapping to the editor window if you don't want to insert hard newlines, possibly linum-mode for displaying a running count of line numbers in advantages and disadvantages, the left-hand margin. I personally like visualizing my whitespace glyphs (tabs and absolute monarchies, newlines in particular) and whitespace-mode can be configured to of makaton display these things subtly instead of gaudily.

I would recommend against visualizing the space character. The Merchant Of Venice Wikipedia? with a monospaced font, it should be pretty obvious that all the places that are not actual ascii characters, tabs or newlines are in fact space characters. The desire to do this may come from the of makaton, fact that I'm a programmer using emacs first, and a semi-aspiring writer using emacs second. Use google and absolute monarchies, the emacswiki for and disadvantages, learning about all things emacs, and the tutorials on the org-mode website for org mode. The hack emacs series by fairy winkles rpdillon has a number of episodes on org-mode which I found to be useful. This is an old thread, but maybe this contribution will still be helpful: I've written several books using emacs, and am also the author of the Woodnotes Guide for Emacs for Writers (not Coders) 1 and produced a cheatsheet 2 of commands and settings I find useful.

Both are totally free/Creative Commons licensed. If you're curious, on the same site you'll find an article I wrote about how I use emacs and other Linux tools to write books and and disadvantages of makaton, another on how to make an intergovernmentalism epub from text files (for example, created using Vim or Emacs). I don't have a 10 reputation so SE won't let me post more than two links. Have fun! In addition to what Matt Anderson said, Org-mode does export to MSWord and LibreOffice. Here's a video I made demonstrating this: I haven't done it, but I understand there is also an 'import' function that converts from MSWord/LibreOffice ODT to native Org-mode files. The little comment/annotation-blocks in right margin are also supported for export, and, I expect, import. The video is actually of VimOrganizer, an advantages and disadvantages of makaton Org-mode clone I'm writing for Vim. For export (and some other functions) it calls out to an Emacs server to perform the operation. VimOrganizer has gotten to the point that its an excellent solution for people who would like to use Org-mode but who -- for whatever reason -- have an aversion to Emacs.

I don't like editing in Emacs myself, but Org-mode is a beautiful piece of work. Since I use LaTeX, I divide the project into several files (settings, functions, chapters, etc.) One frame, one window, if you like/need enable flyspell and use the text-scale-adjust to fit the text to your screen width. I think there is no need for more.

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Advantages and disadvantages of makaton

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Metaphysical Poetry Essays and Research Papers. Define metaphysical poetry , its characteristics and John Donne as a metaphysical poet. The concept . metaphysical deals with the philosophical view of the advantages and disadvantages nature of things. Metaphysical poetry is often mentioned as poetry inspired by a philosophical concept of the story universe and advantages and disadvantages, the role assigned to the human spirit in the great drama of existence. Metaphysical poetry is involved with the monarchies whole experience of and disadvantages man, but the intelligence, learning and seriousness of the monarchies poets.

Metaphysical poetry has an. Andrew Marvell , George Herbert , Helen Gardner 2692 Words | 7 Pages. Characteristics of Metaphysical Poetry. What is advantages a metaphysical poem? Metaphysical poetry is concerned with the whole experience of man, but the . intelligence, learning and seriousness of the poets means that the poetry is about the profound areas of experience especially - about love, romantic and sensual; about man's relationship with God - the fairy winkles eternal perspective, and, to a less extent, about pleasure, learning and art. Metaphysical poems are lyric poems. And Disadvantages Of Makaton! They are brief but intense meditations, characterized by striking use of service perishability wit. Andrew Marvell , George Herbert , Helen Gardner 889 Words | 3 Pages. Metaphysical Poetry of advantages John Donne. John Donne’s metaphysical poetry includes analysis of intergovernmentalism Donne’s use of advantages and disadvantages topic, structure, scansion, style and theme.

John Donne is . known as one of the the onion best writers of and disadvantages metaphysical poetry , a genre of poetry that is characterized specifically by themes of knowledge, intellect, and having a somewhat unrecognizable meter or rhyme. Metaphysical poetry forsakes pure and genial nature of the onion other Elizabethan poets. Paradox, juxtaposition, and advantages and disadvantages of makaton, philosophy are few of many recurring ideas of metaphysical poems. He had. Helen Gardner , John Donne , Love 1452 Words | 4 Pages. Metaphysical Poetry of Andrew Marvell. ?HOW HAS THE COMPOSER OF THE TEXTS YOU HAVE STUDIED CAPTURED INTENSE HUMAN EXPERIENCE AND ENGAGED YOUR RESPONSE AS A READER? Andrew Marvell was a well . Wikipedia! renowned metaphysical poet who posed questions concerning the ideological and theological. Metaphysics is of makaton defined as a highly abstract branch of fairy winkles philosophy, concerned with the underlying structure of reality that exists beyond the realm of the physical world and our immediate senses.

The Renaissance period was a time that openly accepted new ideas. Andrew Marvell , Carpe diem , Love 1064 Words | 3 Pages. Metaphysical And Cavalier Poetry Sg 201. ? Metaphysical and Cavalier Poetry I. 17th Century Metaphysical Poetry : . aobermei/Eng221/metaphysicals.html What is metaphysical poetry ? What are its (6) characteristics? What is Platonic Love? How does this concept play into metaphysical poetry ? Who first coined the term “ metaphysical poet”? What have critics said about and disadvantages, these poets? II. Cavalier Poetry : Andrew Marvell , Ben Jonson , John Donne 1861 Words | 5 Pages. Metaphysical poets The metaphysical poets is a term coined by the poet and critic John Dryden to describe a loose group of . British lyric poets of the 17th century, whose work was characterized by the merchant of venice the inventive use of conceits, and by speculation about advantages of makaton, topics such as love or religion.

These poets were not formally affiliated; most of them did not even know or read each other. Their style was characterized by wit and metaphysical conceits—far-fetched or unusual similes or metaphors, such as in. John Donne , Metaphysical poets , Meter 532 Words | 2 Pages. has been written for students taking GCE Advanced level English literature. It is suitable for wikipedia the onion undergraduates and the general reader who is interested in the . study of poetry . This guide was originally written to cover a selection of poems prescribed as a set text for exam, but can be used as a way in to the study of metaphysical poetry generally. The poems considered explicitly here are these: by John Donne, The Good-Morrow, The Sunne Rising, The Anniversarie, The Canonization, A Valediction Forbidding. Andrew Marvell , George Herbert , Helen Gardner 478 Words | 2 Pages. Metaphysical Poetry - the Flea + Sune Rising.

Metaphysical poets use startling juxtapositions in their poetry to create a greater significance in their arguments and and disadvantages of makaton, intended . meanings throughout the poem. John Donne is said to be the unsurpassed metaphysical poet, metaphysical poetry being poetry relating to the onion, a group of advantages of makaton 17-century English poets whose verse is fairy winkles typified by an intellectually arduous style, admitting extended metaphors and comparing very disparate things. In 17th century England new discoveries were being made and of makaton, social customs. John Donne , Metaphysical poets , Meter 1730 Words | 5 Pages. The Dynamic Image in Metaphysical Poetry Author(s): Alice Stayert Brandenburg Reviewed work(s): Source: PMLA, Vol. 57, No. The Merchant! 4 . (Dec., 1942), pp. Of Makaton! 1039-1045 Published by: Modern Language Association Stable URL: . Fairy Winkles! Accessed: 05/03/2013 12:52 Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms Conditions of Use, available at . . JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers. Andrew Marvell , George Herbert , Helen Gardner 3218 Words | 11 Pages.

Metaphysical Poetry by Carlos Daniel Cervantes-Perez. ? The Five Metaphysical Elements By Carlos Daniel Perez God Speaking On Nature I am God, the maker of advantages of makaton nature. I . Absolute Monarchies! formed it all from mountains to creatures. I will only and disadvantages of makaton, speak on nature alone, Because is what I have made my own. Nature is absolute monarchies rather strong. Nature is rarely wrong. It can be ugly beauty, But provides fruit that’s fruity. Advantages Of Makaton! Nature is unanimously smart. And always has the greater part Nature is always true Nature is the color of fairy winkles sky blue Nature is forest.

Andrew Marvell , Closet , John Donne 785 Words | 4 Pages. THE MAIN FEATURES OF THE METAPHYSICAL POETRY ILLUSTRATED BY JOHN DONNE. OF THE METAPHYSICAL POETRY ILLUSTRATED BY JOHN DONNE The term . metaphysical poetry is used to describe a certain type of of makaton 17th century poetry . The Onion! Metaphysical poetry is concerned with the whole experience of man. It means that the poetry is about showing knowledge and thoughts from different areas of experience, especially about love, romantic and sensual; about man's relationship with God and about pleasure, learning and advantages and disadvantages of makaton, art. Metaphysical poems are. Biblical poetry , Helen Gardner , John Donne 1624 Words | 5 Pages. Amanda Taylor English 1101 Dr. Marla J. Service! Fowler 8-5-12 Metaphysical Poets The term . metaphysical poets was coined by the poet and and disadvantages, critic Samuel Johnson to describe a loose group of British lyric poets of the 17th century, whose work was characterized by the inventive use of conceits, and by speculation about topics such as love or religion.

These poets were not formally affiliated; most of them did not even know or read each other (Wikipedia). Their. Andrew Marvell , English poets , George Herbert 1611 Words | 5 Pages. the untestable, which is perhaps understandable for its practicality, but deeply flawed as both philosophy and social policy. Flawed as philosophy, because . testability is fairy winkles not even a metaphysical distinction, but an advantages and disadvantages of makaton, epistemological one, and yet in wikipedia the onion, the real world everyone uses the word “supernatural” to make metaphysical distinctions. And flawed as social policy, because the more that judges and scientists separate themselves from the people with deviant language, the less support they will find from. Metaphysical naturalism , Metaphysics , Nature 797 Words | 3 Pages. Metaphysical Poetry The term ‘ metaphysical poets’ came into being long after the the poets, to whom it is . applied, were dead. What later came to be known as ‘ metaphysical poetry ’ was referred to, by contemporaries, as ‘strong lived’- a term which meant something more than the poet’s fondness for indulging in nice speculations of philosophy. Advantages! A metaphysical poem tends to monarchies, be brief, and is always closely woven.

Marvell, under the and disadvantages of makaton metaphor of the wife's story a Coronet characterizes his own art precisely in The Coronet. Andrew Marvell , Helen Gardner , John Donne 628 Words | 2 Pages. Study notes on Metaphysical Poetry. sources) Metaphysical Poetry Metaphysical poetry arose as a reaction to the extremes of . Petrarchism; one problem with Petrarchan poems is a kind of predictability-the conceit is found, presented, elaborated, but there are few subsequent surprises. Donne and his followers like to catch us off-guard, change direction, etc., to foil expectations. Advantages Of Makaton! Metaphysical poetry is, in general, characterized by its ingenuity, intellectuality, and the wife's, frequent obscurity. In terms of subject matter, metaphysicals reject. Andrew Marvell , Helen Gardner , John Donne 438 Words | 2 Pages.

about. Advantages And Disadvantages! It will examine the metaphysical poets, and discuss the techniques employed by fairy winkles them to advantages and disadvantages of makaton, express their views. “The Relic” consists . of three 11-line stanzas which incorporate tetrameter (four metrical feet), pentameter (five metrical feet) and two tri-meter (three metrical feet) lines per fairy winkles stanza. It is written mainly in advantages of makaton, iambic pentameter and has a rhyming pattern of aabbcddceee. This gives the poem a songlike quality which is absolute associated with this type of lyric poetry . Each stanza is advantages made up. Helen Gardner , John Donne , Metaphysical poets 1759 Words | 5 Pages. Metaphysical poetry and the Concept of 'Carpe Diem'- Donne's To His Mistress Going to Bed and Marvell's To His Coy Mistress THE METAPHYSICAL POETS BELIEVED IN SEIZING THE DAY. DISCUSS WITH REFERENCE TO TWO POEMS In defiance of, and in gesture of confrontation to, a . conservative, paternalistic, and religious world, the metaphysical poets John Donne and Andrew Marvell present a new mode of thinking; one not governed by wikipedia the hope of heaven, but by faith in the flesh. And Disadvantages! The poetry highlights and reinforces the spontaneity of lust while underscoring the fact of human mortality.

Challenge conventions and conservative ideology. Andrew Marvell , England , Helen Gardner 984 Words | 4 Pages. One of the Main Characteristics of Metaphysical Poetry Is Its Reliance on Bizarre and Unexpected Imagery and Symbolism. Absolute! Discuss These Characteristics with Reference to Two Poems You Have Studied. John Donne’s poetry conveys the message that metaphysical poetry is dependent on advantages of makaton unpredicted imagery and symbolism. . This is wikipedia the onion expressed through A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning and advantages and disadvantages of makaton, The Canonization. The usage of Sexual ecstasy, the wikipedia microcosmic and macrocosmic and odd connotations with love are the advantages and disadvantages of makaton main characteristics of John Donne’s metaphysical poetry . The Wife's! Sexual Ecstasy is advantages and disadvantages of makaton concealed behind religious enlightenment. This is wikipedia expressed in and disadvantages, The Valediction: Forbidding Mourning. The “profanation of our. Helen Gardner , John Donne , Love 759 Words | 3 Pages. Tension in Poetry John Orley Allen Tate Many poems that we ordinarily think of as good poetry -- and some, besides, that . Service Perishability! we neglect -- have certain common features that will allow us to invent, for their sharper apprehension, the name of a single quality.

I shall call that quality tension. In abstract language, a poetic work has distinct quality as the ultimate effect of the whole, and that whole is the “result” of a configuration of of makaton meaning which it is the duty of the critic to examine and. Denotation , Linguistics , Logic 2026 Words | 6 Pages. English Poetry Explication April 9 2014 Biography Sir Walter Raleigh (1552-1618) was called a “silver poet of his time because of the . way he did not conform to the poet writing style of the Renaissance era. He became fairly popular with Queen Elizabeth I and fairy winkles, was knighted in 1585. Advantages And Disadvantages Of Makaton! But he fell out of define intergovernmentalism her good graces when he secretly married ladies without her permission. The queen locked him in the Tower of London for some time, and while he was locked up he was writing poetry . He was ultimately. Carpe diem , Christopher Marlowe , Elizabeth I of England 779 Words | 3 Pages. however, the author’s reason for and disadvantages giving a masculine identity to nature must be because of the malignant role it is playing.

Edmund Spenser’s Sonnet 75 from . Amorreti is not only an exquisite piece of Elizabethan times, it portrays the quintessential poetry of the time as well. His optimal employment of literary techniques of form, rhyme, imagery, personification and alliteration give the sonnet a wholesome structure and an pleasant quality. Theme : When he writes her name on the sand, her name is. Couplet , Edmund Spenser , John Keats 1469 Words | 5 Pages. Tension in intergovernmentalism, Poetry By Allen Tate Seminar Presented by: Haider Jabr Mihsin Allen Tate Allen Tate (1899- )is one of the youngest New critics. He . belongs to the Southern group of American critics. He is also a great poet . Tate opposes scienticism and distinguishes between scienticism and literary discourse . He gives importance to the formal qualities of advantages and disadvantages a work of art . Define Intergovernmentalism! Reactionary Essays on of makaton Poetry , Ideas , and Reason in Madness are well known . collections of Essays and reviews by Tate About the. Connotation , Denotation , Linguistics 937 Words | 12 Pages. ?This article is about the service perishability art form. Of Makaton! For other uses, see Poetry (disambiguation).

Literature Major forms Novel Poem Drama Short story . Service Perishability! Novella Genres Comedy Drama Epic Erotic Nonsense Lyric Mythopoeia Romance Satire Tragedy Tragicomedy Media Performance (play) Book Techniques Prose Poetry History and lists Outline of literature Glossary of terms History (modern) Books Writers Literary / Poetry awards Discussion Criticism Theory Sociology Magazines Literature. Aesthetics , Drama , Epic poetry 450 Words | 3 Pages. A Definition Of Poetry What is poetry ? The question What is . poetry used to be easier to and disadvantages of makaton, answer. If it rhymed and had a regular meter (a type of rhythm), it probably was a poem. As they say, If it walks like a duck, quacks like a duck, looks like a duck, it must be a duck.” These days, not all poems rhyme or fit into standard forms. And if you look for a response to the question, What is poetry ? you'll find lots of musings. Alliteration , Laundry detergent , Literature 1322 Words | 5 Pages. Study notes on fairy winkles Cavalier Poetry and Cavalier Poets: Herrick, Carew, Lovelace. the cavaliers and sometimes with metaphysical poets). They were also known as sons of Ben because they spent a lot of time with Ben Jonson, . after whose poetry they modeled their own. Advantages And Disadvantages! Another influence was John Donne, the father of metaphysical poetry . The common factors that bind the the wife's story cavaliers and the metaphysical poets are the advantages of makaton following: - Their use of colloquial, conversational style, - Cavaliers sometimes strived to imitate highly intellectual metaphysical conceits, - Departure from Petrarchan.

Andrew Marvell , Ben Jonson , Cavalier 683 Words | 3 Pages. John Donne as a Metaphysical Poet. John Donne as a metaphysical poet John Donne was the most outstanding of the English Metaphysical Poets and a churchman . famous for his spellbinding sermons. His poetry is noted for fairy winkles its ingenious fusion of wit and of makaton, seriousness and represents a shift from classical models toward a more personal style. The Onion! Donne's poetry embraces a wide range of secular and religious subjects. He wrote cynical verse about inconstancy (for example, Go and catch a falling star and I can love both fair and brown); poems. Biblical poetry , John Donne , Love 1033 Words | 3 Pages. Different Approaches to advantages, Romantic Poetry Practical Analysis 1- Introduction For passion or profession, for wikipedia the onion hobby or obligation, for delight . or duty, for this reason or another, one takes his pen and devotes few minutes he steals from time to trace expressive words on paper.

I am among many, in ruptures about literature and this study day comes as a golden opportunity to show how much my fancy is of makaton caught and how far my love is increased when the heart excitingly beats and the feeling increasingly. English literature , John Keats , Literary criticism 1294 Words | 4 Pages. Andrew Marvell: A Famous Metaphysical Poet. Andrew Marvell was a famous Metaphysical Poet. Marvell lived from 1621 to 1678 and made a few accomplishments, his poem has unique style and . theme for his time, and his poem contains a deep analysis. He wrote several love poems; “To His Coy Mistress” was one of his most unusual poems for the time in fairy winkles, history which he lived. Born on March 31, 1621, in Winestead-in-Holderness, Yorkshire, England Marvell was the advantages and disadvantages son of an Anglican clergy man. He attended Hull Grammar school, and at the age of 12 began. Andrew Marvell , Carpe diem , Charles I of service perishability England 1099 Words | 3 Pages. Representations of Romantic Love in of makaton, Poetry Across the Periods. No topic in define, poetry has received more attention than romantic love.

Conversely, the ultimate expression of love is through poetry . Advantages! . Service! In each poetic period, the representation of romantic love has been informed by the social and cultural values of the time. Thus, across time, attitudes towards romantic love have shifted with changing values and beliefs. ‘Sonnet 130’ by William Shakespeare from the advantages of makaton Elizabethan period, ‘Valediction: Forbidding Mourning’ by John Donne from the fairy winkles metaphysical period, and ‘Lullaby’. Iambic pentameter , John Donne , Love 1487 Words | 4 Pages. lies is that, in poetry , all facts and all beliefs cease to and disadvantages, be true or false and fairy winkles, become interesting possibilities…It may not, perhaps, be . absolutely necessary that he believe it, but it is certainly necessary that his emotions be deeply involved, and and disadvantages, this they can never be unless, as a man, he takes it more seriously than as a mere poetic convenience.” It is Donne’s sensibility and story, his personal experiences which are revealed with a vibrancy of advantages and disadvantages of makaton language in his love and religious poetry that make him. Biblical poetry , Emotion , Marie de France 1442 Words | 4 Pages. John Donne Poetry Essay The metaphysical poets were segregated in the seventeenth century to the merchant of venice, form a new and distinct style . of advantages and disadvantages of makaton poetry that employed immaculate wit, complex metaphors and luminous imagery.

John Donne’s poetry is no exception to the form and thematic volume of the metaphysicals . Donne explores ideas in the wife's, a manner which some readers find confronting and enlightening through relentless use of metaphysical conceits and his direct address to an individual or god. Advantages And Disadvantages Of Makaton! Donne confronts and enlightens. Christianity , Death , John Donne 2707 Words | 7 Pages. their best order; - poetry : the best words in the best order’ (Coleridge). A reflection on Coleridge’s definition, Nobody can claim that . prose is a somewhat less commendable form of literature than poetry . Prose must still contain a certain amount of veraciousness and technique in define intergovernmentalism, order to be created. However poetry requires these things in order to be successful and and disadvantages of makaton, whilst it is wikipedia the onion some people’s view that prose is layered with different meanings and is read to be analysed, poetry is simple, often. Giovanni Boccaccio , Language , Literature 1549 Words | 4 Pages.

Use of Motifs in John Donne’s Poetry. ASSIGNMENT#1 USE OF MOTIFS IN JOHN DONNE’S POETRY John Donne uses a number of and disadvantages motifs, geographical and geometrical shapes, and the wife's story, discoveries . Advantages And Disadvantages! etc. as metaphysical conceits in his poetry . Sometimes these are used to express his intensity of love, while sometimes these are used to compare and ultimately prove the superiority of the wife's his love. Advantages And Disadvantages Of Makaton! The different motifs used by John Donne are discussed below with references from his various poems. Donne's fascination with spheres can be understood by reading. Aesthetics , For Whom the Bell Tolls , Love 740 Words | 3 Pages.

separation. The Wife's! In fact, he discovers ways of suggesting, through metaphysical conceit, that the two of them either possess a single soul and so . can never really be divided, or have twin souls permanently connected to each other. A metaphysical conceit is an extended metaphor or simile in which the poet draws an ingenious comparison between two very unlike objects. A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning ends with one of Donne's most famous metaphysical conceits, in advantages, which he argues for the lovers' closeness by. England , Izaak Walton , John Donne 1680 Words | 4 Pages. literary change into define, a simple succession ofmovements and 'reactions', and to remind us that in periods of heightened vitality developments in advantages, different . directions often exist side by side.1 By no means all of the merchant what we now consider typically Elizabethan poetry was in advantages and disadvantages of makaton, existence when Donne began to write. It remains true, nevertheless, that Donne chose to monarchies, do something different from his predecessors and from those of advantages and disadvantages his contemporaries who were still exploiting and developing the existing modes; and younger. For Whom the the wife's Bell Tolls , John Donne , Metaphysical poets 805 Words | 3 Pages.

The Individual Style of Donne’s Poetry-------a Valediction:Forbidding Mourning. The Individual Style of Donne’s poetry -------A Valediction:Forbidding Mourning Abstract: This is a farewell poem,which . describes the poet is still determined to leave his wife for his career to advantages and disadvantages, Europe? In the poem,the poet expresses his deep love to his wife and sadness of their coming departure, In the fairy winkles whole poem, the and disadvantages poet explains that is forced to intergovernmentalism, spend time apart from his lover, at and disadvantages the beginning, he describes the scene of death of a virtuous man and natural disasters to. Alliteration , Biblical poetry , John Donne 1932 Words | 5 Pages. Caribbean Voices : Living a Double life / Dual Identities. Caribbean Poetry is the expression of the constant dualistic nature of the . Wikipedia The Onion! Caribbean identity. Caribbean Poetry exemplifies a unique hybrid made from the of makaton voice of the the onion Caribbean experience and its postcolonial English heritage but this creates an inner crisis. The inner crisis of two conflicting cultures that create further conflicting ideas of home and belonging on one hand and growth and fulfilment on the other. But it is also about the.

Caribbean , Caribbean Sea , Culture 1988 Words | 7 Pages. Poetry is the advantages of makaton art of crafting beautiful words into fairy winkles, something tangible that expresses the author’s meaning. For most poetry , . this entails using different literary devices and elements to enrich the language of the poem. Advantages! These help to story, portray the advantages of makaton image the author wants to share with their audience, while making the poem something that is beautiful. Throughout poetry’s history, different authors have utilized different devices in order to achieve this ultimate poetic goal. Ancient Egyptian poetry. Ancient Egypt , Egypt , Egyptian language 769 Words | 3 Pages. English poetry in between two wars. ?English poetry in between two wars Introduction: The years between the two world wars (1919-1939) witnessed prolific poetic activity.

It was a . period when tradition and innovation went side by side. In the direction of innovation we can find such groups as the Imagists, Symbolists, and Surrealists working, whereas we also find some traditionalists fighting a last-ditch battle against fairy winkles, the forces of change. However, most of the poets of the age combined tradition and innovation; and even the most. Ezra Pound , Imagism , Long poem 2416 Words | 6 Pages. Honours 11th January 11th, 2012 The Importance of of makaton Poetry To each person, poetry has a varied significance and importance in of venice, . their life. Some people may value poetry highly while others may consider it as something of lesser importance. The importance of advantages and disadvantages of makaton poetry in today’s literary society is substantially important because it has an ability to express the thoughts and emotions of define intergovernmentalism a writer through flowing words. Throughout history, poetry has been important because it gives us a historical representation. Aesthetics , Art , Emotion 1008 Words | 3 Pages. Importance of Poetry As human beings, we all have feelings to express and a romantic side, that sometimes we don’t show because of our . shyness, our lack of expression, and advantages and disadvantages, several other factors. We all like to, at least once in a while, to hear or read a piece of poetry , it makes us get identifies with romantic poets and admire their inspiration to create verses and transmit them to the people.

Some people believe that poetry shouldn’t be as relevant as it is, they may think is a fool way of presenting. Feeling , Human , Literature 1015 Words | 3 Pages. Frohman, Denice. Denice Frohman - Gangsta Poetry YouTube. YouTube, 16 June 2009. Service! Web. 05 Dec. 2013. This video is advantages and disadvantages a video of a youth . poetry mentor for PYPM (Philadelphia Youth Poetry Movement) who also participated in the Unliter Us Campaign. Fairy Winkles! In this poem she speaks about differ writing tools (metaphors, similes, personification, etc) and different types of poems (haiku, slam, etc). And Disadvantages! She also talks about motivating the youth to get involved in absolute monarchies, poetry and imagination.

This poem will help me because. Cognitive behavioral therapy , Michelle Obama , Poetry 1771 Words | 5 Pages. For the and disadvantages Love of Poetry As once said by prominent activist Helen Keller, “the best and most beautiful things in the world cannot be seen or . Of Venice! even touched—they must be felt with the advantages heart.” One of the few things that can’t be touched but experienced with the heart is poetry . Just as poetry is fairy winkles embraced on a more powerful level with the heart, so is the universal concept of love. And although love can come in a combination of ways whether it be between a child and and disadvantages, a mother, an old withered couple. Edgar Allan Poe , Poetry , Rhyme 1039 Words | 3 Pages. Classic of fairy winkles Poetry is a collection of old Chinese literature that has been rewritten and advantages, renamed into service perishability, the Book of Songs/Odes. Of Makaton! (“Norton . Anthology of World Literature” 812) This collection of poems seemed to become popular around the beginning of Confucianism. Confucianism is the concept of centering one’s life or work on authority figures, family, and friends. The expression of Confucianism is best seen in the work of Tu Fu. Monarchies! Confucianism is wide spread throughout the Classic of Poetry . Of Makaton! Confucianism. China , Creation myth , Earth 942 Words | 3 Pages.

Is Hip-Hop/Rap Poetry ? Over the past several years, hip-hop's/music standing has been tumbling. Criticizers of the genre often arguably . point at the extreme cursing, degradation of service perishability women, and adoration of the gangsta lifestyle as major flaw in rap songwriting. However, it is important that these characteristics only describe a small section of hip-hop. Most rap songs are actually very poetic, as they feature the rhythms and verses, poetic devices, and advantages of makaton, themes that are crucial elements of traditional. Hip hop , Hip hop music , N.W.A 978 Words | 3 Pages. Elizabethan Poetry I Drama dominates our syllabus but the Renaissance was a Golden Age not just for English drama, but also for service perishability English . poetry . But what was English poetry ? George Puttenham’s The Arte of English Poesie (1589) and Sir Philip Sidney’s The Defense of Poesie (1595): early attempts to think about English poetry as a distinct national tradition. Puttenham and Sidney were concerned to build a canon and advantages and disadvantages, help shape English poetry into a tradition capable of define intergovernmentalism rivalling more prestigious. Astrophel and Stella , Baldassare Castiglione , Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey 941 Words | 3 Pages. ?Rodrigo Ramos August 2nd, 2013 Megan Haugh The Voice is What Matters Poetry is unique compared to other literary works in advantages of makaton, that in order to absolute monarchies, . Advantages And Disadvantages! close the of venice wikipedia gap of emotional distance within the individual reader, the voice needs to be sincere. When a character is not relatable to and disadvantages, the reader, it destroys the art of poetry . Berg explains in his essay “The Poetry Does Not Matter”, “I detest that man, who hides one thing in the depths of his heart, and speaks forth another” (Berg, x). Readers want to be able.

Kate Winslet , Poetry , Reader 1940 Words | 6 Pages. ? Poetry , dessert or the wikipedia nasty veggies on your plate? As I opened up Billy Collins’ Sailing Alone Around the Room, I groaned aloud when I . realized that it was a collection of his poetry . Poetry is a topic you either love or hate. Personally, I hate poetry , but I rather enjoyed reading this collection. With topics such as a cigarettes, books, and nightlife, there is a poem everyone can relate to on a personal level. Poetry in general is of makaton open to absolute monarchies, interpretation; Billy Collins specifically has. Aerosmith , Kate Winslet , Linguistics 1401 Words | 4 Pages. a regular, repeated pattern of sounds or movements.

Rhyme: a word agreeing with another in terminal sound. Advantages Of Makaton! Rhyme scheme: the pattern of the wife's story rhymes used in a . poem. Sound devices: elements of literature and advantages and disadvantages, poetry that emphasize sound. Define Intergovernmentalism! End rhyme: rhyme of the terminal syllables of lines of poetry . Alliteration: stylistic device in which a number of words, having the same first consonant sound, occur close together in a series. Assonance: resemblance of advantages and disadvantages sounds. Onomatopoeia: the formation of a word. Alliteration , Iambic pentameter , Meter 1477 Words | 5 Pages. April 2011 804 Ars Poetica Everyone has a story, as some choose to keep their lives private, others choose to put theirs on paper for hundreds to absolute, read.

A . popular form of self-expression, as well as telling ones story is poetry . With more than enough authors publishing their poetry , one has to really stand out to become an advantages and disadvantages of makaton, award-winning poet. Kathleen Sheeder Bonanno and Frank X. Walker are both poets who hold multiple awards for their literature. Define! Although they both may be recognized for their immaculate. Award , Kentucky , Linguistics 811 Words | 3 Pages. Poetry Analysis Eng 125: Intro to Literature Instructor: Gayla Lloyd March 3, 2009 Poetry Analysis Poems are written by . And Disadvantages! many different people, in many different forms. People have written poems about almost everything you could imagine. There is poetry written about everyday experiences, and the most exaggerated imaginations. Death is story a form of poetry that I find very intriguing.

Mostly because of the little we know about what happens after death. There is no answer to this question only. Death , Emily Dickinson , Narrative 1378 Words | 4 Pages. Soyinka and Gabriel Okara. (16) The role of poetry , in African literature, has been highly effective in providing the people with the needful . inspiration and the necessary insight. The language of poetry , for the African people, is advantages and disadvantages of makaton a source of learning and becoming aware of their destiny that necessitates the knowledge of their past, present and the possible future.

These and several other ideas fuelled African poetry in English. For the African poets, poetry became a powerful medium through which they. Africa , African people , Atlantic slave trade 1903 Words | 7 Pages. fall now” (Don’t you quit!) “And life for me ain’t been no crystal stair” (Life is monarchies hard.) I Just Want to advantages and disadvantages, Say ©2002, 2003 4 Rev . Define Intergovernmentalism! 2/12/2003 Today, we studied examples of conversational poetry . And Disadvantages! Conversational poetry can be powerful because through poetry , you can say things to the merchant of venice, people you might never talk to because of your place in history, fear of and disadvantages of makaton rejection, fear of embarrassment, or many other reasons. Think of someone you would like to have a conversation with.

It. Meaning of life , Narrator , Poetry 1238 Words | 5 Pages. describe the service perishability origins of modern poetry . The origins of of makaton poetry are very much like those of literature in general. Service Perishability! It began as . oral communication handed down through generations to tell a story or entertain. Most was in a simple verse or rhyming format seemingly to be remembered better. It then developed into of makaton, the epic poem.

Finally, it transformed into free verse along with a set pattern of poetry . Romanticism led to modernism, which led to fairy winkles, imagism. Advantages And Disadvantages Of Makaton! The poetry of today is a mixture of all of. Alliteration , Beijing Subway , Madrid Metro 1894 Words | 5 Pages. | The Importance of a Speaker | by | | Brianda Payan | | | Tammy Mata Composition II Poetry Analysis April 8, 2013 Word . Count: 1264 Tammy Mata Composition II Poetry Analysis April 8, 2013 Word Count: 1264 Brianda Payan Prof. Tammy Mata English 1302 8 April 2013 The Importance of the Speaker There are many literary terms that constitute a poem, such as symbolism, rhyme, rhythm, tone and so on. The most important literary term that makes up a poem is the speaker. Kamikaze , Poetry , Suicide 1411 Words | 4 Pages. Studies in Poetry 5 August 2013 The Power of Poetry Poetry can be cathartic for intergovernmentalism both the writer and the . reader. The art expression in poetry allows the writer to heal continually over time. The reader gets to experience Ms.

Clifton’s life chronologically through her poetry . We get to feel full-circle the wounds, the scab, the debridement and finally the healing that happens after one exposes truths. Ms. McCallum shows a contrast approach to her past by taking a mythical route. Instead. Demeter , Family , Greek mythology 1986 Words | 6 Pages. Metaphysical Poetry: John Donne Holy Sonnet 10 Holy Sonnet 10 Although Elizabethan times are characterized by romantic and highly ornamented poetry devoted to advantages and disadvantages, the exploration of the service human . Advantages Of Makaton! feelings, there was also a group of bold poets in the 17th Century who took their words to a rather analytical side of the abstracts aspects of define intergovernmentalism life. And Disadvantages Of Makaton! John Donne, one of Metaphysical Poetry’s main figures, stands out for his choice of simple words to approach more complex themes of life.

In ‘‘Holy Sonnet 10’’, Donne brings Death to human level in which he. John Donne , Metaphysical poets , Poetic form 491 Words | 2 Pages. Poetry Project Introduction These poems are all written based off of my, Miciah’s, opinions. I have a distinct perspective on religion, . therefore I chose to write a poem describing hate and love and how I thing religion is a dumb idea. My poem is service perishability titled “Hate and and disadvantages, Love”, based off of the poem “Fire and Ice” by fairy winkles Robert Frost. Advantages! In it I concur to what religion claims, symbolically saying that religion is wrong and not serious. I used the same exact syllables and the merchant of venice wikipedia, rhyme scheme as “Fire and Ice” by Robert. Allen Ginsberg , Cherry , Love 842 Words | 3 Pages. Elements of Poetry When you read a poem, pay attention to and disadvantages, some basic ideas: Voice (Who is speaking? How are they speaking?) Stanzas (how . lines are grouped) Sound (includes rhyme, but also many other patterns) Rhythm (what kind of perishability beat or meter does the and disadvantages poem have?) Figures of speech (many poems are full of metaphors and other figurative language) Form (there are standard types of poem) Voice Voice is the wife's story a word people use to advantages and disadvantages of makaton, talk about the way poems talk to the reader.

Lyric poems and. Alliteration , Poetic form , Poetry 1083 Words | 3 Pages. recently studied some of your poetry for my leaving certificate english course and I feel greatly changed by service what I read. To say the least, it . made a strong impression on advantages me. It was a memorable experience. I looked into five of your poems with great depth and wikipedia, they were; A Constable Calls, The Forge, The Underground, The Tollund Man, and of course The Skunk.

These poems inspired a range of emotions in me that I would never have expected to feel while reading poetry . In the poem A Constable. Anxiety , Interpersonal relationship , Kutless 1419 Words | 4 Pages.

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Twelfth Night Literary Criticism (Vol. 62) - Essay. Lauded by critics and audiences alike as Shakespeare's highest achievement in the comic genre, Twelfth Night (c. 1600-01) is an intricate inquiry into the nature of love, gender roles, and the intertwining of life's tragic and comic experiences. A number of critics remain particularly fascinated with the advantages and disadvantages complexity of the play's exploration of gender identity, as there are numerous layers to the characters' gender roles, as well as to their sexual attractions. Referred to define as a subplot, the story of Malvolio and those who seek to punish him for his puritanical ways threatens to steal the advantages of makaton show, as some critics have pointed out. Fairy Winkles! The relationship between the main plot and this subordinate plot is therefore the focus of much critical examination. Additionally, the play's ending—in which so much confusion is undone in so short a time—also attracts a great deal of scholarly attention, particularly since Viola remains dressed as a male right up to the play's end, becoming Shakespeare's only cross-dressed heroine to do so. The sexual relationships and advantages and disadvantages of makaton gender roles in the merchant of venice Twelfth Night are multi-layered. For example, Viola, a female character (who was played by a male in the Elizabethan theater), is dressed as a male, Cesario, throughout most of the play.

As a male, Viola woos Olivia for Orsino, resulting in Olivia falling in love with Viola-as-Cesario. At the same time, Viola, though dressed as a man, falls in love with Orsino. Such critics as Lisa Jardine (1992) have explored the ramifications of these confused gender roles. Jardine focuses in particular on how the relationship between economic dependency and sexual availability in Elizabethan England informs the play's attitudes towards cross-dressing. Both Viola and Sebastian, observes Jardine, are forced to seek dependent positions in households outside the circle of family relations, making Viola/Cesario sexually available to advantages Orsino, and Sebastian sexually available to Olivia. In his analysis of gender issues in Twelfth Night, Michael Shapiro (1996) emphasizes the wikipedia Elizabethan theatrical practice of men playing women's parts. Shapiro studies the psychological “anxiety” resulting from the theatrical portrayal of both sexual and and disadvantages emotional intimacy, examining in particular the relationship between Viola and Olivia, in service which the audience witnesses the intensity of the exchanges between two women, played by two men, and the relationship between Orsino and Viola, in which Orsino is drawn to the feminine qualities of Viola's Cesario. Like Shapiro, Casey Charles (see Further Reading) maintains that the relationship between Viola and Olivia is a significant one, more central to the play than many critics have acknowledged. The relationship between the advantages and disadvantages two women, along with the attractions between Antonio and Sebastian and Orsino and Cesario, emphasize that homoerotic desire is a primary concern in the play. Charles maintains that these homoerotic relationships should be read within the context of monarchies, Elizabethan theatrical culture.

The critic continues with a discussion of the way the dramatization of homoerotic attractions criticizes the social ideal of “imperative heterosexuality” by underscoring the way sexuality is and disadvantages of makaton, socially constructed through gender identity. The subplot, centering on the punishment of fairy winkles, Malvolio, highlights some of the darker aspects of Twelfth Night. Many critics have noted the severity of and disadvantages of makaton, Malvolio's punishment—he is humiliated, imprisoned in a dark chamber, and made to feel as if he has lost his sanity. This is service, perhaps more than he deserves, some audiences and of makaton critics feel. Harry Levin (1976) examines Malvolio's role in the play, commenting that the character is not present in Shakespeare's sources, yet his role becomes a “stellar” one. Arguing that Shakespeare's primary concern was to highlight the triumphant comic spirit, Levin suggests that the darkness integrated into Malvolio's story, much like the wikipedia tragedy and advantages and disadvantages death that inform the circumstances of the lovers in the main plot, serves the intergovernmentalism purpose of advantages and disadvantages, intensifying the victory of the comic spirit. Levin further notes that whereas chance drives the main plot, human contrivance orders the subplot. Jane K. Brown (1990) also explores the fairy winkles differences between the main plot and subplot. The critic finds that the two plots correspond to the two worlds depicted in the play—one ruled by Orsino and one governed by Olivia.

Brown goes on to discuss the way Shakespeare represented the two realms differently, through the use of allegorical language in Olivia's world, and metaphorical discourse in advantages and disadvantages Orsino's. While Levin and Brown study the ways in which the two plots differ from one another, Edward Cahill (1996) analyzes the way the two plots relate to each other. Cahill contends that both explore similar issues, such as identity and intergovernmentalism desire, both use disguise and performance, and both feature the pursuit of marriage. The critic also observes that the failure of the subplot to resolve itself injects a bit of tragedy into the play's otherwise comic ending. The ending of the and disadvantages play has also been a focus of criticism.

The fact that Viola remains dressed as Cesario at the play's end has been noted by a number of critics, who suggest that Shakespeare allowed this in order to heighten the effect of the denouement, or to make a statement about gender identity. Jorg Hasler (1974) studies the influence of Shakespeare's earlier comedies on the ending of Twelfth Night, examining the dramatic form of Viola's ordeal at the play's end and comparing it to the endings of Much Ado about Nothing, and Measure for Measure . The Wife's Story! Hasler finds that all three plays end similarly, with the heroines standing in the center of the chaos. The critic also examines the endings of other Shakespearean plays for cases of mistaken identity, shipwreck stories, and similar patterns found in Twelfth Night . Yu Jin Ko (see Further Reading) begins an analysis of the play's ending by noting the similarity between Viola's rejection of Sebastian's embrace and Jesus's resisting Mary Magdalene's embrace after his resurrection. Ko demonstrates that this Biblical allusion serves to heighten the advantages of makaton sense of longing, and argues that this intensified yearning is exploited throughout the play, largely in sexual terms. Ko explores how Viola's cross-dressing prolongs the sexual yearnings of both Olivia and Orsino, and examines the “curiously absorbing” nature of longing as it is dramatized in Twelfth Night. Access our Twelfth Night Study Guide for Free. Criticism: Overviews And General Studies.

SOURCE: “ Twelfth Night, ” in A Preface to fairy winkles Shakespeare's Comedies: 1594-1603, Longman, 1996, pp. 229-55. [ In the following essay, Mangan focuses on Shakespeare's extensive reworking of themes, characters, and situations used in Twelfth Night, noting that Shakespeare revised his previous attitudes toward many of the ideas explored in the play. Advantages And Disadvantages Of Makaton! ] ‘GIVE ME EXCESS OF IT’ Twelfth Night is a play characterized by excess. In the the onion first few lines Orsino calls for an excess of music, and from that moment on the play stages a variety of excesses. On the advantages most mundane level there are the literal excesses of perishability, Sir Toby and his drinking partners and their revelries. And Disadvantages Of Makaton! There are the excessive and obsessive emotional states of Orsino and Olivia; the one overwhelmed by his unrequited love for the other, who is herself trapped in mourning for her dead brother and intergovernmentalism sworn to wear a veil for seven years. People act and react excessively, too: the trick which Maria and of makaton Sir Toby play against Malvolio is funny to begin with, but eventually turns sour. Audiences frequently find the ‘mad-house’ scene, in the wife's story which Feste torments the imprisoned steward, uncomfortable, and even Sir Toby thinks that things have been taken too far and of makaton says that he ‘would we were well rid of the wife's, this knavery’. The play encompasses an extraordinary range of tones and moods, from melancholy to revelry. There is even an excess of characters in the play: Fabian seems to advantages and disadvantages of makaton appear from nowhere and for no apparent reason in wikipedia Act II Scene v, and then takes over and disadvantages the part which Feste seemed about to play in the early stages of the plot against Malvolio.

As for the plot, Shakespearean comedy is typically complicated in its narrative structure: even so, Twelfth Night is absolute monarchies, unusually ambitious in the number of narratives which it sets going simultaneously, and of makaton the complexity with which they need to interrelate. It attempts simultaneously to create both the accelerating fugue-like structure of the wife's story, a good farce, and also a series of characters who are allowed their own space to develop emotionally complex or subtle relationships with each other and with the audience. There are so many narratives going on at the same time that it is easy for and disadvantages of makaton an audience to lose track of everything that is happening. Plots of wikipedia the onion, disguise and advantages and disadvantages of makaton cross-dressing become interwoven with stories of mistaken identities, separated twins and (again) lost brothers; tricks are played on wikipedia the onion, several characters simultaneously; and there is advantages and disadvantages, not one love-story but many. As in As You Like It, all sorts of variations are played upon the theme of love and wikipedia desire. Advantages And Disadvantages Of Makaton! But although there are many similarities between the two plays, Twelfth Night differs from As You Like It in the way it treats desire. In As You Like It a single kind of love-relationship, romantic love, was parodied in a variety of ways up and monarchies down the social classes.

But the triangle of desire in which Viola is advantages, caught does not involve low-life shepherdesses like Phoebe, patently minor characters who can be relegated at service perishability, the end of the play to their proper station in the sub-plot: she is adored by the Lady Olivia. Moreover, in advantages of makaton Twelfth Night love takes on a greater variety of forms. Apart from Orsino's and Olivia's obsessive states there is also Viola's unspoken longing for Orsino; Olivia's impossible desire for story Cesario (finally translated into possibility by the appearance of Sebastian); Orsino's fondness for ‘Cesario’ (which changes quite peremptorily into a willingness to marry Viola); Malvolio's self-interested pursuit of his mistress, which leads to its own kind of excess as he dresses in his ridiculous costume; Sir Andrew's hopes of advantages and disadvantages, marriage with Olivia; Antonio's adoration of Sebastian; the fictional sister invented by Viola and her male counterpart, the flamboyant and imaginary lover in story the ‘willow cabin’ at the gate; Sir Toby's marriage to his partner-in-crime Maria; and not least the filial love of Sebastian and Viola, which is as intense as any relationship in the play. Twelfth Night is clearly concerned to advantages and disadvantages of makaton show how many faces love and absolute desire can have. Perhaps, too, how many faces comedy can have. It seems at times that there is more material here than can be accommodated in a single play—and this is not entirely surprising, for into Twelfth Night Shakespeare crams a whole series of of makaton, themes, characters, scenes and situations which he has already used in story several previous plays. Twelfth Night re-works, for example, the cross-dressing plot from As You Like It, with Viola following Rosalind's lead in donning male attire as protection, and then having to deal with the contradictions which arise from that disguise once people start falling in love with each other. Like another cross-dressed Shakespearean heroine, Julia in The Two Gentlemen of Verona, Viola becomes page to the man she loves, and then finds herself in the uncomfortable position of having to plead his cause to another woman. The cross-dressing plot is then interwoven with the ‘identical twins’ plot which was the central narrative of The Comedy of Errors. As in that earlier play, twins are separated by storm and shipwreck; one of advantages and disadvantages of makaton, them arrives in a strange city to wikipedia find an unknown woman who lays claim to his love; people are confined in lunatic asylums; misunderstandings arise about ransoms and gifts of gold; and old enmities between cities put at advantages and disadvantages of makaton, risk the lives of men who are seeking the person they love. From Much Ado About Nothing comes the scene in which someone is tricked into believing that someone else is in love with them, while the tricksters look on.

From As You Like It again comes the slightly dissonant ending: just as Jaques in the earlier play refused to define join in the celebrations and return to court with the rest of the company, so Malvolio here, much more harshly, rejects the apologies and attempts at reconciliation, storming off-stage with threats of revenge. Characters reappear, too. The figure of the jester, of course, has been used before, and Feste bears more than a slight resemblance to Touchstone, as Shakespeare and Robert Armin continue to develop the specialized clown role as a trademark of the Lord Chamberlain's Men. And Disadvantages Of Makaton! Several other stock characters, too, probably bear witness to the particular skills or comic routines of other actors: the inept lover Master Slender from The Merry Wives of define, Windsor, for example, reappears as Sir Andrew Aguecheek; the and disadvantages witty female servant Maria has antecedents in the wife's Hero's waiting women, Margaret and Ursula in Much Ado About Nothing, and Viola, as we have seen, replays Rosalind's breeches part. It has often been pointed out that Sir Toby is an Illyrian equivalent of Falstaff: like the fat knight of the and disadvantages of makaton Henry IV plays and The Merry Wives of Windsor, he is a descendant of the figures of misrule from fairy winkles seasonal entertainments. Of Makaton! Like Falstaff, Sir Toby has gathered round him a group of like-minded revellers, with the result that Malvolio accuses him of trying to turn Olivia's house into an ‘ale-house’—as if Falstaff's Eastcheap haunts were to be imported into Illyria. Even Hamlet finds echoes in absolute monarchies Twelfth Night, although this is of makaton, perhaps less surprising than it might seem at first, since the monarchies comedy and the tragedy were written very close together in and around 1600-1. Advantages And Disadvantages! At any rate, both of them start with a figure displaying all the signs of mourning: Hamlet's ‘inky cloak’ is worn in mourning for his father, Olivia's veil is in memory of her brother. In this respect Olivia may also remind readers and audiences of wikipedia the onion, Portia in the early phases of The Merchant of Venice, as both are potentially prevented from loving by the influence of a dead relative. The list could go on. Nor is there anything unusual in itself about the fact that this play contains reworkings of old stories, characters and situations.

Throughout his career Shakespeare continually re-uses material, adapting not only other writers' works for the stage (as was common enough in Elizabethan playwriting practice), but reworking his own ideas and narratives, giving new meanings to advantages the stories he tells. 1 What makes Twelfth Night special is the perishability relentlessness of these reworkings, the (again) excessiveness of of makaton, them. It is true that shipwrecks, lost relatives, mistaken identities and love-triangles are standard fare in romantic comedy, but in Twelfth Night Shakespeare seems to be attempting—almost desperately—to cram everything in. Twelfth Night is a compendium of Shakespearean comedy, and in it it is possible to see Shakespeare taking further, revising and rethinking his attitudes to some of the ideas which comedy had already been a vehicle for expressing. ‘AT OUR FEAST WE HAD A PLAY’

It may seem that this spotting of sources and intertextual relationships is a rather academic exercise: relevant to the classroom, perhaps, but not to the stage. Would Shakespeare have expected his audience to pick up references like these? Would they have noticed, or bothered about, the the wife's similarities between one play and and disadvantages another? As it happens we can answer this question with a qualified ‘yes’. While we have no way of knowing how Elizabethan audiences in general reacted to the play, or what sort of expectations or understandings they had of the onion, it, we do have evidence of the response of one spectator at a performance of Twelfth Night. Twelfth Night, like most of and disadvantages, Shakespeare's plays, was written with various possible audiences in mind. The Merchant! It was to be performed at the still-new Globe Theatre, of advantages of makaton, course, but the Lord Chamberlain's Men would also have hoped, like Bottom and his friends, to be commissioned for performances at perishability, court on the occasion of various festivities and celebrations. There is even a tradition that the play was first performed before the and disadvantages Queen on 6 January 1601, on the onion, Twelfth Night itself, although there is advantages and disadvantages, little or no evidence for such a performance (indeed there is no record of a performance of fairy winkles, this play at the court of either Elizabeth or James until 6 April 1618, two years after Shakespeare's death).

There was, however, a performance at another prestigious, and advantages of makaton possibly better-paying, venue in 1602. Perishability! A student of law at the Middle Temple, John Manningham, kept a commonplace book in which he noted all sorts of details about his life. This book is known as ‘Manningham's Diary’, and and disadvantages of makaton the first entry for February 1602 reads: At our feast we had a play called [‘mid’ crossed out] Twelve Night or What You Will, much like the Comedy of Errors or Menaechmi in Plautus, but most like and near to that in Italian called Inganni. A good practice in the wife's it to make the steward believe his Lady widow was in and disadvantages love with him by counterfeiting a letter, as from his Lady in general terms, telling him what she liked best in him and prescribing his gesture in smiling, his apparel etc. And then when he came to practice making him believe they took him to be mad. 2. This diary entry suggests something of the nature of the the merchant wikipedia audience for which Shakespeare was writing, by showing us something of the mind of one Elizabethan play-goer: not a statistically relevant sample, of course, but useful nonetheless.

It is a mind which is extremely well-stocked: Manningham, clearly, is well-read in both contemporary English, recent Italian and classical Latin drama. He not only picks up the and disadvantages resemblance to the Comedy of Errors, but is also able to trace both Shakespearean plays back to the merchant of venice their common source in Plautus's Menaechmi. In addition there is the interesting slip of the pen in Manningham's first line: the advantages and disadvantages word ‘mid’ is crossed out—as if he might have been about to write ‘ A Midsummer Night's Dream ’, briefly confusing one Shakespearean play with another (which also has a title referring to one specific night of the year). It is unlikely to have been pure coincidence that led Manningham to make the absolute monarchies link with the earlier Shakespeare comedies. It would seem that Shakespeare as a writer had made enough of a name for himself by 1602 for an informed play-goer like Manningham to be able to discern an oeuvre. Manningham, it seems, was aware not merely of watching a play but of watching a play by a particular writer, William Shakespeare. Manningham is judicious in his spotting of sources. Having recognized the twins' plot from The Comedy of of makaton, Errors and Menaechmi, he goes on to consider the cross-dressing plot, which he correctly traces back to Italian comic traditions. Here, in fact, he may be conflating memories of two plays: the play which he names, Gl'Inganni (The Deceptions ), tells the story of a woman who cross-dresses and takes the masculine name of Cesare, just as Viola in Twelfth Night becomes Cesario. It is also possible, however, that Manningham is actually thinking of another play, the anonymous Gl'Ingannati (The Deceived ), which resembles Twelfth Night even more closely. In it a young woman, Lelia, disguises herself as a boy in order to serve Flaminio, whom she loves, as a page.

Flaminio employs her as a messenger to Isabella, the woman he loves unrequitedly, and Isabella then falls in love with Lelia. Like Viola, Lelia is saved from the wife's these complications by the appearance of her long-lost brother Fabrizio, who falls in love with Isabella, leaving Flaminio and Lelia free to advantages and disadvantages of makaton marry each other. We should not assume that the sophisticated awareness of intertextuality which Manningham shows was typical of play-goers in Shakespeare's London. Clearly, though, Shakespeare was writing for an audience which included a proportion of very well-informed aficionados of the theatre, spectators whose experience of one play could be immediately related to memories of others. He might well have been able to expect that the self-referential and intertextual elements of Twelfth Night would not have been altogether lost on his audience. Other things about fairy winkles, Manningham's diary entry deserve comment. There is advantages and disadvantages, his evidence, for define intergovernmentalism example, that Twelfth Night was performed at a feast. This particular play is especially suited to such an and disadvantages of makaton occasion: Sir Toby and his fellow-revellers in particular enact a story-line which is in define intergovernmentalism itself ‘festive’, and the play bears the title of a feast. It would have been nice if Manningham's diary had provided evidence of the play being performed at some Twelfth Night celebrations; however, the feast at which Twelfth Night was presented to the Middle Temple seems, from the date of Manningham's diary entry, to have been to celebrate Candlemas rather than Twelfth Night. The diary entry also gives a sense of what Manningham remembered most vividly from the performance. The romantic plot is of makaton, mentioned only as it relates to sources, but what seems to have stuck in Manningham's mind is the trick played on Malvolio by Maria, Sir Toby and Feste.

What Manningham carries away from the play is precisely the opposite of what the editors of the Arden edition of the play, J. Wikipedia! M. Lothian and T. W. Craik, speaking for twentieth-century scholarship, say the modern reader is likely to experience: It is probably true to say that a twentieth-century reader, suddenly invited to recall Twelfth Night, will think first of Viola's scene with Olivia and Orsino (I. iv and II. iv), and in particular of her ‘willow cabin’ and ‘Patience on a monument’ speeches. 3. They compare this with a typically nineteenth-century perspective on the play, represented by the words of the advantages and disadvantages of makaton Victorian scholar F. J. Furnivall, writing in 1877, who saw the wikipedia below-stairs plot as a rather irritating distraction, behind which the beauties of the romantic plot might be glimpsed: The self-conceited Malvolio is advantages and disadvantages, brought to the front, the drunkards and the Clown come next; none of these touches any heart; and it's not till we look past them, that we feel the beauty of the define intergovernmentalism characters who stand in half-light behind. 4. Manningham's memories are different again from this. Advantages And Disadvantages! He is the wife's, not particularly interested in the shadowy half-light of romantic beauty; for him the ‘self-conceited’ Malvolio's smiling, his yellow cross-gartered stockings and the tricks played upon him by Sir Toby and his companions are what make the greatest impression: A good practice in and disadvantages it to make the steward believe his Lady widow was in love with him by counterfeiting a letter, as from his Lady in general terms, telling him what she liked best in him and define intergovernmentalism prescribing his gesture in smiling, his apparel etc.

And then when he came to practice making him believe they took him to be mad. 5. These varying responses provide some useful information about the diversity of ways in which different ages have related to the ‘same’ play. The changing structures of feeling over the centuries, and the changing expectations both of art and life which people have brought to the text in various ages has meant that different generations have privileged different parts of the story. In addition, though, it is worth noting how the Arden editors resolutely talk about ‘the reader’ rather than ‘the spectator’ or ‘the audience’. Manningham's response, on the other hand, is to a performance rather than to a text. Advantages Of Makaton! It may be that the differences in perspective which exist between Manningham and the Arden edition owe something to the difference between reading Twelfth Night and watching it. A play is absolute monarchies, a paradoxical kind of and disadvantages, literary hybrid, one whose ‘success’ is in fairy winkles part measured by the number of and disadvantages, times the text gets staged and re-staged. In the course of monarchies, this process, of advantages and disadvantages, course, the play gets altered from its original appearance. Twelfth Night 's history on the English stage between the 1600s and the mid-twentieth century includes such radical transformations as a version played at James I's court in 1623 entitled merely Malvolio; a Restoration adaptation by William D'Avenant; an incorporation of sections of it in Charles Burnaby's Love Betray'd: or the Agreeable Disappointment; an 1820s musical version by Frederick Reynolds containing ‘Songs, Glees and of venice wikipedia Choruses’ from other Shakespeare plays. 6 Just as Shakespeare cannibalized previous plays (including, as we have seen, his own) to create his texts, so his texts are cannibalized by of makaton later generations of theatre practitioners.

But it is not only a matter of rewritings and adaptations. For each new staging, each new stage, each change of cast or venue means a different experience for the audience. Manningham's diary entry tells us about an early staging of Twelfth Night, and reflects accurately an important theatrical dimension of the play which is not always obvious to the reader: the way in of venice wikipedia which the and disadvantages of makaton apparent main plot, the romance involving Viola, Orsino and Olivia, frequently has trouble holding its own in competition with the ‘sub-plot’, and the below-stairs activities of puritanical stewards and drunken knights threaten continually to take centre stage. As with that 1623 performance at court, Twelfth Night can easily metamorphose into Malvolio. ‘I SMELL A DEVICE’ Let us focus, then, on wikipedia, the below-stairs plot. Act II Scene iii sees the ‘low-life’ characters of the play, Sir Toby Belch, Sir Andrew Aguecheek, Feste and (after a little persuasion) Maria holding a late-night party. Advantages And Disadvantages! They drink, they sing—and they disturb Malvolio, who bursts into the scene full of righteous indignation: Malvolio My masters, are you mad? Or what are you? Have you no wit, manners, nor honesty, but to gabble like tinkers at this time of night?

Do ye make an alehouse of my lady's house, that ye squeak out your coziers' catches without any mitigation or remorse of voice? Is there no respect of place, persons nor time with you? His diatribe has little effect on the revellers. Despite Malvolio's attempt to define intergovernmentalism quieten them, they continue with their drinking and singing. Sir Toby retorts, ‘Art any more than a steward? Dost thou think because thou art virtuous there shall be no more cakes and and disadvantages of makaton ale?’ (II, iii, ll. 109-11). In this below-stairs plot of Twelfth Night Shakespeare stages once again the battle between Carnival and Lent. The Merchant! The confrontation between Sir Toby and Malvolio is emblematic: on the one side Malvolio's ‘virtuous’ mean-spiritedness, on and disadvantages of makaton, the other Sir Toby, the representative of revelry, with a surname which speaks for itself, and a first name which is pointedly and familiarly English in this alien world of Illyria.

As in absolute monarchies the famous painting by Bruegel, the personifications of Carnival and Lent confront each other directly. The title of the play itself draws attention to this confrontation. In Elizabeth's court, as elsewhere in Europe, the Feast of the and disadvantages Epiphany on 6 January, Twelfth Night, was the occasion of the final phase of of venice wikipedia, Christmas-time celebrations, and. … one of the and disadvantages of makaton most brilliant and joyful court occasions. Before stepping down, the Lord of Misrule would announce his desire to round off with a kind of apotheosis and a whole succession of spectacular displays of music, dancing and the wife's feasting bursting like fireworks one after the other … Twelfth Night provided a fine occasion to and disadvantages hand out absolute monarchies these titles of king and queen, which appear to have been very popular amongst the rites and traditions of folklore. It was a mimetic ritual of royalty that was probably a survival from the old Saturnalia, giving the king of the evening a chance to masquerade as the monarch, derisively aping his authority … Masquerades and fancy-dress mummings are another feature of the advantages and disadvantages of makaton lavish amusements of Twelfth Night … Twelfth Night was the festival which brought to an end the long, eventful period of ‘Yuletide’ revels … 7.

The ambiguous nature of these Twelfth Night celebrations is significant. It was a time of service, revelry, a carnival time at which the world might be turned upside-down, a celebration presided over by the Lord of Misrule and the ‘King of the Bean’ (a mock king elected by advantages of makaton means of a dried bean hidden in the festive cake: whoever found it in his portion was elected ‘king’). Yet it also marked the end of revelling: the Christmas holiday was almost over and a return to work and the realities of midwinter imminent. We retain a memory of this in define intergovernmentalism present-day Christmas customs: Twelfth Night is the night the decorations come down. And Disadvantages! The confrontation between the riotous world of the merchant of venice, Sir Toby and and disadvantages the sober world of Malvolio could hardly take place in a more fitting context than that of Twelfth Night.

Sir Toby and his drinking companions comprise an carnivalesque underworld, an alternative society to the ‘official’ world of Olivia and Orsino. This world has all the essential characteristics of Bakhtin's definitions of carnival. Of Venice Wikipedia! The pleasures of the body are paramount; language—especially in Feste's hands—runs riot; and traditional hierarchies and class boundaries have become virtually irrelevant. Knights carouse with servants, fools and other unspecified members of the household. Sir Toby breaks all the rules of Elizabethan decorum by marrying his sister's ‘waiting-gentlewoman’, thus honouring at one remove Falstaff's promise of advantages of makaton, marriage to Mistress Quickly. The analogy with Falstaff works theatrically as well as socially. While the social details of the fictional settings are different, the dramatic functions of the two figures are so similar that it is difficult to imagine that the part of Sir Toby was not played by the same actor who created Falstaff. There are important differences, it is true.

Whereas in the history plays Falstaff had to carry the main weight of the plays' foolery, with Pistol, Bardolph, Nym and Mistress Quickly very definitely supporting roles, Twelfth Night spreads the comic burden more evenly. Fairy Winkles! There is a fully-developed fool role in the character of Feste, and another excellent comic part in Sir Andrew Aguecheek; Maria, too, is advantages, a more interesting and better-established part than Mistress Quickly—indeed she has inherited some of the absolute monarchies attributes not only of the witty servant, but also of Shakespeare's witty heroines such as Rosalind and and disadvantages Beatrice. Absolute! Another important distinction between Twelfth Night and the Henry IV plays is geographical: in the history plays the world of Bankside was physically as well as socially distant from the court, whereas in Illyria Sir Toby's alternative world exists within the same household as the official one. In Twelfth Night the and disadvantages confrontation between the define forces of authority and those of licence is advantages and disadvantages, played out on a domestic scale. Of Venice! It is not a class conflict, nor is it strictly to do with law and and disadvantages of makaton order. Of Venice Wikipedia! There is no opposition between the so-called ‘respectable’ world and a criminal ‘class’. Sir Toby is advantages of makaton, Olivia's kinsman and the revellers are of her household. The significance of fairy winkles, these similarities and differences between Falstaff and and disadvantages of makaton Sir Toby Belch can be seen if we view the confrontation between Sir Toby and absolute Malvolio as a reworking of the confrontation between Falstaff and the Lord Chief Justice in Henry IV Part 2. In that play, which was first acted a year or two before Twelfth Night, the main narrative concerned the way in which Prince Hal, re-fashioning himself in heroic mode in order to advantages and disadvantages of makaton become the the merchant of venice wikipedia warrior-hero Henry V, distanced himself from Falstaff's subversive carnival influence, and aligned himself with the forces of authority, sobriety, law and order, represented in their most extreme form by the Lord Chief Justice. In an early scene in the play the Lord Chief Justice encounters Falstaff and reprimands him, just as Malvolio reprimands Sir Toby. Advantages Of Makaton! But whereas Malvolio is routed, the Lord Chief Justice is absolute, not: Falstaff attempts to answer him, but cannot get the of makaton better of absolute, him.

Eventually, in Henry IV Part 2 the forces of authority triumph over those of revelry, and Falstaff is banished and imprisoned. Twelfth Night replays the same contest but with a different result: here it is the forces of revelry which prevail, and Malvolio who is imprisoned, ridiculed and tormented. In production it is tempting to represent Malvolio as a stereotyped Puritan figure while Sir Toby becomes the Cavalier of popular imagination: aristocratic and rather dissolute. Such a staging has some historical justification. One of the main social and economic tensions of early-seventeenth-century England involved the shift of advantages, real power away from the established but by now fading nobility, whose influence was based on land and tradition, towards the wikipedia rising middle classes. They were much influenced by Puritan thought, and they were the sector of society which would, on the whole, profit most from the emerging capitalist economy. Of Makaton! Thus the confrontation between Carnival and Lent might also be seen as a confrontation between the old order and the wife's story the new, with Sir Toby representing the traditional values of an already-sentimentalized ‘Merrie England’ which is being challenged by the likes of the socially ambitious Malvolio. Since, historically, this was.

(The entire section is 11298 words.) Get Free Access to this Twelfth Night Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more. Get Better Grades. Our 30,000+ summaries will help you comprehend your required reading to and disadvantages of makaton ace every test, quiz, and essay. We've broken down the chapters, themes, and characters so you can understand them on your first read-through. Access Everything From Anywhere. We have everything you need in one place, even if you're on the go.

Download our handy iOS app for free. SOURCE: “The Dramaturgy of the Ending of Twelfth Night, ” in monarchies Twelfth Night: Critical Essays, edited by and disadvantages Stanley Wells, Garland Publishing, Inc., 1986, pp. 279-302. [ In the essay below, originally published in 1974, Hasler analyzes the influence of Shakespeare's earlier comedies on the last scene of Twelfth Night . ] The final resolution of Twelfth Night evolves from a process which engages the whole of the play's last scene. Absolute! Furthermore, there is no lack of consistent theatrical notation in this scene. Employed with remarkable singleness of and disadvantages, purpose, it is of venice wikipedia, instrumental in shaping the build-up towards the strong impact of Viola's revelation. Apart. (The entire section is 8110 words.)

Get Free Access to this Twelfth Night Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more. SOURCE: “Twins and Travesties: Gender, Dependency and Sexual Availability in Twelfth Night, ” in and disadvantages of makaton Erotic Politics: Desire on the Renaissance Stage, edited by Susan Zimmerman, Routledge, 1992, pp. 27-38. [ In the the onion following essay, Jardine examines the treatment of of makaton, crossdressing in Twelfth Night , as well as the relationship between economic dependency and sexual availability in early modern England. ] (The entire section is 5376 words.) SOURCE: “Anxieties of define intergovernmentalism, Intimacy: Twelfth Night, ” in Gender in Play on the Shakespearean Stage: Boy Heroines and Female Pages, University of Michigan Press, 1996, pp. 143-72. [ In the following essay, Shapiro investigates Twelfth Night 's exploration of sexual identity within the of makaton context of Elizabethan theatrical portrayals of sexual and emotional intimacy between men and of venice wikipedia between women. ] Now dated around 1601, 1 Twelfth Night, Shakespeare's fourth play with a cross-dressed heroine, continues his variations on this motif. Indeed, after Two Gentlemen each play of this type seems to be a deliberate variation on its predecessor(s). (The entire section is 12479 words.) SOURCE: “The Underplot of Twelfth Night, ” in advantages and disadvantages of makaton Twelfth Night: Critical Essays, edited by Stanley Wells, Garland Publishing, Inc., 1986, pp.

161-69. [ In the essay below, originally published in 1976, Levin compares and contrasts the main plot and subplot of Twelfth Night, describing Malvolio as the star of the underplot. ] The kind of comedy that was practiced by Shakespeare has repeatedly challenged definition. Though his last comedies have been retrospectively classified as romances, most of absolute, their components are equally characteristic of his earlier ones: love, adventure, coincidence, recognition, and occasional pathos. The problem is not simplified by. (The entire section is 3559 words.) SOURCE: “Double Plotting in Shakespeare's Comedies: The Case of Twelfth Night, ” in Aesthetic Illusion: Theoretical and Historical Approaches, edited by Frederick Burwick and advantages and disadvantages Walter Pape, Walter de Gruyter, 1990, pp. 313-23. [ In the following essay, Brown contends that Twelfth Night has two plots, one ruled by Olivia and one ruled by Orsino. These plots, argues Brown, are dramatized differently and correspond to two distinct worlds within the play. ] Doubleness of all sorts is the wife's story, typical of Shakespearean comedy. Nowhere, however, is doubling so fully worked out advantages of makaton as in wikipedia Twelfth Night: or, What You Will, the only play for which Shakespeare himself. (The entire section is 5034 words.)

Charles, Casey. “Gender Trouble in Twelfth Night. ” Theatre Journal 49, No. 2 (May 1997): 121-41. Asserts that same-sex attraction—explored in the relationships of Olivia and Viola, Antonio and and disadvantages Sebastian, and Orsino and Viola-as-Cesario—is a crucial issue in Twelfth Night . Fairy Winkles! Charles maintains that the portrayal of homoerotic attraction serves as a way of representing the social construction of sexuality through gender identity. Daalder, Joost. “Perspectives of advantages and disadvantages, Madness in service perishability Twelfth Night. ” English Studies 2 (March 1997): 105-10. Explores the ways in which the concept of. (The entire section is 430 words.) Twelfth Night Homework Help Questions. I am glad you have identified that the ending of this excellent play is advantages of makaton, not entirely the the merchant wikipedia happy ending that we would expect of a Shakesperian comedy.

It is vitally important to consider how the. The title Twelfth Night refers to the twelfth day after Christmas, which marks a holiday known as Epiphany. Epiphany celebrates the arrival of the Magi, or Three Wise Men, to deliver their gifts to. Typically as one of Shakespeare's comedies, this play involves mistaken identities, cross-dressing, disguises and people falling in love with people they shouldn't fall in advantages and disadvantages love with. The Wife's! Thus it is. Viola and Olivia are both gentlewomen raised to advantages of makaton self-esteem, manners, breeding, wealth and luxury (Olivia more so) who both recognize and accept the role of Fate in their lives. This is wikipedia the onion, where their.

Dramatic irony refers to a situation in which the audience or reader is privy to information that major characters do not have. In Twelfth Night, one example of dramatic irony occurs when Viola.

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Althusser, Ideology and Interpellation Essay. The French philosopher, Louis Althusser, first popularized the word in his seminal essay “Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses (Notes towards an Investigation)” (Althusser, 1972). In the essay, Althusser explores the relationship between the advantages of makaton, state, modes of (re)producing power and ideology from a Marxist perspective, defining ideology as “the imaginary relationship of individuals to their real conditions of existence” (Althusser 1972: 162). In his definition, Althusser sees ideology functioning as a mediator between systems of monarchies, power and and disadvantages individuals. It allows for hegemonic power to reproduce itself by obscuring traditional forms of repression and of venice wikipedia incorporating individuals into and disadvantages of makaton the power structure. Althusser complicates the relationship between domination and subjugation by wikipedia introducing the interpellation process, where individuals recognize themselves as subjects through ideology, thus illustrating how subjects can be complicit in of makaton their own domination. He gives the define intergovernmentalism, example of a police officer shouting out “Hey, you there!” in public.

Upon hearing this exclamation, an individual turns around, and “by this mere one-hundred-and-eighty-degree physical conversion, he becomes a subject” (Althusser, 1972: 174). In the act of acknowledging that it is indeed he who is addressed, the individual thus recognizes his subjecthood. It is important to note that this subjecthood is double: although he is recognized as a social subject by the law, he is advantages and disadvantages also subjugated to wikipedia, the law. Althusser emphasizes the ubiquity of of makaton, ideology and interpellation by wikipedia the onion noting how subjects are consistently constituted by Ideological State Apparatuses (ISAs) such as the advantages and disadvantages of makaton, family, educational institutions, and media such as literature, radio and television. The idea that an individual can be interpellated through various mediums would later be appropriated by theorists from diverse backgrounds such as cinema and media studies and cultural studies. Although he initially presents a temporal example of fairy winkles, interpellation, Althusser insists that the process is not governed by cause and effect, but happens simultaneously. He emphasizes that “the existence of advantages, ideology and the hailing or interpellation of the wife's, individuals as subjects are one and and disadvantages of makaton the same thing” (Althusser 1972: 175). In other words ideology, interpellation, and subjecthood, mutually reinforce each other so that “ideology has always-already interpellated individuals as subjects, which amounts to making it clear that individuals are always-already interpellated by story ideology as subjects, which necessarily leads us to one last proposition: individuals are always-already subjects” (Althusser 1972: 176). Althusser’s framework of interpellation and his emphasis on the circulatory relationship between subjectivity and advantages exterior structures have been utilized and extended by numerous critical theorists.1 Markedly, Michel Foucault holds similar notions of how subjectivity is constructed by focusing on discourses around sexuality (Foucault, 1990). 2 He describes how at the end of the 19th Century, experts in various scientific fields created discourses that allowed them to label and intergovernmentalism identify individuals and their sexuality. Like Althusser, this subjecthood has a duality: it both subjugates individuals as passive beings involuntarily defined under the scope of scientific discourse but it also simultaneously, and counter-intuitively, creates the potential for autonomy and resistance by mobilizing around these new identities.3 These arguments around how subjects can resist or defy dominant power are not thoroughly fleshed out by Althusser, but are a major focus of later theorists, such as Ranciere.

4. Advantages. Media and Interpellation. Many theorists have taken Althusser’s notion of ideology and interpellation, shifted the focus away from the the onion, state, and applied it to various kinds of advantages and disadvantages of makaton, media texts. The Onion. In this vein, cultural theorists such as Max Horkheimer and Theodor Adorno have argued that the homogeneity of mass media interpellate passive subjects who desire reoccurring tropes and predictable story lines which only serve to further stultify them (1979). 5 They are particularly sympathetic to those exploited in capitalist society, lamenting how “capitalist production so confines them, body and soul, that they fall helpless victim to what is offered them.” (Adorno and Horkheimer, 1979:8). Yet the common people’s acquiesce to the culture industry only perpetuates their conditions, and of makaton Adorno and Horkheimer proceed to argue, “immovably, they insist on the very ideology which enslaves them. The misplaced love of the common people for the wrong which is done them is a greater force than the cunning of the wikipedia the onion, authorities” (Adorno and Horkheimer, 1979:8). Advantages And Disadvantages Of Makaton. Like Althusser, Adorno and Horkheimer argue that the proletariat submit to ideologies that interpellate them as passive, and service perishability thus comply with their own domination. Similarly, David Gauntlett describes how “interpellation occurs when a person connects with a media text: when we enjoy a magazine or TV show, for example, this uncritical consumption means that the text has interpellated us into a certain set of assumptions, and advantages caused us to tacitly accept a particular approach to the world.” (Gauntlett, 2002: 27). Here, Gauntlett seems to echo Adorno and Horkheimer’s argument that media consumers unquestioningly accept a medium’s subject positioning of wikipedia the onion, them as passive viewers. Advantages And Disadvantages Of Makaton. This structuralist framing will be countered by later theorists who will argue for more agency for interpellated subjects. Furthering the define intergovernmentalism, discussion about the relationship between a medium and its audience, many film scholars have employed Althusser’s framework to investigate how spectators view a film.

Lapsley and Westlake describe how in structuralist film criticism a film “as a pre-existing structure… interpellates the spectator, so constituting him/her as a subject” (Lapsley and Westlake, 1988: 12). In particular, feminist film theorists have especially appropriated notions of interpellation in their work. Laura Mulvey describes how classical narrative cinema, as an (ideological) apparatus, positions viewers to identify with the male protagonist (Mulvey, 1975). University/College: University of California. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 18 October 2016. Advantages. Let us write you a custom essay sample on Althusser, Ideology and fairy winkles Interpellation. for only $16.38 $13.9/page.

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Checklist: What Your Retrenchment Letter Must Include. Whether you’re retrenching one employee or many, you must have a good reason to retrench and do it properly. Otherwise you’ll end up defending yourself in court, which will cost you time and money. You could end up even worse-off than you were before you retrenched! When you are considering retrenchments you first need to conduct consultations with the potential retrenchees or their representatives on the proposed retrenchments. Checklist: What your Section 189(3) notice must contain. ? The reasons for the proposed retrenchments. ? The alternatives you considered before proposing retrenchment and the reasons for rejecting each of those alternatives. ? The number of employees likely to be affected and the job categories in which they are employed. ? The selection criteria you propose using to select which employees to retrench.

? When retrenchments are likely to take effect (a specific date or a period of time). ? The severance pay you propose for advantages, retrenched employees. ? Any assistance that you can offer to employees likely to service perishability be retrenched. ? The possibility of future re-employment of retrenched employees. ? The number of employees you employ. ? The number of employees you have retrenched in advantages and disadvantages of makaton the last 12 months. Warning! Don’t take a rigid checklist approach, but think carefully about the merchant of venice wikipedia, all the and disadvantages information you could give that would assist the other consulting party to wikipedia the onion engage with you meaningfully. Of Makaton? Anything relevant to the proposals you are making should be included.

The checklist should be your guide as to fairy winkles the minimum required. Many retrenchment exercises are complicated and critical to the ongoing success of a business. Which of these questions do you need answered? When can I retrench staff? What must I think about before I start retrenching? What must I include in my Section 189(3) notice? What must I include in my retrenchment letter? How do I calculate severance pay? We have a solution for you.

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The frustrating thing is, it’s exactly such petty errors and advantages of makaton, similar loopholes in the labour law that mean employers lose 51% of service all CCMA cases. These technicalities don't apply to advantages and disadvantages of makaton references only, but also to written warnings and dismissals. But how do you dismiss correctly? How do you make a dismissal stick, even if it goes to monarchies the CCMA? Simply read on, for advantages and disadvantages, your own benefit, to see how you can successfully effect dismissals that are 100% legally watertight and will hold up at the CCMA. Wikipedia? You’ll find a selection of the most important issues surrounding dismissals, taken from the advantages and disadvantages of makaton Labour Law for Managers loose leaf service. Wikipedia? We show you how you can justify your dismissals and protect your business completely. And Disadvantages Of Makaton? 29 experienced labour law consultants give you hands-on advice on the right strategy for making your dismissals stick. This will give you a glimpse of how a business owner/manager should handle dismissals and write references. The comprehensive Labour Law for Managers Loose Leaf Service gives you all the details you need for maximum protection in labour-related problems.

You will find, for example: Information on the problem areas managers have to handle in the workplace daily, and appropriate solutions Valuable advice for employers, based on the ever-changing legislation Sample contracts, dismissals and warning letters, etc. Numerous practical checklists. How can you benefit from this practical handbook? FREE: See for yourself how valuable this product is to you as an employer. It’s clearly different from other jargon filled, technical products on the market. Order it today and service perishability, I'll give you a 90-day money-back guarantee.

You will definitely find it worthwhile, even if you have a labour lawyer. It’s simpler, faster and much cheaper to look up something than to wait until your lawyer calls you back. We wish you all the best in your investigation of these new labour strategies. Lizle Louw, Editor-in-Chief. PS: If you reply quickly, you will also receive an advantages invaluable copy of the wife's story Say You're Fired and advantages, Make it Stick! In this groundbreaking booklet, you'll find out why you shouldn't insert long notice periods into employment contracts; the legally justified reasons you can use for dismissing an employee; all bargaining council contact numbers; and wikipedia the onion, much more. Employment contracts: what the advantages and disadvantages of makaton law says you must do. You must give your employees, in writing, the terms and conditions of fairy winkles their employment. This document can take the form of a letter of appointment, or you can create a more formal contract of advantages employment the form doesn’t matter it’s the content that’s important.

Getting your employee to sign the document avoids disputes about whether or not it was given and monarchies, what it contains. You must do this when the employee starts employment and you must retain the document for at least three years after termination of the employment relationship (Section 29 of the advantages BCEA). You must also update this employment document and provide the employee with a new copy when: the law changes you and your employee agree to changes in the terms and conditions you increase the of venice employee’s pay or benefits (this you could do in a supplementary letter). TIP: Better late than never! Check all your personnel records and draw up the employment documents now, even if your employees have been working for and disadvantages, you for years.

Even part-time staff must have a contract. This law applies to wikipedia you if your employees are temporary or part-time, even if they: have a fixed employment period, or only work one day a week, or only work every weekend, or only and disadvantages work half day. In other words, anyone who qualifies as an ‘employee’ should receive this document from you (refer to chapter E03 in Labour Law for fairy winkles, Managers loose leaf service). 3 Easy steps to protect yourself from legal comebacks. The South African labour laws offer your employees protection, but they also allow you a degree of advantages and disadvantages of makaton flexibility in what you agree with your employee so you need to be proactive and protect yourself.

Do this by taking these three steps today: Design an employment agreement (whether it’s in service perishability the form of advantages and disadvantages of makaton a contract or a letter) that complies with the law, but fits with your business requirements. Make it a requirement for the selected job applicant to sign the contract BEFORE commencing employment. Explain (with the aid of an interpreter if necessary) the contents of the the wife's story contract to advantages and disadvantages of makaton the employee/applicant in a language he understands. This is required by law. By doing so, you will avoid the following situation: You hire Nathan as your editor. He starts work on Monday without signing his employment contract. You ask him on Thursday to sign the fairy winkles document, but he refuses because he doesn’t agree with the restraint of trade clause. Advantages And Disadvantages Of Makaton? You threaten to the merchant of venice cancel the contract. He threatens to go to the CCMA because, having started work, he has automatically become your employee.

In this situation Nathan is right you can’t cancel his contract. If you want him to sign, you will have to take out the restraint clause. Rather ensure Nathan signs the of makaton contract including the the wife's restraint of trade clause before you appoint him or he commences employment. If he refuses to accept the terms of employment, you don’t have to employ him, because he has neither signed the contract, nor begun work. As South African labour laws offer your employees more protection than they offer you, you need to be proactive and protect yourself! By law, there are 17 elements that must be contained in the employment contract. Protect your business by including another 9 vital points in and disadvantages the contracts. Perishability? Labour Law for Managers loose-leaf service tells you exactly what they are. You have to dismiss an employee, but do you know how? By Ivan Israelstam , CEO of Labour Law Management Consulting, and DerekJackson , labour law consultant. Legally, dismissals are either 'fair' or 'unfair' According to the Labour Relations Act, there are only three reasons for advantages and disadvantages of makaton, dismissal that are 'fair'.

And even if you dismiss with due cause, if you don't follow the fairy winkles correct procedure, you'll end up at the CCMA for sure! 3 Grounds for fair dismissal. Conduct of the of makaton employee. Capacity of the employee (his ability to do his job) Operational requirements of your business (retrenchment) The above three reasons for the merchant wikipedia, dismissal form the advantages of makaton basis of 'substantive fairness'. However, if you dismiss someone for fair reason, but fail to follow procedure, the dismissal will still be found to be unfair. Don't get done on wikipedia the onion, technicalities! In a case brought before the CCMA, the employee was a manager for a security firm.

He testified he had been held up by armed robbers at the Qwa-Qwa branch of his employer's company, where he was robbed of money and a company vehicle. He subsequently opened a criminal case at the local police station. Five days later, he phoned the police station to enquire about the progress of the case. The police told him to wait where he was, at the premises of the advantages of makaton employer. The police arrived a short while later and arrested the employee, presumably in connection with the alleged robbery. The employer then dismissed the employee on fairy winkles, the spot. In the and disadvantages of makaton criminal case, the story employee was found not guilty, and and disadvantages of makaton, he then returned to work but his employer confirmed his dismissal. The law favours the employee! The CCMA Commissioner held that the dismissal was unfair, because the employer didn’t dispute the employee's testimony at the CCMA arbitration hearing, and in addition, dismissed the fairy winkles employee without a disciplinary hearing. In other words, the employer couldn't show good cause (substantive fairness) and hadn't followed the correct procedure. The Commission awarded the employee 12 months' salary as compensation.

This is a classic case of what happens when an employer ignores the very basic requirements in any disciplinary procedure. He dismissed his employee without even affording him a disciplinary hearing. 5 Vital elements of substantive fairness. Warning: The dismissal should pass (and you must prove) all of the following tests to of makaton ensure substantive fairness: The accused employee did commit the misconduct. Service? The employee knew or should have known that the conduct was an infringement of your rules. The rule or standard was valid or reasonable. The rule was consistently applied. The misconduct was serious enough to merit the harsh penalty of dismissal.

Checklist: Disciplinary hearing. 6 Key elements of an effective and legally compliant disciplinary hearing. Investigate and prepare your case thoroughly before the advantages of makaton hearing Choose an unbiased and skilled chairperson Ensure the accused is given every chance to prepare and defend his case Base the outcome on facts Ensure the perishability penalty is appropriate to the offence Record the hearing so you can prove you complied with the and disadvantages law. Procedural fairness is where it gets tricky Refer to the Labour Law for Managers loose leaf service for more details on service perishability, when to give warnings, and when they're not needed; how to present evidence at a disciplinary hearing; finding a verdict based on the 'balance of probabilities'; aggravating and mitigating circumstances; dealing with the appeal; and so much more. Including important amendments to the law and and disadvantages of makaton, new case law. You receive unlimited usage rights for the merchant of venice wikipedia, all sample contracts and additional agreements! Labour Law for and disadvantages, Managers loose leaf service. Important reasons why you may need to dismiss.

You want to reduce costs. So you decide to absolute monarchies retrench. When a Labour Court judge presides over a retrenchment case brought by your employee (or a trade union on and disadvantages, behalf of your employee), he must look at a number of factors when deciding whether you retrenched the employee fairly: 4 Factors that determine fair retrenchment. Whether you had a sufficient reason for wikipedia the onion, the retrenchment. Whether you used a fair criterion when choosing the employee to be retrenched. Whether you consulted fully and in good faith with the employee or his trade union before making the and disadvantages of makaton retrenchment decision. Whether you disclosed to the employee or union all the perishability information to be used for purposes of consulting on retrenchment. The ugly consequences of unfair dismissal: In a case brought before the Labour Court, it found that the retrenchment was unfair. The employee, Mr Manyaka, had been a computer operator.

Before he was retrenched the employer hired another employee into a new computer operator post, but at a higher level. Sick leave when do you NOT have to pay? An employee is entitled to 30 days’ paid sick leave if he works five days a week, and 36 days’ paid sick leave if he works six days a week. You don’t have to pay an employee for sick leave if the period of absence is longer than two consecutive days, or if he has been absent on advantages, more than two occasions during an absolute eight-week period, unless he gives you a valid medical certificate from a registered medical practitioner. The Court found that the employer, instead of advantages retrenching Mr Manyaka, could have trained him for the higher level computer operator post. The Court therefore reinstated the employee with back pay and granted costs against the employer (Manyaka vs Van de Wetering Engineering 1997 11 BLLR 1458). Refusal to obey an instruction versus “just plain bad attitude” It’s easy to confuse the two, because in practice, they frequently occur simultaneously.

Insolence is disrespectful behaviour towards the employer. Insubordination is the fairy winkles refusal by an employee to advantages obey a lawful and reasonable instruction from his superior. Tip: If an employee is wikipedia, both insubordinate and insolent, the allegations forming the basis of his disciplinary hearing to be convened must include two charges, i.e. Advantages And Disadvantages Of Makaton? insubordination and monarchies, insolence. And Disadvantages? This will strengthen your case, should you wish to dismiss the employee. Not all cases of insubordination justify dismissal! If the the wife's employee’s refusal doesn’t have serious or significant negative consequences for advantages of makaton, the employer, a written or final written warning would be more appropriate. The Code of Good Practice: Dismissals, stresses that only gross insubordination warrants dismissal on a first offence. One scenario where you may be able to dismiss (and there are at least six other scenarios outlined in the Labour Law for Managers loose leaf service) is in circumstances where the employee makes it clear that he has no intention of ever complying with future instructions. If you follow the correct procedure, you can win your case! Case example: The employer charged and dismissed the employee for gross insubordination in that she failed to of venice comply with the company clocking-in procedure, which obliged employees to of makaton clock in and out when taking tea breaks.

The employee conceded that she was aware of the company rule requiring employees to do so. The Merchant Of Venice? She had received a prior final written warning for the same offence. The dismissal was held to have been fair ( SACCAWU obo Ngobese vs Pick‘n Pay KN20877-02 ). Desertion occurs when an employee doesn’t come to work without taking leave and without the intention of returning to work OR without informing you of the and disadvantages reason for intergovernmentalism, his absence and without the advantages and disadvantages intention of perishability returning to work. However, the problem is you don’t always know whether he intends to return. For this reason you must implement a desertion procedure designed to protect your business (see sample policy in the Labour Law for Managers ).

Abuse of email/Internet facilities. Your communication systems are central to the effectiveness of your business, but the use of the Internet has become a huge problem, with many employees abusing this business tool. The potential consequences for you, the employer, are dire! This could cost you thousands of rands in lost working time, legal expenses and advantages of makaton, damaged electronic systems. ‘Privacy’ can be a thorn in your side! Because of the legal protection of an employee’s right to privacy, you need to tread very warily when designing effective management tools of your e-communications system. However, there are actions you can take, which we cover in chapter E02 in Labour Law for Managers:

Permit you to inspect emails sent or received through your computer facilities Reduce the abuse of define email and advantages and disadvantages of makaton, Internet facilities Reduce your legal risk when employees send out the onion, offensive emails, or emails that could bind your company legally Reduce the advantages and disadvantages risk of computer viruses invading your computer system. The following reasons for dismissal are described in detail in the onion Labour Law for Managers Practical Handbook : Absenteeism Alcohol addiction abuse Breach of restraint of trade agreement Desertion Disability Email/Internet abuse Failure to observe security and safety regulations Gross incompetence Gross negligence Illegal striking Incapacity Insubordination Moonlighting Poor performance Refusal to work Retrenchment Sexual harassment Sleeping on duty Theft Time keeping. Strikes can cripple your business find out how to prevent them. By Ivan Israelstam , CEO of Labour Law Management Consulting. Strikes can result in loss of productivity, angry customers, financial losses, injury, damage to and disadvantages property and soured employee relations. Find out how to wikipedia the onion minimise and deal with strikes at advantages and disadvantages of makaton your workplace. Who has the right to strike? All employees have the right to service perishability go on advantages, strike. This right springs from the wikipedia constitutional right to protest and engage in trade union activity (Chapter 4 of the LRA 66 of advantages 1995 , and S ection 23 of the Constitution of South Africa No. 109 of 1996 ).

Warning: Employees do not have to be part of wikipedia a trade union to and disadvantages of makaton go on strike. Fairy Winkles? Previously, for a strike to be legal, 50% + 1 of your employees first had to vote in favour of advantages and disadvantages of makaton it. But this requirement for a majority ballot has been scrapped. Service? Also, the advantages and disadvantages concepts of legal and illegal strikes have been scrapped. Instead, we now have the absolute monarchies concepts of protected and unprotected strikes. Warning: You can never dismiss employees for going on a protected strike because the employees are ‘protected’ by law from dismissal (Section 67(4) of the LRA) . And Disadvantages? In fact, such a dismissal will be regarded as automatically unfair (Section 187 (1) (a) and define, (b) of the LRA).

Make 100% sure you know whether your employees’ strike is and disadvantages of makaton, protected or unprotected! If you incorrectly assume that the strike is unprotected and you dismiss the strikers, the cost to your business could be huge. If the the onion Labour Court finds the advantages of makaton strike to have been a protected one, not only will you have unfairly dismissed your workforce, but the dismissal may be found to be automatically unfair. This means you may have to: Pay each dismissed employee up to two years’ remuneration in compensation, or Reinstate them with full back pay calculated from the date of the the merchant wikipedia dismissal. 12 Steps on of makaton, how to deal with protected strikes. Step #1: Make absolutely sure the strike is story, a protected one. This is because you cannot use court interdicts or dismissals to of makaton deal with protected strikes. Step #2: Make sure the employees understand why you are sticking to your position. Meet with them or issue notices explaining the rationale of wikipedia your decision on the matter. Advantages? Clear up any misconceptions created by rumour or malicious instigators.

Step #3: Negotiate: Compromise on fairy winkles, those demands that are fair and you can afford to compromise on. Step #4: One option is to sit it out. Advantages And Disadvantages Of Makaton? In other words, let the employees strike and the merchant, continue with your business. You can only consider doing this if you: a) are definitely not in a position to give into advantages of makaton, any of the service perishability strikers’ demands; b) have been unable to and disadvantages settle the fairy winkles dispute through negotiation as per steps 1 and advantages, 2 above; c) are sure you have made reasonable counter proposals, which the strikers have rejected. That is, even if you’ve tried to negotiate, you should relook at whether your proposals are reasonable or could be improved; d) are in a strong financial position and can keep production going. Step #5: You have the the merchant wikipedia right to take industrial action known as a 'lock-out'. Where you prevent employees from coming to work by barring them from and disadvantages, entering your premises. Lock-out the strikers only if this is really necessary to prevent damage, violence or obstruction of operations. An employer has the service right to lock-out its employees only after it has followed the above procedures required for a protected strike.

Only then will it be a protected lock-out. You can also lock them out to compel them to advantages accept a demand. Step #6: Bring in replacement labour where this is practical. Absolute? However, you should use this approach with great caution as it can provoke violence. You'll need to advantages of makaton provide in advance for protective security to prevent attacks on the replacement workers. Step #7: Temporarily evacuate non-strikers if they are in perishability danger. Note: You'll probably have to advantages of makaton pay the non-strikers if you evacuate them. Step #8: Pay special attention to protecting lives and potentially dangerous or strategic installations such as fuel depots or electrical generators. Step #9: Do not discipline or dismiss any employees for fairy winkles, having gone on a protected strike. Step #10: Avoid provoking the strikers unnecessarily, e.g. Of Makaton? do not taunt them by calling them names or doing a mock toyi-toyi. Step #11: Deal with sabotage, blockades, picketing or other disruptive or prohibited conduct during strikes in story a firm but restrained manner.

You may need to bring in advantages police or security personnel. Try to do so in such a way that their presence is wikipedia, preventive. Give instructions that no excessive force is to advantages and disadvantages be used. Step #12: Never pay employees for the period they were on fairy winkles, strike! The employees are allowed to strike for as long as they want, but will be unable to hold out forever because of the loss of income. Order the Labour Law for Managers loose leaf service today, and use all the advantages and disadvantages of makaton expert advice! 9 Golden rules of Performance Appraisals. By Len Segal , Director, Executive Placements. It's your direct responsibility to see that performance appraisals happen it's something that may not be delegated. Only you can adequately assess your employee’s performance.

It focuses on service, the individual’s performance, which is measured against the standards set out in the job description. It focuses on proven performance, not potential. A performance appraisal is never a psychological appraisal, nor should psychologists be allowed to draw up the appraisal document. It's based solely on the job description. NEVER reward poor performance. If it can’t be measured, then it can’t be managed. And Disadvantages Of Makaton? If the performance can't be measured, then the job is worthless make it redundant. A person whose performance is consistently below standard should be removed via a disciplinary process.

Appraisals should be viewed retrospectively, because emphasis is placed on what has occurred in the past. Service Perishability? It’s pointless trying to appraise what might not have been done. Discussion of and disadvantages of makaton performance is separate from a salary review. The appraisal should occur at least three months before the salary review. Wikipedia? This gives the employee time to of makaton get back on track, should it be necessary. Forget the paperwork it isn’t necessary! Avoid these two traps: You don’t want reams of complicated questions that need to be filled in which is ultimately a waste of time. Define? You undoubtedly have little time to waste.

When appraisals become complicated, managers lose interest and shy away from them. Advantages And Disadvantages Of Makaton? When assessing performance, you shouldn’t worry about future potential, which becomes evident anyway when a person performs well. Assessing potential is another exercise to be examined under different situations. 18 Discriminatory selection practices avoid them! If you're not careful, you could be found guilty of unfair discrimination on any one of the 18 grounds listed below: Race Gender Political opinion Trade union affiliation Religion Pregnancy Marital status Family responsibility Ethnic or social origin Sexual orientation Age Disability HIV status Conscience Belief Culture Language Birth. The burden of health and safety provisions rests on you!

By Cynthia Hayward , Labour Relations lecturer, Peninsular Technikon. The law stipulates that the employer must provide first aid equipment and services to employees who are injured at work. You have to define intergovernmentalism provide a first aid box containing suitable first aid equipment. Employees should be informed that the contents of the box should only be used for emergencies and not as a general medicine chest. You must display a sign that indicates where the box is kept. MINIMUM contents of the advantages of makaton first aid box: Antiseptic, such as TCP (100ml) Swabs for cleaning wounds.

Clean cotton wool (100 g) 10 Squares of sterile gauze. 1 Pair of tweezers (for splinters) 1 Pair of scissors (minimum size 100 mm) 1 Set of the wife's story safety pins. 4 Triangular bandages. 4 Roller bandages (75mm x 5m) 4 Roller bandages (100mm x 5m) 1 Roll of elastic adhesive (24mm x 3m)

1 Non-allergenic adhesive strip (25mm X 3m) 1 Packet of adhesive dressing strips, 10 assorted sizes. 4 First aid dressings (75 x 100mm) 4 First aid dressings (150 x 200mm) 2 Pairs of advantages and disadvantages of makaton disposable splints. 2 Pairs of large disposable latex gloves. 2 Pairs of medium disposable latex gloves. 2 CPR mouthpieces.

What information will you find in the Labour Law for Managers Practical Handbook? Here are just SOME of the topics and issues covered in the Handbook: 10 Clauses you must include in define your employment contracts How to reduce absenteeism and deal with deserters All your questions answered about leave How to deal with probation effectively and legally The A-Z of disciplinary hearings: Investigation, notification, preparation, suspension, evidence, legal representation and advantages of makaton, more How to define intergovernmentalism implement a disciplinary process that increases performance and not litigation: Sample warnings, codes of conduct, levels of offence, types of discipline, sample policy and more What you can and can’t ask in an interview The legal dos and don’ts when advertising for a position Your 6-step employment equity plan What to do when a grievance is reported How to advantages of makaton deal with trade unions How to wikipedia prevent and prepare for advantages and disadvantages, strikes, and deal with a strike misconduct Bargaining council, CCMA, SETA and Department of Labour contact details. All tips, recommendations and information in the Labour Law for absolute, Managers loose leaf service are 100% legal, and advantages and disadvantages, checked by 2 independent consultants. Practical advice explained in simple English; Step-by-step instructions; Checklists; Proven sample contracts and fairy winkles, letters; Real life case studies; and advantages and disadvantages of makaton, Each and every item referenced and justified.

With the Labour Law for absolute, Managers loose leaf you will find: What the pros and cons are of belonging to a bargaining c ouncil; How to advantages of makaton reduce absenteeism; Step-by-step instructions on how to of venice conduct yourself at conciliation and arbitration hearings to emerge successful; Which disputes are arbitrable and which are not; What your rights are as a manager with regards to employee privacy; All the amendments to the LRA and how they affect you; The difference between fair and unfair dismissals; How to and disadvantages implement a disciplinary process that increases performance and NOT litigation; Whether sexual harassment is a form of discrimination; What truthfully constitutes Affirmative Action and how to story implement it to of makaton achieve your company's Employment Equity objective; The impact of HIV/Aids on your business; What you can and can't ask in an interview; Skills development- how to avoid paying hefty penalties; And much more. Editor-in-Chief. Absolute? Lizle is an advantages and disadvantages admitted attorney and conveyancer. She is a director at Edward Nathan Sonnenbergs in the employment law department.

Lizle specialises in employment law, occupational safety and story, mine health and safety. She acts for a diverse range of clients in advantages of makaton the mining and perishability, retail industries. Lizle’s general practice includes litigation in the CCMA, Bargaining Councils, Labour Court and Labour Appeal Court, drafting of employment and and disadvantages, safety related policies and training of service line managers on all employment related matters. Lizle holds the following qualifications: BComm Law (University of and disadvantages of makaton Johannesburg) LLB (University of Johannesburg) Certificate in International Criminal Law (University of Antwerp) Ivan Israelstam (BA Hons., Adv Dip (IPM)) Alan Rycroft (BA, LLB, LLM (London)) Barney Jordaan (BA LLB (cum laude) and Doctorate in Law (LLD)) Des Squire Anton Steenkamp (BA, LLM, LLM(Pret), LLM (summa cum laude) (Notre Dame, USA) Penny Bosman (BA, LLB (cum laude)) Liezl-Mari Mouton Lee-Ann Randall (BSc Occ Ther, MA, Cert Health Ec, Adv Dip Voc Rehab) Ebrahiem Abrahams Dale Hutchison (BCom, LLB (magnacum Laude), PhD (Cambridge) Helen Wilsenach Nicky van der Westhuizen (BCom, LLB) Matthews Dikane Gill Loveday (BA, B.Iuris, LLB, LLM in Labour Law (cum laude)) Michelle Thompson Edwin Ellis (BCom, LLB) Imraan Mohamed Alex Ferreira (BA, LLB, LLM) Itayi Gwaunza (BA, LLB) Zahida Ebrahim (LLB (UWC),Certificate in International Business Transactions (Howard University, USA)) Deidre Venter Bradley Conradie (BA, LLB, LLM) Michael Maeso Nichola Wainwright (BProc, LLB) Annie Erwin (B MUS TLD LLB) Alec Wainwright (D.Litt et Phil) By ordering your copy of Labour Law for Managers loose leaf service today:

You'll learn how to avoid costly labour fees and service perishability, protect your rights as a manager All tips, recommendations and information in Labour Law for advantages and disadvantages, Managers are 100% legal, and are checked by 2 independent consultants You’ll receive the loose leaf binder with 500 pages of practical information and in each section you will receive: Practical advice in absolute monarchies an easy-to-follow format Step-by-step instructions Checklists to make sure you haven’t forgotten anything Proven sample formulations for contracts, letters and forms Many immediately understandable examples Additional services for subscribers: 12 Updates. You're guaranteed to be kept 100% up to date on advantages and disadvantages, new labour law changes as soon as they happen, with our updating service. Daily e-alert service answering pertinent questions and covering key changes in the labour world in the Labour Bulletin Unlimited permission to copy all sample forms and contracts as long as you have purchased the loose leaf service FREE gift : When you order Labour Law for Managers, you will receive Say You're Fired! And Make It Stick In this booklet you’ll find: Sample letters of notice Why you shouldn’t insert long notice periods into employment contracts The legally justified reasons you can use for the merchant of venice, giving an employee notice All the of makaton bargaining councils contact numbers And much more. We’re so sure that you’re going to absolute monarchies benefit from the advantages of makaton handbook that if you’re not happy, simply return it within 90 days and get your money back!

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