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APL Maritime - Ordinary Seaman and Able Bodied Seaman, Unlimited Resume Example. Over forty years' experience planning, defining, and delivering programs and projects; skilled teacher of on The Midland in London project management techniques; seasoned executive in kepler the aviation and maritime sector; powerful team builder and leader; hands-on understanding of the construction and maritime trades; skilled negotiator. Leadership Staff development Coalition building Negotiation. Project recovery Project delivery Program direction Presentation. Delivered $ 268 million marine terminal ahead of schedule despite legal challenges and Hotel, permit delays; Built from scratch a delivery team that successfully delivered a $ 3.4 billion airport reconstruction; Took over The Rainforests of Our Oceans Essay $ 100 million operating division with $ 7 million net operating income and in five years increased net operating income to nearly $ 50 million; Completely changed corporate culture in three years and built a merged consultant-staff team that became a model for Midland Hotel in London programs elsewhere; Developed excellent relationships with local treaty tribes and created an innovative and unique program that virtually eliminates conflicts between treaty fishermen and commercial vessels.

After nearly thirty years working for Essay Care as a ports, largely in the container shipping sector, went back to sea and sailed on on The Midland container vessels as an AB on the New York to Singapore run as a member of the Sailors Union of the Pacific. September 2012 to August 2013 APL Maritime - Oakland , CA. Sailed New York to Singapore run, 70 day round trips, three and a half trips. Duties included watch standing, lookout, deck work, ship maintenance, ship's carpenter, and union delegate on Essay on The in London one trip. October 2010 to on The Midland Hotel in London May 2012 Port of Bellingham - Bellingham , CA. Reporting to three elected commissioners, directed and managed all port operations, with a primary focus on guiding and directing the Essay on The Hotel expansion work for what was then the on The in London fastest growing airport in the United States. Duties also included oversight of kepler three marinas, a cargo shipping terminal, commercial fishing facilities, several parks and industrial properties, and a major cleanup of a former pulp and paper mill site. Gave the airport team solid direction. Rebuilt relationships with the fishing and marine industrial industries. March 2010 to October 2010 Port of Seattle - Seattle , CA. Short term assignment to assist the organization in the adoption and use of the Sharepoint document management system.

Assisted the Essay Midland Information Technology Department in kepler working with the Operating Divisions in learning how to apply this system. October 2003 to March 2010 Port of Seattle - Seattle , CA. Served as the executive in charge of this $ 100 million operating division which operated marinas, container terminals, a cruise terminal, general cargo piers, industrial properties, and several parks. Increased net operating income from $7 million to Essay Midland in London nearly $ 50 million in three years. Led and guided the delivery of a new cruise terminal, the reconstruction of three container terminals, the rebuilding of johannes bio much of Fishermen's Terminal, and associated smaller projects. Hotel. Developed and oversaw an innovative cooperative agreement with local fishing tribes such that fishing gear and commercial shipping conflicts were minimized. March 1998 to September 2003 Port of Seattle - Seattle , CA. Took over contoh english a floundering program and built a joint internal staff-consultant team that successfully planned and defined over 100 projects and then for four years successfully delivered projects on schedule and within budget despite the 9-11 attacks and an earthquake.

Over a period of two years merged internal staff and consultants into a single highly effective team. Adopted a common language for project definition and delivery using the Kepner Tregoe project management system. Taught the KT system to all airport staff involved in the program. Negotiated and then oversaw a highly successful project labor agreement which became a model for elsewhere. Midland Hotel. Created a staff development program. June 1992 to March 1998 Port of The Catcher Rye by J.D. Salinger Seattle - Seattle , CA. Essay On The Hotel. Served as project manager and team leader for the planning, design, environmental cleanup and construction of a terminal expansion for Care matter APL in West Seattle. Involved in all aspects of project delivery - cleanup, design, permitting, community relations, and construction.

At the time the Essay on The Hotel largest project ever undertaken by the Port of Seattle, this effort required the second largest cleanup in Washington State, the relocation of four businesses, the purchase of seventeen properties, gaining permits for a major dock expansion, and working with a highly involved community. Salinger. This work was all done while APL continued to Midland operate on the site throughout. For one six month period also served as construction manager out in Oceans Essay the field office as well as overall program leader. Project delivered ahead of schedule and Essay on The in London, within two percent of original budget despite a six month delay due to a citizen's lawsuit. June 1990 to johannes March 1992 Port of Seattle - Seattle , CA. Managed a small staff conducting all facilities planning work for the Marine Division for the Port of Seattle - container terminals, marinas, fishermen's facilities, and nearby roadway access improvements. Essay Midland Hotel In London. Resolved conflicts with the a mockingbird City of Seattle over truck traffic around the terminals. Developed a plan for access to the ferry docks which was implemented and used for Essay on The Midland in London over a decade.

August 1984 to June 1990 Port Authority of New York and New Jersey - New York , New York. Hired from the fishing industry to manage the The Catcher in the J.D. design and eventual reconstruction of an on The Midland Hotel, abandoned steamship terminal in Essay matter of courage Brooklyn into a modern fisheries complex. Responsible for marketing, strategy development, planning, and industry outreach. Although the on The in London piers were rebuilt and a modern auction hall built for The Catcher J.D. Essay the sale of Essay Hotel fish, agreement could not be reached with local wholesalers to use the facility and eventually the project was terminated. July 1969 to August 1984 Various - Brewster , Mass. Worked in the commercial fishing industry on the US east coast as a fisherman and as a consultant. The Rainforests Of Our Essay. Involved in the groundfish, swordfish, and squid fisheries as deckhand, mate and captain. As a consultant built a fisheries business that concentrated on fisheries management issues for the New England and Mid Atlantic Fishery Management Councils and also as a gear technology specialist for the National Marine Fisheries Service.

During this period built one boat and reconfigured and rebuilt four other boats. Construction Engineer/Turnover Coordinator@Foster Wheeler USA Corporation. General Superintendent / Field Manager@Seminole Masonry. Lead Designer Project Manager@KOR Design Build. Nace Level 1 Inspector/Utility 2 Inspector@Tulsa Inspection Resources. Midland Hotel In London. Business Owner/ Project Manager@UNDER THE SUN CONSTRUCTION SOLAR.

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University of The Catcher J.D. Salinger Essay Massachusetts Yale University. Master of Essay Hotel in London Science : Resource Planning , 1971. Bachelor of Arts : American Studies/Regional Planning , 1969. Where can I find a APL Maritime Ordinary Seaman and Able Bodied Seaman, Unlimited resume example in Seattle, Washington 98117? This is an actual resume example of a Ordinary Seaman and Able Bodied Seaman, Unlimited who works in the Construction Management Industry. LiveCareer has 21475 Construction Management resumes in its database. Care As A Matter Of Courage. LiveCareer’s Resume Directory contains real resumes created by Essay on The Midland in London, subscribers using LiveCareer’s Resume Builder. Mighty Recruiter Mighty Recruiter. Customer Service Customer Service.

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Essay on The Midland Hotel in London

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The Midland Hotel In London Essay - 1953 Words - brightkite com

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Interior of the Former Midland Grand Hotel, by Sir George Gilbert Scott

Free Online Strategy Innovation Training | Business Planning and Essay on The Midland Hotel, Marketing Strategy. Free business planning and marketing tips, samples, examples and tools - how to on The Hotel in London write a business plan, techniques for Essay on The Midland Hotel in London, writing a marketing strategy, strategic business plans and contoh essay english, sales plans. Business Planning and Marketing Strategy. Table of contents. 1. business plans and marketing strategy. business plans and on The Midland, marketing strategy.

free business planning and marketing tips, samples, examples and tools - how to write a business plan, techniques for writing a marketing strategy, strategic business plans and sales plans. Here are tips, examples, techniques, tools and a process for writing business plans to produce effective results. This free online guide explains how to write a marketing or business strategy, a basic business plan, and The Rainforests Oceans, a sales plan, using free templates, tools and on The Midland Hotel, examples, such as SWOT Analysis, PEST Analysis, the 'Ansoff Matrix' and the 'Boston Matrix'. Separately the marketing guide offers more specific explanation and on The Midland in London, theories and tools for marketing strategy and marketing planning, including techniques and Essay on The Midland Hotel, tips for advertising, public relations (PR), press and media publicity, sales enquiry lead generation, advertising copy-writing, internet and website marketing, etc. The sales training guide offers detailed theories and methods about sales planning and selling, extending to cold calling and negotiation skills and techniques, especially relating to selling. Sometimes people use the term business plan when they are referring to a project.

It may or may not be appropriate to use the term 'business planning' for a project. Some projects are very substantial and equate to an autonomous (independent) business activity, in which case a business plan is The Rainforests of Our Oceans entirely appropriate. Other projects are smaller, perhaps limited to internal change or development, and on The Midland in London, are less likely to require a conventional business plan, and to kill a mockingbird, are quite adequately planned and managed via project management methods. Business planning terminology can be confusing because much of it is Essay on The Hotel used very loosely, and can mean different things. Here is a way to understand it better: Terminology in business planning is often used very loosely. Johannes. When people talk and write about Essay on The in London, business planning different terms may mean the same thing, and a single term can mean different things. The term 'business planning' itself covers all sorts of different plans within a business, or potentially within a non-commercial organization. The words 'strategy' and Essay Hotel in London, 'strategic' arise often in the subject of Essay on The Midland Hotel in London buisness planning, although there is no actual difference between a 'business plan' and a 'strategic business plan'.

Every business plan is arguably 'strategic'. Everyone involved in bio planning arguably adopts a 'strategic' approach. Most businesses and plans are primarily driven or determined by market needs and aims . Essay On The Midland In London. This increasingly applies to The Catcher in the Salinger Essay many non-commercial activities (government services, education, health, charities, etc), whose planning processes may also be described as 'business planning', even though such organizations may not be businesses in the way we normally imagine. In such non-commercial organizations, 'business planning' might instead be called 'organizational planning', or 'operational planning', or 'annual planning' or simply 'planning'. Essentially all these terms mean the same, and increasingly the tendency is for 'business planning' to become a generic (general) term to refer to them. I should clarify that finance is of course a major and unavoidable aspect of business and organizational activities, but in terms of planning, finance is a limiting or enabling factor; finance is a means to an end, or a restriction; finance in itself is on The in London not a basis for kepler, growth or strategy. Markets/customers, product/service development, and sales, provide the only true basis for Essay on The in London, businesses to define direction, development, growth, etc., and to kill, thereby business strategy and planning. Business planning always starts with or revisits the basic aim or need to Essay on The Midland Hotel provide products or services to contoh essay english customers - also called a market or 'market-place'. Consequently business plans tend first to look outwards, at a market, before they look inwards, at finance and production, etc. This means that most business plans are driven by marketing, since marketing is the function which addresses market opportunity and need, and how to fulfil it.

Marketing in Essay on The Midland this sense is also called 'marketing strategy' - or more broadly 'business strategy'. In many simple, small, and/or old traditional businesses, 'marketing' is often seen instead to be 'sales' or 'selling' (usually because in such businesses selling is the only marketing activity), in which case a 'sales plan' may be the essay english main driver of strategy and the business plan. Many people use the words 'sales' or 'selling' and Midland Hotel in London, 'marketing' to mean the same thing - basically selling products or services to customers, in to kill a mockingbird the broadest sense. In fact, marketing refers to much wider issues than sales and selling. Marketing involves the strategic planning of a business (or other organizational provider) through to every aspect of Midland in London customer engagement, including market reserach, product development, branding, advertising and promotion, methods of selling, customer service, and a mockingbird key quotes, extending to the acquisition or development of new businesses.

Sales or selling is an activity within marketing, referring to the methods and processes of communicating and Essay, agreeing and completing the essay transaction (sale) with the Essay on The customer. Given all this, it is hopefully easier to understand why, depending on a person's role or standpoint or the department in which they work, 'business planning' may be referrred to in many and various ways, for example as 'sales planning', 'marketing planning', 'strategic planning', etc., and that all these terms might mean slightly different things, according to the situation. If there is Essay a technically correct definition of Hotel 'business planning', then perhaps we can best say that 'business planning' refers to the plan of the overall organization, or to a unit or division within an organization with responsibility for a trade or profit. A business plan technically contains and reflects the individual plans for essay english, the different functions within the whole operation, each of which may have its own detailed 'business plans', which might be called business plans, or more correctly departmental or functional plans according to their purpose, such as a marketing plan, sales plan, production plan, financial plan, etc. Additional help regarding terminology is offered by the business planning definitions below. Essay Hotel In London. Other definitions and explanations are offered in Essay Midland the business glossary, and in the shorter glossaries of the in London sales and marketing sections.

Terminology will be further explained to on The Midland Hotel in London clarify meaning and avoid confusion throughout this article. Approached correctly, writing business plans and marketing strategy is usually simpler than first seems. Business planning may seem complex and Midland, daunting but mostly it is common sense. Marketing strategy - which often drives the aims and 'shape' of The Catcher J.D. Salinger Essay a business plan - is mostly common sense too. Business plans, and the strategy which drives them, are based on logic, or cause and effect : I want to achieve a certain result - so what will cause this to happen? Even the biggest business plan is effectly built on a collection of on The lots of causes and effects. A written business plan provides the narrative (explanation) of the numbers contained in english a spreadsheet.

When we see lots of numbers in a computer spreadsheet we can forget this, but the numbers are merely a reflection of scale and detail, and of computerised calculations and modelling, etc. In fact often when we are confronted with a complex planning spreadsheet containing thousands of Hotel numbers, what we are actually being offered is a ready-made planning tool. In many cases, where business planning is bio a continuation of an ongoing situation, the most frightening spreadsheets can provide a very easy template for on The Midland in London, future plans, especially with a little help from a colleague in the acciounts department who understands how it all works. Ironically, a blank sheet of paper - in other words a 'new business start-up' - is usually a much more challenging starting point. It is kepler bio generally more difficult to write a business plan for a start-up business (a new business) than for an existing business. This is because an existing business usually has computerised records of the results of Essay on The in London past activities and Rye by J.D. Salinger Essay, trading (usually called 'accounts'). Essay On The Midland Hotel In London. Spreadsheets are usually available showing previous years plans and actual results, which can be used as a template on essay english, which new plans can easily be overlaid.

Writing a new business plan for the continuation or development of such an existing situation obviously enables much of the planning to be based on Essay Hotel, existing figures, ratios, statistics, etc. New business start-up situations by their nature tend to have no previous results, so we often refer to this sort of planning as 'starting with a blank sheet of in the J.D. paper'. New business start-ups - especially if you are the owner or entrepreneur - present bigger planning challenges in some respects because we have no previous records to act as a guide, but in other respects they offer wonderful opportunities to create genuinely innovative and exciting founding principles - your own new business philosophy - on which your plans can be built and developed. On this page there is specific guidance for business start-up situations. Essay Hotel In London. See the simple business start-up principles. Depending on the constraints applying in as a matter the planning for existing continuous business activities, the principles are very similar for start-up and existing business planning. It's essentially cause-and effect, and using the computer to calculate the numbers. A slightly more detailed version is on the quick business/operational plan page. , and begins with. To explore personal direction and change (for example for early planning of self-employment or new business start-up) see the passion-to-profit exercise and template on the teambuilding exercises page. See also the Midland Hotel in London simple notes about starting your own business, which to an extent also apply when you are starting a new business initiative or development inside another organisation as a new business development manager, or a similar role.

Here's a free profit and loss account spreadsheet template tool (xls) for key quotes, incorporating these factors and in London, financials into The Rainforests of Our, a more formal phased business trading plan, which also serves as a business forecasting and Essay on The Midland Hotel, reporting tool too. Adapt it to to kill suit your purposes. This plan example is also available as a PDF, see the Profit and Loss Account (PL) Small Enterprise Business Plan Example (PDF). The numbers could be anything: ten times less, ten times more, a hundred times more - the principle is the on The Midland in London same. Towards the end of Essay this article there is also a simple template/framework for a feasibility study or justification report, such as might be required to win funding, authorisation or approval for starting a project, or the continuation of a project or group, in Essay Midland in London a commercial or voluntary situation. If you are starting a new business you might also find the tips and information about buying a franchise business to Essay of courage be helpful, since they cover many basic points about in London, choice of business activity and early planning. (Note: Some UK-English and US-English spellings differ, for in the Essay, example organisation/organization, colour/color. If using these materials please adapt the Essay in London spellings to suit your situation.) how to write strategic marketing plans, business plans and sales plans. People use various terms referring to the business planning process - business plans, business strategy, marketing strategy, strategic business planning, sales planning - they all cover the same basic principles.

When faced with business planning or strategy development task it's important to clarify exactly what is required: clarify what needs to be done rather than assume the aim from the description given to it - terms are confused and mean different things to different people. In The Rye By Essay. You'll see from the definitions below how flexible these business planning terms are. a plan - a statement of intent - a calculated intention to organize effort and on The Midland Hotel, resource to achieve an outcome - in this context a plan is in written form, comprising explanation, justification and relevant numerical and financial statistical data. In a business context a plan's numerical data - costs and johannes bio, revenues - are normally scheduled over at least one trading year, broken down weekly, monthly quarterly and cumulatively. a business - an activity or entity, irrespective of size and autonomy, which is engaged in an activity, normally the provision of products and/or services, to Essay Midland produce commercial gain, extending to non-commercial organizations whose aim may or may not be profit (hence why public service sector schools and hospitals are in this context referred to as 'businesses'). business plan - this is now rightly a very general and flexible term, applicable to the planned activities and johannes, aims of any entity, individual group or organization where effort is on The Midland Hotel being converted into results , for example: a small company; a large company; a corner shop; a local window-cleaning business; a regional business; a multi-million pound multi-national corporation; a charity; a school; a hospital; a local council; a government agency or department; a joint-venture; a project within a business or department; a business unit, division, or department within another organization or company, a profit centre or cost centre within an an organization or business; the responsibility of a team or group or an individual. The business entity could also be a proposed start-up, a new business development within an existing organization, a new joint-venture, or any new organizational or business project which aims to convert action into results. The extent to which a business plan includes costs and overheads activities and The Rainforests, resources (eg., production, research and development, warehouse, storage, transport, distribution, wastage, shrinkage, head office, training, bad debts, etc) depends on the needs of the business and the purpose of the plan. Large 'executive-level' business plans therefore look rather like a 'predictive profit and loss account', fully itemised down to the 'bottom line'. Business plans written at business unit or departmental level do not generally include financial data outside the department concerned.

Most business plans are in effect sales plans or marketing plans or departmental plans, which form the main bias of Midland Hotel in London this guide. strategy - originally a military term, in to kill a mockingbird key quotes a business planning context strategy/strategic means/pertains to Essay on The Midland in London why and Essay, how the plan will work , in relation to Essay all factors of influence upon the business entity and activity, particularly including competitors (thus the Essay on The use of a military combative term), customers and demographics, technology and communications. marketing - believed by many to mean the on The Hotel in London same as advertising or sales promotion, marketing actually means and johannes, covers everything from company culture and positioning, through market research, new business/product development, advertising and promotion, PR (public/press relations), and Essay on The Midland Hotel, arguably all of the sales functions as well. Key Quotes. Marketing is the process by which a business decides what it will sell, to whom, when and how, and Essay Hotel in London, then does it . marketing plan - logically a plan which details what a business will sell, to whom, when and how, implicitly including the business/marketing strategy. The extent to which financial and commercial numerical data is included depends on of Our Essay, the needs of the business.

The extent to which this details the sales plan also depends on the needs of the business. sales - the transactions between the business and its customers whereby services and/or products are provided in return for payment. Sales (sales department/sales team) also describes the activities and resources that enable this process, and sales also describes the revenues that the business derives from the sales activities. sales plan - a plan describing, quantifying and phased over time, how the the sales will be made and to Midland Hotel in London whom. Some organizations interpret this to be the same as a business plan or a marketing plan. business strategy - see 'strategy' - it's the same. marketing strategy - see 'strategy' - it's the same. service contract - a formal document usually drawn up by the supplier by english, which the trading arrangement is agreed with the customer.

See the section on service contracts and trading agreements. strategic business plan - see strategy and business plan - it's a business plan with strategic drivers (which actually all business plans should be). strategic business planning - developing and writing a strategic business plan. philosophy, values, ethics, vision - these are the fundamentals of Midland in London business planning, and determine the spirit and integrity of the business or organisation - see the guide to how philosophical and ethical factors fit into the planning process, and also the Salinger Essay principles and materials relating to corporate responsibility and ethical leadership. You can see that many of these terms are interchangeable, so it's important to clarify what needs to Essay Midland in London be planned for rather than assuming or inferring a meaning from the name given to the task. That said, the principles explained here can be applied to business plans of Essay on The all sorts.

Business plans are often called different names - especially by senior managers and directors delegating a planning exercise that they do not understand well enough to Essay on The Midland explain. For example: sales plans, operational plans, organizational/organisational plans, marketing plans, marketing strategy plans, strategic business plans, department business plans, etc. A Mockingbird. Typically these names reflect the department doing the Essay on The Midland in London planning, despite which, the planning process and content required in the document is broadly similar. Other useful and relevant business planning definitions are in the business dictionary; the sales and selling glossary; some are also in Care of courage the financial terms glossary, and more - especially for training - are in Midland Hotel the business and training acronyms listing, which also provides amusing light relief if this business planning gets a little dry (be warned, the acronyms listings contain some adult content). when writing a business or operating plan, remember. A useful first rule of business planning is to decide what you are actually trying to achieve and always keep this in mind . Write your aim large as a constant reminder to yourself, and to to kill anyone else involved. Keeping your central aim visible will help you minimise the Essay on The distractions and distortions which frequently arise during the planning process.

An increasingly vital and perhaps second rule of business planning is to establish a strong ethical philosophy at the outset of your planning. This provides a vital reference for decision-making and strategy from the start. A strong clear ethical code communicates your values to staff, customers, suppliers, and creates a simple consistent basis for operations which conventional financials, processes, systems and even people, do not address. It is very difficult to introduce ethical principles later into an enterprise, especially when planning shifts into implementation, and more so if problems arise relating to integrity, honesty, corporate responsibility, trust, governance, etc., any of which can have massive impact on relationships and reputation. See corporate social responsibility and key quotes, ethics and the Psychological Contract. It is easy to address issues of Essay ethics and corporate responsibility when you are the owner of key quotes a new enterprise. Essay On The Midland Hotel In London. It is more difficult if you are a manager in someone else's company or a large corporation. Nevertheless ethics and corporate responsibility are highly significant in a mockingbird planning, and strong justification for Essay on The Midland, their proper consideration can now be made. There are now plenty of recent examples of corporations - indeed entire national economies and governments - which have failed because of poor regard to ethical considerations. Of Our Oceans. The world is changing and learning, slowly, but it is, and anyone ignoring ethics in planning today does so at their own peril.

A third crucial requirement for business plans is Essay in London return on investment , or for public services and non-profit organisations: effective use of investment and resources, which is beyond simple 'cost control'. For the contoh vast majority of organisations, whether companies, public services, not-for-profit trusts and charities, all organisations need to be financially effective in what they do, otherwise they will cease to function . Ultimately - whatever the organisation and aims - financial viability is necessary to Midland in London sustain any organised activity . While it's essential to manage ethical and socially responsible aspects of organisational aims , these must allow for adequate return on investment (or in less traditional and Essay matter, 'non-profit' enterprises, must allow for the effective use of investment and resources , according to the financial requirements of the Essay Hotel particular organisation). Remembering the need for financial viability is Essay Midland Hotel in London vital also because business planning is often done - rightly - to achieve something new and Essay Hotel in London, special. This tends to focus thinking on johannes kepler, creativity, innovation, ambition, quality, excellence, perhaps even social good, etc., which can easily distract planning away from the basic need to be financially viable - and crucially not to make a loss. By treating return on investment as a vital requirement of planning we increase the Hotel in London likelihood that plans will be viable and therefore sustainable. Return on investment is however a variable feature of business planning. It is flexible according to the type of enterprise, its main purpose and philosophy.

In a conventional profit-driven corporation return on investment (at an optimal rate) is typically a strong strategic driver for The Catcher in the J.D. Essay, local planning and decisions, and by implication also a basic requirement of the Midland in London enterprise as a whole. On the other hand, in a business or organization less focused on shareholder reward, such as a public services trust or charity, or a social enterprise or cooperative, return on investment (at a relatively lower rate), may be a requirement simply to sustain viable operations, according to essay english the aims of the enterprise. In the first example, return on investment is the aim; in the second example, return on investment enables some other higher aim to in London be achieved. In more detail: In a traditional profit-driven corporation, return on investment tends to The Rainforests of Our be the main requirement of any business plan and also the in London main aim or purpose or driver of the Essay Care matter of courage plan. In most traditional corporations return on investment tends to Hotel in London be at the heart of all activities, since typically the corporation exists to maximize the essay yield (profit and growth effectively) of shareholder funds invested in the business. On The Hotel In London. Planning in traditional corporations at times forgets this basic obligation, especially when a junior manager is asked to 'write a business plan' for the first time.

In traditional profit-driven corporations, when a new manager starts to write a business plan or operational plan for the first time (and for some experienced managers also, for the umpteenth time), the manager wonders: What is the Essay on The Midland in London aim? What am I trying to achieve? Often when they ask their own manager, the manager has the same doubts. The central aim is usually return on investment . In businesses or 'non-profit' organisations where shareholder enrichment is not the main purpose, return on on The Midland, investment is less of a driver in business planning, but is Hotel nevertheless a crucial requirement . On The Midland In London. Such enterprises are becoming more popular, and will continue to become so, since the collapse of the western economies in 2008, and increasing disillusionment with old-style business thinking. Here return on Essay as a, investment is in London not the primary driver or objective of the business.

Instead the The Catcher J.D. main driver of Midland in London enterprise may be some other purpose. An example of 'some other purpose' might be the activities of a social enterprise or cooperative, or maybe an employee ownership company, or perhaps a trust or charity, whose main aim is (rather than the traditional profit generation for external/institutional shareholders) perhaps to benefit its members/staff, and/or to sustain local jobs, and/or to benefit the local community, or maybe to advance science or learning or health, etc. Care Matter Of Courage. Here, while return on investment may seem less crucial or appropriate to planning and operations, the enterprise must nevertheless remain financially viable , or it ceases to be able to operate at all. In such examples, return on investment in business planning is not usually maximized, but must still be treated as an Midland Hotel in London underpinning requirement to planning, and flexed according to the fundamental aims and financial requirements of the enterprise. Before planning, therefore, it is helpful to bio understand clearly: What are we actually aiming to achieve? What is Essay Hotel in London our policy/position on corporate social responsibility and ethics, etc - our philosophy? And what return on investment (or alternative financial performance) does our activity/enterprise require - is this a strategic driver in itself, or simply the means by which we maintain our activities in support of our (point 1) aims? The basic methodology of business planning is identifying causes and effects , according to your relevant business requirements (financials and johannes, ethics) and strategic drivers (what we are actually aiming to achieve). Here a cause is an input or action or resource; an Essay in London effect is an outcome or result or consequence of some sort. We want to achieve xyz effect (for example a given return on investment, or a certain sales level or market share, whatever) - so what should we plan to cause this to happen?

Commonly big cause/effect elements are broken down into The Rainforests of Our Oceans Essay, smaller activities, which also comprise a cause and effect. (The goal planning process and tools help explain how this subdivision works - where a big aim is broken down into smaller more measurable and achievable parts). Junior managers have responsibility for plans and activities which feed into larger departmental plans and activities of Essay Midland in London senior managers. Essay On The Midland In London. The plans and activities of senior managers feed into the divisional plans of Essay on The Hotel in London executives and directors. There is a hierarchy or tree structure of cause and Essay in London, effects, all hopefully contributing to the overall organizational aim. In many good businesses a substantial business planning responsibility extends now to front line customer-facing staff, and the trend is Essay on The in London increasing. In this context, the business plan could be called also be called a marketing plan, or a sales plan - all departmental plans are basically types of business planning: What you are going to sell to whom, when and how you are going to Essay Care matter sell it, how much contribution (gross profit) the sales will produce, what the marketing and/or selling cost will be, and what will be the return on investment. Where a department is Essay on The a 'cost centre' not a 'profit-centre' - providing products or services internally to other departments rather than externally to customers - then the language and bio, planning elements may alter, but the principles remain the same. Also, these principles and methods apply to very large complex multinational organizations, which tend to entail more and different costs, fixed overheads, revenues, and Midland in London, consequently larger planning formats; more and bigger spreadsheets, more lines and columns on each, more attention and people working on the numbers, more accountants, and typically - especially at middle-management level and above - more emphasis on Essay on The Midland in London, cashflow and the balance sheet, alongside basic 'profit and loss' planning.

carry out your market research, including understanding your competitor activity. 'The market' varies according to the business or organisation concerned, but every organised activity has a market. Knowing the market enables you to assess and value and Midland Hotel, plan how to engage with it. A common failing of business planning or operational planning outside of the 'business' world, is to plan in isolation, looking inward, when ideas can seem very positive and reliable because there's no context and The Rainforests of Our Essay, nothing to compare. Hence research is critical. And this applies to any type of Essay on The Midland Hotel in London organisation - not just to businesses. See especially the contoh guidance on marketing as it relates to business planning. Planning very much concerns processes. The principles of marketing will explain additionally how to put meaning and values into what you plan. Your market research should focus on the information you need, to help you to formulate strategy and on The Midland Hotel, make business decisions.

Market research should be pragmatic and a mockingbird key quotes, purposeful - a means to an end, and not a means in itself. Essay. Market information potentially covers a vast range of data, from global macro-trends and statistics, to very specific and The Catcher Rye by Essay, detailed local or technical information, so it's important to decide what is actually relevant and necessary to on The Midland Hotel in London know. Market information about market and industry trends, values, main corporations, market structure, etc, is important to english know for large corporations operating on a national or international basis. This type of research is sometimes called 'secondary', because it is Midland Hotel already available, having been researched and published previously. Essay Midland. This sort of information is available from the internet, libraries, research companies, trade and national press and publications, professional associations and institutes. This secondary research information normally requires some interpretation or manipulation for your own purposes. However there's no point spending days researching global statistical economic and demographic data if you are developing a strategy for a relatively small or local business. Far more useful would be to carry out your own 'primary' research (i.e. original research) about the local target market, buying patterns and preferences, local competitors, their prices and Essay in London, service offerings.

A lot of contoh english useful primary market research can be performed using customer feed-back, surveys, questionnaires and on The Midland Hotel, focus groups (obtaining indicators and views through discussion among a few representative people in a controlled discussion situation). This sort of primary research should be tailored exactly for contoh essay english, your needs. Primary research requires less manipulation than secondary research, but all types of research need a certain amount of analysis. Be careful when extrapolating or projecting figures to avoid magnifying initial mistakes or wrong assumptions. On The Hotel In London. If the to kill a mockingbird starting point is inaccurate the resulting analysis will not be reliable.

For businesses of any size; small, local, global and everything in between, the main elements you need to understand and quantify are: customer (and potential customer) numbers, profile and mix customer perceptions, needs, preferences, buying patterns, and in London, trends, by sub-sector if necessary products and services, mix, values and trends demographic issues and trends (especially if dependent on consumer markets) future regulatory and legal effects prices and values, and customer perceptions in these areas distribution and routes to market competitor activities, strengths, weaknesses, products, services, prices, sales methods, etc. Primary research is recommended for a mockingbird key quotes, local and niche services. Keep the subjects simple and the range narrow. If using questionnaires formulate questions that give clear yes or no indicators (i.e. avoid three and five options in multi-choices which produce lots of uncertain answers) always understand how you will analyse and measure the data produced. Try to convert data to numerical format and manipulate on a spreadsheet. Essay. Use focus groups for more detailed work. For large research projects consider using a market research organization because they'll probably do it better than you, even though this is likely to be more costly. If you use any sort of The Rainforests Oceans Essay marketing agency ensure you issue a clear brief, and that your aims are clearly understood. Useful frameworks for research are PEST analysis and SWOT analysis. establish your corporate philosophy and the aims of your business or operation. First establish or confirm the aims of the business, and Essay on The, if you are concerned with a part of a business, establish and validate the aims of your part of the The Rainforests of Our Essay business.

These can be very different depending on the type of business, and particularly who owns it. Refer to and consider issues of ethics and philosophy, corporate social responsibility, sustainability, etc - these are the foundations on which values and missions are built. Consider the Psychological Contract and the benefits of establishing a natural balance and Essay Midland Hotel in London, fairness between all interests (notably staff, customers, the The Catcher J.D. Salinger organization). Traditional business models are not necessarily the best ones. The world is Essay constantly changing, and english, establishing a new business is a good time to challenge preconceptions of fundamental business structure and purpose. A business based on a narrow aim of enriching a few investors while relegating the Essay Hotel in London needs and to kill a mockingbird key quotes, involvement of everyone else may contain conflicts and tensions at a deep level. There are other innovative business structures which can inherently provide a more natural, cooperative and self-fuelling relationship - especially between employees and the organization, and potentially between customers and Midland Hotel, the organization too. When you have established or confirmed your philosophical and ethical position, state the objectives of the business unit you are planning to to kill develop - your short, medium and long term aims - (typically 'short, medium and on The Hotel in London, long' equate to on The Midland 1 year, 2-3 years and 3 years plus). In other words, what is the Essay Midland business aiming to do over the next one, three and five years? Bear in mind that you must reliably ensure the bio success and viability of the business in the short term or the long term is merely an academic issue. Grand visions need solid foundations.

All objectives and aims must be prioritised and on The Hotel in London, as far as possible quantified. If you can't measure it, you can't manage it. All businesses need a ‘mission statement'. It announces clearly and succinctly to your staff, shareholders and customers what you are in business to do. Your mission statement may build upon a general ‘service charter' relevant to your industry.

You can involve staff in defining and refining the business's mission statement, which helps develop a sense of ownership and responsibility. Producing and announcing the mission statement is also an excellent process for focusing attention on the business's priorities, and particularly the emphasis on customer service. A Mockingbird. Whole businesses need a mission statement - departments and Midland in London, smaller business units within a bigger business need them too. define your 'product offering(s)' or 'service offering(s)' - your sales proposition(s) You must understand and define clearly what you are providing to contoh essay your customers. On The Hotel In London. This description should normally go beyond your products or services, and critically must include the way you do business , and what business benefits your customers derive from bio, your products and services, and from doing business with you. Develop offerings or propositions for each main area of your business activity - sometimes referred to as 'revenue streams', or 'business streams' - and/or for the sector(s) that you serve. Under normal circumstances competitive advantage is Hotel in London increased the Rye by J.D. Essay more you can offer things that your competitors cannot. Good research will tell you where the opportunities are to increase your competitive advantage in areas that are of Essay Midland Hotel in London prime interest to your target markets. Rye By Salinger Essay. Develop your service offering to emphasise your strengths, which should normally relate to your business objectives, in turn being influenced by corporate aims and Hotel in London, market research. Midland In London. The important process in Essay on The Midland developing a proposition is translating your view of these services into an offer that means something to The Rainforests of Our Oceans Essay your customer.

The definition of Hotel in London your service offer must make sense to your customer in bio terms that are advantageous and Midland Hotel, beneficial to the customer, not what is technically good, or scientifically sound to you. Think about what your service, and Essay Midland, the manner by which you deliver it, means to your customer. Traditionally, in sales and marketing, this perspective is Essay Midland Hotel in London referred to as translating features into benefits. The easiest way to translate a feature into a benefit is to add the prompt ‘which means that. Essay Midland In London. '. For example, if a strong feature of a business is that it has 24-hour opening, this feature would translate into Midland Hotel in London, something like: We're open 24 hours (the feature) which means that you can get what you need when you need it - day or night. Essay Care. (the benefit). Essay. Clearly this benefit represents a competitive advantage over other suppliers who only essay english open 9-5. This principle, although a little old-fashioned today, still broadly applies. The important thing is to understand your services and proposition in terms that your customer will recognise as being relevant and Essay Hotel, beneficial to them.

Most businesses have a very poor understanding of what their customers value most in the relationship, so ensure you discover this in in the Salinger Essay the research stage, and Essay on The Midland Hotel in London, reflect it in contoh essay english your stated product or service proposition(s). Customers invariably value these benefits higher than all others: If your proposition(s) cannot be seen as leading to any of the on The in London above then customers will not be very interested in you. A service-offer or proposition should be an encapsulation of what you do best, that you do better than your competitors (or that they don't do at all); something that fits with your business objectives, stated in terms that will make your customers think ‘Yes, that means something to me and I think it could be good for my business (and therefore good for me also as a buyer or sponsor).' This is the first 'brick in the wall' in the process of business planning, sales planning, marketing planning, and thereafter, direct marketing, and particularly sales lead generation. write your business plan - include sales, costs of sales, gross margins, and if necessary your business overheads.

Business plans come in all shapes and sizes. Pragmatism is essential. Ensure your plan shows what your business needs it to show. Essentially your plan is a spreadsheet of numbers with supporting narrative, explaining how the numbers are to be achieved. Essay. A plan should show all the activities and Essay Midland Hotel, resources in terms of revenues and costs, which together hopefully produce a profit at the end of the trading year. To Kill A Mockingbird. The level of Essay on The Midland Hotel detail and complexity depends on the size and part of the business that the plan concerns. Your business plan, which deals with all aspects of the resource and management of the business (or your part of the business), will include many decisions and factors fed in Essay on The Midland Hotel from the marketing process.

It will state sales and profitability targets by activity. In a marketing plan there may also be references to Essay image and reputation, and to public relations. All of english these issues require thought and Midland in London, planning if they are to result in improvement, and key quotes, particularly increasing numbers of customers and revenue growth. You would normally describe and provide financial justification for the means of achieving these things, together with customer satisfaction improvement. On The In London. Above all a plan needs to be based on to kill a mockingbird key quotes, actions - cost-effective and profitable cause and in London, effect; inputs required to achieved required outputs, analysed, identified and quantified separately wherever necessary to be able to a mockingbird key quotes manage and in London, measure the relevant activities and resources. quantify the business you seek from each of a mockingbird your market sectors, segments, products and customer groupings, and allocate investment, resources and activities accordingly.

These principles apply to a small local business, a department within a business, or a vast whole business. Before attending to Essay Midland in London the detail of how to achieve your marketing aims you need to quantify clearly what they are. What growth targets does the business have? What customer losses are you projecting? How many new customers do you need, by size and type, by product and on The Midland, service? What sales volumes, revenues and Essay on The Midland, contributions values do you need for each business or revenue stream from each sector? What is your product mix, in Essay as a matter terms of customer type, size, sector, volumes, values, contribution, and distribution channel or route to market? What are your projected selling costs and net contributions per service, product, sector? What trends and percentage increase in revenues and Essay on The Midland in London, contributions, and The Rainforests Oceans Essay, volumes compared to last year are you projecting? How is your market share per business stream and sector changing, and how does this compare with your overall business aims?

What are your fast-growth high-margin opportunities, and what are your mature and low-margin services; how are you treating these different opportunities, and anything else in between? You should use a basic spreadsheet tool to split your business according to the main activities and profit levers. See the simple sales/business planning tool example below. ansoff product-market growth matrix - strategic tool. A useful planning tool in respect of markets and products is the Essay Midland Hotel matrix developed by Igor Ansoff (H Igor Ansoff, 1918-2002), who is regarded by some as the 'Father of Strategic Management'. Fully titled the Ansoff Product-Market Growth Matrix, the tool was first published in Harvard Business Review, 1957, in Ansoff's paper Strategies for Diversification.

The Ansoff product-market matrix helps to understand and essay, assess marketing or business development strategy. Any business, or part of a business can choose which strategy to employ, or which mix of strategic options to use. This is a fundamentally simple and effective way of Midland in London looking at strategic development options. Each of these strategic options holds different opportunities and downsides for different organizations, so what is right for one business won't necessarily be right for another. Think about what option offers the Care as a matter best potential for your own business and market. Think about the strengths of Hotel in London your business and Essay Care matter, what type of growth strategy your strengths will enable most naturally. Generally beware of Essay in London diversification - this is, by its nature, unknown territory, and carries the highest risk of to kill a mockingbird failure. Here are the Essay on The Hotel Ansoff strategies in summary: market penetration - Developing your sales of existing products to your existing market(s). Key Quotes. This is fine if there is plenty of on The Midland in London market share to be had at the expense of bio your competitors, or if the market is growing fast and large enough for on The Midland Hotel, the growth you need. If you already have large market share you need to consider whether investing for Essay as a matter of courage, further growth in this area would produce diminishing returns from your development activity. It could be that you will increase the profit from this activity more by reducing costs than by actively seeking more market share.

Strong market share suggests there are likely to be better returns from extending the range of products/services that you can offer to the market, as in the next option. product development - Developing or finding new products to take to your existing market(s). This is an Essay on The Hotel attractive strategy if you have strong market share in a particular market. Such a strategy can be a suitable reason for acquiring another company or product/service capability provided it is relevant to your market and your distribution route. Developing new products does not mean that you have to do this yourself (which is normally very expensive and Essay Midland in London, frequently results in Essay Hotel simply re-inventing someone else's wheel) - often there are potential manufacturing partners out there who are looking for their own distribution partner with the The Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Salinger sort of Essay market presence that you already have.

However if you already have good market share across a wide range of products for your market, this option may be one that produces diminishing returns on your growth investment and activities, and instead you may do better to seek to The Catcher Rye by J.D. Salinger develop new markets, as in the next strategic option. market development - Developing new markets for your existing products. In London. New markets can also mean new sub-sectors within your market - it helps to stay reasonably close to the markets you know and contoh, which know you. Moving into on The Midland Hotel, completely different markets, even if the product/service fit looks good, holds risks because this will be unknown territory for you, and almost certainly will involve working through new distribution channels, routes or partners. If you have good market share and good product/service range then moving into associated markets or segments is likely to Essay Midland Hotel be an attractive strategy.

diversification - taking new products into new markets. This is high risk - not only do you not know the products, but neither do you know the new market(s), and again this strategic option is likely to entail working through new distribution channels and routes to on The Hotel in London market. This sort of to kill a mockingbird key quotes activity should generally be regarded as additional and Hotel in London, supplementary to to kill key quotes the core business activity, and should be rolled out carefully through rigorous testing and piloting. Consider also your existing products and services themselves in terms of their market development opportunity and profit potential. Some will offer very high margins because they are relatively new, or specialised in some way, perhaps because of special USP's or distribution arrangements. Other products and services may be more mature, with little or no competitive advantage, in which case they will produce lower margins. The Boston Matrix is Essay on The Midland Hotel a useful way to Oceans understand and assess your different existing product and service opportunities: boston matrix model - product/service development. The Boston Matrix model (also called the on The Midland Hotel in London BSG Matrix, Growth-Share Matrix, and variations around these titles) is a tool for assessing existing and development products in terms of their market potential, and thereby implying strategic action for products and services in each of the four categories reflected in the model. The Boston Matrix model was devised by Bruce Henderson (1915-92), founder of the Boston Consulting Group in the 1960s. It has been adapted in many ways.

A simple version is shown here below. Like other four-part 2x2 matrix models, the Essay on The Midland Hotel Boston Matrix is a very quick and easy method for analysis, thinking and decision-making, while being unavoidably limited in its handling of subtlety and Essay on The Midland Hotel, detail. Often in business and strategic thinking too much detail is unhelpful - instead, clarity and The Rainforests of Our Oceans Essay, ease of understanding are extremely helpful, especially in communicating ideas to teams and groups, in which circumstances the Boston Matrix is an excellent aid. cash cow - The rather crude metaphor is Essay on The Midland based on the idea of on The Midland Hotel in London 'milking' the Essay Midland in London returns from previous investments which established good distribution and market share for the product. Products in bio this quadrant need maintenance and protection activity, together with good cost management, not growth effort, because there is Essay on The Hotel little or no additional growth available. dog - This is to kill a mockingbird key quotes any product or service of Essay on The Midland in London yours which has low market presence in a mature or stagnant market. There is no point in developing products or services in this quadrant. Essay. Many organizations discontinue products/services that they consider fall into this category, in which case consider potential impact on Essay Midland, overhead cost recovery. Essay On The Hotel In London. Businesses that have been starved or denied development find themselves with a high or entire proportion of their products or services in this quadrant, which is obviously not very funny at all, except to the competitors. problem child (also called question marks or wildcats ) - These are products which have a big and growing market potential, but existing low market share, normally because they are new products, or the application has not been spotted and acted upon yet. New business development and project management principles are required here to ensure that these products' potential can be realised and disasters avoided.

This is likely to be an area of business that is quite competitive, where the pioneers take the risks in the hope of securing good early distribution arrangements, image, reputation and market share. Gross profit margins are likely to be high, but overheads, in the form of costs of research, development, advertising, market education, and low economies of Essay on The Midland Hotel scale, are normally high, and can cause initial business development in this area to be loss-making until the product moves into the rising star category, which is by no means assured - many problem children products remain as such. rising star - Or 'star' products, are those which have good market share in a strong and growing market. As a product moves into J.D. Essay, this category it is commonly known as a 'rising star'. On The Midland. When a market is strong and Essay Care as a of courage, still growing, competition is not yet fully established. Demand is strong; saturation or over-supply do not exists, and Essay on The Midland Hotel, so pricing is relatively unhindered.

This all means that these products produce very good returns and profitability. The market is receptive and contoh essay english, educated, which optimizes selling efficiencies and margins. Production and manufacturing overheads are established and Essay on The Midland Hotel, costs minimised due to high volumes and good economies of contoh scale. These are great products and worthy of continuing investment provided good growth potential continues to exist. When it does not these products are likely to move down to cash cow status, and Essay on The, the company needs to have the next rising stars developing from its problem children. After considering your business in terms of the Ansoff matrix and Boston matrix (which are thinking aids as much as anything else, not a magic solution in themselves), on Oceans Essay, a more detailed level, and for many businesses just as significant as the Ansoff-type-options, what is the significance of your major accounts - do they offer better opportunity for growth and development than your ordinary business? Do you have a high quality, specialised offering that delivers better business benefit on a large scale as opposed to small scale?

Are your selling costs and investment similar for large and small contracts? If so you might do better concentrating on developing large major accounts business, rather than taking a sophisticated product or service solution to smaller companies which do not appreciate or require it, and cost you just as much to sell to as a large organization. This customer matrix model is used by many companies to understand and determine strategies according to customer types. Assessing product type is helped by reference to Midland in London the Boston matrix model. There is a lot of flexibility as to what constitutes 'good' and 'not so good customers' - use your own criteria. To Kill A Mockingbird Key Quotes. A good way to do this is to on The Midland devise your own grading system using criteria that mean something to your own situation. Essay Care Matter Of Courage. Typical criteria are: size, location, relationship, credit-rating and payment terms, is the customer growing (or not), the security of the supply contract, the on The Midland service and support overhead required, etc. This kind of customer profiling tool and The Catcher in the Salinger, exercise is Essay Midland often overlooked, but it is a critical aspect of marketing and sales development, and of optimizing sales effectiveness and business development performance and profitability. Each quadrant requires a different sales approach. The type of customer also implies the type of sales person who should be responsible for managing the relationship.

A firm view needs to be taken before committing expensive field-based sales resources to 'not so good' customers. Focus prospect development (identifying and contacting new prospective customers) on The Rainforests of Our Oceans Essay, the profile which appears in the top left quadrant. Identify prospective new customers who fit this profile, and allocate your business development resources (people and advertising) to this audience. Consider also What are your competitor weaknesses in terms of sectors, geographical territory and Midland Hotel in London, products or services, and how might these factors affect your options? Use the SWOT analysis also for assessing each competitor as well as your own organization or department. Many organizations issue a marketing budget from the top down (a budget issued by the Centre/HQ/Finance Director), so to speak, in which case, what is your marketing budget and how can you use it to produce the best return on investment, and to The Catcher in the J.D. Essay help the company best to meet its overall business aims? Use the models described here to assess your best likely returns on Midland, marketing investment. The best way to a mockingbird begin to model and on The Midland, plan your marketing is to have a record of your historical (say last year's) sales results (including selling and The Catcher in the Rye by J.D., advertising costs if appropriate and Essay Hotel, available) on contoh essay, a spreadsheet. The level of detail is up to Essay Hotel in London you; modern spreadsheets can organize massive amounts of data and make very complex analysis quick easy.

Data is vital and will enable you to do most of the analysis you need for marketing planning. In simple terms you can use last year's results as a basis for planning and modelling the next year's sales, and the marketing expenditure and johannes kepler bio, activities required to achieve them. simple business plan or sales plan tools examples. These templates examples help the planning process. Essay In London. Split and in the Salinger Essay, analyse your business or sales according to your main products/services (or revenue streams) according to the profit drivers or 'levers' (variables that you can change which affect profit), e.g., quantity or volume, average sales value or price, % gross margin or profit. Add different columns which reflect your own business profit drivers or levers, and to provide the most relevant measures. Do the same for each important aspect of your business, for Essay Hotel in London, example, split by market sector (or segment): And, for example, split by distributor (or route to market): These simple split analysis tools are an extremely effective way to plan your sales and to kill, business. Essay Hotel. Construct a working spreadsheet so that the bottom-right cell shows the total sales or gross margin, or profit, whatever you need to measure, and by changing the The Rainforests of Our Oceans Essay figures within the split (altering the mix, average prices, quantities, etc) you can carry out 'what if?' analysis to develop the best plans. If you are a competent working with spreadsheets it is normally possible to assemble all of this data onto a single spreadsheet and then show different analyses by sorting and graphing according to on The Midland different fields.

When you are happy with the overall totals for the year, convert this into a phased monthly plan, with as many lines and essay english, columns as you need and are appropriate for the business. Develop this spreadsheet by showing inputs as well as sales outputs - the on The quantifiable activity (for example, the numbers of enquiries necessary to contoh english produce the planned sales levels) required to produce the planned performance. Large businesses need extensive and on The Hotel in London, multiple page spreadsheets. A business plan needs costs as well as sales, and The Rainforests of Our Essay, will show profit as well as revenue and gross margin, but the Essay on The Midland Hotel principle is the same: plan the detailed numbers and values of what the business performance will be, and contoh english, what inputs are required to achieve it. Here's a free MSExcel profit and on The Midland Hotel in London, loss account template tool for incorporating these factors and in the J.D. Salinger Essay, financials into a more formal phased business trading plan, which also serves as a business forecasting and reporting tool too. Adapt it to suit your purposes. This plan example is also available as a PDF, see the Profit and Loss Account (PL) Small Enterprise Business Plan Example (PDF). The numbers could be anything: ten times less, ten times more, a hundred times more - the principle is the on The same.

Consider also indirect activities that affect sales and business levels, such as customer service. Of Our. Identify key performance indicators here too, such as customer complaints response and resolution levels and timescales. Internal lead referral schemes, strategic partnership activity; the performance of other direct sales activities such as sales agencies, distributorships, export activities, licensing, etc. On The Midland In London. These performance factors won't normally appear on a business plan spreadsheet, but a separate plan should be made for them, otherwise they won't happen. write your marketing plan or business plan.

Your marketing plan is actually a statement, supported by relevant financial data, of how you are going to develop your business. Plans should be based on actions, not masses of historical data. The historical and market information should be sufficient just to explain and justify the opportunities, direction, strategy, and most importantly, the The Catcher marketing actions, methods and measures - not to Midland Hotel tell the story of the on The Hotel past 20 years of your particular industry. What you are going to sell to Essay Midland Hotel whom, when and how you are going to sell it, how much contribution (gross profit) the sales produce, what the marketing cost will be, and what will be the return on investment. As stated above it is easiest and best to assemble all of johannes kepler this data onto a spreadsheet, which then allows data to Essay Hotel be manipulated through the planning process, and then changed and re-projected when the trading year is under way. The spreadsheet then becomes the basis of your sales and marketing forecasting and results reporting tool. As well as sales and marketing data, in most types of businesses it is also useful to include measurable aims concerning customer service and satisfaction. The marketing plan will have costs that relate to a marketing budget in johannes kepler the overall business plan.

The marketing plan will also have revenue and gross margin/profitability targets that relate to the turnover and profitability in the overall business plan. This data is essentially numerical, and so needs also some supporting narrative as to Hotel in London how the numbers will be achieved - the essay actions - but keep the narrative concise; if it extends to more than a half-dozen sheets make sure you put a succinct executive summary on the front. The marketing plan narrative could if appropriate also refer to indirect activities such as product development, customer service, quality assurance, training etc., if significantly relevant to achieving the marketing plan aims. Be pragmatic - marketing plans vary enormously depending on Essay Midland, the type, size and matter of courage, maturity of business. Essay Midland. Above all create a plan that logically shows how the business can best consolidate and The Rainforests of Our Oceans Essay, grow its successful profitable areas. The marketing plan should be a working and truly useful tool - if it is, then it's probably a good one. sample business plan, marketing plan or sales plan sample structure and example format/template. Keep the written part of the business plan as concise and brief as possible - most situations and high-ranking executives do not need to see plans that are an Midland Hotel inch thick. If you can make your case on Essay Care as a matter, a half dozen pages then do so.

Particularly if your plan is more than 5-6 pages long, produce an Essay on The Midland Hotel in London executive summary (easiest to do when you have completed the plan) and insert it at the beginning of the document. If you need to include lots of reference material, examples, charts, evidence, etc, show these as appendices at the back of the document and make sure they are numbered and referenced during the main body of the plan. Each new section should start at the top of to kill a new page. Number the pages. Important plans should be suitably bound. Essay On The Midland In London. All business plans should be professionally and neatly presented, with no grammar and spelling errors, clearly laid out in an easy to read format (avoid lots of upper-case or fancy fonts or italics as these are all difficult to read). To Kill. Your business plan contents and structure should be as follows: business plans structure - a business planning template. Title page: Title or heading of the plan and on The Midland Hotel, brief description if required, author, date, company/organization if applicable, details of circulation and confidentiality.

Contents page: A list of contents (basically the sections listed here, starting with the Introduction page) showing page numbers, plus a list of appendices or addendums (added reference material at the back of the document) allowing the reader to find what they need and navigate the document easily, and to refer others to The Catcher in the particular items and page numbers when reviewing or querying. Introduction page : Introduction and purpose of the plan, terms of reference if applicable (usually for formal and large plans or projects). Executive summary page: Optional and usually beneficial, this should normally be no more than a page long (or it's not an executive summary) - the Essay Hotel in London key points of the contoh english whole plan including conclusions, recommendations, actions, financial returns on investment, etc., clearly readable in a few minutes. Essay Midland Hotel. Main body of The Rainforests of Our Oceans plan: sections and headings as required, see template below. Essay On The. Acknowledgments and bibliography/reference sources: if relevant (only required normally for very large formal plans) Appendices: appendices or addendums - additional detailed reference material, examples, statistics, spreadsheets, etc., for reference and not central to the main presentation of your plan. business plans - main body sections examples template. This sample template is typical for a sales/marketing/new business development business plan. Essay On The Midland Hotel. (A business plan for a more complex project such as an international joint-venture, or the formation of a new company including manufacturing plant or other overhead activities would need to include relevant information and financials about the overheads and resources concerned, and the financials would need to show costs and profits more like a fully developed profit and on The Midland Hotel, loss account, with cashflow projections, balance sheet, etc.) Where appropriate refer to your position regarding corporate ethics and social responsibility and the Psychological Contract.

While these aspects are not mechanisms within the plan, they are crucial reference points. Define your market - sector(s) and segment(s) definitions Quantify your market (overview only) - size, segmentation, relevant statistics, values, numbers (locations, people/users, etc) - make this relevant to you business Explain your market(s) - sector trends, eg., growth, legislation, seasonality, PEST factors where relevant, refer to Ansoff matrix, show the strategic business drivers within sector and segments, purchasing mechanisms, processes, restrictions - what are the factors that determine customers' priorities and of Our Oceans Essay, needs - this is a logical place to Essay on The in London refer to ethics and CSR (corporate social responsibility Explain your existing business - your current business according to sector, products/services, quantities, values, distributor, etc. Analyse your existing customer spread by customer type, values and products/services including major accounts (the 'Pareto Principle' or the '80:20 rule' often applies here, eg., 80% of your business comes from 20% of your customers) Explain your products and services - refer to a mockingbird Boston matrix and especially your strategic propositions (what these propositions will do for your customers) including your USP's and UPB's (see sales training section and Hotel in London, acronyms) Explain you routes to market, gatekeepers, influencers and Essay as a matter, strategic partners - the other organizations/individuals you will work with to develop your market, including 'what's in it for them', commissions, endorsements, accreditations, approvals, licenses, etc. Case studies and on The Midland, track record - the credibility, evidence and proof that your propositions and strategic partnerships work Competitor analysis, eg., SWOT analysis of your own business compared to SWOT analysis of each competitor Sales/marketing/business plan (1 year min) showing sales and margins by a mockingbird key quotes, product/service stream, mix, values, segment, 'distributor', etc, whatever is relevant, phased monthly, in as much detail as you need. On The. This should be on a spreadsheet , with as many different sheets as necessary to quantify relevant inputs and outputs. List your strategic actions (marketing campaigns, sales activities, advertising, etc) that will deliver the above, with costs and returns. This should be supported with a spreadsheet, showing cost and return on investment for each activity. Tip: If the business plan concerns an existing activity, use the previous year's sales/business analysis as the basis for the next year's sales/business plan. Adapt as necessary according to your new strategic plans.

other business planning and Essay on The in London, marketing issues. staffing and training implications. Your people are unlikely to have all the skills they need to help you implement a marketing plan. On The Midland. You may not have all the contoh essay english people that you need so you have to consider justifying and obtaining extra. Customer service is on The Hotel acutely sensitive to on The Midland Hotel in London staffing and training. Essay. Are all of your people aware of the aims of the business, its mission statement and your sales propositions?

Do they know what their responsibilities are? How will you measure their performance? Many of these issues feed back into the business plan under human resources and training, where budgets need to be available to support the investment in these areas. You should formulate a customer service charter, extending both your mission statement and your service offer, so as to inform staff and johannes kepler bio, customers what your standards are. These standards can cover quite detailed aspects of your service, such as how many times the telephone will be permitted to ring until the Essay on The Midland Hotel caller is gets an answer. Other issues might include: How many days between receipt and response for written correspondence. Complaints procedure and timescales for each stage. This charter sets customer expectations, so be sure you can meet them.

Customers get disappointed particularly when their expectations are not met, and when so many standards can be set at Midland in London, arbitrary levels, think of each one as a promise that you should keep. Business-to-business customers would expect to Essay on The agree these standards with their suppliers and have them recorded as part of english their contracts, or as SLA's (service level agreements). Increasingly, large customers demand SLA's to be tailored to their own specific needs, and the process of developing these understandings and agreements is absolutely crucial to the maintenance and development of large contracts. Remember an important rule about customer service: It's not so much the failure to meet standards that causes major dissatisfaction among customers - everyone can make a mistake - the biggest cause of upset is the failure of suppliers to inform customers and keep them updated when problems arise. Essay On The Hotel. Not being told in kepler advance, not receiving any apology, not getting any explanation why, and not hearing what's going to be done to Hotel put things right, are key areas of customer dissatisfaction, and therefore easy areas for suppliers to focus their efforts to achieve and communicate improvements. A special point of note for businesses that require a strong technical profile among their service staff: these people are often reactive by nature and so not good at taking initiative to identify and anticipate problem areas in essay english customer service. Midland In London. It's therefore helpful to establish suitable mechanisms and responsibility to pick up problems and deal with them - a kind of trouble-shooting capability - which can be separately managed and monitored at a strategic level. Do not assume that technically-oriented staff will be capable of proactively developing customer service solutions and revisions to SLA's - they generally need help in doing so from staff with high creativity, empathy, communications and initiative capabilities. establish systems to measure customer service and staff performance. These standards and the SLA's established for large customers need to be visible, agreed with customers, absolutely measurable.

You must keep measuring your performance against them, and preferably publishing the results, internally and kepler bio, externally. Customer complaints handling is a key element: Measuring customer complaints is crucial because individual complaints are crucial areas to resolve, and also as a whole, complaints serve as a barometer for the quality and on The Hotel in London, performance of the business. You need to have a scheme which encourages, not discourages, customers to complain, to open the channels as wide as possible. Most businesses are too defensive where complaints are concerned, preferring to minimise their importance, or to seek to justify and excuse them. Wrong. Complaints are the Essay Care matter opportunities to turn ordinary service into unbeatable service. Moreover, time and on The, again surveys suggest that anything up to nine out of The Rainforests Oceans ten people do not complain to the provider when they feel dissatisfied - they just keep their dissatisfaction to themselves and the provider never finds out there's a problem, even when the customer chooses to go elsewhere. But every complaining customer will tell at least a couple of their friends or relations.

Every dissatisfied staff member in the customer organization will tell several of their colleagues. Unreported complaints spawn bad feelings and the breakdown of relationships. It is Essay Midland Hotel in London imperative that you capture all complaints in order to: Put at ease and in London, give explanation or reassurance to the person complaining. Reduce the on The Hotel in London chances of them complaining to someone else.

Monitor exactly how many dissatisfied customers you have and what the causes are, and that's even more important if you're failing to deliver your mission statement or service offer! Take appropriate corrective action to prevent a re-occurrence. If appropriate (ie for large customers) review SLA's and take the opportunity to agree new SLA's with the customer. implications for IT, premises, and reporting systems. Also relating to your business plan are the The Catcher J.D. issues of: Information Technology - are your computers and communications systems capable of Essay on The in London giving you the information and analysis you need? How do you use email - is it helping or hindering your business and of Our Oceans Essay, the quality of service you give to your customers?

What internet presence and processes do you need? How should your voice and data systems work together? What systems need to be available to mobile staff? What customer relationship management (CRM) systems should you have? How should you consider all these issues to see the needs and opportunities? IT and communications systems increasingly offer marketing and competitive advantage to businesses in all sectors - make sure you know hat IT can do for Hotel in London, you and for The Catcher, your customers.

Premises - Review your premises and sites in Essay Hotel in London light of your customer service, distribution, and customer relationship requirements. Pay particular attention anywhere in your organization that your customers visit - the impression and english, service you give here is critical. Reporting systems - If you can't measure it you can't manage it, and where finance and business performance is concerned this is Essay on The Midland Hotel certainly true. Of Courage. First you must identify and agree internally your key performance indicators (KPI's). Identify every aspect of your service or performance that is Midland important - then you need to be able to The Rainforests Oceans Essay measure it and report on it, and where people are involved in performing to Essay on The Midland Hotel certain standards then the standards and the reporting needs to be transparent to them also. How do you report on sales, marketing and to kill a mockingbird key quotes, business performance and interpret the results? Who needs to on The Midland in London know? Who needs to capture the data? communications and ongoing customer feedback are essential. Having an open dialogue with your customers is vital.

There's a double benefit to english your business in ensuring this happens: You nip problems in Hotel in London the bud and The Rainforests Essay, stay aware of how you're performing. Essay In London. Your customers feel better about the service you provide as a result of the The Rainforests Oceans communications, or from the fact that the channel is open even if they don't use it - it's human nature. Try to Hotel devise a standard feedback form. Of Our Oceans Essay. It can double as a promotional tool as well if it's made available on a wider scale. The form can carry details of your mission statement, service offer and your customer service charter. Consider carrying out a customer satisfaction and perceptions survey. There are many ways to do this on Essay Hotel, a small or large scale, and valuable feedback is always obtained from to kill key quotes, customer survey exercises. tips for starting a small business or self-employment - for non-financial people.

Some of us are not naturally inclined towards the sort of detailed financial thinking that is required for traditional detailed business planning. If this is you, you'll possess other valuable capabilities that will be useful in your own enterprise, and you'll maybe find it helpful to use this alternative approach to planning a new enterprise or self-employment. It can be stressful and counter-productive to try to Essay use methods that are not natural or comfortable. If you are helping or advising others about starting their own enterprise or self-employment, the same principles apply. Not everyone is naturally good at business planning, but everyone who dreams of being self-employed or who wants to start and run their own independent enterprise is capable of doing so, provided they work to their strengths, capabilities and passions. People running successful enterprises come in all shapes and sizes, from all backgrounds, all ages, with skills, passions, and capabilities in any field you can imagine. Anyone can run their own business or be successful in self-employment given the a mockingbird simple determination to do so. Business and enterprise is not just for stereotypical 'business-types'; the benefits and advantages of being your own boss are available to us all. Here are some pointers for Essay Midland, people considering starting their own new enterprise, or for key quotes, helping others to do the same. First, and especially if you are not clear of your own real strengths, or what direction to Essay on The Hotel pursue, focus on as a matter of courage, using tools to understanding your own personality style and strengths.

Then use this knowledge to imagine and on The, realise how your natural capabilities can be used to best effect in defining and providing your own services or running your own enterprise. The VAK and Multiple Intelligences tools on this site are helpful for this purpose. They assess people's strengths completely differently to a mockingbird key quotes traditional IQ or academic evaluations, which are extremely narrow and generally not relevant at all for people who want to be their own boss. Understanding personality is also useful since personality-type greatly influences the way that a person approaches self-employment or running an enterprise, and what sort of service or business to offer. The Personality Styles page provides a lot of explanation about Essay Hotel, this. Many people are conditioned by schools and over-cautious parents to The Rainforests Oceans under-estimate their own potential and capabilities, which is a big reason to take a fresh look at what you are good at, and to re-think and understand better the ways that your personality type tends to be successful in life and business.

There are many ways to be successful and on The Hotel, independent in contoh life aside from building and running a conventional business and adhering to conventional financial planning methods. The basic economics of becoming successfully independent in any sort of venture are actually extremely simple, and focusing on the following simple fundamentals (a process really) can help many folk turn your dream or an Hotel in London idea into kepler bio, a successful enterprise or self-employment reality. Essay Hotel. It's usually easiest to think first of Essay as a matter of courage these factors in Essay Midland Hotel terms of daily, weekly or monthly numbers and values, and then to to kill a mockingbird extend the figures to give totals for a whole year: 1. On The Midland. What's your product or service? (What's good/special/different about your products or service that enough people will buy it? And importantly is this something that you have a real passion for? All successful enterprises are built on doing something the owner enjoys.)

2. What does it cost to make/buy in/provide the kepler product or service? (If you are buying and selling products or using materials consider the Essay on The Midland cost prices. If the main resource is your own time then attach a cost to your labour that reflects your available time for the work and kepler, the wage you need to Essay on The Hotel in London draw. Divide your required annual wage by the number of work hours available to you, and this is your notional hourly labour cost.) 3. What price will the product/service sell for? (Ideally small businesses need a healthy profit margin or mark-up - doubling the cost is good if the market will accept it. A mark-up of Rye by J.D. Salinger Essay less than 50% is cause for concern unless you are selling products in relatively high volumes or values.

Price your products/services according to what the market will pay, not according to your costs. Take into account your competitors and what they charge and Essay in London, their relative quality. Service businesses that use only the person's time are often very attractive and profitable because there is no added complication of buying and holding stock - hence why window-cleaning, sign-writing, repairs, gardening, decorating, tutoring, writing, therapy, training, coaching and consultancy, etc., are such good businesses for people who prefer a simple approach to self-employment and enterprise. Consider the Care effect of VAT especially for 'consumer' businesses - ie., selling to the general public - assuming your business is or must be VAT registered. Private consumers of course are more sensitive to VAT than business customers who can generally reclaim VAT should you have to add it to your prices.)

4. Midland Hotel. Who will buy the The Rainforests Essay product/service? (Identify your customers and Midland, market. Do you know this for sure? Test your assumptions: this is a critical part of the proposition and generally benefits from in the Rye by J.D. Essay, more thought and research to Essay Midland in London confirm that a big enough market exists for your idea. Consider your competition - what are people buying currently and why will they buy from you instead?) 5. How much/many do you need to sell in a year? And how many customers do you need? (This is a vital part of the on The Midland in London proposition to confirm that the gross profit (the difference between costs of bought in products/labour and sales revenues) covers your/their financial needs (including a living wage and other fixed costs of running the enterprise.

Again remember the affect of on The Hotel in London VAT on Rye by J.D. Salinger, your selling prices if applicable.) 6. How will people know about the service/product? (You need to understand what advertising/marketing/enquiry-generation is Hotel in London necessary - activity and cost. There is usually a cost for generating new customers, especially in the early stages of a new enterprise. Once the english business is established, say after six months to a year, 'word-of-mouth' referrals are for some businesses all that is required to produce new customers - especially those based in a local community, but virtually any new enterprise requires marketing at its launch. Essay On The Midland Hotel In London. See the articles on marketing and selling.)

7. Does all this add up, and of Our Oceans, better still provide a cash surplus at the end of a year? - if so then it's probably a good business model. These basic questions represent the typical 'table napkin' business proposition that is the start of most businesses, including very large complex ones. In London. People who dislike and are not fluent in detailed business calculations might find the above process a useful starting point when thinking about how to begin a new enterprise or a venture in self-employment. If this is Rye by Essay you, you are not alone: many visionary entrepreneurs can run a huge profitable business but have great difficulty putting together a proper business plan. Hence many highly successful business leaders rely heavily on their financial directors to take care of the on The Midland Hotel in London financial details, leaving them free to Essay get on with the in London business activity that makes best use of their natural skill, be it creativity, selling, service-provision, people-skills, technical skills, or whatever. Incidentally the above factors are the essential components which make up a basic Profit and Loss Account, which is the primary management tool for a business of any scale and complexity. Here's a free MSExcel profit and loss account template tool for extending these factors and financials into a more formal phased plan, which also serves as a business forecasting and reporting tool too. Of Our Oceans. If in doubt about this seek some help from an experienced business person or your accountant.

Adapt it to suit your purposes. The example PL trading plan is Essay on The also available as a pdf. The Rainforests Essay. The numbers could be anything - ten times less, ten times more, a hundred times more - the principle is the same. company types and financial set up - quick guide. When you have confirmed and refined the basic viability of your business idea you can then begin getting to grips with the more detailed aspects of forming the Essay on The Hotel in London business itself. This necessarily includes deciding your type of business constitution - the legal format of Midland Hotel your company - or 'company type' as it is often described. The Psychological Contract is increasingly significant within and relating to business constitution. Small (UK) businesses are most commonly one of the following: sole-trader - essentially a self-employed owner - no limited personal liability - relatively easy set up and administration. partnership - essentially a group of self-employed partners/owners - no limited personal liability - easy-ish set up and administration, although ultimately dependent on the complexity of the company and partnership. limited liability partnership (LLP) - as above, except that liability is limited to personal investments and guarantees. limited company (abbreviated to Ltd after the company name) - liability is Hotel in London limited to The Catcher in the Essay the assets of the company - registered with Companies House and legally obliged to publish accounts. There are less common variations of limited companies, and other business structures and constitutions, for Midland, example: social enterprise - various structures including , trusts, associations and especially cooperatives - these are not common typical or traditional business structures, but social enterprises are growing in popularity, and will be explained in more detail on this website in due course. Meanwhile here is useful information about cooperatives. public limited company (plc) - not appropriate for in the Salinger Essay, small companies. Sole-trader and partnership companies are very easy to set up and Essay Hotel in London, administer, but the owner/partners are personally liable for all business debts and contoh essay, potential claims, so good insurance cover (including professional indemnity and public liability) is essential especially if business liabilities are potentially serious.

A limited liability partnership offers protection to Midland partners in terms of Essay Midland in London personal liabilities, in Essay Hotel in London that liabilities are limited to the extent of personal investment and any other guarantees. This is Rye by J.D. Salinger considered to be too much personal exposure by many business people, in Essay Midland Hotel in London which case a limited company is the obvious alternative. A limited company exists in its own right - a tricky concept to understand for contoh essay english, many people - basically meaning that financial liabilities belong to the company (its shareholders, to the value of their shares in other words) rather than the directors and executives of the business, as would apply in a partnership. Limited companies ultimately offer more flexibility for on The Midland in London, large complex businesses but can be over-complicated and administratively heavy if all you want to english do is run a local shop or landscape gardening business or modest training or coaching business. Whatever, consider carefully what type of company framework will suit you best. Once established it can be quite difficult to unravel and change if you get it wrong - not impossible, but a nuisance if you could have got it right first time with a bit of extra thought at the planning stage. A good accountant will help you decide what is best for your situation from a legal and financial standpoint, although before this you should think for yourself what sort of business structure best fits your wider business situation, and especially your business aims and philosophy. Broad guidelines about business types are available from the UK Government business information Businesslink website.

You'll need a business bank account. In fact it is a legal requirement of all limited companies to have a business bank account. Essay On The Midland Hotel In London. Shop around. There are wide variations in services and costs offered by the different banks. You must also understand and organize the of Our Oceans Essay tax implications for your type of Midland in London business. Before starting any business ensure also that you have the information and controls to account for and pay all taxes due. Helpfully to learn more about this in the UK, most tax affairs are within the responsibilities of HM Revenue and contoh, Customs - until they too change their name to something very silly. That said, the relevance today of HM (Her Majesty's) is Essay Midland a bit puzzling when you stop to think about it and surely due for updating to the modern age. Johannes Kepler. HMRC is Essay on The Hotel in London another weird example of quirky UK Government departmental names and branding. God help us all, our country is run by contoh essay english, alien wannabe noblemen from the Midland Hotel middle ages. VAT (Value Added Tax or your national equivalent) is an issue warranting serious thought if your business is small enough to have a choice in the matter.

Beyond a certain turnover (?68,000 as at bio, 2010) any UK business must register for VAT. Check the HMRC website for the current position. Being VAT registered means you must charge VAT on all VAT-rated supplies, which means also that the VAT you receive on payments from your customers must be paid to HM Revenue and Customs. (No you cannot keep it, even though some accidentally try to, and Essay Midland in London, others think they are entitled to.) Being VAT registered also enables you to reclaim VAT that you pay on business costs, although there are some notable exceptions, like company cars. Retail and consumer businesses are especially affected by VAT. Hotel. Private consumers cannot claim back VAT, so the effect of VAT on pricing and margins needs careful thought in planning any consumer business. Up to Essay on The in London a certain level of kepler bio turnover (in the UK) becoming registered for VAT is optional. If your business turnover is likely to be below the threshold for mandatory VAT registration, you must decide for yourself if the advantages outweigh the disadvantages.

The main advantages of VAT registration are: your business will be perceived by certain people - especially other businesses - to be larger and more credible (not being registered for VAT indicates immediately that your turnover is on The Midland below the VAT threshold) you will be able to reclaim VAT that you are charged on legitimate allowable business costs. The main disadvantages of being VAT registered are: the administrative burden in Hotel keeping VAT records and submitting VAT returns (although this has been enormously simplified in recent years so that for small simple businesses it is really not a problem at Essay in London, all) risks of getting onto cashflow difficulties if you fail to set funds aside to pay your VAT bills (see the tax tips below) Information about VAT (and all other tax issues) is at the UK Government HM Revenue and Customs website: VAT is not the to kill a mockingbird only tax. In London. Taxes are also due on company profits (sole-traders or partnerships profits are taxed via personal earnings of the sole-trader or partners) and on staff salaries (national insurance).

A sole-trader or partnership can employ staff, in which case national insurance tax is Care of courage due on salaries paid to Essay employees, which is different to the tax that employees pay themselves. Failing to retain funds in a company to pay taxes is a serious problem that's easily avoided with good early planning. Kepler. Contact your tax office. Inform them of Midland Hotel your plans and seek their help. Tax offices are generally extremely helpful, so ask. You can even talk to contoh essay a real person on the phone without having to breach a six-level automated menu system. Ideally find a decent accountant too. Preferably one who comes recommended to you. With all the greatest respect to accountants everywhere, accountants are quite commonly very intense people, like solicitors and on The Midland in London, scientists, very much focused on process, accuracy, rules, etc., which in terms of personality fit can be a little at odds with the style of many entrepreneurs.

So again shop around and find an accountant with whom you can share a joke and The Rainforests of Our, a beer or something from the human world. The relationship between a business person and his/her accountant is crucial if the business is to grow and develop significantly. Accountants might seem at times to be from another planet, but I can assure you the good ones are bloody magicians when it comes to business development, especially when the figures get really interesting. The statement that one stroke of an accountant's pen is mightier than the world's most successful sales team, is actually true. For many entrepreneurs, the ideal scenario is to grow your business large enough to support the cost of Essay on The Midland Hotel a really excellent finance director, who can take care of all the detailed legal and financial matters for johannes bio, you, and leave you completely free to concentrate on growing the Essay on The Midland in London business - concentrating your efforts and ideas and contoh essay, strategy externally towards markets and customers, and on The Midland in London, internally towards optimizing innovation and your staff. See the quick tax tips below, especially for english, small businesses which might not easily be able to on The Hotel in London achieve immediate and accurate control of their tax liabilities, which is Rye by Essay one of the major early risks for a new successful small business.

tax tips - understanding and accounting for taxes from the start. A significant potential problem area for newly self-employed people, and for new business start-ups, is failing to budget and save for inevitable taxes which arise from your business activities. N.B. These tips are not meant to be a detailed comprehensive guide to in London business taxation. This section merely addresses a particular vulnerability of new start-up businesses in kepler failing to set aside sufficient reserves to meet tax liabilities, especially small businesses, and even more especially sole-traders and partnerships and small limited companies, which lack expertise in accounting and consequently might benefit from these simple warnings and tips related to tax liabilities. In general these issues would normally be managed via a cashflow forecast, together with suitable financial processes to allocate and make payments for on The Midland Hotel, all costs and liabilities arising in the course of trading. I recognise however that many small business start-ups do not begin with such attention to financial processes, and Essay on The in London, it's primarily for those situations that these particular notes are provided. These notes in no way suggest that this is the normal fully controlled approach to planning and organizing tax liabilities and on The Midland Hotel, other cashflow issues within any business of significant scale.

This is simply a pragmatic and in the Rye by J.D. Essay, practical method aimed at averting a common big problem affecting small business start-ups. While your type of company and business determines precisely which taxes apply to Essay on The Midland Hotel you, broadly taxes are due on sales (for VAT registered businesses in the UK, or your VAT equivalent if outside the UK), and on the profits of your business and your earnings. If you employ staff you will also have to pay national insurance tax on employees' earnings too. Generally sole-traders and partnerships have simpler tax arrangements - for example, profits are typically taxed as personal earnings - as compared with the more complex taxes applicable to limited companies, which also pay taxes on company profits and staff salaries. Whatever, you must understand the tax liabilities applicable to on The in London your situation, and budget for them accordingly. You must try to seek appropriate financial advice for your situation before you commence trading. Indeed understanding tax basics also helps you decide what type of company will best suit your situation, again, before you begin trading.

The potential for nasty financial surprises - notably tax bills that you have insufficient funds to pay - ironically tends to increase along with your success. This is because bigger sales and profits and earnings inevitably produce bigger tax bills (percentage of tax increases too in Essay Midland in London the early growth of a business), all of which becomes a very big problem if you've no funds to pay taxes when due. The risks of getting into Hotel, difficulties can be greater for the self-employed and on The Midland Hotel, small partnerships which perhaps do not have great financial knowledge and kepler bio, experience, than for larger Limited Company start-ups which tend to have more systems and support in financial areas. Start-ups are especially prone to tax surprises because the first set of Essay on The Midland Hotel in London tax bills can commonly be delayed, and if you fail to account properly for all taxes due then obviously you increase the chances of spending more than you should do, resulting in Essay Hotel not having adequate funds to cover the payments when they are due. Risks are increased further if you are new to self-employment, previously having been employed and accustomed to receiving a regular salary on Hotel in London, which all taxes have already been deducted, in on The Hotel other words 'net' of tax. It can take a while to appreciate that business revenues or profits have no tax deducted when these earnings are put into on The Midland in London, your bank account; these amounts are called 'gross', because they include the tax element. Therefore not all of your business earnings belong to you - some of the Essay on The Midland Hotel in London money belongs to the taxman. It's your responsibility to deduct the taxes due, to set this money aside, and to pay the tax bills when demanded. Additionally, if you are a person who is in the habit of spending everything that you earn, you must be even more careful, since this tendency will increase the on The Midland risks of your being unable to The Catcher J.D. Salinger pay your taxes. Failing to get on top of the reality of taxes from the on The Hotel in London very beginning can lead to serious debt and cashflow problems, which is a miserable way to to kill run a business.

So you must anticipate and set aside funds necessary to meet your tax liabilities from the very start of your business, even if you do not initially have a very accurate idea of what taxes will be due, or you lack effective systems to Essay in London calculate them - many small start-ups are in Care as a matter of courage this position. Nevertheless it is too late to start thinking about tax when the first demands fall due. If when starting your business you do not have information and on The in London, systems to english identify and on The, account accurately for your tax liabilities, here are two simple quick tax tips to avoid problems with the Essay on The Midland in London taxman: You must estimate your tax liabilities and ensure that you set aside funds to cover these liabilities while you are banking your payments received into the business. The easiest way to do this is to identify the taxes applicable to your business, for example VAT and your own personal income tax and on The Midland Hotel, national insurance. Identify the percentages that apply to johannes kepler your own situation and earnings levels. You can do this approximately. It does not need to Hotel in London be very precise. Add these percentages together, and then set aside this percentage of all your earnings that you receive into your business. Put these monies into a separate savings account where you can't confuse them with your main business account, i.e., your 'working capital' typically held in a current account. Always over-estimate your tax liabilities so as to Essay as a of courage set aside more than you need.

Having a surplus is not a problem. Having not enough money to pay taxes because you've under-estimated tax due is a problem; sometimes enough to kill an otherwise promising business. Here's an example to show how quickly and easily you can plan and set aside a contingency to pay your tax bills, even if you've no experience or systems to calculate them precisely. Essay Midland Hotel. This example is as a matter of courage based on a self-employed consultancy-type business, like a training or coaching business, in which there are no significant costs of Essay sales (products or services bought in) or overheads, i.e., revenues are effectively the profits too, since there are minimal costs to kepler offset against profits: example of estimating and setting aside money to pay taxes. 1. In the UK VAT on most products and services is Midland in London 17.5%. This equates (roughly) to Care of courage 15% when calculating the VAT element within a VAT-inclusive amount. This means that you can set aside 15% of your revenues and reliably be sure of covering your VAT liabilities. 2. In the UK personal income tax and national insurance combined is roughly 30% of earnings up to about ?30,000 (a little over in fact), rising to 49% - call it 50% - of earnings above ?30k - roughly. N.B. Income tax and national insurance are calculated on taxable earnings, which exclude money spent on legitimate business costs, and VAT received. These figures in the above example are approximate I emphasise again, which is all you need for this purpose, moreover the approximations are on the high side of what the precise liabilities actually are.

Accountants call this sort of thinking 'prudent'. It's a pessimistic approach to forecasting liabilities rather than optimistic, which is on The Hotel in London fundamental to good financial planning and management: if the pessimism is wrong then you end up with a surplus (which is good), but if you are wrong in making optimistic forecasts and estimates (over-ambitious sales, and lower-than-actual costs and liabilities), then you run out of money (which is bad). Back to the percentages.. Knowing the The Rainforests of Our income tax percentages enables you to set aside a suitable percentage of your earnings when you receive them into the business. Roughly speaking, for earnings up to ?30k you need to set aside 30% to cover income tax and national insurance.

For earnings over Essay on The Midland Hotel in London, ?30k you need to set aside 50% to cover your income tax and national insurance. The Catcher In The J.D. Salinger. (Earnings below ?30k remain taxable at 30%). Remember you can arrive at these figures based on the VAT exclusive revenues, but to keep matters simpler it is easier to use an adjusted total percentage figure to apply to on The in London the total gross earnings. If it's kept very simple and contoh, quick you'll be more likely to on The in London do it - and/or to communicate the to kill a mockingbird method effectively to Essay on The Hotel your partner if they are responsible for handling the financials, as often happens. Given this example, if in contoh essay english your first year your gross revenues (banked payments received) are say ?50,000, assuming you are VAT registered, then your tax liabilities will be (roughly): From this example you can see that setting aside 45.5% of earnings (yes it's a lot isn't it - which is why you need to anticipate it and set the Essay on The Midland Hotel money aside) would comfortably cover VAT and income tax liabilities. Contoh Essay English. To be extra safe and simpler in this example you could round it up to 50%. Essay Midland Hotel. The tax liability will obviously increase with increasing revenues - and in percentage terms too regarding personal income tax, since more earnings would be at english, the higher rate. You must therefore also monitor your earnings levels through the on The Hotel year and Essay Hotel in London, adjust your percentage tax contingency accordingly. As stated already above, the risk of under-estimating tax liabilities increases the more successful you are, because tax bills get bigger.

In truth you will have some costs to Essay Midland Hotel in London offset against the earnings figures above, but again for Essay on The Midland, the purposes of establishing a very quick principle of saving a fixed percentage as a tax reserve until you know and can control these liabilities more accurately, the above is a very useful simple easy method of Essay on The Hotel initially staying solvent and on top of your tax affairs, which are for many people the most serious source of nasty financial surprises in successful start-up businesses. The above example is johannes kepler bio very simple, and Essay Hotel, is provided mainly for small start-up businesses which might otherwise neglect to provide for tax liabilities. The figures and percentages are not appropriate (but the broad principle of forecasting and providing funds for tax liabilities is) to apply to retail businesses for example, or businesses in which staff are employed, since these businesses carry significant costs of sales and overheads, which should be deducted from kepler, revenues before calculating profits and taxes liabilities. Neither does the example take account of the Essay Midland Hotel various ways to reduce tax liabilities by reinvesting profits in of Our the business, writing off stock, putting money into pensions, charitable donations, etc. A third tip is - in fact it's effectively a legal requirement - to inform your relevant tax authorities as soon as possible about your new business. Preferably do this a few weeks before you actually begin trading. That way you can be fully informed of the tax situation - and your best methods of dealing with tax, because there are usually different ways, and on The Midland in London, sometimes the differences can be worth quite a lot of money. I do not go into more detail about tax here because it's a very complex subject with wide variations depending on your own situation, for which you should seek relevant information and contoh, advice from a qualified accountant and/or the relevant tax authorities. template and structure for Essay in London, a feasibility study or project justification report.

First, and importantly, you need to clarify/confirm the johannes bio criteria that need to on The in London be fulfilled in order to justify starting or continuing the project or group, in other words, what do the decision-makers need to see in order to approve the project or its continuation ? Then map these crucial approval criteria into Essay Care of courage, the following structure. In other words, work through the following template structure according to, and orientated as closely as you can to, the approval criteria . (These points could effectively be your feasibility study or report justification structure, and headings.) past, present and particularly future ('customer') need (for the outputs/results produced by group or project) benefits and outcomes achieved to date for what cost/investment benefits and outcomes to Essay Midland Hotel be produced in the future resources, costs, investment , etc., required to produce future required outcomes and benefits (identify capital vs revenue costs, i.e., acquisition of major assets and ongoing overheads) alternative methods or ways of english satisfying needs, with relative cost/return (return on Midland Hotel, investment) comparisons (ie., what other ways might there be for satisfying the need if the contoh essay english group or project doesn't happen or ceases?) outline strategy and financial plan , including people, aims, philosophy , etc (ideally tuned to Hotel in London meet the contoh essay authorising power's fulfilment criteria) for on The Midland in London, proposed start or continuation of The Rainforests Oceans project (assuming you have a case, and assuming there is no better alternative) Keep it simple. Keep to on The Midland in London the facts and contoh essay english, figures. Essay. Provide evidence. Be clear and concise. Refer to the tips about effective writing. If possible present your case in person to to kill the decision-makers, with passion, calm confidence and Essay Midland in London, style.

Look at the tips on presentations, and assertiveness. tips on finding and to kill, working with business planning advisors and consultants. If you need help putting together a business plan, and if you want to get the best from the engagement, it's important to Essay on The Midland Hotel find the right person to work with, and to establish and maintain a good working relationship with them. Johannes Bio. If you are great big organisation you'll probably not need to work with outsiders, and if you do then you'll probably opt for a great big supplier, however there are significant benefits from working with much smaller suppliers - even single operators - and if you are a small business yourself, then this is probably the best choice anyway: to seek a good single operator, or small partnership of experts. Here are some ideas of what to look for. You'll be best finding someone who meets as much of this criteria as possible: lives close-by you so you can work face-to-face with them and get to know each other properly, and so that their time is efficiently used, instead of being in Midland traffic on their way to and from your place is contoh essay english high integrity and very discreet is grown-up and got no baggage or emotional triggers - wise and mature - and it needn't be an age thing can help you see and decide where and how you want to take the business, rather than tell you where he/she thinks you need to go - a mentor not an on The Hotel in London instructor understands or can immediately relate to your industry sector and type of johannes kepler bio work is experienced working with small family companies, but is Essay on The also a big picture strategist and visionary (advisors who've only on The in London ever worked with big corporations can sometimes be a bit free and easy with relatively small amounts of on The Hotel in London money - you need someone with a very very practical approach to managing cash-flow, and real business realities, who've worked in situations without the protection of vast corporate bureaucracy and the lack of transparency that this often brings) is a mockingbird key quotes triple-brained or whole-brained - mostly front-brained - (see the stuff on Benziger) - intuitive-creative, thinking, but also able to be personable and on The Midland in London, grounded, subject to the point below complements your own strengths and fills the gaps and weaknesses in your collective abilities (again see the stuff on Benziger and Jung etc) - ie., if collectively you need hard facts and The Catcher J.D., figures and logic then seek people with these strengths - conversely if you are strong on all this, then seek the creative humanist ethical strengths - he/she must work with you in a balanced team - so that the Essay on The in London team has no blind spots, and no subjective biases in to kill style or emphasis has two or three referees you can talk to and see evidence of past work (although if you check most of the above it will be a formality) doesn't smoke or drink too much isn't desperate for on The, the work. As regards finding someone like this, without doubt the most reliable and quickest method is by networking introductions through trusted people. The person you seek might be three or more links away, but if it's a friend or associate of of Our Oceans someone trusted, by on The Hotel, someone who's trusted, by Rye by Salinger, someone you trust, then probably they'll be right for on The Midland Hotel, you. Start by talking to people you know and asking if they know anyone, or if they know anyone who might know anyone - and take it from johannes, there. The chances of finding the right person in the local business listings or directory, out on The in London of the blue and from cold, are pretty remote. Replying to johannes kepler bio adverts and marketing material from on The Hotel, consultants is a lottery too.

You'll find someone eventually but you'll need to on The Hotel in London kiss a lot of frogs first, which takes ages and is not the cleverest way to spend your valuable time. For something so important as business planning advice or consultancy use referrals every time. Referrals work not only because you get to on The Midland in London find someone trusted, but the person you find has a reasonable assurance that you can be trusted too, you see: good suppliers are just as choosy as good clients. It works both ways. Be prepared to in the Essay reward the person in Essay on The Midland in London whatever way is appropriate and fair (I'm thinking percentage share of incremental success beyond expectations - perhaps even equity share if the person is really good and to kill a mockingbird key quotes, you'd value their on-going contribution and Midland Hotel, help). Often the on The Hotel best people won't ask for much money up front at all, but from in London, your point of view you will attract a lot more commitment and work beyond the call of normal duty from them if you reward higher than they ask or need. Good suppliers are immensely motivated by a mockingbird key quotes, good clients and lots of appreciation, even if they don't want the financial reward. Good suppliers have usually seen too many ungrateful greedy people taking them for granted and penny pinching, and Essay Hotel in London, will tend to sack clients like these without even telling them why, and move on johannes, to more deserving enjoyable work with people who are fair and appreciative, which is how you'll be I'm sure. Finally, when you've found the Essay Midland in London right person, always continually agree expectations and Hotel in London, invite feedback about how the relationship is working, not just how the work is going. starting your own business - or starting any new business. These are the simple rules for planning and Essay Midland in London, starting your own business.

The principles also apply to johannes kepler bio planning and starting a new business within an organisation for someone else. In amongst the distractions and Hotel in London, details of new business planning, it is important to keep sight of the basic rules of new business success: Your successful new business must offer something unique that people want. Uniqueness is Essay Care as a of courage vital because otherwise there is no reason for Hotel in London, customers to buy from you. Anyone can be or create a unique business proposition by to kill, thinking about it clearly. Uniqueness comes in all shapes and Essay on The Hotel, sizes - it's chiefly being especially good and different in a particular area, or field or sector. Uniqueness can be in a product or service, or in a trading method, or in you yourself, or any other aspect of your business which makes what you are offering special and appealing to people. You will develop your own unique offering first by identifying what people want and which nobody is providing properly.

Second you must ensure that your chosen unique offering is also an Essay as a of courage extension of your own passion or particular expertise or strength - something you will love and enjoy being the best at - whatever it is. Every successful business is built on Midland in London, someone's passion. new business start-ups by older people. If you already have a career behind you, and you wonder if you've got it in you to compete and succeed in the modern world, consider this. First - you have definitely got it in you to succeed.

Experience and essay english, wisdom are fundamental building blocks of success, and will be for you from the moment you start looking at yourself in this way. The reassuring wisdom that older people generally possess is extremely helpful in forming trusting relationships - with customers, suppliers, partners, colleagues, etc - which are essential for good business. Added to this, as we get older we have a greater understanding of our true passions and capabilities; we know our strengths and styles and tolerances. This gives older people a very special potency in business. Older people know what they are good at. They play to their strengths. They know which battles they can win, and which to avoid.

Older people are also typically better at handling change and Essay on The Hotel, adapting to new things than younger people. This is because older people have had more experience doing just this. On The In London. Adapting to change and Essay on The, working around things are significant capabilities in Essay Hotel in London achieving new business success. If you are an older person considering starting a new business, think about the things you can do better than most other people - think about your strengths and Midland in London, use them. business start-ups for younger people. Younger people can be very successful starting new businesses just as much as older people can be. The essential principle of playing to your strengths applies, although the implications are different for younger people compared to older people. Younger people are likely to The Catcher in the Rye by Salinger Essay have lots of fresh ideas. This is an advantage, so avoid people pour cold water on them.

Test your ideas on potential customers, rather than to take advice from those people who are ready with their buckets of water. Next, get the on The Midland Hotel in London help you need. It's difficult for johannes bio, young people to know all the answers. You'll have the ideas and Essay Midland, the energy to make things happen, but consider the gaps in your experience, and the things you don't enjoy doing, and seek good quality reliable help for these things. Getting good help at what you can't do or don't want to do will enable you to put all your energy into what you are good at and what you want to spend your time doing. Young people sometimes try to force themselves to fit into roles or responsibilities that are not comfortable or natural.

This is de-stabilising and stressful. Learn what you love and excel at, and focus on building success from this. Which brings us back to playing to your strengths. All successful businesses (and people who become successful working for others) are based on the person using personal strengths and pursuing personal passions. Success in business is Hotel in London always based on doing something you love and enjoy, which is fundamentally related to your natural strengths and Essay on The Hotel in London, unique personal potential, whatever that is.

The sooner you identify these things in yourself, the sooner will build sustainable business success. planning business success - in summary. Spreadsheets, mission statements, planning templates and other process elements of new business creation and development are tools. They enable the business to be properly structured, started and run. They are essential of course, but in johannes kepler themselves they don't determine success. Business success is determined by deeper factors. Increasingly business success depends on Hotel in London, having a solid philosophical foundation - where relevant interests, inside and outside of the organization, are balanced rather than conflicting. The bigger the business, the more widely it must consider how it relates to external interests and responsibilities - to society and the world at large. A business with this sort of harmony and balance built into its shape and J.D. Salinger Essay, principles at the outset has a huge advantage over a business which contains tensions and in London, competing pressures. Within these considerations, relationships - as explained by the Psychological Contract - are crucially important in every business.

Businesses ultimately depend on people, and people depend on relationships. Aside from this - and english, without diminishing the significance of other vital business components such as reliability, value, quality, etc., which are necessary merely to survive at Essay, a basic level - uniqueness and passion are the remaining special ingredients for success: Uniqueness (just one word, with so many implications) - so that people will want what you offer, and Passion, so that you will enjoy being and offering your best - and so that this belief and commitment conveys to others.

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The Science of Why We Don’t Believe Science. “A MAN WITH A CONVICTION is a hard man to change. Tell him you disagree and Essay Hotel he turns away. Show him facts or figures and he questions your sources. Kepler Bio! Appeal to logic and Essay he fails to of Our Oceans, see your point.” So wrote the Essay on The Midland in London, celebrated Stanford University psychologist Leon Festinger, in a passage that might have been referring to climate change denial—the persistent rejection, on johannes bio the part of so many Americans today, of what we know about global warming and its human causes. But it was too early for on The Hotel in London that—this was the J.D. Salinger Essay, 1950s—and Festinger was actually describing a famous case study in Midland, psychology.

Festinger and several of his colleagues had infiltrated the Seekers, a small Chicago-area cult whose members thought they were communicating with aliens—including one, “Sananda,” who they believed was the astral incarnation of to kill a mockingbird key quotes, Jesus Christ. The group was led by Dorothy Martin, a Dianetics devotee who transcribed the interstellar messages through automatic writing. Through her, the aliens had given the precise date of an Earth-rending cataclysm: December 21, 1954. Some of Martin’s followers quit their jobs and sold their property, expecting to be rescued by a flying saucer when the continent split asunder and a new sea swallowed much of the United States. The disciples even went so far as to remove brassieres and rip zippers out of Essay on The Midland Hotel, their trousers—the metal, they believed, would pose a danger on the spacecraft. Festinger and his team were with the The Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Essay, cult when the on The Midland Hotel, prophecy failed. First, the “boys upstairs” (as the aliens were sometimes called) did not show up and rescue the Seekers. Then December 21 arrived without incident. It was the moment Festinger had been waiting for: How would people so emotionally invested in a belief system react, now that it had been soundly refuted? At first, the johannes, group struggled for an explanation.

But then rationalization set in. A new message arrived, announcing that they’d all been spared at Essay Midland the last minute. Festinger summarized the extraterrestrials’ new pronouncement: “The little group, sitting all night long, had spread so much light that God had saved the world from destruction.” Their willingness to believe in the prophecy had saved Earth from the prophecy! From that day forward, the Seekers, previously shy of the Salinger Essay, press and indifferent toward evangelizing, began to proselytize. Essay! “Their sense of kepler, urgency was enormous,” wrote Festinger. Midland! The devastation of all they had believed had made them even more certain of their beliefs.

IN THE ANNALS OF DENIAL, it doesn’t get much more extreme than the Seekers. They lost their jobs, the press mocked them, and to kill there were efforts to keep them away from impressionable young minds. But while Martin’s space cult might lie at the far end of the spectrum of on The, human self-delusion, there’s plenty to go around. Essay! And since Festinger’s day, an Essay on The Midland in London, array of new discoveries in psychology and neuroscience has further demonstrated how our preexisting beliefs, far more than any new facts, can skew our thoughts and even color what we consider our most dispassionate and logical conclusions. This tendency toward so-called “motivated reasoning” helps explain why we find groups so polarized over matters where the evidence is so unequivocal: climate change, vaccines, “death panels,” the birthplace and religion of the president (PDF), and much else. It would seem that expecting people to be convinced by the facts flies in the face of, you know, the facts. The theory of The Rainforests Oceans Essay, motivated reasoning builds on a key insight of modern neuroscience (PDF): Reasoning is Hotel, actually suffused with emotion (or what researchers often call “affect”). Not only are the two inseparable, but our positive or negative feelings about people, things, and ideas arise much more rapidly than our conscious thoughts, in a matter of milliseconds—fast enough to detect with an EEG device, but long before we’re aware of it. That shouldn’t be surprising: Evolution required us to react very quickly to stimuli in our environment. It’s a “basic human survival skill,” explains political scientist Arthur Lupia of the University of Michigan.

We push threatening information away; we pull friendly information close. We apply fight-or-flight reflexes not only to predators, but to in the Salinger Essay, data itself. We apply fight-or-flight reflexes not only to Essay on The, predators, but to data itself. Consider a person who has heard about Essay in London, a scientific discovery that deeply challenges her belief in divine creation—a new hominid, say, that confirms our evolutionary origins. What happens next, explains political scientist Charles Taber of Stony Brook University, is a subconscious negative response to the new information—and that response, in on The Hotel in London, turn, guides the type of memories and associations formed in the conscious mind. “They retrieve thoughts that are consistent with their previous beliefs,” says Taber, “and that will lead them to build an on The Hotel, argument and challenge what they’re hearing.” In other words, when we think we’re reasoning, we may instead be rationalizing. Or to use an analogy offered by Midland University of Virginia psychologist Jonathan Haidt: We may think we’re being scientists, but we’re actually being lawyers (PDF).

Our “reasoning” is a means to johannes kepler, a predetermined end—winning our “case”—and is shot through with biases. They include “confirmation bias,” in which we give greater heed to Hotel in London, evidence and arguments that bolster our beliefs, and “disconfirmation bias,” in which we expend disproportionate energy trying to debunk or refute views and arguments that we find uncongenial. That’s a lot of jargon, but we all understand these mechanisms when it comes to interpersonal relationships. Essay! If I don’t want to believe that my spouse is being unfaithful, or that my child is Essay, a bully, I can go to great lengths to matter, explain away behavior that seems obvious to everybody else—everybody who isn’t too emotionally invested to accept it, anyway. That’s not to Midland Hotel, suggest that we aren’t also motivated to perceive the world accurately—we are. To Kill A Mockingbird Key Quotes! Or that we never change our minds—we do. It’s just that we have other important goals besides accuracy—including identity affirmation and protecting one’s sense of self—and often those make us highly resistant to changing our beliefs when the facts say we should.

Scientific evidence is highly susceptible to misinterpretation. Giving ideologues scientific data that’s relevant to their beliefs is like unleashing them in Hotel, the motivated-reasoning equivalent of a candy store. MODERN SCIENCE ORIGINATED from an attempt to weed out such subjective lapses—what that great 17th century theorist of the scientific method, Francis Bacon, dubbed the to kill key quotes, “idols of the mind.” Even if individual researchers are prone to Essay on The in London, falling in love with their own theories, the broader processes of peer review and to kill a mockingbird institutionalized skepticism are designed to ensure that, eventually, the best ideas prevail. Our individual responses to on The Midland Hotel in London, the conclusions that science reaches, however, are quite another matter. Ironically, in part because researchers employ so much nuance and a mockingbird strive to disclose all remaining sources of uncertainty, scientific evidence is highly susceptible to selective reading and on The Midland Hotel misinterpretation.

Giving ideologues or partisans scientific data that’s relevant to their beliefs is like unleashing them in the motivated-reasoning equivalent of a candy store. Sure enough, a large number of psychological studies have shown that people respond to scientific or technical evidence in ways that justify their preexisting beliefs. In a classic 1979 experiment (PDF), pro- and anti-death penalty advocates were exposed to descriptions of two fake scientific studies: one supporting and one undermining the notion that capital punishment deters violent crime and, in particular, murder. They were also shown detailed methodological critiques of the fake studies—and in a scientific sense, neither study was stronger than the other. Yet in to kill a mockingbird, each case, advocates more heavily criticized the study whose conclusions disagreed with their own, while describing the study that was more ideologically congenial as more “convincing.” Since then, similar results have been found for how people respond to “evidence” about affirmative action, gun control, the accuracy of gay stereotypes, and much else.

Even when study subjects are explicitly instructed to be unbiased and even-handed about the evidence, they often fail. And it’s not just that people twist or selectively read scientific evidence to support their preexisting views. According to research by Yale Law School professor Dan Kahan and his colleagues, people’s deep-seated views about morality, and about the Essay on The, way society should be ordered, strongly predict whom they consider to be a legitimate scientific expert in the first place—and thus where they consider “scientific consensus” to Essay Midland, lie on contested issues. In Kahan’s research (PDF), individuals are classified, based on their cultural values, as either “individualists” or “communitarians,” and as either “hierarchical” or “egalitarian” in outlook. On The Midland In London! (Somewhat oversimplifying, you can think of hierarchical individualists as akin to conservative Republicans, and as a matter egalitarian communitarians as liberal Democrats.) In one study, subjects in the different groups were asked to help a close friend determine the risks associated with climate change, sequestering nuclear waste, or concealed carry laws: “The friend tells you that he or she is planning to on The Hotel, read a book about the issue but would like to to kill, get your opinion on whether the Midland in London, author seems like a knowledgeable and johannes bio trustworthy expert.” A subject was then presented with the resume of on The Midland Hotel, a fake expert “depicted as a member of the contoh english, National Academy of on The Midland in London, Sciences who had earned a Ph.D. in a pertinent field from one elite university and who was now on the faculty of another.” The subject was then shown a book excerpt by to kill that “expert,” in which the Essay on The Midland Hotel in London, risk of the issue at hand was portrayed as high or low, well-founded or speculative. The results were stark: When the scientist’s position stated that global warming is on The in London, real and on The Midland Hotel in London human-caused, for instance, only 23 percent of hierarchical individualists agreed the person was a “trustworthy and in the Rye by knowledgeable expert.” Yet 88 percent of Essay Midland Hotel, egalitarian communitarians accepted the same scientist’s expertise. Essay Care As A! Similar divides were observed on whether nuclear waste can be safely stored underground and whether letting people carry guns deters crime. (The alliances did not always hold. In another study (PDF), hierarchs and communitarians were in favor of laws that would compel the mentally ill to accept treatment, whereas individualists and egalitarians were opposed.) Head-on attempts to persuade can sometimes trigger a backfire effect, where people not only fail to change their minds when confronted with the facts—they may hold their wrong views more tenaciously than ever.

In other words, people rejected the validity of a scientific source because its conclusion contradicted their deeply held views—and thus the relative risks inherent in each scenario. On The Hotel In London! A hierarchal individualist finds it difficult to believe that the things he prizes (commerce, industry, a man’s freedom to possess a gun to defend his family) (PDF) could lead to outcomes deleterious to society. Whereas egalitarian communitarians tend to think that the free market causes harm, that patriarchal families mess up kids, and that people can’t handle their guns. The study subjects weren’t “anti-science”—not in their own minds, anyway. It’s just that “science” was whatever they wanted it to be. “We’ve come to a misadventure, a bad situation where diverse citizens, who rely on diverse systems of cultural certification, are in conflict,” says Kahan. And that undercuts the The Rainforests Oceans Essay, standard notion that the way to persuade people is via evidence and Essay Midland argument. In fact, head-on attempts to persuade can sometimes trigger a backfire effect, where people not only johannes, fail to Essay Midland in London, change their minds when confronted with the facts—they may hold their wrong views more tenaciously than ever. Take, for instance, the question of whether Saddam Hussein possessed hidden weapons of mass destruction just before the US invasion of Iraq in 2003. The Catcher In The Rye By J.D.! When political scientists Brendan Nyhan and Jason Reifler showed subjects fake newspaper articles (PDF) in which this was first suggested (in a 2004 quote from President Bush) and then refuted (with the findings of the Essay on The in London, Bush-commissioned Iraq Survey Group report, which found no evidence of Essay as a, active WMD programs in Essay, pre-invasion Iraq), they found that conservatives were more likely than before to believe the Essay on The Midland, claim. (The researchers also tested how liberals responded when shown that Bush did not actually “ban” embryonic stem-cell research.

Liberals weren’t particularly amenable to Essay, persuasion, either, but no backfire effect was observed.) Another study gives some inkling of to kill key quotes, what may be going through people’s minds when they resist persuasion. Northwestern University sociologist Monica Prasad and Essay on The her colleagues wanted to test whether they could dislodge the notion that Saddam Hussein and Al Qaeda were secretly collaborating among those most likely to believe it—Republican partisans from highly GOP-friendly counties. Key Quotes! So the researchers set up a study (PDF) in which they discussed the topic with some of these Republicans in person. They would cite the findings of the Midland, 9/11 Commission, as well as a statement in Essay on The Hotel in London, which George W. Bush himself denied his administration had “said the 9/11 attacks were orchestrated between Saddam and Al Qaeda.” One study showed that not even Bush’s own words could change the minds of on The Hotel, Bush voters who believed there was an Iraq-Al Qaeda link. As it turned out, not even Bush’s own words could change the minds of these Bush voters—just 1 of the 49 partisans who originally believed the Iraq-Al Qaeda claim changed his or her mind. Far more common was resisting the johannes bio, correction in a variety of ways, either by coming up with counterarguments or by simply being unmovable: Interviewer: [T]he September 11 Commission found no link between Saddam and 9/11, and this is what President Bush said. Do you have any comments on Essay on The Midland either of those?

Respondent: Well, I bet they say that the Commission didn’t have any proof of it but I guess we still can have our opinions and feel that way even though they say that. The same types of Essay, responses are already being documented on divisive topics facing the current administration. Essay On The Hotel! Take the “Ground Zero mosque.” Using information from the political myth-busting site, a team at as a Ohio State presented subjects (PDF) with a detailed rebuttal to Midland Hotel in London, the claim that “Feisal Abdul Rauf, the Imam backing the proposed Islamic cultural center and mosque, is a terrorist-sympathizer.” Yet among those who were aware of the rumor and believed it, fewer than a third changed their minds. A key question—and one that’s difficult to answer—is how “irrational” all this is. On the one hand, it doesn’t make sense to discard an entire belief system, built up over a lifetime, because of some new snippet of information. “It is quite possible to say, ‘I reached this pro-capital-punishment decision based on real information that I arrived at over my life,’” explains Stanford social psychologist Jon Krosnick. Indeed, there’s a sense in which science denial could be considered keenly “rational.” In certain conservative communities, explains Yale’s Kahan, “People who say, ‘I think there’s something to climate change,’ that’s going to mark them out as a certain kind of person, and their life is going to go less well.”

This may help explain a curious pattern Nyhan and his colleagues found when they tried to test the fallacy (PDF) that President Obama is a Muslim. Essay Of Courage! When a nonwhite researcher was administering their study, research subjects were amenable to Essay in London, changing their minds about the president’s religion and updating incorrect views. But when only white researchers were present, GOP survey subjects in The Catcher Rye by Essay, particular were more likely to Hotel, believe the Obama Muslim myth than before. The subjects were using “social desirabililty” to tailor their beliefs (or stated beliefs, anyway) to whoever was listening. A predictor of whether you accept the Essay Care matter of courage, science of global warming?

Whether you’re a Republican or a Democrat. Which leads us to the media. When people grow polarized over a body of evidence, or a resolvable matter of fact, the cause may be some form of biased reasoning, but they could also be receiving skewed information to begin with—or a complicated combination of both. In the on The in London, Ground Zero mosque case, for instance, a follow-up study (PDF) showed that survey respondents who watched Fox News were more likely to believe the Rauf rumor and three related ones—and they believed them more strongly than non-Fox watchers. Okay, so people gravitate toward information that confirms what they believe, and matter they select sources that deliver it.

Same as it ever was, right? Maybe, but the problem is arguably growing more acute, given the on The Hotel in London, way we now consume information—through the Facebook links of johannes bio, friends, or tweets that lack nuance or context, or “narrowcast” and often highly ideological media that have relatively small, like-minded audiences. Those basic human survival skills of ours, says Michigan’s Arthur Lupia, are “not well-adapted to our information age.” IF YOU WANTED TO SHOW how and why fact is ditched in favor of motivated reasoning, you could find no better test case than climate change. On The Hotel In London! After all, it’s an in the Rye by J.D., issue where you have highly technical information on one hand and very strong beliefs on the other. And sure enough, one key predictor of whether you accept the science of global warming is whether you’re a Republican or a Democrat. Essay On The In London! The two groups have been growing more divided in their views about the topic, even as the science becomes more unequivocal.

So perhaps it should come as no surprise that more education doesn’t budge Republican views. On the Essay, contrary: In a 2008 Pew survey, for Midland instance, only 19 percent of college-educated Republicans agreed that the planet is warming due to johannes bio, human actions, versus 31 percent of non-college educated Republicans. In other words, a higher education correlated with an increased likelihood of denying the Hotel in London, science on the issue. Meanwhile, among Democrats and independents, more education correlated with greater acceptance of the on The Midland in London, science. Other studies have shown a similar effect: Republicans who think they understand the global warming issue best are least concerned about it; and among Republicans and those with higher levels of Essay on The, distrust of science in general, learning more about the issue doesn’t increase one’s concern about it. What’s going on Essay of courage here? Well, according to Charles Taber and Milton Lodge of Stony Brook, one insidious aspect of motivated reasoning is that political sophisticates are prone to be more biased than those who know less about the issues. Essay Midland Hotel! “People who have a dislike of some policy—for example, abortion—if they’re unsophisticated they can just reject it out of johannes bio, hand,” says Lodge. “But if they’re sophisticated, they can go one step further and start coming up with counterarguments.” These individuals are just as emotionally driven and Midland in London biased as the rest of as a of courage, us, but they’re able to generate more and better reasons to explain why they’re right—and so their minds become harder to change. That may be why the selectively quoted emails of on The Hotel in London, Climategate were so quickly and easily seized upon by partisans as evidence of scandal. Cherry-picking is precisely the sort of behavior you would expect motivated reasoners to engage in to Rye by Salinger, bolster their views—and whatever you may think about Essay on The Midland in London, Climategate, the Midland Hotel, emails were a rich trove of Essay Midland Hotel in London, new information upon which to johannes, impose one’s ideology. Climategate had a substantial impact on public opinion, according to Anthony Leiserowitz, director of the Yale Project on Climate Change Communication. It contributed to an overall drop in public concern about Essay on The Midland, climate change and a significant loss of trust in scientists.

But—as we should expect by Oceans now—these declines were concentrated among particular groups of Americans: Republicans, conservatives, and those with “individualistic” values. Essay Midland! Liberals and those with “egalitarian” values didn’t lose much trust in Essay on The Midland Hotel, climate science or scientists at all. “In some ways, Climategate was like a Rorschach test,” Leiserowitz says, “with different groups interpreting ambiguous facts in very different ways.” Is there a case study of science denial that largely occupies the Essay on The Midland, political left? Yes: the claim that childhood vaccines are causing an epidemic of Essay on The Midland in London, autism. So is on The Hotel, there a case study of science denial that largely occupies the political left? Yes: the claim that childhood vaccines are causing an epidemic of autism. Its most famous proponents are an The Rainforests of Our Oceans Essay, environmentalist (Robert F. On The In London! Kennedy Jr.) and numerous Hollywood celebrities (most notably Jenny McCarthy and Jim Carrey). The Huffington Post gives a very large megaphone to denialists. And Seth Mnookin, author of the new book The Panic Virus , notes that if you want to The Catcher Rye by J.D., find vaccine deniers, all you need to do is go hang out at Whole Foods.

Vaccine denial has all the hallmarks of a belief system that’s not amenable to refutation. Essay Midland! Over the past decade, the contoh, assertion that childhood vaccines are driving autism rates has been undermined by multiple epidemiological studies—as well as the simple fact that autism rates continue to rise, even though the alleged offending agent in vaccines (a mercury-based preservative called thimerosal) has long since been removed. Yet the true believers persist—critiquing each new study that challenges their views, and even rallying to the defense of vaccine-autism researcher Andrew Wakefield, after his 1998 Lancet paper—which originated the current vaccine scare—was retracted and he subsequently lost his license (PDF) to practice medicine. But then, why should we be surprised? Vaccine deniers created their own partisan media, such as the on The Midland Hotel in London, website Age of Autism, that instantly blast out Essay as a matter of courage critiques and counterarguments whenever any new development casts further doubt on anti-vaccine views. It all raises the Essay Hotel in London, question: Do left and right differ in any meaningful way when it comes to johannes kepler bio, biases in processing information, or are we all equally susceptible? There are some clear differences. Science denial today is considerably more prominent on Hotel in London the political right—once you survey climate and Essay related environmental issues, anti-evolutionism, attacks on reproductive health science by Essay on The Midland Hotel in London the Christian right, and stem-cell and biomedical matters.

More tellingly, anti-vaccine positions are virtually nonexistent among Democratic officeholders today—whereas anti-climate-science views are becoming monolithic among Republican elected officials. Some researchers have suggested that there are psychological differences between the as a, left and the right that might impact responses to new information—that conservatives are more rigid and authoritarian, and Essay Midland liberals more tolerant of Essay Midland, ambiguity. Psychologist John Jost of New York University has further argued that conservatives are “system justifiers”: They engage in on The Hotel, motivated reasoning to defend the status quo. We all have blinders in Essay matter, some situations. The question then becomes: What can be done to counteract human nature? This is a contested area, however, because as soon as one tries to psychoanalyze inherent political differences, a battery of counterarguments emerges: What about dogmatic and Essay Midland in London militant communists?

What about The Rainforests Oceans Essay, how the parties have differed through history? After all, the Essay on The Hotel, most canonical case of The Rainforests of Our, ideologically driven science denial is probably the Essay Midland Hotel, rejection of genetics in contoh, the Soviet Union, where researchers disagreeing with the Midland in London, anti-Mendelian scientist (and Stalin stooge) Trofim Lysenko were executed, and genetics itself was denounced as a “bourgeois” science and officially banned. The upshot: All we can currently bank on is the fact that we all have blinders in some situations. In The Rye By J.D.! The question then becomes: What can be done to counteract human nature itself? GIVEN THE POWER OF our prior beliefs to skew how we respond to new information, one thing is becoming clear: If you want someone to accept new evidence, make sure to present it to Essay on The Midland in London, them in contoh essay english, a context that doesn’t trigger a defensive, emotional reaction. This theory is gaining traction in part because of Kahan’s work at Yale. In one study, he and his colleagues packaged the basic science of climate change into fake newspaper articles bearing two very different headlines—”Scientific Panel Recommends Anti-Pollution Solution to Global Warming” and Essay Midland in London “Scientific Panel Recommends Nuclear Solution to Global Warming”—and then tested how citizens with different values responded. Sure enough, the latter framing made hierarchical individualists much more open to accepting the fact that humans are causing global warming. Kahan infers that the effect occurred because the science had been written into an alternative narrative that appealed to Essay on The Midland Hotel, their pro-industry worldview. You can follow the logic to its conclusion: Conservatives are more likely to embrace climate science if it comes to them via a business or religious leader, who can set the issue in the context of different values than those from which environmentalists or scientists often argue. Doing so is, effectively, to signal a detente in what Kahan has called a “culture war of fact.” In other words, paradoxically, you don’t lead with the facts in order to convince.

You lead with the on The Midland Hotel in London, values—so as to in the J.D. Essay, give the facts a fighting chance. Clapping shows how much you appreciated Mother Jones’s story.

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10 Essential Tips for Your Amazing Social Work Resume. by Valerie Arendt, MSW, MPP. Essay On The? Is your resume ready to send out to employers? You have Googled example resume templates, perfected your formatting, and added appropriate action words. Everything is in the correct tense, in reverse chronological order, and kept to The Catcher in the J.D. Salinger two pages or less. Essay On The Hotel In London? What else should you think about for an amazing social work resume? Whether you are a clinical or macro social worker, student, new professional, or have been in the field for 30 years, these essential tips will keep your resume ready to english send out to your future employer. 1. Objective or Professional Summary? Let’s start at Essay on The Midland Hotel in London, the beginning. I am not a fan of the objective, and neither are many hiring managers. If they are reading your resume, they already know you are seeking a position with them. Contoh? Generally, an objective is on The Midland Hotel, used by someone who has recently graduated or has very little experience.

If you have plenty of social work experience, you should consider using a professional summary. The Catcher In The Rye By J.D. Salinger Essay? This is one to three sentences at the beginning of your resume that help describe the value you bring as a social worker through your skills and experience. This helps your reader know right away if you will be a good fit for the hiring organization. Essay Hotel In London? It is Essay on The Hotel in London, much easier for Essay on The Hotel, a hiring manager to Essay find that value in a short paragraph than trying to on The Hotel piece it together from to kill a mockingbird key quotes, a lengthy history of professional experience and education. DON’T: Objective: Seeking a social work position within a facility where I can utilize my experience to the benefit of Hotel, my employer as well as gain knowledge and professional growth. DO: Licensed Clinical Social Worker with 6+ years experience in medical and mental health settings, working with diverse populations in Essay in London, private practice, health care, outpatient, and inpatient treatment settings. Recently relocated to Georgia.

2. Don’t assume your reader already knows what you do. This is Midland in London, one of the biggest mistakes I see when reviewing resumes. Write your resume as if the person reading it has no idea what you do. Really? Yes!

This will help you to be descriptive about your experience. The Catcher Essay? For some reason, some social workers are not very good at tooting their own horns. Your resume is exactly the place you need to in London brag about what an amazing professional you are. Contoh Essay? Don’t assume that because your title was “Outpatient Therapist,” the reader of your resume will know exactly what you did. Be descriptive. Give a little information about the organization or program, the Essay Midland, clients, and the type of therapy or work you performed. This can easily be done in three to Essay Hotel in London five bullets if you craft thoughtful, complete sentences. DON’T: Provide psychotherapy to on The Midland Hotel clients. DO: Provide group and individual outpatient therapy to adult clients at a substance abuse treatment center utilizing Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT), psychoeducation, and motivational interviewing. If you worked in The Catcher Rye by J.D. Salinger Essay, a position for five years but don’t list one relevant accomplishment, that is a red flag for Midland Hotel, a hiring manager.

Describing accomplishments is more than simply listing your job duties. These are the contributions you have made in your career that would encourage an organization to hire you. Questions you can ask yourself to help remember your accomplishments include: How did you help your clients? Did you create a new form or program based on the needs of the client population? Did your therapy skills reduce the contoh, relapse rate in your agency? Did you save your organization money by Essay Midland coming up with a cost-saving idea? Were you selected for special projects, committees, or task forces? Even if the only social work experience you have on your resume is your field placement, you should be able to list an accomplishment that will entice the reader to want to know more. DON’T: Completed appropriate and timely documentation according to to kill a mockingbird compliance guidelines. DO: Recognized need for updated agency forms.

Developed 10 clinical and administrative forms, including no-harm contract, behavior contract, and therapist’s behavior inventory, which increased staff efficiency and productivity by 15%. 4.Quantify your accomplishments. Essay On The Midland Hotel? Numbers aren’t just for business professionals. Numbers also help with the bragging I mentioned that needs to happen on your resume. To Kill A Mockingbird? The most convincing accomplishments are measurable and help your resume stand out from the on The Midland, crowd. English? How many clients did you serve? How much money did you receive for that grant you secured for your agency? How many people do you supervise?

DON’T: Wrote grants for counseling program in schools. DO: Co-wrote School Group Experiences proposal, which received a $150,000 grant from State Foundation for Health, resulting in doubling the number of children served in group counseling from 120 children to 240 children, and Essay Hotel in London, increasing the percentage of minority children served from 20% to 50% of the total child population in Care matter of courage, group therapy. 5. Tailor your resume to Midland in London the specific job. You have heard this over and over, and it should make sense. Still, not many social workers do this correctly or at all. Many big organizations, hospitals, and university systems use online applicant tracking systems to review resumes. When one job has 100 applicants, this is when using keywords REALLY counts. Look at the job description for keywords. For example, what words do they use to describe the clients?

Patients, clients, residents, victims, survivors, adults, children? If you have worked with the same client populations, used the same therapy techniques, or provided the supervision listed in the job description, make sure these SAME words are in your resume. Hiring managers can tell when you haven’t put any time into matching your experience with their open position. DON’T: Provide in-home therapy for families. DO: (Similar language from job description) Perform individual and family, agency, and home-based therapy for medically fragile children and their families (parents and siblings) with goal of maintaining intact families and Hotel, improving family functioning. Social workers LOVE to use acronyms. Many social workers spend hours writing case notes, and to be efficient, they rely on acronyms to describe their work. For the same reasons you should use keywords, it is essential that you spell things out for the computer or human resources person who may not know what certain acronyms mean. I am a social worker with limited clinical knowledge, and I often have to Google acronyms when I review NASW members’ resumes.

The reader responsible for finding the right candidates to Essay interview will consider this a waste of his or her time and might move on to the rest of the resumes in J.D. Salinger Essay, the pile if he or she has no idea what you are talking about. DON’T: Scored and analyzed clinical assessments to include SIB-R, CBCL, CTRF, or SCQ in packets for Essay on The Hotel, families scheduled for autism evaluations. DO: Scored and analyzed clinical assessments for autism evaluations including Scales of Independent Behavior-Revised (SIB-R), Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), Caregiver/Teacher Report Form (CTRF), and Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ). Most resumes I review are succinct and formatted very nicely by bulleting experience. But there are still some folks who use paragraphs to Rye by J.D. Salinger describe their experience. You may have 20 years of Essay, social work experience at one agency, but that does not mean you can’t be concise.

I guarantee you that hiring managers are not going to read a paragraph that is of courage, 15 lines long to look for Essay on The Hotel in London, the experience that will fit the position they are trying to fill. Write your resume in such a way that it is easy to scan and find the in the Rye by J.D. Salinger Essay, keywords in 30 seconds or less. Use three to eight bullets to Essay on The describe your experience and essay, accomplishments. 8. Essay Midland? Do not list every continuing education training you have ever attended. Whether or not you are licensed in contoh english, your state, you should seek out continuing education in Essay on The in London, social work. Don’t forget, it is in the NASW Code of Essay, Ethics: Section 4.01 (b) Competence: “…Social workers should routinely review the professional literature and participate in continuing education relevant to Midland social work practice and Essay Care of courage, social work ethics.” It is great to show your reader that you are up to date on the latest clinical information on your client population, but the section on your resume for Continuing Education or Professional Development should only list the courses that are relevant to the job you are applying for. It is a great idea to keep a list of all your continuing education, for your own reference and for your license renewal. You just don’t need to on The Midland Hotel list them all on your resume. I hope you are seeing a theme here. Essay English? Recently, I have come across a few resumes that have all of the following sections: #13; #13; Professional Summary #13; Education #13; Relevant Social Work Experience #13; Work Experience #13; Additional Experience #13; Summary of Skills #13; Professional Affiliations #13; Volunteer Experience #13; Publications #13; Relevant Coursework #13; Activities #13; Honors #13; Every resume is personal and different. You don’t need 10 categories on your resume.

Professional Experience and Education are musts. but after that, limit the places hiring managers need to search to find the information that will help them decide to interview you. Only put the information that is on The, most relevant to the job to which you are applying. 10. Your references should always be available upon johannes bio, request and not on your resume. If the last line on your resume is “References Available Upon Request,” this one is for you. It is not necessary to tell your reader that you have references. Essay Midland In London? If you get far enough in the interview process, they will ask you for your references.

Have them listed in a separate document. Only send the references that are relevant, and only send them when asked. Contoh Essay English? It is imperative that you inform your references that they may be contacted, and always send them a copy of the job description and your recent resume, so they can be prepared when contacted. Nothing is a bigger turnoff to me than getting a call to be a reference for someone I supervised five years ago and I can’t remember exactly what their job duties were. It is great to Midland get a heads-up and a reminder of what the person did under my supervision. And don’t forget to send your references a thank-you note, even if you didn’t get the job! DON’T: References Available Upon Request. DO: (Separate document with your contact information at the top) References: Jessica Rogers, MSW, LICSW, Director of Family Programs, Affordable Housing AuthorityChicago, ILRelationship: Former SupervisorPhone: 543-321-1234rogers@email.orgJessica was my direct supervisor and johannes bio, is familiar with my clinical social work skills, my ability to work with diverse communities, and Essay Hotel, my aptitude for managing relationships with partner organizations.

Jessica recognized my success in client outcomes and promoted me within 6 months of my hire date. Essay Midland? Remember, your resume is your tool to get an interview. It doesn’t need to Essay Midland in London include every detail about you as a professional social worker. Use your cover letter to expand on details that are specific to the job you are seeking. During the interview, you can go into more detail about your relevant experience.

Valerie Arendt, MSW, MPP, is the Associate Executive Director for contoh, the National Association of Essay on The Hotel in London, Social Workers, North Carolina Chapter (NASW-NC). Of Our? She received her dual degree in social work and public policy from the University of Minnesota and on The Midland Hotel, currently provides membership support, including resume review, to the members of NASW-NC. The Rainforests Oceans? Graduating with my MSW in social work this helps out a lot. Thank you so much for this article. I greatly appreciate it and Essay on The Midland Hotel, feel it will be an immense help in a mockingbird, my job search and resume formulation. Emerald Reese 108 days ago. Thank you for the advice. On The Hotel? Right now I am revamping my resume and trying to avoid paying for essay, the service. Jennifer J. Capri 140 days ago.

Thank you so much for all the Essay on The in London, information! I will be graduating with my MSW in 3 short months and it's about time to Essay matter start job searching so I am starting to update my resume and this has been so helpful! It has been much appreciated. Kelly 155 days ago. This article was so helpful in tweaking my resume. Dana 183 days ago.

I would have made all the Essay on The Midland Hotel, listed mistakes, if I hadn't read this article. Thank you so very much for sharing this knowledge. Amy 199 days ago. Many thanks for the information! Always nice to Essay in London find job information specific to the human service/social work field! Michael 238 days ago. Featured Jobs at. On The Hotel? Copyright 2017 White Hat Communications.

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Cyprus peace talks will resume Anastasiades says. The process aimed at a solution of the Cyprus problem will be resumed, President of the Republic Nicos Anastasiades said on Saturday night in a TV address to mark Cyprus Independence Day. Independence will be celebrated on Sunday, October 1 with a military parade, while the President said the failure to reach an agreement at Essay on The Midland in London the Crans-Montana talks in June-July will not halt the efforts of the Greek Cypriot side, which is ready to essay english, participate in the talks with the same strength and Essay Hotel in London creativity. Noting that in matter, the past two years great efforts were undertaken by the Greek Cypriot side, he pointed out Essay Midland Hotel in London that for the first time Turkey’s direct participation in the talks was achieved. “Thanks to The Catcher J.D. Salinger, our strategy, for the first time the discussion focused on the history of the Cyprus problem and its essence, which is none other than the security of the Midland, future state, the abolition of the system of essay, guarantees, the end of dependency and guardianship and Essay in London the withdrawal of the occupation army,” Anastasiades stressed. He added that these are positions of principle which the UN Secretary-General himself included in the six thematic sections he tabled at the negotiations. A convergence on essay english this framework could lead to a strategic agreement, giving a new momentum to on The Hotel in London, the process to achieve a comprehensive settlement on the Cyprus issue, the President said. He dismissed allegations that the Greek Cypriot side was not productive at the talks, saying that it submitted realistic proposals which took into consideration the concerns of key quotes, both communities and are based on the framework of the UNSG and Essay Midland Cyprus’ participation in the EU and the UN.

The President noted that despite the on The Hotel, determination of the Greek Cypriot side, the Turkish positions remained unchanged. Ankara, he added, despite contradictory statements and repeated public commitments to a positive response to the UNGS’s framework, has adopted a firm stance, insisting on maintaining the Essay on The Hotel, Treaty of The Catcher Salinger Essay, Guarantee, the intervention rights and permanent troops. The result, he continued, was a deadlock which caused great disappointment to all those of us who had worked hard and to the people of on The Midland Hotel in London, Cyprus who placed hope in contoh english, this new effort. He pledged that this new failure to reach a solution will not bend the determination of the on The Midland Hotel, Greek Cypriot side to reach a solution and johannes said that the process will resume and Essay on The Midland Hotel the Greek Cypriot side is ready to participate again in a creative manner. The Cypriot President said that to this end, he conveyed to the UNSG the The Rainforests of Our Oceans Essay, readiness of the Greek Cypriot side for the immediate resumption of the talks according to his framework and the relevant UN resolutions. “In order to avoid a new failure, I gave emphasis to the need for good preparation that will allow a new conference to take place on solid ground,” he underlined.

He appealed to Turkey and the Turkish Cypriots, saying that they must realise that a solution must be based on mutual respect without creating winners and losers. Referring to the economy, he said that the government has managed to bring growth back to the economy, recording in 2017 one of the Essay in London, highest growth rates in Europe. As regards future projections, he pointed out that preliminary data will allow us to be more optimistic and put forward the necessary reforms. Referring to johannes, Sunday’s Independence Day, he paid tribute to all those who lost their lives for freedom and democracy and Essay Midland Hotel laid the foundations for a country which serves as an example in the region, a country which is proud to be member of the European Union. Greek Defence Minister says that Cyprus is never far away for Greece. Cyprus celebrates Independence Day.

Cyprus peace talks will resume, says President Anastasiades. The only way forward two countries North Cyprus and South Cyprus. I must assume the realisation of the need for Cyprob discussions in johannes, order to maintain a reason for being not to mention the salaries, pensions and expenses has dawned so we can now embark on the next 40 years of ‘negotiations’ (I use the word in the loosest of Essay on The Midland in London, terms). Nice job if you can get it, assuming you have no morals or ethics. In simplistic terms Turkeys definition is simple “negotiate = you accept only our terms and we have peace, That is never going to happen, so all this BS most of you have wrote about Nik on this article ( which I say I cannot stand the man myself), is only the The Catcher in the J.D. Salinger Essay, icing of the Essay on The Midland in London, cake, if you want to Essay Care matter, dig deeper to find the problem look at Turkey, they are the main Ingredient in these BS peace talks and the reason they failed. He’s becoming an embarrassment. What kind of “advisors” does he surround himself with? Anastasiades resembles a broken record. How often do we need to listen to on The in London, his self-deceit ? “He dismissed allegations that the Greek Cypriot side was not productive at Essay Midland the talks, saying that it submitted realistic proposals which took into consideration the Hotel, concerns of both communities and are based on the framework of the UNSG and Cyprus’ participation in the EU and the UN.” Does it imply that UNSG is telling a lie through an Official Report?

Oh dear, another round of Oceans Essay, embarrassment. And still it keeps coming….. Gcs always agree to negotiate only to disagree?. Tcs should make a strong statement and that is, if talks fail again then it should be a decade before it is to be resumed, this will then teach Gcs to be serious and not fob off, Tcs, EU and its people… The true fact is that there is to many fat cats past and present which includes Gcs leaders to date from 74 who have gained from the status Quo, hence the BS which it has feed its people to date. I believe it’s for in London the Gc community to determine if they want a settlement or not, and if it is peace they want then they should be more vocal in criticising its leaders..

G/cs just want to Salinger Essay, free their country. If you consider that T/cs or -worst-Turkish army will succeed to determine G/cs will, which is Essay on The Midland in London, coming through centuries, then be ready the :green line”to be their jail.Ottomans can presently play the game of power but soon or later this will be changed and contoh then the real facts and a fair solution will appear. By all accounts your part of the island is free. So is the TRNC. Don’t expect any change. Correct. Many here are forgetting still that no change is possible with this attitude of Hotel, “subject to conditions” . Using the term Ottomans leads me to believe tha your back-ward minded and can not see beyond all irrelevant obstacles the Gcs put so not to Essay in London, have a settlement… Tcs did not draw the on The Hotel in London, green line, it was the English because they also did not approve of enosis… also note that Tcs are not previlaged as Gcs, they do not have food banks… Another EOKA loving dinosaur crawls out of the woodwork. If you read the comments of many , you will be amazed to see that many wish a ‘settlement” subject to fulfillment of GC conditions and terms. It is impossible. Settlement means some amicable agreements.

The will to have some compromise is completely absent . I agree with you but why would anyone go back to talks after a decade IF talks fail again… there is no reason for any talks anymore… everyone from now on goes their own way unless the ROC says, yes, we accept the presence of 700 troops as a good gesture for the TC to go back to the table otherwise forget it… North should concentrate their efforts by giving an ultimatum to the international community about their recognition… Even Catalans in Essay Midland Hotel in London, Spain have gone to vote to separate from Essay Midland Hotel Spain even though the Care matter of courage, SPanish government said it was illegal to Essay Midland Hotel, go to Essay Care as a matter of courage, the referendum… So be it, North goes it alone end of… Don’t need anything from the GCs but only the recognition that is well overdue from the international community… I agree with your post in-full but recognition for Tcs will not happen in on The Hotel in London, the near because that will then turn attention to on The, the Palestinian issue.. Talks are all game playing at the moment, and it’s made to look good.. Goldman Sachs is encouraging investment in Essay in London, Cyprus, which I believe has only ten years befor it goes the same way as Greece. Israel is going on johannes bio with its business quietly, the English is comfortable with its bases, Turkey also, and the Gcs are recognised so what possible reason would there be for a peace settlement?. I could ellebrate more with regards to in London, Golman Sachs Israel and its influence in Cyprus but I’ll keep it simple.. so why a decade? I’d say it’s best, everyone can just get on with their life’s and stop living for the moment.. Empty glasses, smashed ashtray nobody there talk on Mr President. Who will Nick be negotiating with.We have seen Akinci true colours.

Who will represent TCs, make firm disitions and is of Cypriot origin not influenced by Erdogan.? He will probably be around a further 12 years unless forcibly removed. How meaningful will negotiations be with Erdogan constantly in the background interfering all as before. Pressure from the international community will be the only way and thats just what might happen. We have seen Anastasiades “true colors” long ago. In Crans Montana he escaped in the last minute from making a sensible deal. As long as Akinci is the elected president of the TRNC, he will represent the interests of Turkish Cypriots. The “international community” has spoken through the SG Guterres. No pressure there, just resignation. It is very hard for any Greek Cypriot leader to negotiate with Erdogan and his Islamo-fascists thugs who rule Turkey. Been Islamists first and then Turks, their objective is to on The, consolidate their power at home and then gradually promote and spread Islam in Cyprus and through out Europe.

So what is on The Midland Hotel, your suggestion? He is a jangler, el supremo. keep dreaming and keep living in the dreamland… How arrogant is the man? The other side have said they will not discuss further at the moment after Switzerland. What is different now from his position a few months ago. Johannes Kepler. Zero troops on day 1 is not going to work.

He can negotiate with himself and prepare by himself… there won’t be anyone else listening. Turn the man into a windsock for larnaca airport – all he can do is tell you which way the wind is blowing. “Cyprus peace talks will resume Anastasiades says…..” They can talk amongst themselves as the TCs and Turkey won’t be there to listen . So first he blames everything on the north and Turkey, then he asks them to Essay on The Midland Hotel in London, sit down and “negotiate ” He should stop the blame game, start by stating that both sides did mistakes and both need to work out their differences. Alex, he needs to win the election. This rubber faced gargoyle of an excuse for a “president” shows not a shred of shame when he talks. A Mockingbird. He epitomises every interlocutor we Turkish Cypriots have had to deal with for the last 53 years. We have finally understood that we cannot expect equality from our fellow countrymen and have chosen our path, WHEREVER that may take us and we will follow that path…as long as it doesn’t take us back to pre ’74! It’s election time here in on The Hotel in London, the south , Mr Pres will only act and speak in a way that encourages his re-election.

He obviously has very little respect for the perspicacity of his audience, but he cannot expect the same from the TC’s. It’s over, and everybody knows it. They “will” resume? This must be an erroneous translation into English. Akinci himself reiterated that it is implausible before the as a matter of courage, GC electioneering is over. Even after that, any “talks” will be time bound to Midland, stop any silly word play. LOL… of course they will “resume” but with a difference… “A” will organize a meeting, seating at Essay a table all by Hotel in London, himself and waiting and waiting and english waiting… then he will blame everyone for not attending. The republic of cyprus celebrates tomorrow another independance day. Essay Midland Hotel. This one is different than the previous ones. As the president mentioned Cyprus managed to achieve economic growth in 2017; a big blow to all those who were betting on The Catcher Salinger Cyprus going bankrupt and leaving the EU. We are a proud full EU member, full UN member and Essay on The Hotel full memeber in all other international institutions.

We are not perfect, we made mistakes. However, I am very proud of my country and where it is standing right now. Beautifully said I stand with you For all the problems the Cypriot people have prevailed. The north should know that the only route for inetrnational recognition passes through the essay, ROC. Who do you think gives a shite about in London your ROC to be honest… My own neighbourhood is 3 Million people and you are talking about a ROC representing 600-700K people to Midland, decide.

On the Essay on The Midland Hotel in London, North, by what right. Your days are numbered end of… ALl that needs to bio, be sorted now is the in London, formalities with the international community… You are a nobody, you contribute nothing to the international world, except Halloumi which is The Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Essay, a CYPRIOT product North South, what else have you got that the international community needs from ROC? Nothing, zilch… you have done your propaganda, you have mastered the on The in London, art of key quotes, making the international community to believe that it was all Turks fault of what happened in CY but that has all come to an end now… so what have you got?! Jack shite.. you forgot that we also contribute Donkeys to the international community :)) LOL. There could have been an Hotel in London agreement in Cr Montana if Anastasiades had not adopted the all or nothing approach of contoh essay, no guarantees and zero Turkish soldiers. Essay Hotel. Why would it be a different outcome if they return to the negotiating table? I mentioned these factors before: 1. One side glamours for BBF(or whatever else similar) without troops – the other glamours for partition which is Care, a non starter according to 1960 agreements and with troops. 2. The GCs do not trust the Turks and the TCs do not trust the greeks. 3. Visionary and pragmatice leaders are short to find if non-existent.

Try to negotiate your way through all this. At the end seems to Essay in London, be a brick wall. The 1960 agreements were violated by Greek Cypriots under the leadership of Makarios and again in 1974 by essay english, Greece and Cypriot thugs. Partition is the Essay on The Midland Hotel in London, legitimate answer of Turkish Cypriots and is the only guarantee for 43 years’ of peace to continue. Yes, correct what you say but the agreements have also been violated by johannes kepler bio, Turkey who invated under false pretences, However the 1960 agreements are still very much alive and have never been nullified or revoked – this means no union with mother countries no partition. I do think partition is the Essay Midland Hotel in London, appropriate solution but it must be negotiated in the circumastances. Where does this leave the Essay on The Midland in London, two communities? between a rock and a hard place. The partition is a fact.

Nothing can override it. Not necessarily must it be negotiated. Declaration of independence is Midland Hotel in London, a legal right. Kosovo did not ask Serbia’s permission to secede and is now recognized. Same goes for other Balkan states of The Catcher in the J.D. Salinger Essay, former Yugoslavia. You are comparing two dissimilar situations. On The In London. Kosovo never signed an agreement with three other signatories. Essay On The Midland Hotel. However we did so we are stuck. No, we are not stuck. The TRNC has declared independence in 1983.

Whichever country wishes to extend recognition in future, based on Essay Midland Hotel in London its own national interests, is not bound by this 1960 agreement. (Kosovo acted against an existing constitution). Well you are very optimistic and why should you not be. I wish you all good luck. But what comes out bio loud and clear is, the Essay on The in London, Turkish side always were aiming for partition. It would have been a liitle more honest to have said so in the first place and save this charade at crans montana.

And why Mr A is pursuing a dead duck? What are the political expediencies that urged the two parties to pursue this mirage? Yes you are bound by the 1960 afreements until such time all parties agree to The Catcher in the Salinger Essay, bury them. But it seems that it is in Midland Hotel, the nature of all parties concerned to renage on agreements. So much for mutual trust. There never was mutual trust, not in essay, 100 years.

The 1960 agreements tie the signatories to it, but not third parties. Essay Midland. Certainly not other states that wish to Rye by J.D. Salinger Essay, recognize. The Crans Montana talks were not about Hotel partition but about BBF to of courage, which Turkey had agreed. Essay On The. They failed due to Anastasiades insisting on zero troops. Meanwhile, that’s accepted wisdom. Cyprob was always UN driven and kepler bio no side wanted to be seen as defector.

Now, it will be a new ball game. I will tell you how it will be. Turkey now regrets that they did not accept Nikos offer. So, when they go back now, they will compromise. Turkey should know that the only route to the EU passes though the ROC. You talk lot of Hotel, rubbish this was last chance it Mr A blew it. Hi.. The Catcher In The. actually it was the last chance for Hotel you guys to get recognition and enter the EU, and Mr. Midland In London. Ak blew it by listenining to his godfather.

I’m sure we are all proud of our country and what we have achieved in the endless face of adversity however we do not need to be blindly proud of incompetent politicians whom on creation god so clearly overestimated his abilities. Cyprus is and Hotel will remain a participant member of the EU so no need to dignify the doubters spouting negative comments about us with any kind of response. However we must never defend the indefencible or we lose all credibility. Spot on! I agree 100% “I am very proud of my country” .. Whose country and what is to be proud of, the ROC president’s failure and making the ROC a laughing stock at the talks?! seriously… no wonder the South doesn’t progress and rely on income from Oceans Essay tourism and Halloumi but that will also come to an end once the doors to Essay on The in London, the North fully opens up #128521; Hi guesting_123, making the ROC a laughing stock does not change the fact the contoh, country is on growth mode. I am happy when the doors open for you. It will open competition. Competition is good for visitors. They will get better prices and Midland Hotel in London better service. This will make prices drop, and Essay Midland Hotel in London then more visitors will come which will be enough for your illegal state and Essay Midland our legal one. :)))) So do not worry.. we will survive on johannes the Tourist and Essay on The Midland in London Halloumi cheese income.

Talk Catalan to me #128521; Wales forward Bale ruled out of World Cup qualifiers. New conductor of our national orchestra looks to contoh essay english, the future. America’s slashed global health funding jeopardizes well-being and on The Hotel safety. Repatriation of stranded Monarch passengers continues.

Sides missed historic opportunity to resolve division, Guterres says. Police hold five over wired explosives found in posh Paris area. Trump to visit hurricane-ravaged Puerto Rico. Turkey to detain 254 municipal, ministry staff over Gulen links. Police seek clues to Las Vegas mass shooting. 24 Vassiliou Voulgaroctonou, 1503 Lefkosia. Tel: 357 22 818585. By continuing to use the Cyprus Mail, you agree to the use of cookies. more information Accept.

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