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There are certain advantages it offers over asymmetric key encryption. Some of the prominent features of the symmetric key encryption are as follows:- * The two parties using the symmetric key encryption must have the same key. * It is Technological Changes Essay, recommended that the keys be changed regularly in order to avoid any hacking attempts. * As the keys are needed to be changed regularly this method becomes bulky and exorbitant. * Process of the encryption decryption is malaysia, faster than asymmetric key encryption. * The hard disk space of the computer required to run the symmetric key encryption is Technological, less. Learning Essay! We provide help with symmetric key homework. Computernetworkhomeworkhelp receive online cryptography assignment help on a daily basis. What sets us stand apart from the crowd of service providers is our quality cryptography project help. Detriments of Technological in Society, symmetric key cryptography. The secure key establishment mechanism should be at its place. That is before any communication to begin between the two parties both the sender and the receiver must agree upon the establishment of the secret key.
Second and the most important factor is the trust factor. Since the sender and the receiver are using the. Decryption is the process of taking encoded or encrypted text or other data and converting it back into text that you or the computer are able to read and understand. It could be used to describe a method of un-encrypting the data manually or with un-encrypting the data using the proper codes or keys. Types of decryption: There are two types of Learning, decryption Symmetric decryption Asymmetric decryption Asymmetric decryption: Asymmetric cryptography or public-key cryptography is cryptography in in Society, which a pair of keys is Learning, used to encrypt and decrypt a message so that it arrives securely. In start, a network user receives a public and private key pair from a certificate authority. The other user who wants to send an encrypted message can get the intended recipients public key from a public directory. Users use this key to Changes encrypt message, they send it to the recipient. Hsbc! On the other side when the Changes, recipient gets the message, decrypt it with their private key that no one else should have access to. In symmetric cryptography, the same key is used for both encryption and decryption. It is of Carbon Nanotubes, simpler approach in dealing with each message, less secure since the key must be communicated to and known at both sender and receiver locations.
Symmetric key Decryption In this the Technological Changes in Society Essay, encryption and decryption of text is done by a single key. Any person that knows key to encryption or decryption can access the Learning Essay, file and in Society Essay, its contents. Algorithms used are fast and they are used to protect large and bulk data. Both keys can be calculated or identified with the help of one another. Whole process is inexpensive; it is the reason why it is more preferred. Encryption and decryption is too fast that there is women's roles in ww2, no time delay. Data authentication is present as one symmetric key is not solution to any other file as its symmetric key. Main drawback of data protection process is the loss of the symmetric key to any outsider except the parties being involved in the exchange of Essay, messages or data through symmetric key.
Different kinds of symmetric cryptography are Block Ciphers Stream Ciphers Message Authentication Codes The symmetric encryption algorithms which commonly used are Blowfish CAST IDEA DSE Decryption Homework Help We are the dedicated players in Computer Network Homework help and has served students across globe from hsbc, USA,UK,Australia, New Zealand, UAE and Qatar. They took help from our Experts and are frequent visitors for their queries. ComputerNetworkHomeworkHelp can assist you with all your decryption queries and decryption assignments, home works, decryption projects help or decryption programming help. Our service is 24/7, so we are here all day and night to ensure your success. ComputerNetworkHomeworkHelp service is based on providing quality services for decryption assignments. You needs to upload or send us email at info@ComputerNetworkHomeworkHelp.com if interested to score good in Decryption and. In cryptography, encryption is the in Society Essay, process of encoding messages (or information) in such a way that third parties cannot read it, the only authorized parties can. The Encryption doesnt prevent hacking but it prevents the hacker from reading the data that is encrypted. Learning Curve Essay! The message or information (referred to as plaintext) is encrypted using an encryption algorithm in an encryption scheme,turning it into an unreadable ciphertext (ibid.). It is usually done with the use of an encryption key that specifies how the message is to be encoded. The any adversary who can see ciphertext should not be able to determine anything about the original message.
The authorized party is able to decode the ciphertext using a decryption algorithm, that usually requires a secret decryption key that adversaries do not have access to. An encryption scheme usually needs a key-generation algorithm to randomly produce keys for technical reasons. Kinds of encryption Symmetric key encryption In Symmetric-key schemes, the encryption and decryption keys are the same. The communicating parties must agree on a secret key before they wish to Technological Changes communicate. Public key encryption In public-key encryption schemes, encryption key is published for anyone to use and Mechanical Properties Nanotubes Essay, encrypt messages. It is only the receiving party has access to Technological in Society Essay the decryption key and is capable of reading the Mechanical of Carbon Nanotubes, encrypted messages. The Public-key encryption is a relatively recent invention: historically, the all encryption schemes have been symmetric-key (also called private-key) schemes. One of the earliest public key encryption applications was called Pretty Good Privacy (PGP). This was written in 1991 by Changes Phil Zimmermann and was purchased by Symantec in tim burton, 2010. Encryption Homework Help Why we are best? 24/7 Availability No plagiarism Projects, assignments and homework solutions in deadline Reference style, Harvard, APA, AMA, MLA, IEEE computernetworkhomeworkhelp.com site, number one online tutoring service for Encryption programming, provides Encryption homework help, Encryption assignment help; Encryption quiz help, and Encryption project help.
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Need for secrecy In designing security systems, it is wise to assume that the details of the big apple franchise malaysia, cryptographic algorithm are already available to attacker. It is known as Kerckhoffs principle only secrecy of the key provides the Technological Changes in Society, security, which reformulated as Shannons maxim, enemy knows the system. The history of cryptography provides evidence that it can be difficult to auteur keep the details of a widely used algorithm secret (see security through obscurity). The key is Technological in Society Essay, often easier to protect (its typically a small piece of information) than an encryption algorithm, easier to change if compromised. The security of encryption system in or barclays, most cases relies on some key being kept secret. Trying to keep keys secret is one of the most difficult problems in Technological Changes in Society Essay, practical cryptography; see key management. Attacker who obtains key (by, as example, theft, the extortion, the big apple franchise malaysia, dumpster diving and social engineering) can recover original message from the encrypted data, issue signatures. Technological Changes In Society Essay! Key Homework Help When you need the best key online assistance, computernetworkhomeworkhelp.com is here for you. We provide you 24/7 support teams dedicated to franchise your success with high quality work free of plagiarism and referencing styles APA, Harvard, IEEE, computernetworkhomeworkhelp.com experts having experience and degrees in their fields key programming work and degrees, and even easy safe methods for reaching our experts when you need them. computernetworkhomeworkhelp.com key homework assignments do not have to be the Changes in Society Essay, worst experience of your school career, computernetworkhomeworkhelp.com is here to provide you with the highest quality key assistance every time. Network security consists of the provisions and policies adopted by a network administrator to prevent and monitor unauthorized access, the misuse, the Essay, modification, denial of a computer network and network-accessible resources.
The Network security involves authorization of Technological Essay, access to data in a network that is controlled by the network administrator. Users choose and are assigned ID and password or other authenticating information that allows them access to information and programs within their authority. The Network security covers variety of computer networks, public as well as private, which are used in everyday jobs conducting transactions and communications among businesses, the government agencies as well as individuals. Tim Burton! The Networks can be private, like as within a company, the Technological Essay, others which might be open to public access. Tim Burton! The Network security is involved in organizations, the enterprises, other types of institutions. The Network security do as its title explains: It secures the network, also protecting and Technological Essay, overseeing operations being done.
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Smurf attack An intruder can launch a smurf attack by sending a spoofed echo request massage on a network broadcast IP address. We have special expertise in Essay, providing attacks assignment help over smurf attacks. Traffic redirection A hacked router can send router update message to all neighboring routers that it lies in. Transport layer is responsible for process to women's roles in ww2 process delivery of the entire message. In Society! A process is an application running on a host. Where the network layer oversees source to destination delivery of the individual packets, this layer does not recognize any relationship between those packets. Network layer treats each one independently, though each piece belonged to Learning Curve a separate message, whether or not network layer does.
The transport layer on Technological in Society Essay, the other hand ensures that the whole message arrives intact and in order to overseeing error control as well as flow control at Mechanical Properties Essay the source to destination level. Responsibilities of Network Layer: Transport layer is responsible for the delivery of a message from one process to another. Technological Changes In Society! Other responsibilities are as follows Service Point Addressing: Computers often run several programs at franchise malaysia the same time. Technological Changes In Society Essay! For this purpose source to destination delivery means the delivery not only from one computer to the next but also from of baskervilles, a specific process on Changes Essay, one computer to of baskervilles a specific process on Changes Essay, the other. The header of transport layer must therefore include the tim burton auteur, type of address called a service-point address. The network layer gets each packet to the correct computer; the Changes Essay, transport layer gets the entire message to the correct process on that computer.
Segmentation and Reassembly: A message is divided into transmittable segments; every segment contains a different sequence number. Such numbers enable the transport layer to reassemble the message correctly upon arriving at the destination and to identify and replace packets that were lost in transmission. Connection Control: The transport layer can be either connectionless or connection oriented. Connectionless transport layer treats each segment as an hsbc independent packet and delivers it to the transport layer at the destination machine. Connection oriented transport layer makes a connection with the transport layer at the destination machine at in Society first before delivering the hound of baskervilles, packets. When all the Technological Changes in Society, data are transferred, then connection is terminated. Flow Control: Like the Properties of Carbon Nanotubes, data link layer the transport layer is responsible for Technological Changes Essay the flow control. Hsbc Or Barclays! At this layer flow control is performed end to end rather than across a single link. Error control: Like the Changes in Society, data link layer the transport layer is hound, responsible for error control. At network layer error control is Technological Changes Essay, performed process to process rather than across a single link. Sending side of transport layer makes sure that the entire message arrives at the receiving transport layer without error (loss, duplication, damage).
Error correction is of baskervilles, usually achieved through re-transmission. Transport Layer Homework Help At computernetworkhomeworkhelp.com we solve the issues relating to your Transport Layer Assignment and homework from various standards like schools, college, PhD as well as other research levels. Just in case you need to assist any kind of help relating to your Transport Layer assignment and Essay, homework then knock us at tim burton computernetworkhomeworkhelp.com. Ideas provide the perfect solution of the. Physical Layer Homework Help: The physical layer co ordinates the functions required to carry a bit stream over a physical medium. This Layer works for mechanical and electrical specifications of the interface and transmission medium. Physical Layer also defines the procedures and functions that physical devices and interfaces have to perform for transmission to occur. Figure shows the position of physical layer with respect to the transmission medium and in Society, the data link layer. The physical layer also concerned with the followings. Physical Properties of interfaces and medium: The physical layer defines the characteristics of the of baskervilles, interface between the devices and the transmission medium.
Physical layer also defines the Technological in Society, type of transmission medium. Representation of bits: The physical layer data consist of a stream of bits with no interpretation. For transmission, bits must be encoded in to signals electrical or optical. Tim Burton Auteur! This layer defines the type of encoding. Data Rate: The transmission rate is the number of bits sent each second is also defined by the physical layer. Physical layer defines the Technological Changes Essay, duration of bit, which is how long it lasts. Synchronization of bits: The sender and receiver not only must use the big apple franchise malaysia, same bit rate but also must be synchronized at the bit level. We can also say that the sender and receiver clocks must be synchronized. Line Configuration: The physical layer is concerned with the connections of devices to media. In a point to point configuration, two devices are concerned through a dedicated link.
Link is shared among several devices in a multipoint configuration. Physical Topology: The physical topology defines how devices are connected to make a network. The devices can be connected by using a mesh topology (every device is connected to other device), a star topology (devices are connected through a central device), a ring topology (each device is connected to next, forming a ring), a bus topology (every device is on a common link), or a hybrid topology (this is combination of Technological Changes in Society Essay, two or more topologies). Transmission Mode: The physical layer also defines the tim burton auteur, direction of transmission between two devices. It can be simplex, half-duplex and full-duplex. Technological In Society Essay! Simplex mode Only one device can send the other can only receive. Simplex mode is a one way communication. Learning! Half duplex mode Two devices can send and receive but not at Technological in Society the same time. Full duplex mode Two devices can send and hound, receive at same time. People and Changes in Society, students looking for Physical Layer Homework help can take a deep breath now.
They really not worry about their projects as now they can get help from online Physical Layer Help providers. Or Barclays! computernetworkhomeworkhelp.com came up as an excellent service provider for Physical Layer help seekers. Bringing professionals as well as together, the website is a big relief for everyone associated with education computernetworkhomeworkhelp.com has another benefit no matter where. The bridges are the devices that are used to connect two local area networks or to interconnect two or more segments of the same network. Various networks are connected to one another so that they can communicate and share information with one another. In addition to the network connectivity function performed by the bridges , they have one more important function to perform that is they filter information over the network so that the data meant for one part of the Technological Changes Essay, network does not clog the other parts of the hound of baskervilles, network. We are the happy providers of online help with bridges. Essay! Our assignment solution are in simple language that is easy to understand and is available to you at the click of a button.
This makes us an indispensable service providers of help with bridges homework. Bridges may be used either in standalone hardware devices or in the software running in the client or the server. When bridges came into existence they simply used to Mechanical Properties join two homogenous networks. But these days the Changes, bridges are used to connect two networks with different physical and data link level protocols. For e.g. an Ethernet network can be used to or barclays connect with a token ring network. Our experts having the indomitable spirits to help offer bridges project help. The bridges learn the media access control address of in Society, all the clients, servers and equipment and associate each address to of baskervilles a bridge port.
When a bridge receives a frame it decodes and reads its destination media access control address. If the port that is Technological, supposed to receive the or barclays, frame is the same port as the Technological in Society Essay, port connected to the sender the bridge will drop the frame. If the bridge cannot find which port is associated with the final destination address it sends the Curve Essay, frame to Technological Changes all the ports. We are pleased to showcase help with bridges assignment. Our experts that are adorned with insurmountable spirit to hsbc or barclays help our clients provide bridges homework help and Changes, they are beyond doubt the best out of the pack.
Our experts who are chosen few are from the best universities of the world brought together under one platform by ComputerNetworkHomeworkHelp. Our experts before they start offering solution to assignments under help with bridges project are trained for several months at ComputerNetworkHomeworkHelp. Or Barclays! Traditionally the bridges connect one network to another. But in the recent past the manufacturers have introduced multiport bridges. This kind of bridges offers the flexibility to the network administrators to connect to Technological Changes in Society more than two workgroups simultaneously. Our experts are available 24*7 that is Learning Essay, round the clock to offer help with bridges homework. They are just a click of the mouse away from you. Technological In Society! We offer and allow the one to one interaction with our experts even before you have made payments to us. We gladly offer. The data link layer transforms the physical layer, raw transmission facility, to a reliable link.
Data link layer enables physical layer appear error free to upper layer (network layer). A data link layer is responsible for moving frames from one hop to the next. Learning Curve! Responsibilities of data link layer: Framing: The data link layer divides stream of bits received from the network layer into manageable data units called frames. Physical addressing: If frames are to be distributed to different systems on the network, this layer adds a header to the frame to define the sender or receiver of the frame. Frame is intended for a system outside the senders network, receiver address is the address of the Changes in Society, device that connects the network to the next one. Flow control: If the rate at hsbc or barclays which data is taken by the receiver is less than the Changes in Society, rate at which data are produced in women's in ww2, the sender, and then the data link layer imposes a flow control mechanism to avoid overwhelming the Technological Changes Essay, receiver.
Error Control: The data link layer adds reliability to the physical layer by Essay adding mechanisms to detect and retransmit damaged or lost frames. Data link layer use a mechanism to recognize duplicate frames. Changes Essay! The error control is normally achieved through a trailer added to the end of or barclays, frame. Access Control: When two or more devices are connected to same link, data link layer protocols are necessary to determine which device has control over the link at any given time. Hop to Hop delivery: Data Link Layer Homework Help Tutors, at the ComputerNetworkHomeworkHelp, take pledge to provide full satisfaction and assurance in Technological, Data link Layer homework help via online tutoring. The students are getting 100% satisfaction by online tutors across the globe. Hsbc Or Barclays! You can get homework help for Data link Layer, project ideas and tutorials on Technological in Society, this platform. We provide email based Data link Layer homework. You can join us to hound of baskervilles ask queries 24?7 with live, qualified and experienced online tutors specialized in Data link Layer. By the way of Online Tutoring, student would be able to complete your homework or assignments at Changes Essay your home. The tutors at the ComputerNetworkHomeworkHelp are committed to provide the best quality online tutoring assistance for Data link Layer homework help and Data link Layer project help,Data link Layer programming help, Data link Layer report write-up services with no plagiarism.
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Gateways operate at the network layer of the OSI model. To communicate with a host on another network, IP host must be configured with a route to the destination network. If a configuration route is not found, the host uses the gateway (default IP router) to transmit the traffic to the destination host. The default t gateway is where the IP sends packets that are destined for remote networks. In case if no default gateway is specified, then communication is limited to Technological in Society the local network.
Gateways receive data from a network using one type of protocol stack, remove that protocol stack and franchise, repackage it with the protocol stack that the other network can use. Examples E-mail gateways-for example, a gateway that receives Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) e-mail, it translates it into a standard X.400 format, and forwards it to its destination Gateway Service for NetWare (GSNW), which enables a machine running Microsoft Windows NT Server or Windows Server to be a gateway for Windows clients so that they can access file and print resources on a NetWare server Gateways between a Systems Network Architecture (SNA) host and computers on Changes in Society Essay, a TCP/IP network, such as the one provided by roles Microsoft SNA Server A packet assembler/disassembler (PAD) that provides connectivity between a local area network (LAN), X.25 packet-switching network When you need the best Gateways online assistance, computernetworkhomeworkhelp.com is here for you. We provide you 24/7 support teams dedicated to your success with high quality work free of plagiarism and referencing styles APA, Harvard, IEEE, computernetworkhomeworkhelp.com experts having experience and Technological Changes Essay, degrees in their fields Gateways programming work and degrees, and even easy safe methods for Curve Essay reaching our experts when you need them. computernetworkhomeworkhelp.com Gateways homework assignments do not have to be the in Society Essay, worst experience of your school career, computernetworkhomeworkhelp.com is here to provide you with the highest quality Gateways assistance every time. ISDN uses circuit-switching to establish a physical permanent point-to-point connection from the source to the destination. The ISDN has standards defined by the ITU that encompass the OSI bottom three layers of which are Physical, the Data Link and tim burton, Network, see Table 1 below.
At the physical layer the ITU has defined the Technological in Society Essay, user network interface standard I.430 for Basic Rate Access, I.431 for the Primary Rate Access. The ANSI has defined the user network interface standard as T1.601. In Ww2! The physical layer uses the normal telephone cabling as its physical cabling structure. The ISDN B channels will typically utilize a Point-to-Point protocol such as HDLC (High-Level Data Link Control) or PPP frames at Layer 2 however you can sometimes see other encapsulation such as Frame relay. Changes In Society! At layer 3 you typically see IP packets as you would expect.
The ISDN operates in Full-Duplex which means that traffic can be received and transmitted at auteur the same time. The ISDN D channel will utilize different signaling protocols at Layer 3 and Layer 2 of the OSI Model. LAP-D (Link Access Procedure D Channel) is the Q.921 signaling used and Technological Changes in Society Essay, DSS1 (Digital Subscriber Signaling System No.1) is the Q.931 signaling that is used at Layer 3 typically at Layer 2. It is easy to remember which one is used at which layer by simply remembering that the middle number corresponds to the layer it operates at. Table 1 OSI Layer B Channel D Channel 3 IP DSS1 (Q.931) 2 HDLC/PPP LAP-D (Q.921) 1 I.430/I.431 or ANSI T1.601 The Different ISDN Components As part of the ISDN Standards, there are several types devices that are used to connect to the ISDN network which are known as Terminal Equipments (TE) and also Network Termination (NT) equipment. We also have Reference Points which are used to define the connections between the tim burton, various equipment that is Technological Changes Essay, used within the ISDN network. Women's In Ww2! ISDN Layers Homework Help computernetworkhomeworkhelp.com services provide you with a dexterous team of ISDN Layers writers and Changes in Society Essay, assignment helpers and with the unique features it provides will consequently upgrade your results and we assure you of that. Our website provide unique features like Original and quality content Customized and appropriate format 100% confidentiality ensured Highly affordable prices Always on-time deliveries logical and Factual reasoning involved within the content 24X7 availability No Plagiarism Our quality and customized format is based on one of the best academic referencing styles including 1) Harvard referencing style 2) APA referencing style 3) Chicago referencing style 4) MLA referencing style And they are built over Mechanical Nanotubes, one of the best journals, articles and research papers. Integrated Services for Digital Network (ISDN) is a set of Changes, communication standards for simultaneous digital transmission of voice, the women's in ww2, data of video and in Society Essay, other network services over the traditional circuits of the public switched telephone network. ISDN was first defined in 1988 in the CCITT red book.
To prior to ISDN, telephone system be viewed as a way to auteur transport voice, including some special services available for data. Key feature of ISDN is that it integrates speech and data on the same lines, the adding features which were not available in Technological Changes, the classic telephone system. Several kinds of access interfaces to ISDN defined as Basic Rate Interface (BRI), the Primary Rate Interface (PRI), the Narrowband ISDN (N-ISDN), also Broadband ISDN (B-ISDN). ISDN is a circuit-switched telephone network system, also provides access to packet switched networks, it designed to allow digital transmission of of baskervilles, voice and data over ordinary telephone copper wires, which resulting in potentially better voice quality than an analog phone can provide. ISDN offers circuit-switched connections (for either voice or data), packet-switched connections (for data), in increments of Technological Essay, 64 kilobit/s.
Major market application for big apple malaysia ISDN in some countries is Internet access, ISDN typically provides a maximum of 128 kbit/s in both upstream and downstream directions. Technological In Society! The channel bonding can achieve a greater data rate; typically the Curve, ISDN B-channels of three or four BRIs (six to eight 64 kbit/s channels) are bonded. Changes! ISDN should not be mistaken for its use with a specific protocol, like as Q.931 whereby ISDN is hound of baskervilles, employed as the Technological Changes in Society Essay, network, the data-link and physical layers in the context of the OSI model. ISDN can be considered a suite of digital services existing on layers 1, 2, and 3 of the OSI model in a broad sense. The ISDN is designed to provide access to voice and data services simultaneously. However, common use reduced ISDN to be limited to Q.931 and related protocols, that are a set of Learning Essay, protocols for establishing and breaking circuit switched connections, for advanced calling features for the user. Which were introduced in 1986. In a videoconference, the ISDN provides simultaneous voice, video, and text transmission between individual desktop videoconferencing systems and Technological Changes, group (room) videoconferencing systems.
ISDN Homework Help computernetworkhomeworkhelp.com site, number one online tutoring service for ISDN Programming provides ISDN homework help, ISDN assignment help; ISDN quiz help, and ISDN project help. Of Baskervilles! Our team has highly qualified tutors to help you with the most challenging assignments. With clear and accurate solutions, computernetworkhomeworkhelp.com Site stands out as the number one ISDN assignment help and homework help services. Our ISDN assignment help tutors will provide you with detail explanation on how to complete the assignment on Technological Changes, your own for learning purposes and for Learning Curve exam purposes. computernetworkhomeworkhelp.com can assist you with all your ISDN classes and ISDN assignments. Our service is 24/7, so we. Link Access Procedure, Balanced (LAPB) implements the data link layer as defined in the X.25 protocol suite. The LAPB is a bit-oriented protocol derived from Technological Changes Essay, HDLC that ensures that frames are error free and in the right sequence. The LAPB is roles in ww2, specified in ITU-T Recommendation X.25 also ISO/IEC 7776. LAPB can be used as a Data Link Layer protocol implementing the connection-mode data link service in the OSI Reference Model as defined by ITU-T Recommendation X.222. The LAPB is used to manage communication and packet framing between data terminal equipment (DTE) and the data circuit-terminating equipment (DCE) devices in the X.25 protocol stack. The LAPB is essentially HDLC in Asynchronous Balanced Mode (ABM).
The LAPB sessions can be established by either the DTE or DCE. Station initiating call is Changes in Society Essay, determined to be the primary; the responding station is the secondary. Auteur! Protocol structure Frame types I-Frames (Information frames): Carries upper-layer information and some control information. Essay! The I-frame functions include sequencing, the flow control, error detection and recovery. The I-frames carry send and receive sequence numbers. S-Frames (Supervisory Frames): Carries control information. The S-frame functions include requesting and suspending transmissions, the reporting on status, acknowledging the big apple franchise, receipt of I-frames.
The S-frames carry only receive sequence numbers. U-Frames (Unnumbered Frames): carries control information. The U-frame functions include link setup and disconnection, also error reporting. The U-frames carry no sequence numbers Frame format Flag The value of the flag is Technological in Society, always 0x7E. Franchise Malaysia! To ensure that the Technological Changes in Society Essay, bit pattern of the frame delimiter flag does not appear in the data field of the frame (and therefore cause frame misalignment), technique which known as Bit stuffing is big apple franchise, used by both the transmitter and the receiver. Address field In LAPB, this field has no meaning since the Technological, protocol works in a point to women's roles point mode and Changes, the DTE network address is represented in the layer 3 packets. Byte is therefore put to a different use; it separates the link commands from the responses and can have only women's roles, two values: 0x01 and 0x03. 01 which identifies frames containing commands from DTE to DCE and responses to these commands from DCE to DTE. The 03 is used for frames containing commands from DCE to DTE and for responses from DTE to DCE. Technological In Society! One side must be configured as a Layer 2 DTE and hound, the other as a Layer 2 DCE (you must not confuse this with the in Society, more familiar Layer 1 DCE and DTE designations). Control field It serves to identify the type of the frame.
It includes sequence numbers, the control features also error tracking according to the frame type. Modes of operation LAPB works in the Asynchronous Balanced Mode (ABM). Mode is balanced (i.e., no master/slave relationship) and is signified by the SABM (E)/SM frame. Of Carbon! The each station may initialize, and supervise, also recover. A computer network is a group of computers connected to each other electronically. It means that the computers can talk to each other and that every computer in the network can send information to Technological Changes Essay the others. It means that the speed of the connection is fast faster than a normal connection to the Internet. Basic types of Properties Essay, computer networks include: A local area network (called a LAN) connects two or more computers, and may be called a corporate network in an office or business setting.
An internetwork, sometimes called a Wide Area Network (because of the wide distance between networks) connects two or more smaller networks together. Largest internetwork is called Internet. Computers can be part of several different networks. Technological Changes In Society Essay! The Networks can also be parts of bigger networks. Local area network in Curve Essay, a small business is usually connected to the corporate network of the Essay, larger company.
Connected machine at any level of organization may be able to access the Internet, as example to demonstrate computers in of baskervilles, the store, to display its catalogue through a web server, convert received orders into Technological in Society Essay, shipping instructions. Microsoft Windows, Linux and most other operating systems use TCP/IP for networking. The Apple Macintosh computers used AppleTalk in past, it uses TCP/IP now. To set up a network an appropriate media is required. Big Apple! It can be wired or wireless. The twisted-pair, the co-axial or fiber-optic are examples of cable and Changes in Society, infra-red, the blue-tooth, the radio-wave, the micro-wave etc. are wireless media used for networking. You are working with a mere LAN, computers, media and peripherals are sufficient. When you are working with a wider range you have use some additional devices like bridge, the gateway or router to connect different small or large networks.
Obviously a protocol must be maintained. To set up a network you have to select an appropriate topology to arrange the hardware devices using the media. The topologies generally used are bus-topology, the ring-topology, the star-topology, the tree-topology, the object-oriented topology etc. Big Apple Franchise! Star-topology and tree-topology are most popular nowadays. Tutors, at the computernetworkhomeworkhelp.com, take pledge to provide full satisfaction and assurance in networking homework help via online tutoring.
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The International Standards Organization is a multinational body dedicated to worldwide agreement to Technological Changes international standards. ISO standard that covers all aspects of network communication is the Open Systems Interconnection model. It was first introduce in late 1970s. An open system is a set of Mechanical Properties of Carbon Essay, protocols that allows any two different systems to communicate regardless of their underlying architecture. Purpose of the OSI model is to show how to Technological Changes in Society facilitate communication between different systems with out requiring changes to the logic of underlying hardware and software.
The OSI is a model to Learning Essay understand and design a network architecture that is Technological Changes in Society, robust, interoperable and flexible. Big Apple Franchise Malaysia! The OSI model is made of seven ordered layers Physical (layer1) Data link (layer 2) Network (layer 3) Transport (layer 4) Session (layer 5) Presentation (layer 6) Application (layer 7) Organization of layers: The seven layers belong to in Society Essay three subgroups. Layer 1, 2 and 3 are the of baskervilles, network support layer. They deal with the physical aspects of moving data from one device to another (such as physical connections, electrical specifications, physical addressing and transport timing and in Society, reliability) Layer 5, 6 and 7 can be thought of user support layers. These layers allow interoperability among unrelated software systems. Layer 4 links the big apple malaysia, two subgroups and ensures what the lower layers have transmitted is in a form that the upper layers can use. Technological In Society! Upper OSI layers almost always implemented in software lower layers are a combination of hardware and software, except for physical layer which is mostly hardware. OSI Model Homework Help | OSI Model Assignment Help Our computernetworkhomeworkhelp.com services provide you with a dexterous team of Curve, OSI model assignment writers and OSI model homework helpers and with the unique features it provides will consequently upgrade your results and Technological Essay, we assure you of women's roles, that. Our website provide unique features like Original and quality content Customized and Technological in Society, appropriate format 100% confidentiality ensured Highly affordable prices Always on-time deliveries logical and Factual reasoning involved within the content 24X7 availability No Plagiarism Our quality and customized format is big apple malaysia, based on Technological Changes in Society Essay, one of the best academic referencing styles including 1) Harvard referencing style 2) APA referencing style 3) Chicago referencing style 4) MLA referencing style And they are built over one of the best journals, articles and research. In computing, plain text is the contents of an ordinary sequential file readable as textual material without much processing, it usually opposed to Learning Curve Essay formatted text and to binary files in which some portions must be interpreted as binary objects (encoded integers, the Technological, real numbers, the images). The encoding has traditionally been either ASCII, the one of roles, its many derivatives like as ISO/IEC 646, sometimes EBCDIC.
The Unicode-based encodings like as UTF-8 and UTF-16 are gradually replacing the older ASCII derivatives limited to 7 or 8 bit codes. Plain text and rich text Files that contain markup or other meta-data are generally considered plain-text, the entirety remains in directly human-readable form (as in HTML, the XML, (as Coombs, the Renear, and the DeRose argue, the punctuation is itself markup)). Use of plain text rather than bit-streams to express markup, it enables files to survive much better in the wild, that in part by making them largely immune to computer architecture incompatibilities. According to the Unicode Standard, Plain text is Changes in Society, pure sequence of the character codes; the plain Unicode-encoded text is hound of baskervilles, therefore a sequence of Unicode character codes. Styled text, also known as rich text, it is any text representation containing plain text that is completed by information like as a language identifier, the font size, the color, the hypertext links. Changes! Rich text like as SGML, the hound, RTF, the in Society, HTML, the XML, also TEX relies on plain text. The Wiki technology is another such example. According to franchise malaysia The Unicode Standard, the plain text has two main properties in regard to the rich text: Plain text is the underlying content stream to Technological Changes which formatting can be applied. Plain text is public, standardized, also universally readable. Notion of Plain Text Homework Help Computernetworkhomeworkhelp.com site, number one online tutoring service for Notion of Plain Text Programming provides Notion of Plain Text homework help, Notion of Plain Text assignment help; Notion of Plain Text quiz help, and Notion of Plain Text project help. Tim Burton! Our team has highly qualified tutors to help you with the Technological in Society, most challenging assignments.
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Application Layer Assignment Help. We provide application layer assignment help services to tim burton auteur students across the world. Application layer is the layer in internet protocol stack that supports network applications in web pages for example: HTTP, FTP and DNS. Application layer is on top of the Internet protocol stack. Technological Essay! What sets us apart is the quality help with application layer assignment. The other parts of the internet protocol stack are Transport layer, Network layer, link layer and physical layer. Application layer is one of. If you are on the Internet then you more than likely have used encryption whether you knew it or not.
By logging into the Gmail webmail service or your bank more than likely involves setting up an encrypted path between your web browser and the web server that is hosting the site. If it done correctly all the information that is Nanotubes Essay, passed over in Society, Internet is secure against eavesdroppers that may be watching the information pass across the network. The. Cipher Text Assignment Help. We provide online help with cipher text assignment. Cipher text refers to the encryption of plain text that is used for data transfer over Learning, the networks. Encryption is the means that protects our invaluable information. Technological Changes Essay! Encryption helps in auteur, protecting the data in transit over Technological Changes in Society, the network or on the world wide web from unwanted intruders accessing and hsbc, changing it. Encryption functions by making use of a mathematical formula known as cipher and a key to convert the readable data. Cryptanalysis Assignment Help.
The study of cryptographic systems with a purpose to understand how they work is known as the cryptanalysis. If any error exists in cryptography then this gives the in Society, leeway for the cipher text to women's be deciphered with or without the key. Cryptography is the art or science of in Society, arriving at the cipher text or cryptosystem that provides adequate information security. Cryptography is concerned with the actual securing of the digital data. We gladly provide cryptanalysis assignment help. What differentiates.
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It could be used to describe a method of un-encrypting the tim burton, data manually or with un-encrypting the Technological in Society, data using the proper codes or keys. Types of hound, decryption: There are two types of decryption Symmetric decryption Asymmetric decryption Asymmetric decryption: Asymmetric cryptography or public-key cryptography is cryptography in Technological Changes, which a. In cryptography, encryption is the process of encoding messages (or information) in such a way that third parties cannot read it, the only authorized parties can. The Encryption doesnt prevent hacking but it prevents the hacker from reading the auteur, data that is encrypted. The message or information (referred to Technological Changes as plaintext) is encrypted using an malaysia encryption algorithm in an encryption scheme,turning it into an unreadable ciphertext (ibid.). It is usually done with the use of an Technological Changes Essay encryption key that. In cryptography, a key is a piece of information (a parameter) that determines the functional output of a cryptographic algorithm or cipher. The algorithm would produce no useful result without a key.
In encryption, key specifies the particular transformation of plaintext into ciphertext, during decryption. The Keys are also used in other cryptographic algorithms, like as digital signature schemes and message authentication codes. Need for malaysia secrecy In designing security systems, it is wise to assume that the in Society, details of. Network security consists of the provisions and policies adopted by auteur a network administrator to prevent and Changes in Society Essay, monitor unauthorized access, the misuse, the modification, denial of a computer network and network-accessible resources. The Network security involves authorization of access to data in Curve Essay, a network that is controlled by the network administrator.
Users choose and are assigned ID and password or other authenticating information that allows them access to Technological Changes Essay information and programs within their authority. The Network security covers variety of. Attacks Assignment Help. With the extraordinary and phenomenal growth of the internet the problem of cyber-attacks has also increased manifold. We gladly provide help with attacks assignment. We are happy to provide attacks homework help. Some of the Curve Essay, examples of the Changes Essay, attacks are as follows:- Network Interface card hijacking A malicious intruder can reprogram the Network Interface card by the hardware address of another host and can continuously receive data packets addressed to the original host. In order to Properties Nanotubes Essay avoid being caught. Transport layer is responsible for process to process delivery of the entire message. A process is an application running on a host.
Where the network layer oversees source to Technological Changes in Society Essay destination delivery of the individual packets, this layer does not recognize any relationship between those packets. Network layer treats each one independently, though each piece belonged to a separate message, whether or not network layer does. The transport layer on the other hand ensures that the whole message arrives intact. Physical Layer Homework Help: The physical layer co ordinates the functions required to carry a bit stream over a physical medium. This Layer works for mechanical and tim burton auteur, electrical specifications of the interface and Technological in Society Essay, transmission medium. Physical Layer also defines the procedures and functions that physical devices and interfaces have to big apple franchise malaysia perform for Technological Essay transmission to occur. Figure shows the in ww2, position of Changes in Society Essay, physical layer with respect to the transmission medium and malaysia, the data link layer. The physical layer also concerned.
Bridges Assignment Help. The bridges are the Changes in Society, devices that are used to Learning connect two local area networks or to interconnect two or more segments of the same network. Technological In Society Essay! Various networks are connected to one another so that they can communicate and share information with one another. In addition to the network connectivity function performed by the bridges , they have one more important function to perform that is they filter information over the network so that the women's in ww2, data meant for Changes one part. Data Link Layer Assignment Help. The data link layer transforms the physical layer, raw transmission facility, to hsbc a reliable link. Data link layer enables physical layer appear error free to upper layer (network layer).
A data link layer is responsible for moving frames from one hop to the next. Responsibilities of data link layer: Framing: The data link layer divides stream of bits received from the network layer into manageable data units called frames. Physical addressing: If frames are to be distributed to different. Gateways Homework Help A gateway is a device used to Essay connect networks using different protocols. Gateways operate at the network layer of the OSI model. To communicate with a host on another network, IP host must be configured with a route to the destination network. If a configuration route is not found, the host uses the gateway (default IP router) to transmit the traffic to the destination host. The default t gateway is where the IP sends packets that. ISDN uses circuit-switching to establish a physical permanent point-to-point connection from the source to women's roles in ww2 the destination. The ISDN has standards defined by the ITU that encompass the OSI bottom three layers of Technological Essay, which are Physical, the Data Link and Network, see Table 1 below. At the physical layer the ITU has defined the user network interface standard I.430 for Basic Rate Access, I.431 for the Primary Rate Access.
The ANSI has defined the user network interface standard as T1.601. Integrated Services for Digital Network (ISDN) is a set of communication standards for hound of baskervilles simultaneous digital transmission of voice, the Technological Changes in Society Essay, data of video and women's roles, other network services over the traditional circuits of the public switched telephone network. Changes In Society Essay! ISDN was first defined in women's in ww2, 1988 in the CCITT red book. To prior to ISDN, telephone system be viewed as a way to Technological in Society Essay transport voice, including some special services available for data. Key feature of ISDN is that it integrates speech and data. Link Access Procedure. Link Access Procedure, Balanced (LAPB) implements the data link layer as defined in the X.25 protocol suite. The LAPB is a bit-oriented protocol derived from HDLC that ensures that frames are error free and in the right sequence. The LAPB is specified in ITU-T Recommendation X.25 also ISO/IEC 7776. LAPB can be used as a Data Link Layer protocol implementing the connection-mode data link service in auteur, the OSI Reference Model as defined by Essay ITU-T Recommendation X.222.
The LAPB is. A computer network is a group of Mechanical Nanotubes Essay, computers connected to each other electronically. Changes In Society! It means that the computers can talk to each other and that every computer in the network can send information to the others. It means that the speed of the connection is fast faster than a normal connection to women's roles the Internet. Basic types of computer networks include: A local area network (called a LAN) connects two or more computers, and may be called a corporate. The International Standards Organization is a multinational body dedicated to worldwide agreement to international standards.
ISO standard that covers all aspects of network communication is the Open Systems Interconnection model. Technological Changes Essay! It was first introduce in hsbc or barclays, late 1970s. An open system is a set of protocols that allows any two different systems to communicate regardless of their underlying architecture. Purpose of the Essay, OSI model is to Curve Essay show how to facilitate communication between different systems with out requiring changes to the. Notion Plain Text. In computing, plain text is the contents of an ordinary sequential file readable as textual material without much processing, it usually opposed to formatted text and to binary files in which some portions must be interpreted as binary objects (encoded integers, the Technological, real numbers, the images). The encoding has traditionally been either ASCII, the of baskervilles, one of its many derivatives like as ISO/IEC 646, sometimes EBCDIC. The Unicode-based encodings like as UTF-8 and UTF-16 are gradually replacing the older ASCII. ComputerNetworkHomeworkHelp is the right place for those students who are striving for solving network assignment and for the professionals anxious for knowing more about project.Todays modern communication is mostly based on computer networks. You may know that a computer network means connecting many computers located in the same or at different place with a medium or data communication device used for resource sharing, sending or receiving data, etc. Most students have got the theoretical knowledge of in Society Essay, computer network butare unable to implement it practically and of baskervilles, they seek help with computer network assignment.
The students finding their assignment help with computer network homeworkregarding the different components of a network that include clients, server, Network interface card, media and protocols. ComputerNetworkHomeworkHelp provides assignment solution for the professionals working with protocols like TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol), POP (Post Office Protocol), UDP (User Datagram Protocol), HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol), IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol), FTP (File Transfer Protocol) and SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) having their network assignments, in computer network homework help. Many professionals, tryto implement different types of network with the kind of topology to be used depending on their office requirement ask for help,we provide the relevant solutions in computer network project help. For the Technological Essay, offices implementing a LAN (Local Area Network), WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network), WAN (Wide Area Network) or MAN (Metropolitan Area Network) our experts are providing every possible solutions in help with computer network assignment. Most of our clients are taking the benefit of our wide range of assignment solutions in computer network project help.
Applicationsof network like instant messaging, internet telephone, massive parallel computing, p2p file sharing, etc. is anotherarea for tim burton auteur the studentsto find their assignmentsolutionin computer network homework help. Technological In Society Essay! The solutions for other major assignments like error free transmission, issue of protocols performing certain functions like data routing, data sequencing, error control, flow control, data transmission mode, half duplex, full duplex, simplex, communication media, coaxial cable, wire pairs and network topologies are well dealt in computer network assignment help. The easy solutions for hsbc or barclays the complicated assignmentsfrom computer network OSI model having the seven layers physical layer, data link layer, network layer, transport layer, session layer and application layer is given in computer network homework help. Apart from this there are similar such homework assignments from other computer network area, are dealt in computer network project help with practical examples. Our professionally qualified and dedicated experts provide help with computer network assignments like overrelay network, common layouts, wireless technologies, wired technologies, network security, toughest networking programming problems data communication transmission problems and Technological Changes in Society Essay, many more in the help with computer network homework. Their availability of 24 x 7 helps the students and professionals via chator e-mail.Any client who has a problem with computer network assignment from big apple franchise, any area will get the solution in help with computer network homework by registering with a nominal charge. Question: Consider a home setup of four hosts each with its own IP address (top part of the diagram). All hosts are currently accessing different web pages at a specific IP address through port 80.
Now imagine we have bought a NAT-enabled router and decided to incorporate it into our home network (bottom part of the diagram). The router now has an IP address of 188.8.131.52 and the local machines are allowed to make use of 10.0.0.0/24 address block. a) Assign and Changes in Society Essay, list IP addresses of all hosts within the NAT. IP addresses of the hosts. Subnet Masks: 255.255.255.0. b) Provided that the hosts are trying to Learning Curve access the web pages as before (shown in the original setup), fill in the NAT Translation Table accordingly. NAT Translation Table. c) Suppose one of the hosts, say Manny, decides to Changes Essay use a P2Papplication and discovers that another peer, lets call him Bernard, has the file that he wants. Now suppose that both Manny and Bernarnd are behind a NAT. Discuss whether it is possible (and if so how) to develop a technique that would allow Manny and Bernard to establish a connection without application-specific NAT configuration.
P2P network is different from Learning Curve, client server network. As NAT is not standardized, no single peer to peer protocols are congruent with the Changes Essay, NAT traversal techniques used to make p2p possible in NAT environment. It is possible to make P2P connection between Manny and hound of baskervilles, Bernard through UDP or TCP hole punching technique with NAT. In Society! A connection can be statically configured in franchise, the NAT table of the Technological Changes in Society Essay, router. Therefore, every time Bernard sends data to Manny, the connection will always use same port number for incoming and outgoing. Question:- [3 + 4 + 6 + 7 = 20 points] A small company is assigned two blocks of IPv4 address blocks. Single router A is used to reach the rest of the internet. The following diagram shows the forwarding tables on each of the companys routers.
a) What are the values for the missing (??) Subnet Mask fields? b) How many hosts can be allocated within 184.108.40.206/23,220.127.116.11/24, 18.104.22.168/17 and 22.214.171.124/19?( Note : Host address with all 0s is reserved as network address and host address with all 1s is reserved as broadcast address. These two addresses cannot be assigned to any host) c) What are the smallest and largest IP addresses available for each of the following: 126.96.36.199/23, 188.8.131.52/24, 184.108.40.206/17 and 220.127.116.11/19? d) State the routing path for each of the packets with the hsbc or barclays, following destination IP addresses: 18.104.22.168, 22.214.171.124, 126.96.36.199, 188.8.131.52,184.108.40.206. If we consider that the packets are coming from the internet, the Changes in Society, routing path will look like this: Question: Consider the following graph showing a custom TCP congestion control implementation (drawn not to scale), where the of baskervilles, y-axis describes the Changes Essay, TCP window size (cwnd) of the sender. This implementation makes use of the principle congestion control mechanisms. (slow start, congestion avoidance and fast recovery). Fast recovery mechanism was employed at points C and H, whereas at point E a timeout occurs and the window size drops back to 1MSS. Auteur! Oddly enough, our graph is an excerpt from an existing transmission and at time n (point A) we are just starting on fast recovery and instead of linear MSS increase, opted for exponential growth. Assume that the network has an MSS of Technological Changes in Society Essay, 1,000 bytes. a) Point G occurs 3 seconds after point F and in between the sender has written 63,000 bytes to the network.
What is the round-trip-time (RTT) in milliseconds? Ans. RTT=1.52 miliseconds. b) If we know that threshold 2 = 2 x threshold 1 , what is the tim burton, windows size at point A? Ans. Point A s windows size=8. c) What is the window size at point C, given that we completed 5 round trips from point A?
Ans . Point Cs window size=20. d) Calculate the time (in milliseconds) taken for the window size at point D to reach point E. Ans. 491 RTT miliseconds. e) Given that it took 1200 milliseconds to increase window size from G to H, find what is the window size at point I? Question : (a) Consider the network presented below. With the indicated link costs between nodes, use Dijkstras shortest-path algorithm to Technological compute the shortest path from tim burton auteur, node a to all nodes within the Changes Essay, network. Show how the in ww2, algorithm works by computing an appropriate table. Technological Essay! N.B : Please be sure to highlight and write down the shortest paths from tim burton auteur, node a to each of the network nodes. Solution .Let, C(x,y) indicates link cost from x to y:c(x,y)=inifinity if no direct link between x and y. D(v) indicates current value of cost of Technological Changes Essay, link from source a to destination v. P(v) indicates predecessor node along path from source a to v N is the set of nodes whose least cost path is known.
According to Dijkstras shortest path algorithm the of baskervilles, following table is Changes in Society Essay, constructed. Shortest Path From node a are: Path(a,c)=a to d to tim burton c. Path(a,e)=a to d to c to f to e. Path(a,f)=a to d toc to f. Path(a,g)=a to d to c to f to g. b) Consider the network shown below, and assume that each node initially knows the costs to each of its neighbors. Consider the distance vector algorithm and show the construction of the distance table for all nodes.
You only need to show the first three steps, that is, show the initial distance table built only from distance to immediate neighbors, and two subsequent tables after receiving distance vectors from neighbors. Do not forget to Technological Changes Essay circle distance vectors that would be broadcast to hsbc or barclays neighbors in every table. Rows with the bold text indicate that update broadcast will be sent.
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A CRITICAL STUDY OF THE SYMPHONIES OF BEETHOVEN. Translated by Michel Austin. Some thirty six or seven years ago, Beethoven’s works, which at the time were completely unknown in France, were tried out at the Opera’s concerts spirituels . Today it would be hard to believe the storm of in Society criticism from the majority of musicians that greeted this wonderful music. It was described as bizarre, incoherent, diffuse, bristling with harsh modulations and Properties of Carbon Nanotubes, wild harmonies, bereft of melody, over the top, too noisy, and horribly difficult to play. To satisfy the demands of the men of good taste who at the time held sway at the Academie royale de musique , M. Habeneck, who later organised and Technological, directed with such care the women's roles performance of the symphonies at the Conservatoire, found himself obliged to make monstrous cuts in them, of Technological in Society Essay a kind that would only be tolerated in a ballet by Gallemberg or an opera by Gaveaux. Without such corrections Beethoven would not have been granted the honour of appearing on the programme of the of Carbon Nanotubes concerts spirituels between a solo for bassoon and a flute concerto. At the first hearing of those passages that had been marked with a red pencil, Kreutzer took to flight blocking his ears, and he had to summon all his courage to steel himself to listen at the other rehearsals to what was left of the symphony in Changes D major (no. 2). Let us not forget that M. Kreutzer’s opinion on Beethoven was shared by ninety nine per cent of musicians in Paris at the time, and that without the persistent efforts of the tiny fraction who took the opposite view, the greatest composer of modern times would probably still be largely unknown today.
The mere fact that fragments of Beethoven were performed at the Opera was therefore of considerable significance, and we can state this with good reason, since without this the Societe des concerts du Conservatoire would probably not have been founded. The credit for Learning this noble institution belongs to this small group of intelligent men and to Changes in Society, the public. The public I mean the true public, which does not belong to any particular clique is guided by its own feelings and not by narrow ideas or any ridiculous theories it may have conceived on art. Malaysia? That public, which is often mistaken in its judgments, since it frequently changes its mind, was struck at the outset by some of Beethoven’s salient qualities. It did not ask whether this particular modulation was related to another, whether certain harmonies were acceptable to pundits , nor whether it was admissible to Technological in Society, use certain rhythms which were as yet unknown. Learning Essay? All it noticed was that these rhythms, harmonies and modulations, adorned with noble and passionate melodies, and enhanced by Changes Essay powerful orchestral writing, exerted on it a strong impression of a completely novel kind. Hsbc Or Barclays? Nothing more was needed to stimulate its applause. Only at rare intervals does our French public experience the keen and incandescent emotion that the art of music can generate; but when its emotions are truly stirred, nothing can equal its gratitude for the artist who caused this, whoever he may be.
Thus from Technological in Society Essay its first appearance, the famous allegretto in A minor of the seventh symphony, which had been inserted in the second to make the rest palatable , was judged at its true worth by the audience at the concerts spirituels . A loud clamour arose for the piece to hsbc or barclays, be repeated, and at Technological in Society Essay the second performance the first movement and scherzo of the symphony in D (no. 2), which at first hearing had made little impression, scored an almost comparable success. The obvious interest in Beethoven that the public began to show from then on tim burton, doubled the energy of his defenders and reduced to inaction, if not to silence, the majority of his detractors. Little by little, thanks to these glimmerings of dawn which tell the clear-sighted on which side the sun is about to rise, the core of supporters increased in size and Technological, the result was the foundation, almost entirely for Beethoven’s sake, of the magnificent Societe du Conservatoire , which nowadays has scarcely a rival in the world. We will attempt to analyse the symphonies of this great master, starting with the first symphony which the Conservatoire performs so rarely. Through its form, melodic style, and the spareness of its harmonic and orchestral writing, this work is quite different from the other compositions of Beethoven which followed. In writing this symphony the composer was evidently under the influence of Mozart’s ideas, which he has throughout imitated ingeniously and at times magnified. But in the first and second movements one can notice from time to time certain rhythmic patterns which the author of Don Giovanni has admittedly used, but very rarely and in a much less striking way.
The first allegro has a six bar theme, which though not very distinctive in itself, acquires interest subsequently through the skilful way in of baskervilles which it is treated. It is Technological Changes in Society followed by a transitional melody of a rather undistinguished style. A half-cadence which is repeated three or four times leads to a passage for wind instruments with imitations at the fourth above. It is all the hound of baskervilles more surprising to find this here, as it was often used before in several overtures to Technological Changes in Society, French operas. The andante includes a soft accompaniment for hsbc timpani which nowadays seems rather commonplace, but which can nevertheless be seen as the forerunner of the striking effects which Beethoven was to produce later with this instrument, which his predecessors had in general used to little or no purpose. This piece is full of charm; the Changes Essay theme is graceful and hsbc, lends itself well to fugal developments, through which the composer has been able to Technological, exploit it in ingenious and witty ways. Hound Of Baskervilles? The scherzo is the first born in this family of delightful musical jests (scherzi), a form invented by Beethoven who established its tempo. In almost all his instrumental works it takes the Technological place of the minuet of Mozart and Haydn, which is only half the roles in ww2 speed of the scherzo and very different in character.
This one is delightful in its freshness, nimbleness, and charm. It is the only really novel piece in this work, in which the poetic idea, which plays such a large and rich part in the majority of Technological Changes in Society works which followed, is completely absent. This is admirably crafted music, clear, alert, but lacking in strong personality, cold and sometimes rather small-minded, as for example in the final rondo, which has the character of of baskervilles a musical amusement. In a word, this is not Beethoven. We are about to meet him. Everything in this symphony is noble, energetic and proud; the Changes introduction ( largo ) is a masterpiece. The most beautiful effects follow in quick succession, always in hound of baskervilles unexpected ways but without causing any confusion.
The melody has a touching solemnity; from the very first bars it commands respect and Technological Essay, sets the emotional tone. Rhythms are now more adventurous, the orchestral writing richer, more sonorous and varied. This wonderful adagio leads to an allegro con brio which has a sweeping vitality. The grupetto in the first bar of the theme played by hound of baskervilles violas and cellos in unison is subsequently developed it its own right, either to generate surging crescendo passages or to bring about imitations between wind and strings, all of them at once novel and lively in character. In the middle comes a melody, played by clarinets, horns and bassoons for the first half, and rounded off as a tutti by the rest of the orchestra; it has a masculine energy which is further enhanced by the felicitous choice of accompanying chords. The andante is not treated in the same way as that of the first symphony; instead of a theme developed in canonical imitation it consists of a pure and innocent theme, presented at Technological Changes in Society first plainly by the strings, then exquisitely embellished with delicate strokes; they faithfully reproduce the tender character of the main theme. This is the enchanting depiction of innocent joy, scarcely troubled by tim burton auteur passing touches of melancholy. Technological In Society Essay? The scherzo is women's roles in ww2 as openly joyful in its capricious fantasy as the andante was completely happy and calm. Everything in this symphony smiles, and even the Changes martial surges of the first allegro are free from in ww2 any hint of violence; they only speak of the youthful ardour of a noble heart which has preserved intact the most beautiful illusions of life.
The author still believes in immortal glory, in love, in devotion What abandonment in his joy, what wit, what exuberance! The various instruments fight over particles of a theme which none of them plays in full, yet each fragment is Technological Changes Essay coloured in Essay a thousand different ways by being tossed from one instrument to the other. To hear this is like witnessing the enchanted sport of Oberon’s graceful spirits. The finale is of the Changes in Society same character: it is a scherzo in double time, perhaps even more delicate and witty in its playfulness. It is a serious mistake to of baskervilles, truncate the title which the composer provided for Changes the symphony.
It reads: Heroic symphony to commemorate the Mechanical of Carbon Nanotubes memory of Essay a great man . As will be seen, the Mechanical Properties of Carbon Nanotubes Essay subject here is not battles or triumphal marches, as many, misled by the abbreviated title, might expect, but rather deep and serious thoughts, melancholy memories, ceremonies of imposing grandeur and sadness, in short a funeral oration for a hero. I know few examples in music of a style where sorrow has been so unfailingly conveyed in forms of such purity and Technological, such nobility of expression. The first movement is in triple time and in a tempo which is almost that of a waltz, yet nothing could be more serious and more dramatic than this allegro . The energetic theme on which it is hsbc built is not at first presented in its complete form. Contrary to normal practice, the composer has initially provided only a glimpse of his melodic idea, which is only revealed in its full power after a few bars’ introduction. The rhythmic writing is Technological Changes in Society Essay extremely striking in the frequent use of syncopation and, through the stress on the weak beat, the Mechanical of Carbon Nanotubes Essay insertion of Essay bars in duple time into Learning Curve Essay bars in triple time.
When to this irregular rhythm some harsh dissonances are added, as we find towards the middle of the development section, where the first violins play a high F natural against an E natural, the fifth of the chord of A minor, it is difficult not to shudder at this depiction of indomitable fury. In Society? This is the voice of despair and almost of big apple malaysia rage. Yet one wonders, Why this despair, Why this rage? The reason for it is not obvious. Then in the next bar the orchestra suddenly calms down, as though, exhausted by its own outburst, its strength was abruptly deserting it.
A gentler passage follows, which evokes all the most painful feelings that memory can stir in the mind. It is in Society Essay impossible to describe or merely to indicate the multiplicity of melodic and harmonic guises in hound which Beethoven presents his theme. We will only mention an extremely odd case, which has caused a great deal of argument. The French publisher corrected it in Technological in Society his edition of the score, in the belief it was an hsbc or barclays, engraving error, but after further enquiry the passage was reinstated. The first and Technological Changes Essay, second violins on their own are playing tremolando a major second (B flat, A flat), part of the chord of the seventh on the dominant of of baskervilles E flat, when a horn gives the impression of having made a mistake by coming in four bars too soon, and rudely intrudes with the beginning of the main theme which consists only of the notes E flat, G, E flat, B flat.
The strange effect produced by this melody built on the three notes of the tonic chord against the two discordant notes of the Technological Essay dominant chord can easily be imagined, even though the distance between the parts greatly softens the clash. But just as the ear is about to protest against this anomaly, an energetic tutti cuts off the horn, ends piano on the tonic chord and hound of baskervilles, gives way to the entry of the cellos which then play the complete theme with the appropriate harmony. Taking a detached view it is difficult to Technological Essay, find a serious justification for this musical caprice*. But it is said that the author attached much importance to it. It is even related that at the first rehearsal of the symphony, M. Ries who was present stopped the orchestra and exclaimed: Too early, too early, the horn is wrong!.
As a reward for his indiscretion, he was roundly taken to task by a furious Beethoven. *However you look at tim burton it, if that was really what Beethoven wanted, and if there is any truth in the anecdotes which circulate on Technological Essay, the subject, it must be admitted that this whim is an roles in ww2, absurdity. There is no comparable oddity in the rest of the score. The funeral march is a drama in Technological Changes in Society Essay its own right. It is Curve like a translation of Technological Virgil’s beautiful lines on the funeral procession of the young Pallas: Multaque praeterea Laurentis praemia pugnae. Tim Burton Auteur? Adgerat, et longo praedam jubet ordine duci. In Society? Post bellator equus, positis insignibus, Aethon. It lacrymans, guttisque humectat grandibus ora. The ending in particular is deeply moving. The theme of the march returns, but now in a fragmented form, interspersed with silences, and only accompanied by three pizzicato notes in the double basses. When these tatters of the sad melody, left on their own, bare, broken and lifeless, have collapsed one after the other onto the tonic, the wind instruments utter a final cry, the last farewell of the warriors to their companion in arms, and the whole orchestra fades away on a pianissimo pause.
Following normal practice the tim burton auteur third movement is entitled scherzo . In Italian the word means play, or jest. Technological In Society? At first sight it is hard to see how this kind of music can find a place in this epic composition. It has to be heard to be understood. The piece does indeed have the rhythm and tempo of a scherzo ; these are games, but real funeral games, constantly darkened by thoughts of death, games of the kind that the warriors of the Iliad would celebrate around the tombs of their leaders. Even in his most imaginative orchestral developments Beethoven has been able to preserve the serious and franchise malaysia, sombre colouring, the deep sadness which of course had to predominate in such a subject. Technological Changes In Society? The finale is just a continuation of the same poetical idea. There is big apple a very striking example of orchestral writing at the beginning, which illustrates the Technological Changes Essay kind of women's roles in ww2 effect that can be produced by juxtaposing different instrumental timbres. The violins play a B flat, which is immediately taken up by flutes and oboes as a kind of echo.
Although the sound is played at the same dynamic level, at the same speed and with the same force, the dialogue produces such a great difference between the notes that the nuance between them might be likened to the contrast between blue and purple . Such tonal refinements were completely unknown before Beethoven, and it is to him that we owe them. For all its great variety this finale is Technological Changes in Society Essay nevertheless built on or barclays, a simple fugal theme. Besides a profusion of Changes in Society Essay ingenious details the composer develops on top of it two other themes, one of which is exceptionally beautiful. The melody is as it were derived from women's in ww2 a different one, but its shape conceals this. On the contrary it is much more touching and expressive, far more graceful than the original theme, which has rather the character of a bass line and serves this function very well. This melody returns shortly before the end, in a slower tempo and with different harmonies which further enhance its sad character. The hero costs many a tear. After these final regrets devoted to his memory the poet abandons the elegiac tone and intones with rapture a hymn of glory.
Though rather brief this conclusion is very brilliant and provides a fitting crown to Changes in Society, the musical monument. Beethoven may have written more striking works than this symphony, and several of his other compositions make a greater impact on Learning Curve Essay, the public. But it has to be admitted that the Eroica symphony is so powerful in its musical thought and execution, its style so energetic and so constantly elevated, and its form so poetic, that it is the Technological in Society equal of the composer’s very greatest works. Or Barclays? Whenever this symphony is performed I am overcome with feelings of Technological Changes in Society deep and as it were antique sadness; yet the public seems hardly moved. One must feel sorry for the predicament of the artist: though fired with such enthusiasm he has not managed to make himself intelligible even to an elite audience and hound, make it rise it to the level of his own inspiration. This is all the more regrettable as in other circumstances this same audience warms up to the composer and shares his emotion and tears. It is fired with an Technological Changes in Society, ardent and genuine passion for some of his compositions, which may be equally worthy of admiration but are nevertheless no more beautiful than this work.
It appreciates at its true worth the allegretto in A minor of the seventh symphony, the allegretto scherzando of the eighth, the tim burton finale of the fifth, the in Society scherzo of the ninth. It even appears to hsbc or barclays, be deeply moved by the funeral march of this symphony the Eroica . But as far as the first movement is concerned, there is no escaping the truth, and I have observed this for more than twenty years: the public listens to it with composure, regards it as a well crafted and quite powerful piece, but beyond that nothing. There is Changes no point in philosophising. It is no good saying to oneself that the same has always been true everywhere for all artistic creations of an elevated kind, that the Properties of Carbon Nanotubes Essay springs of poetic emotion are hidden and difficult to Technological Essay, fathom, that the feeling for beauty which some individuals possess is completely absent from the masses, even that it cannot possibly be otherwise None of this provides any consolation or can appease the anger call it instinctive, involuntary, even absurd if you like which fills one’s heart at the sight of a misunderstood masterpiece, of a composition of such nobility which the crowd observes but does not see, listens to malaysia, but does not hear, and allows to pass by with hardly a sideways glance, as though dealing with something mediocre or ordinary. It is dreadful to have to say to oneself with total certainty: what I find beautiful is beauty itself for me, but may not be so for Technological Essay my best friend. Someone who normally feels the same way as I do will be affected in quite a different way. It may be that the work which sends me into raptures, makes me shiver, and moves me to tears, leaves him cold, or even annoys and roles, irritates him The majority of Technological Essay great poets have no feeling for big apple franchise malaysia music and only enjoy melodies of a trivial or childish character. Many intelligent people, who think they like music, have no idea of the emotions it can stir.
These are painful truths, but they are tangible and in Society, obvious, and only a peculiar kind of obstinacy prevents one from recognising them. I have seen a bitch howling with pleasure on hearing a major third played in double stopping on a violin, yet her pups have never reacted in tim burton a similar way, whether you play them a third, a fifth, a sixth, an octave, or any other consonant or discordant chord. Whatever the composition of the public, it always reacts to great musical conceptions in the same way as that bitch and her pups. There are nerves that react to certain vibrations, but this ability to respond, incomplete as it is, is not equally disseminated and is subject to Technological in Society, innumerable variations. Learning Curve Essay? It follows that it is Changes virtual lunacy to rely on some artistic means rather than others to affect it and that the best a composer can do is to Properties Essay, remain blindly true to his own feelings and resign himself in advance to all the Changes Essay whims of fortune. Big Apple Malaysia? One day I was walking out of the in Society Essay Conservatoire with three or four dilettanti after a performance of the Choral symphony. How do you find this work? one of them asked me. Immense! magnificent! overwhelming! That is Mechanical Essay strange, I was bored stiff. And what about in Society Essay, you? he added, turning to an Italian Well, I find this unintelligible, or rather intolerable, there is no melody But here are some papers talking about it, and let us see what they say: Beethoven’s Choral symphony is the pinnacle of modern music; art has yet to auteur, produce anything comparable for Technological in Society the nobility of big apple franchise malaysia its style, the grandeur of the design and the finish of the details. (Another paper) Beethoven’s Choral symphony is a monstrosity. (Another paper) This work is not completely barren of ideas, but they are poorly presented and the sum total is incoherent and devoid of charm. (Another paper) Beethoven’s Choral symphony has some wonderful passages, but the composer was obviously short of inspiration. As his exhausted imagination let him down he had to devote his energies, sometimes to in Society Essay, good effect, to making up through craftsmanship what he was lacking in inspiration. The few themes found in the work are superbly treated and set out in Learning Essay a perfectly clear and logical sequence.
In short, it is a very interesting work by a tired genius . Where is the truth, and where is the error? Everywhere and nowhere. Everybody is right. What to someone seems beautiful is in Society not so for someone else, simply because one person was moved and the other remained indifferent, and the former experienced profound delight while the latter acute boredom. What can be done about this? nothing but it is dreadful; I would rather be mad and believe in absolute beauty. Beethoven forsakes here completely the tones of epic and elegy to return to the less elevated, less sombre, though perhaps no less difficult style of the second symphony. Auteur? The tone of this score is generally lively, alert, and in Society, joyful, or of a heavenly gentleness. Hound Of Baskervilles? Leaving aside the brooding adagio which serves as an introduction the first movement is almost wholly dedicated to joy. Technological In Society? The theme in detached notes with which the allegro begins is no more than a canvas on which the composer lays out subsequently other more substantial melodies, and what looked at the start of the movement like the of baskervilles principal theme is made to appear of secondary importance.
Though it leads to unusual and interesting results, this device had already been used by Mozart and Haydn with comparable success. But in the second part of the same allegro a really new melody is introduced, the first bars of which arrest the listener’s attention, draw him into its mysterious developments then surprise him with its unexpected conclusion. This is what happens. Technological Changes In Society Essay? After a fairly vigorous tutti, the first violins break the opening theme into fragments which they turn into a dialogue pianissimo with the second violins. This leads to held notes on the dominant seventh of the key of B natural, each of big apple malaysia which is separated by Changes in Society Essay two bars of silence, filled only by a soft tremolo on the timpani on the note B flat, the enharmonic major third of the fundamental F sharp.
The passage is repeated, then the or barclays timpani fall silent and leave the strings murmuring gently other fragments of the theme, and a new enharmonic modulation leads to a six-four chord of B flat. The timpani re-enter on the same note, now the genuine tonic and not as before the leading note, and continue with the tremolo for some twenty bars. The tonal force of this B flat hardly registers initially, but gradually increases as the tremolo is prolonged. Then the other instruments intersperse their forward momentum with short and incomplete fragments under the continuous rumble of the timpani, and this leads to a general forte where the perfect chord of B flat is finally established in Technological in Society all its majesty in the full orchestra. This astonishing crescendo is one of the happiest inspirations we know in music. The only passage that could be compared is the conclusion of the famous scherzo of the symphony in C minor, though despite its overwhelming impact it is not conceived on such a vast scale, as it starts from piano to reach the final explosion but without departing from the home key, whereas the of baskervilles crescendo we have just described starts mezzo forte , disappears for a while in in Society a pianissimo under harmonies of constantly vague and indeterminate colour, then reappears with chords in Mechanical Nanotubes a more defined tonality, and only bursts out when the Technological cloud obscuring this modulation has completely dissipated. It is like a river whose peaceful flow vanishes suddenly from sight and only re-emerges from auteur its underground course to come crashing down in a foaming waterfall. As for the adagio , it defies analysis So pure are the forms, so angelic the expression of the melody and so irresistibly tender, that the in Society Essay prodigious skill of the craftsmanship is completely hidden from view. From the very first bars one is gripped by emotion which by women's the end has reached an unbearable pitch of intensity. Technological? It is only among one of the giants of hsbc poetry that it is Changes Essay possible to find something to compare to or barclays, this sublime movement from the giant of music.
Nothing resembles more the Changes impression made by this adagio than the feelings one experiences when reading the touching episode of Francesca di Rimini in the Divina Commedia , the hound of baskervilles narrative of which Virgil cannot hear without bursting into tears, and which at the last verse causes Dante to fall, just as a dead body collapses . In Society? This movement seems to Mechanical Properties Essay, have been breathed by the archangel Michael when, seized with a fit of melancholy, he contemplated the universe, standing on the threshold of the empyrean. The scherzo consists almost entirely of phrases in two beats that are forced to fit into Technological Changes in Society Essay the framework of bars in triple time. Beethoven has used this device frequently and it imparts considerable vitality to the music. Tim Burton Auteur? Melodic endings become as a result more incisive and Technological in Society Essay, unexpected; in any case, these cross-rhythms have in themselves real charm, though it is difficult to explain why. There is special pleasure in seeing the beat dislocated in tim burton this way yet coming together again at the end of each period, and the musical logic though temporarily suspended eventually reaching a satisfactory conclusion and a complete solution. The melody of the trio , played by the wind section, has exquisite freshness. Technological Changes In Society? The tempo is slower than that of the rest of the scherzo , and its simplicity gains extra elegance from the teasing little phrases delightfully tossed by the violins over the harmonic texture. The finale is joyful and alert and hound, restricts itself to normal rhythmic forms. It consists of a jingle of scintillating notes in a continuous chatter, sometimes interrupted by a few raucous and wild chords, another example of those angry outbursts to which we have already drawn attention with this composer. Technological Changes In Society Essay? This, without doubt the most famous of the symphonies, is women's in ww2 also in our opinion the first in which Beethoven gave wings to his vast imagination without being guided by or relying on any external source of inspiration. In the Changes in Society first, second and fourth symphonies, he has more or less enlarged already existing forms, suffusing them with all the poetry his youthful vigour was capable of adding in terms of brilliant and passionate inspiration.
In the third (the Eroica ) the forms are admittedly broadened and the musical thought rises to great heights, yet there is no mistaking the influence of one of women's roles those divine poets whom the Changes in Society Essay great artist had long worshipped in his heart. Beethoven, faithful to the precept of Horace: «Nocturna versate manu, versate diurna», regularly read Homer, and in his magnificent musical epic, inspired, it is said rightly or wrongly, by a contemporary hero, the memories of the ancient Iliad self-evidently play a wonderfully beautiful part. Properties? By contrast the C minor symphony seems to arise directly and solely from Beethoven’s own genius. In it he develops his own intimate thoughts, it is Changes about his secret suffering, his concentrated anger, his dreams full of such sad despair, his nocturnal visions, his outbursts of enthusiasm. The forms taken by melody, harmony, rhythm and the orchestral writing are as substantially individual and novel as they are powerful and noble.
The first movement depicts those turbulent feelings which move a great soul seized with despair not the calm and concentrated despair which has an Mechanical Properties of Carbon Nanotubes, air of resignation, nor the sombre and silent despair of Romeo learning of the death of Juliet, but rather the in Society terrifying fury of Othello when he hears from the roles in ww2 mouth of Iago the poisonous calumnies which convince him of Technological Desdemona’s crime. At times the mood is Properties of Carbon one of frenzied delirium which breaks out in Technological in Society Essay terrifying cries, at others one of women's in ww2 exaggerated despair which can express nothing but regret and self-pity. Listen to those orchestral hiccoughs, the Changes in Society chords exchanged between wind and Learning Curve Essay, strings which grow fainter as they come and Changes in Society, go, like the painful breathing of a dying man, then give way to a violent gesture, where the orchestra seems to rise again revived by a flash of anger. See how this quivering orchestral mass hesitates for a moment before plunging headlong, divided into two fiery unisons like two streams of lava. Can you deny that this passionate style of writing is franchise beyond and above everything that had been written before in orchestral music? There is a striking example in this movement of the effect produced by the occasionally excessive doubling of parts and of the raw character of the chord of a fourth on the supertonic, in other words the second inversion of the dominant. It occurs frequently without preparation or resolution, and once even without the leading note and on Changes, a pause: the low D is in all the string voices, while there is tim burton auteur a bare and dissonant G on top in some wind parts. The character of the adagio is rather reminiscent of the allegretto in A minor of the seventh symphony and of the slow movement in E flat of the fourth.
It has the solemn melancholy of the former, and the touching grace of the latter. The theme played first by Essay the cellos and violas in unison, with a simple pizzicato accompaniment in the double basses, is followed by a passage for wind instruments which keeps returning in identical form and in the same key from beginning to end of the hound of baskervilles movement, whatever the successive changes undergone by the first theme. This persistent repetition of the identical phrase, constantly repeated with the same simple and deep sadness, gradually stirs in the mind of the listener an indescribable feeling, without doubt the most intense of its kind that we have experienced. Among the most daring harmonic effects in this sublime elegy we may mention: 1 0 the high note held by flutes and Changes in Society, clarinets on the dominant E flat while the Learning Curve Essay strings are active lower down and Technological Essay, progress through the chord of the sixth, D flat, F, B flat, which has no connection with the high pedal note; 2 0 the episodic passage played by a flute, an oboe and two clarinets in contrary motion, which occasionally results in unprepared dissonances of the second, between the leading note G and F, the major sixth of A flat. This third inversion of the chord of the leading seventh is forbidden by the majority of theorists, as is the high pedal we have just mentioned, yet the result is altogether delightful. There is also at the last entry of the first theme a canon in unison at Learning an interval of one bar , between the violins and flutes, the clarinets and Technological in Society Essay, bassoons, which would give added interest to the melody treated in this way if the imitation by auteur the wind instruments could be heard; unfortunately the whole orchestra is playing loud at the same moment and makes it almost inaudible. Changes In Society Essay? The scherzo is a strange composition.
The first bars, which in themselves have nothing that should alarm, provoke that inexplicable emotion experienced under the magnetic gaze of some individuals. Everything here is mysterious and sombre; the orchestral effects, all more or less sinister in character, seem to belong to the world of thought of the famous scene of Blacksberg in Goethe’s Faust . The prevailing dynamics are piano and mezzo forte . The central section (the trio) is taken up by tim burton a passage for the basses, bowed with full vigour, the Technological in Society ponderous roughness of which rattles the feet of the women's roles music stands and sounds rather like the antics of an exhilarated elephant But the monster moves away, and the sound of Technological its wild frolics gradually fades. The theme of the Essay scherzo reappears pizzicato ; gradually silence is Technological established, and hsbc, only a few lightly plucked notes are heard from the violins together with the strange clicking sounds produced by the high A flat of the bassoons clashing with G, the octave of the tonic of the dominant minor ninth. The strings then break the sequence and settle gently on Technological Changes in Society Essay, a bowed chord of A flat on which they doze off. Tim Burton? The timpani using sponge-headed sticks keep the rhythm going on their own with light strokes which stand out faintly against the general somnolence of the rest of the orchestra. These timpani notes are Cs; the piece is in in Society C minor, but the chord of Essay A flat, long held by the other instruments, seems to be introducing a different key; for its part the solitary pulsing of the timpani on C tends to Changes, preserve the feeling of the franchise original key. Changes? The ear hesitates where will this harmonic mystery end? and then the soft throbbing of the timpani gradually increase in volume, joined by the violins which have started to move again, changing the harmony. This leads to the dominant seventh chord of G, B, D and F while the timpani continue to play obstinately the tonic C. The whole orchestra, reinforced by the trombones which have not yet appeared, explodes now in the major in a triumphal march and the finale begins.
The electrifying effect of this passage is well known, and there is auteur no need to elaborate for the reader. Critics have nevertheless sought to Changes in Society, diminish the composer’s merit by asserting that he had merely resorted to a commonplace device in making the brilliance of the major mode follow the darkness of Mechanical Properties of Carbon a pianissimo in a minor key, that the triumphal theme was lacking in originality, and Changes in Society Essay, that interest flagged as the movement progressed instead of increasing. Essay? We would answer: is it because the transition from piano to forte , and from minor to major , are known devices that there is less genius in creating such a work? How many other composers have not tried to achieve this same effect? And how can their efforts compare with the gigantic hymn of victory, in which the soul of the poet musician, liberated from earthly shackles and suffering, seems to soar radiantly to heaven? It is in Society true that the first four bars of the march are not of striking originality; but there is a limit to what can be done with the genre of the fanfare, and we do not believe it possible to invent new types of fanfare without giving up completely its simple, grandiose and festive character. Beethoven wanted for the start of his finale a fanfare-like entry; in the rest of the movement, in in ww2 fact even in Technological in Society Essay the continuation of the principal theme, he quickly reverts to the lofty and original style that is his hallmark. As for the criticism that he failed to sustain interest through the hound of baskervilles end of the movement, one might answer that in the present state of the art of music it is impossible to produce a more shattering effect than the Technological transition from the scherzo to Nanotubes, the triumphal march, and it was therefore not possible to intensify that effect any further.
To remain at such a height is already a prodigious feat; despite the breadth with which Beethoven develops his material, he nevertheless brings it off. But this consistency of level from the beginning to the end is enough to give the impression of Changes a fall-off; so great has been the initial impact on the listener, whose emotional response has been raised to the highest pitch, that it is all the more difficult to sustain it subsequently at the same level. In a long row of columns of the same height perspective suggests that the hsbc or barclays more distant ones are actually smaller. It could be that our inadequate constitutions would adapt better to a more laconic ending such as Gluck’s Our general is calling you back : the audience would thus not have the time to Technological Changes Essay, cool down, and the symphony would be over before fatigue prevented the audience from following in the composer’s footsteps. But this remark only applies so to speak to the way the work is hound of baskervilles presented; it does not disqualify this finale from being in itself of a magnificence and richness next to which very few pieces could stand comparison without being obliterated. This astonishing landscape could have been designed by Poussin and drawn by Michelangelo. The author of Fidelio and Changes in Society Essay, of the Eroica symphony sets out to depict the tranquillity of the countryside and the shepherds’ gentle way of life. But let us be clear: we are not dealing here with the picture-postcard and prettified shepherds of M. de Florian, still less those of M. Lebrun, who wrote the Rossignol [The Nightingale], or those of J.-J. Rousseau, the composer of the Devin du Village [The Village Soothsayer]. We are dealing here with real nature.
The title given by the composer to his first movement is franchise Gentle feelings stirred by the sight of a beautiful landscape . The shepherds begin to move about nonchalantly in the fields; their pipes can be heard from a distance and close-by. Exquisite sounds caress you like the scented morning breeze. A flight or rather swarms of twittering birds pass overhead, and the atmosphere occasionally feels laden with mists. Heavy clouds come to hide the Technological Essay sun, then suddenly they scatter and let floods of dazzling light fall straight down on the fields and the woods. These are the images that come to mind when I hear this piece, and despite the vagueness of instrumental language I suppose that many listeners have probably reacted in the same way. Further on tim burton, there is a Scene by the brook . Technological Changes In Society? Contemplation The composer probably created this wonderful adagio lying on his back in the grass, his eyes turned to heaven, his ear listening to Curve Essay, the wind, fascinated by countless reflections of Technological Changes Essay sound and light, observing and listening at Learning Curve once to the white ripples of the river as they break gently on the stones of the bank.
This is Technological Changes in Society Essay delightful. There are some who vehemently criticise Beethoven for wanting to reproduce at the end of the adagio the song of three birds, at first in succession and then together. In my view the normal test of the appropriateness or absurdity of such attempts is whether they come off or not. On this point I would therefore say to Beethoven’s critics that they are right as far as the nightingale is concerned: the imitation of its song is no more successful here than in M. Lebrun’s well-known flute solo, for the very simple reason that since the nightingale only franchise emits indistinct sounds of indeterminate pitch it cannot be imitated by instruments with a fixed and precise pitch. But it seems to Technological Changes Essay, me that the case is different with the quail and the cuckoo, whose cry involves either one or two real notes of fixed pitch, and can therefore be fully imitated in a realistic way. Now if the composer is criticised for introducing a childishly literal imitation of bird-song in a scene where all the quiet voices of tim burton auteur heaven, earth and water must naturally find their place, I would say in reply that the same objection could be made when in the storm he also imitates faithfully the gusts of wind, the flashes of lightning and the bellowing of animals. And heaven knows that no one has ever dreamed of criticising the storm of the pastoral symphony! But let us proceed.
The poet now brings us in the midst of a Joyful gathering of peasants. The dancing and laughter are restrained at first; the oboe plays a cheerful refrain accompanied by a bassoon that can only manage to produce two notes. Beethoven’s intention was probably to suggest in Changes Essay this way an old German peasant, sitting on a cask with a decrepit old instrument, from which all he can draw are the two principal notes of the key of F, the women's dominant and the tonic. Every time the oboe plays its naive and Changes in Society Essay, jolly tune like a girl in hsbc or barclays her Sunday clothes, the old bassoon blows his two notes. When the melody modulates to a different key the Changes in Society bassoon falls silent and Properties Essay, quietly counts his rests, until the original key returns and he is able to interject again unruffled his F, C and F. This burlesque effect is wonderfully apt but the public seems to Technological, miss it almost completely. The dance gets more animated and becomes wild and Learning, noisy. A rough theme in duple time signals the arrival of mountaineers with their heavy clogs. The first section in Technological triple time is repeated, but even more animated. The dancers mingle excitedly, the women’s hair flies loose over their shoulders, the of baskervilles mountaineers add their noise and intoxication, there is clapping, shouting and running, and Technological Changes Essay, the scene goes wild and Properties of Carbon Nanotubes, furious Then suddenly a distant clap of thunder strikes terror in in Society Essay the midst of this rustic ball and scatters the dancers. Storm, lightning . I despair of being able to convey an idea of this prodigious piece.
It has to be heard to understand how realistic and sublime imitative music can become in the hands of someone like Beethoven. Listen to the gusts of wind gorged with rain, the dull growl of the basses, the shrill hissing of piccolos announcing the fearful storm that is about the break out. The hurricane approaches and increases in intensity. A huge chromatic scale, starting in the upper instruments, plunges to the depths of the orchestra, picks up the basses on the way, drags them upwards, like a surging whirlwind that sweeps everything in its way. The trombones then burst out, the thunder of the timpani intensifies in violence; this is no longer rain and wind but a terrifying cataclysm, a universal deluge and the end of the hound world.
In truth the piece induces dizziness, and there are many who on hearing this storm are not sure whether the emotion they experience is one of pleasure or of pain. The symphony concludes with the Thanksgiving of the peasants after the return of fine weather . Changes In Society Essay? Everything smiles again, the shepherds come back and answer each other on the mountain as they call their scattered flocks. The sky is clear, the torrents gradually dry out, calm returns and hound of baskervilles, with it the rustic songs with their gentle tones. They soothe the mind, shattered as it was by the awesome splendour of the preceding tableau. Is it really necessary after this to write of the stylistic oddities to be found in this mighty work the groups of five notes on the cellos clashing with passages of four notes in the double-basses, which grind together without being able to blend into a genuine unison? Must one mention the horn call which plays an arpeggio on Technological Changes Essay, the chord of C while the strings hold that of F? In truth I cannot.
To do this one has to roles, think rationally, and how can you avoid being intoxicated when in the grip of such a subject! Far from it if only one could sleep and go on sleeping for months on Technological Changes, end, and inhabit in one’s dreams the unknown sphere which for a moment genius has allowed us to glimpse. After such a concert should one have the franchise malaysia misfortune to have to see some comic opera, attend a soiree of fashionable songs and a flute concerto, one would have a look of stupefaction. Should someone ask you: How do you find this Italian duet? You would reply in all seriousness. And these variations for clarinet? And the finale of the new opera? And some distinguished artist who has heard your answers but does not know why you are so preoccupied, will point at you and say: Who is this idiot? How the ancient poems, for all their beauty and the admiration they evoke, pale before this marvel of modern music! Theocritus and Virgil were great landscape artists; lines like the following are music to the ears: «Te quoque, magna Pales, et te, memorande, canemus. Pastor ab Amphryso; vos Sylvae amnesque Lycaei.»
especially when they are not recited by barbarians like us French, who pronounce Latin in such a way that it could be mistaken for a peasant dialect But Beethoven’s poem! these long periods so full of colour! these speaking images! these scents! this light! this eloquent silence! these vast horizons! these magic hideouts in Technological Changes in Society Essay the woods! these golden harvests! these pink clouds like wandering specks in Mechanical the sky! this vast plain dozing under the midday sun! Man is absent! nature alone reveals herself glorying in her splendour And the deep rest of everything that lives! And the Technological Essay wonderful life of everything that rests! The little stream that pursues its murmuring course towards the river! the river, the source of all water, which descends towards the ocean in majestic silence! Then man appears, the man from the Properties of Carbon countryside, robust and full of religious feeling his joyful play interrupted by the storm his fears his hymn of in Society thanksgiving Hide your faces, poor great poets of antiquity, poor immortals. Your conventional language, so pure and harmonious, cannot compete with the big apple franchise malaysia art of sound. You are vanquished, no doubt with glory, but vanquished all the same! You have not experienced what nowadays we call melody, harmony, the combination of different timbres, instrumental colour, modulations, the skilful clashes of Technological in Society conflicting sounds which fight and then embrace, the sounds that surprise the ear, the strange tones which stir the innermost recesses of the tim burton soul. The stammering of the childish art which you referred to as music could not give you any idea of this. For cultured minds you alone were the great melodists, the masters of harmony, rhythm, and expression. But these words had a very different meaning in your vocabulary from what we give them now.
The art of sound in its true meaning, independent of anything else, was only born yesterday. It has scarcely reached manhood, and is barely twenty years old. It is beautiful and all-powerful: it is the Pythian Apollo of modern times. We owe to it a world of in Society Essay emotion and hound of baskervilles, feeling which was closed to you. Yes, great venerated poets, you are vanquished: Inclyti sed victi . The seventh symphony is famous for its allegretto *. It is not that the three other movements are less worthy of admiration far from it. Technological? But the public usually judges a work on or barclays, the effect it produces, and only measures that effect by the volume of the applause. Consequently the movement that always receives the loudest applause is invariably thought to be the most beautiful (even though there is a certain kind of priceless beauty that is Technological Essay not liable to excite noisy approval). And then, to enhance even further the object of Mechanical Properties Essay such partiality everything else is sacrificed to it. In France at least that is Technological in Society Essay invariably the custom. That is why when talking of hsbc Beethoven one refers to the Storm of the pastoral symphony, the finale of the symphony in in Society C minor, the of baskervilles andante of the symphony in A, etc., etc. *Which is always referred to as the adagio or andante . It has apparently not been established whether this work was composed after the Pastoral and the Eroica , and a number of people believe on the contrary that it preceded them by some time.
If this opinion is well founded, then the number which identifies it as the seventh would only be that of its sequence in the order of publication. Technological Essay? The first movement opens with a broad and majestic introduction where melody, modulations and the orchestral writing successively hold the listener’s attention. It begins with one of those instrumental effects of which Beethoven is indisputably the creator. The whole orchestra plays a loud and sharp chord, and hsbc or barclays, the ensuing silence reveals the Technological Changes in Society Essay slender voice of an exposed oboe, whose entry was disguised by the orchestral tutti and now develops the melody on its own. There could hardly be a more original way of starting. At the end of the Mechanical Properties of Carbon Nanotubes introduction the note E, the dominant of A, returns after a series of Changes Essay excursions into tim burton auteur neighbouring keys and forms the subject of a series of exchanges between violins and flutes, similar to the effect found in the opening bars of the finale of the Eroica symphony . The E comes and goes for six bars without accompaniment, changing its appearance every time it passes from strings to wind.
Finally it is taken over by flute and oboe and serves as bridge between the Technological Changes introduction and the allegro : it becomes the first note of the franchise malaysia main theme, whose rhythmic outline it gradually sketches. I have heard this theme ridiculed for its rustic simplicity. Had the composer written in large letters at the head of Technological Changes this allegro the words Dance of of Carbon peasants , as he has done for the Pastoral symphony, the charge that it lacks nobility would probably not have been made. In Society? This shows that while some listeners do not like to be forewarned of the subject treated by the composer, there are others on the contrary who are inclined to react unfavourably to women's roles, any theme that comes in an unfamiliar guise, if the explanation for the anomaly is not provided in advance. Given the in Society Essay impossibility of deciding between such conflicting views the best course for a composer in such circumstances is to follow his own instinct instead of pursuing the vain delusion of universal approval. This theme has a strongly characterised rhythm, which permeates the Essay harmony and shows up in a multitude of forms without ever interrupting the forward momentum of the music up to the end of the movement. The use of an ostinato rhythmic pattern has never been attempted so successfully. The ample developments of the allegro constantly revolve around the same idea, and so incredible is the skill with which it is written, so frequent and ingenious the variations in tonality, so novel the chordal progressions and their grouping, that the Changes Essay movement is over before the attention and warm response generated in the listener can lose any of their keenness.
The harmonic effect which champions of academic rigour criticise most vehemently is also the happiest: the resolution of the dissonance in the six-five chord on the subdominant of the key of E natural. This dissonance of a second on a very loud tremolo in the upper parts between the first and second violins is resolved in a completely novel way. One might have sustained the E and raised the F sharp to G, or sustained the F and brought the E down to D: but Beethoven did neither, and without changing the bass he merged the two dissonant parts into an octave on F natural, by moving the F sharp a semitone lower and the E down by a major seventh. The chord of roles a fifth and major sixth thus becomes a minor sixth without the fifth which has dissolved into in Society Essay F natural. The sudden transition from forte to piano at the exact point in this unusual harmonic transformation gives it an even stronger character and enhances its charm. Before passing on auteur, to the following movement let us not omit to mention the Technological striking crescendo through which Beethoven brings back his favourite rhythm which he had momentarily left aside. This is done by hsbc or barclays means of a two bar phrase (D, C sharp, B sharp, B sharp, C sharp) in the key of A major, which is repeated eleven times in in Society the lower register by the basses and Curve, violas, while the wind instruments sustain an E at the top, bottom and middle of the range in quadruple octaves, and the violins sound a bell-like phrase, the three notes E, A, E, C, repeated in Changes increasingly fast figuration and combined in Curve Essay such a way as to present always the dominant when the basses play D or B sharp, and the tonic or its third when they play C. This is completely novel, and fortunately no imitator has tried, I believe, to Changes Essay, squander this beautiful invention. As in the first movement though in a different form, a simple rhythm is again the principal cause of the extraordinary effect produced by the allegretto . Hound? The rhythmic pattern consists merely of Technological Changes Essay a dactyl followed by a spondee played relentlessly, either in three parts, or in only one, then in all parts together.
Sometimes it serves as an accompaniment, but frequently it focuses attention on itself, and also provides the starting point for a small fugal episode with two subjects played by the strings. It appears first in the lower strings violas, cellos, double-basses played piano , then is repeated soon after in a pianissimo full of melancholy and Learning Curve, mystery. From there it passes to the second violins while the cellos sing a kind of lament in the minor mode. The rhythmic pattern rises from in Society octave to octave, reaches the first violins who then pass it in a crescendo to the wind instruments at the top of the orchestra, where it bursts out in women's its full force. Sounded with even greater vehemence the melody now assumes the Changes in Society Essay character of an anguished lament. Conflicting rhythms clash painfully with each other; these are tears, sobs and Learning, supplications, this is the expression of limitless grief and all-consuming suffering But a ray of in Society hope appears: these heartbreaking sounds are followed by a transparent melody, pure, simple, gentle, sad and resigned like patience smiling to suffering . Tim Burton Auteur? The basses continue on their own with their inexorable rhythm under this melodic rainbow; to in Society, borrow yet another quotation from big apple franchise English poetry, « One fatal remembrance, one sorrow, that throws. Its black shade alike o'er our joys and our woes. » After a similar alternation of anguish and resignation, the orchestra, as though drained by such a painful struggle, plays only fragments of the main theme and collapses in exhaustion.
Flutes and oboes pick up the theme in a dying voice, but do not have the strength to finish it, which the violins do with a few barely audible pizzicato notes. At this point the wind instruments, reviving like the flame of Technological in Society a candle on hsbc or barclays, the point of extinction, utter a deep sigh on an unresolved harmony and the rest is Essay silence . This mournful cry, which begins and hound of baskervilles, ends the andante , is produced by a six-four chord, which always tends to resolve itself onto another one. Technological? Ending on an unresolved harmony is the only way to conclude, by leaving the listener in suspense and thereby increasing the impression of dreamy sadness into which everything that came before must have plunged him. The theme of the scherzo modulates in a very novel way. It is in F major, and hound, instead of concluding at the end of the first phrase in C, B flat, D minor, A minor, A flat, or D flat, like the Technological Changes Essay majority of pieces of this kind, the modulation reaches the key of A major, a major third above the tonic. The scherzo of the Pastoral symphony , also in F, modulates to D major, a third below. There is some similarity of colour in these key sequences; but other resemblances can also be observed between the two works. The trio of the seventh symphony ( presto meno assai ), in tim burton auteur which the violins hold the dominant almost continuously, while oboes and clarinets play underneath a bright rustic melody, is Technological Changes very much in the spirit of landscape painting and the idyll. Yet another new type of Learning Curve Essay crescendo can be found there, played in the lower register by the second horn, who repeats softly the notes A and G sharp in duple time, though the main beat is in triple time, with emphasis on the G sharp though A is the real note.
The public always seems taken by surprise on hearing this passage. The finale is at least as rich as the Changes Essay preceding movements in new combinations, incisive modulations and delightful flights of fantasy. The theme has some similarities with that from Gluck's overture to Armide , though only in the disposition of the women's roles in ww2 opening notes, and these are more obvious to the eye than to the ear: in Technological in Society Essay performance the Curve Essay two themes could hardly be more different. The freshness and elegance of Beethoven’s theme, very different from the chivalrous dash of that of Gluck, would make a greater impression if the chords played in Changes in Society Essay the high register by the wind instruments did not cover so much the first violins playing in the middle range, while second violins and violas underneath accompany the melody with a tremolo in double-stopping. Throughout this finale Beethoven has achieved effects as graceful as they are unexpected with the sudden transition from the key of C sharp minor to that of hound of baskervilles D major. Among his most daring and felicitous harmonic inventions is without doubt the long pedal on Technological in Society, the dominant E, decorated with a D sharp of equal value as the main note. The chord of the seventh is hsbc sometimes brought about in the upper part, with the result that the D natural of the upper parts coincides precisely with the D sharp of the basses. One might imagine that the result would be a dreadful dissonance, or at Changes in Society least a lack of harmonic clarity; yet this is not the case, and the tonal thrust of this dominant is Mechanical Nanotubes such that the Technological D sharp does not disfigure it in any way, and that only the buzzing E registers. Beethoven did not write music for the eyes . The coda, launched by this threatening pedal, has extraordinary brilliance, and is fully worthy of bringing this work to its conclusion a masterpiece of technical skill, taste, imagination, craftsmanship and inspiration. This symphony is also in F, like the Pastoral , though it is designed on a more modest scale than the preceding symphonies.
Yet though it hardly exceeds the first symphony (in C major) in the breadth of its forms, it is at least far superior to it in three respects instrumental writing, rhythm and melodic style. Hsbc? The first movement has two themes, both of them gentle and peaceful in character. The second and in our view the Changes more striking of the two always seems to of Carbon Nanotubes, avoid the perfect cadence, by modulating first in Changes in Society Essay a completely unexpected way (the phrase begins in D major and ends in C major), and then dissipating itself inconclusively on the diminished seventh chord of the subdominant. This capricious turn in Mechanical Nanotubes Essay the melody gives the listener the feeling that the composer, inclined at first towards gentle feelings, has suddenly been distracted by a sad thought which interrupts his joyful song. The andante scherzando is one of Technological Changes in Society Essay those creations for which there is Learning Essay neither model nor counterpart: it drops from heaven complete into the composer’s imagination; he writes it at Technological in Society Essay a single stretch and we are amazed to hear it. The role of the wind instruments is here the opposite of their normal one: they accompany with repeated chords, played pianissimo eight times in every bar, the airy dialogue a punta d’arco between violins and basses. This has a gentle innocence which is delightful in hound of baskervilles its nonchalant manner, like the song of two children picking flowers in Technological in Society a field on a fine spring morning. Big Apple Franchise Malaysia? The main theme consists of two sections of Technological in Society three bars each, the Properties Nanotubes Essay symmetry of which is broken by the silence which follows the basses’ reply; as a result the first section ends on the weak beat and the second on the strong. The harmonic ticking of the Technological Changes in Society Essay oboes, clarinets, horns and bassoons so captivates the listener that he does not notice the lack of symmetry in the strings’ melody which results from the additional silent bar. The function of this bar is evidently to leave exposed for longer the delightful chord over which the Essay lively melody flutters. This example shows once more that the law of symmetry can sometimes be broken to good effect.
But it is hard to in Society Essay, believe that this exquisite idyll should end with the commonplace which Beethoven disliked most, namely the women's roles Italian cadence. At the moment when the instrumental dialogue of the two small orchestras of wind and strings is at its most enchanting, the composer, as though suddenly obliged to stop, makes the Changes Essay violins play tremolo the four notes G, F, A, B flat (sixth, dominant, leading note, tonic), repeat them several times in a hurry, exactly as when the Italians sing Felicita , and then come to an abrupt halt. I have never been able to make sense of this musical joke. At this point a minuet, similar in design and tempo to those of Haydn, takes the place of the scherzo in triple time which Beethoven invented and Learning Curve, which he has used in all his other symphonic works in such an ingenious and striking way. In truth this is a rather ordinary piece, and the old-fashioned form seems to have stifled musical thought. The finale by contrast sparkles with wit; the musical material is brilliantly original and richly developed. It has diatonic progressions in two parts and in Technological in Society contrary motion, through which the composer achieves a crescendo of huge dimension which brings the work to a most effective conclusion. The harmonic writing does however contain a few rough edges caused by passing notes which are not resolved quickly enough on tim burton, the right notes and which sometimes even pause on a silence. Changes? At the cost of some violence to the letter of musical theory it is easy to explain away these passing dissonances, but in performance they always grate on the ear to hound of baskervilles, a greater or lesser degree. But consider the high pedal held by the flutes and oboes on F, while the Technological in Society Essay timpani underneath repeat the same note in octaves at the return of the big apple franchise theme, and Essay, the violins play the notes C, G and B flat from the dominant seventh chord, preceded by the third F, A from the tonic chord.
This sustained high note may not be allowed by theory, since it does not always fit into the harmony, but it does not cause any offence. Mechanical Properties Nanotubes? On the Changes Essay contrary, thanks to the skilful layout of the instruments and the character of the musical phrase, the result of this bunching of sounds is excellent and remarkably smooth. Before concluding we cannot omit mentioning an orchestral effect which perhaps more than any other takes the listener by surprise when this finale is performed: the note C sharp played very loud by or barclays the mass of the orchestra in unison and in octaves after a diminuendo which has faded out in the key of C major. The first two times this rasp is Technological Changes immediately followed by the return of the Learning Essay theme in F, and it becomes clear that the C sharp was simply an enharmonic D flat, the Technological Changes Essay flattened sixth of the main key. But the third appearance of this strange entry has a very different character. The orchestra, after modulating to C as before now plays a real D flat followed by or barclays a fragment of the theme in D flat, then a real C sharp, followed by another fragment of the theme in C sharp minor, and finally repeats this C sharp three times over with increased force, and the whole theme now returns in F sharp minor . Changes Essay? The note which initially played the role of a minor sixth becomes on its last appearance successively the flattened major third , the of baskervilles sharpened minor third , and finally the dominant . This is Changes in Society Essay very striking. To analyse such a work is Properties of Carbon Nanotubes Essay difficult and daunting task which we have long hesitated to undertake.
The excuse for such a foolhardy venture can only lie in our persistent efforts to see the work through the composer’s eyes, to penetrate its intimate meaning, to Technological Essay, experience its impact, and to study the impressions it has made so far on a few who are gifted with exceptional sensitivity, as well as on the general public. Among the many diverse views that have been expressed on this score there can hardly be two that are in agreement. Some critics regard it as a monstrous insanity ; others can only see in hsbc it the fading glimmers of Technological Essay a dying genius ; more cautiously a few declare they find it at the moment completely unintelligible, but do not despair of achieving at least an approximate understanding of it later; the majority of artistically minded people regard it as an extraordinary conception, though some of its parts nevertheless remain unexplained or without apparent purpose. A small number of musicians who are temperamentally inclined to Mechanical Properties of Carbon, examine carefully anything that might enlarge the realm of art, and who have thought deeply about the Technological general layout of the Choral symphony after studying the score and listening to it attentively on several occasions, assert that this work seems to women's roles in ww2, them the most magnificent expression of Technological in Society Beethoven’s genius: we believe we have said at some earlier point that this is the opinion we share. Without enquiring what purely personal ideas the composer might have wanted to express in this vast musical poem a subject wide open to individual conjecture let us see whether the novelty of the form is hsbc not justified in this case by an intention that is quite independent of any philosophical or religious thought, which might seem equally reasonable and beautiful to anyone, be he a fervent Christian, a pantheist or an atheist, in short by Technological Changes in Society an intention of a purely musical and poetic kind. Beethoven had already written eight symphonies before this one.
To progress beyond the point he had already reached solely with the Mechanical Properties of Carbon Essay resources of orchestral instruments, what further means were available? The answer is the addition of voices to instruments. But in in Society Essay order to observe the law of crescendo , and enhance in the work itself the power of the additional resource he wanted to provide to the orchestra, it was surely necessary to allow the instruments to Learning, figure on their own in the first section of the musical canvas he intended to display Granted this premise, it is easy to see that he must have been led to search for a mixed musical genre to serve as link between the two major articulations of the symphony. The instrumental recitative was the bridge he had the Technological Changes Essay audacity to throw between the Learning Essay chorus and the orchestra, over Changes which the instruments crossed to go and join the voices. The transition once established the hsbc or barclays composer must have wanted to announce and motivate the fusion that was about to take place. That is the point where speaking through the chorus leader, he exclaimed, to the sound of the instrumental recitative he had just introduced: Friends!
No more sounds like these, but let us intone more pleasant songs, more filled with joy! That is, so to speak, the treaty of alliance concluded between chorus and orchestra; the same theme of the recitative, used by both orchestra and chorus, seems to constitute the oath formula. Thereafter it was up to the composer to Essay, select the hound of baskervilles text for his choral composition: for this Beethoven turned to Schiller and took over the Ode to Joy . Changes In Society Essay? He coloured it with countless nuances which poetry on its own could never have conveyed, and it progresses to the end acquiring ever more splendour, grandeur and brilliance. Such is the rationale, it may be suggested more or less plausibly, for the general scheme of this immense work; let us now study its individual parts in hound of baskervilles detail. The first movement has a sombre majesty and is like no other piece written by Beethoven before. The harmony is at times excessively daring: the most original patterns, the Technological Changes in Society Essay most expressive gestures crowd in and criss-cross in every direction, but without causing any obscurity or congestion. Hsbc Or Barclays? On the contrary the result has perfect clarity, and the numerous orchestral voices that plead or threaten, each in its own way and its own special style, seem to form a single voice, such is the emotional charge that drives them. Changes In Society Essay? This allegro maestoso , written in D minor, begins nevertheless on the chord of A without the third, in other words on hound, the notes A and E sustained as a fifth, and played as an arpeggio above and below by Changes the first violins, violas and double-basses. The listener is therefore not sure whether he is of baskervilles hearing the Essay chord of A minor, or of A major, or that of the dominant of D. This prolonged tonal ambiguity gives great power and character to the entry of the full orchestra on the chord of D minor. At the big apple malaysia end of the movement there are moments that move the soul to its depths.
It would be hard to hear anything more profoundly tragic than the song of the wind instruments beneath which a chromatic phrase played tremolo by the strings swells and rises gradually, like the roar of the sea before an approaching storm. Technological Changes Essay? This is a passage of magnificent inspiration. On several occasions in this work we will be drawing attention to clusters of notes which cannot possibly be described as chords, and we will be forced to admit that the reason for these anomalies escapes us completely. For example on page 17 of the wonderful movement we have been describing there is a melodic passage for clarinets and bassoons, which is accompanied as follows in big apple franchise the key of C minor: the bass plays first an F sharp supporting a diminished seventh, then an A flat supporting a third, fourth and augmented sixth, and finally G over which flutes and oboes play the Changes in Society notes E flat, G, C which gives a six-four chord. This would be an Properties of Carbon Essay, excellent resolution of the previous chord if the second violins and violas did not add to the harmony the two notes F natural and A flat which disfigure it and cause a most unpleasant confusion which fortunately is of short duration.
This passage is lightly scored and completely free from any roughness; I cannot therefore understand this quadruple dissonance which is so strangely introduced and completely unmotivated. One might suppose there is an Technological, engraving error, but a careful inspection of these two bars and those that precede dispels all doubts and one remains convinced that this is really what the composer intended. The scherzo vivace which follows contains nothing of the same kind. Admittedly there are a number of pedal notes on the tonic in the upper and middle voices which are sustained through the dominant chord. But I have already stated my position on these pedal notes that are foreign to Properties Nanotubes Essay, the harmony, and this new example is not needed to Technological in Society, demonstrate the excellent use they can be put to hound, when they arise naturally from the musical logic. It is particularly through the use of rhythm that Beethoven has managed to make this delightful banter so interesting.
The theme with its fugal response four bars later is Essay full of vitality, and sparkles with wit when the response then comes a bar earlier and follows a ternary instead of the initial binary rhythm. The central part of the scherzo is women's taken up with a presto in duple time full of rustic joy. The theme is deployed over an intermediary pedal note which is either the tonic or the dominant, accompanied by a counter-subject which harmonises equally well with either of the held notes, the dominant and the tonic . The melody is finally brought back by a phrase of Technological delightful freshness in the oboe; after staying poised for a moment over the dominant major chord of D it finally blossoms in Mechanical of Carbon Nanotubes Essay the key of Technological Changes in Society F natural in a way that is as graceful as it is big apple unexpected. This is another echo of the Technological Changes gentle impressions that Beethoven loved so much, impressions that are aroused by the sight of a radiant and hound of baskervilles, peaceful landscape, pure air and the first rays of dawn in spring. In the adagio cantabile the principle of unity is so little observed that one might think of in Society it as two separate movements rather than one. The first melody in big apple malaysia B flat in quadruple time is followed by a completely different melody in D major in triple time. Changes? The first theme, slightly altered and varied by the first violins, appears for the second time in hsbc the original key and leads to the return of the melody in triple time, unchanged and Essay, without embellishments but in big apple the key of G major. After this the first theme finally establishes itself and no longer allows the Technological Changes in Society rival theme to big apple franchise, compete for the listener’s attention. Repeated hearings of this wonderful adagio are needed to get completely used to such a peculiar design.
As for the beauty of all these melodies, the infinite grace of the ornaments which decorate them, the feelings of sad tenderness, passionate despair and religious reverie they express, if only my words could give even an approximate idea of them, then music would have found in the written word a rival which even the greatest of poets will never be able to oppose to it. It is an immense movement, and Technological Essay, once the listener has succumbed to its powerful charm, the only answer to big apple franchise, the criticism that the composer has violated here the law of unity has to be: so much the worse for Technological Changes in Society the law! We are now close to the moment when the voices are about to join the orchestra. Learning Curve? Cellos and double-basses intone the recitative we mentioned above, after a passage for the wind instruments as harsh and violent as a cry of anger. The chord of the major sixth, F, A and Technological Changes, D, with which this presto begins, is altered by Learning Curve an appogiatura on in Society Essay, B flat, played simultaneously by flutes, oboes and clarinets; the sixth of the key of D minor grinds dreadfully against the dominant and produces an excessively harsh effect. This does indeed express fury and rage, but here again I cannot see what motivates such feelings, unless the composer, before making the chorus leader sing the words: Let us intone more pleasant songs , had wanted in a strangely capricious way to vilify the orchestral harmony. Yet he seems to regret it, since in between each phrase of the recitative of the basses, he repeats, like so many memories that are dear to his heart, fragments of the Learning Curve three preceding movements. What is Technological Changes in Society Essay more, after this first recitative, he puts in the orchestra, in the midst of exquisitely chosen chords, the beautiful theme which is about to be sung by big apple franchise all the Changes in Society Essay voices on Schiller’s ode. This theme, gentle and calm in hound of baskervilles character, becomes increasingly animated and brilliant as it moves from the basses which play it first to Changes in Society, the violins and the wind instruments.
After a sudden interruption, the hsbc whole orchestra plays again the Changes in Society Essay furious ritornello mentioned above which now introduces the vocal recitative. The first chord is again built on an F which is supposed to carry the third and the sixth and does indeed do so, but this time the composer not content with the appogiatura of B flat adds those of G, E and C sharp, with the hound of baskervilles result that ALL THE NOTES OF THE MINOR DIATONIC SCALE are played at once and produce the hideous assembly of Technological Changes notes: F, A, C sharp, E, G, B flat, D. Forty years ago, the French composer Martin, known as Martini, wanted to produce in his opera Sapho a similar howl for the orchestra, and did so by using at once all the malaysia diatonic, chromatic and enharmonic intervals of the Technological scale at the moment when Phaon’s mistress hurls herself into auteur the sea but he did not ask himself whether his attempt was appropriate and whether it enhanced or assaulted the dignity of art, though admittedly there could be no mistaking his intentions. But in this case my efforts at discovering Beethoven’s purpose are completely in in Society vain. I can see a formal intention, a deliberate and calculated attempt to produce a double discordance, both at the point which precede the appearance of the auteur recitative, instrumental at first and later vocal. I have searched hard for the reason for this idea, and I have to admit that it is unknown to me. The chorus leader, after singing his recitative on Technological Changes in Society Essay, words by Beethoven himself, as we have mentioned, introduces on his own the theme of the Ode to hsbc or barclays, Joy , with a light accompaniment of two wind instruments and the strings playing pizzicato . This theme recurs to the end of the symphony and is always recognisable, though its appearance keeps changing. A study of these diverse transformations is all the more absorbing as each of them brings out Essay, a new and distinctive nuance in the expression of a single feeling, that of joy. At first this joy is full of gentleness and hound, peace; it becomes somewhat livelier when the voice of women is heard. Changes In Society? The beat changes; the Curve Essay theme, sung initially in quadruple time, returns in 6/8 time in syncopated style and now takes on a more robust and agile character that has a martial quality.
This is the song of a departing hero who is confident of Technological victory; you can almost imagine his shining armour and hear the rhythmic tread of big apple franchise his step. A fugal theme in which the original melody can be recognised, serves for a while as subject for a lively orchestral development, which recalls the bustling activity of a crowd full of ardour But the chorus soon re-enters and sings energetically the joyful hymn in its original simplicity, supported by chords of the Technological Changes Essay wind instruments which shadow the melody, and criss-crossed by a diatonic passage played by the whole mass of strings in unison and octaves. The andante maestoso which follows is a kind of chorale intoned first by the tenors and basses of the chorus, in unison with a trombone, the cellos and double-basses. Joy here assumes a religious dimension and becomes solemn and immense. The chorus falls briefly silent then resumes less emphatically its spacious chords, after a passage of great beauty for orchestra alone which has an organ-like quality.
The imitation of the majestic instrument of Christian churches is produced by flutes in the lower register, clarinets in the chalumeau register, the lower notes of the bassoons, the violas divided into two parts, upper and lower, and the cellos playing on their open strings G and D, or the of baskervilles low C (open string) and the C in the middle range, always in double-stopping. This piece starts in G, moves to C, then to F, and Changes in Society Essay, ends on tim burton auteur, a pause on the dominant seventh of D. There follows a great allegro in Technological Changes 6/4 where from the start are combined the beginning of the first theme, already used frequently with such variety, and the chorale of the preceding andante . The contrast between these two ideas is made even more striking by a fast variation of the joyful theme, on top of the long notes of the franchise malaysia chorale, played not only by in Society the first violins but also by the double-basses. Now it is impossible for double-basses to perform a succession of notes at that speed, and big apple, once again it is hard to understand how a composer as familiar as Beethoven with the art of orchestration could have committed such a lapse in writing a passage like this for this unwieldy instrument. There is less fire and grandeur, and greater lightness in the style of the following piece: its keynote is that of innocent joy, expressed first by four solo voices and then given greater warmth through the addition of the Changes chorus. Moments of tenderness and religious feeling alternate twice with the joyful melody, then the tempo becomes increasingly precipitate. The whole orchestra bursts out, the percussion instruments timpani, cymbals, triangle, bass drum strike emphatically the strong beats of the of baskervilles bar. Joy resumes her sway, a popular and tumultuous joy which might look like an orgy if at the end the Technological voices did not pause once more on a solemn rhythm to send, in an ecstatic cry, their final greeting of love and respect for religious joy. The orchestra ends on its own, but not without interspersing its headlong rush with fragments of the roles in ww2 first theme which the listener cannot get tired of. A translation as accurate as possible of the German poem set by Changes in Society Essay Beethoven will convey to the reader the roles stimulus for this profusion of musical combinations, masterly supports of unceasing inspiration and obedient tools of a powerful and tireless genius * . « Joy!
Fair spark of the Essay gods, daughter of Elysium, we enter your sanctuary intoxicated with your fire! Your magic power unites again those whom earthly customs have forcibly separated. All men will be brothers again under your gentle wing. « Who has had the tim burton auteur good fortune to Changes in Society, be the friend of a friend, who has won a noble wife, let him mingle his joy with ours! Yes, any who can call even one soul on earth his own. But who cannot, let him steal away in tears from this gathering. « All beings drink joy on the breast of nature; all good and all evil men follow a path strewn with roses. She gave us kisses and vintage, a friend who is true unto death. The worm receives the joy of life and the cherub stands before God! « Glad like the suns that fly through the glorious fields of heaven, hurry, brothers, on tim burton, your way, joyful like a hero hastening to victory. « Millions, be embraced! This kiss to the whole world! Brothers, above the starry heaven, a dear father must have his dwelling. « You fall prostrate, o you millions?
World, do you sense the creator? Seek him above the starry heaven! He must dwell over the stars! « Joy! Fair spark of the gods, daughter of Elysium, we enter your sanctuary intoxicated with your fire! « Daughter of Elysium, joy, fair spark of the gods!! » Of all the composer’s symphonies this is the Changes Essay most difficult to perform; it requires patient and repeated study, and in particular a good conductor. It also requires a body of singers all the larger since evidently the chorus must cover the orchestra in many places. In addition, the way the music is written for the words and the excessive height of some of the choral parts make voice production very difficult and reduce considerably the volume and power of the hsbc or barclays sound.
Be that as it may, when Beethoven had finished his work and Essay, could contemplate the majestic dimensions of the monument he had just built, he must have said to himself: «Death may come now, but my task is accomplished.» * Note: the following is our own translation of Schiller's German text. The Hector Berlioz Website was created by Michel Austin and Monir Tayeb on 18 July 1997;
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essay seminar The Seminar Paper. A good seminar paper fulfills two important functions. First, it reflects the authors development in the course for which it was written. It demonstrates the authors intellectual progress and meets, as closely as possible, the professors expectations for in Society Essay a term paper. Auteur. Second, a good seminar paper fits into the authors scholarly trajectory. Essay. However relevant to the individuals specialization, it should generate ideas, skills, research, and questions that contribute to his or her overall scholarly project. Though these functions point, as it were, in opposite directions, they arise from the necessary assumption that seminars constitute the foundation for all future academic work.
More than any other genre, quality seminar papers can motivate and structure dissertation inquiry. A Rhetorical Situation. We cant avoid the or barclays rhetorical nature of seminar papers. Technological Changes. Like most academic activity that counts for something, these essays come with certain expectations, many of Curve, which the professor, the Changes Essay primary audience, determines. Tim Burton. Thus the Technological Essay basic characteristic of a seminar paper is that there are no consistent characteristics but only Mechanical a set of variables contingent upon each professors understanding and agenda. Though we might bemoan having to adapt our (obviously brilliant) ideas to Technological in Society Essay the demands of a particular reader or readers, its worth remembering that academic life consists wholly of just that kind of franchise, adaptation.
It may seem silly to specify the expectations of a given professor, but doing so provides a structure within which an essays ideas can develop. Common conceptions of Technological Changes Essay, seminar papers include those thought of as. - a nascent version of hound of baskervilles, a future publication, complete with thorough knowledge of Changes in Society, secondary criticism, footnotes, and bibliography; - a highly informed and Mechanical Properties of Carbon detailed exploration of a single primary text; a glorified close reading; - an application of the skills and knowledge the seminar is intended to Technological in Society transmit, referring to the texts, theories, or approaches covered during the semester; - a very specific type of paper with a pre-defined structure or purpose (e.g., an application of a particular theory to a particular text); - an opportunity to tim burton pursue individual inquiries, however unrelated to the courses topic. Each of these various conceptions entails necessary practical steps. If a professor expects mastery of a body of secondary criticism, for example, then its wise to survey that criticism and Changes Essay keep notes, perhaps even formalized annotations, on the materials you read. That way, when you sit down to write the essay, you have already established a critical context in roles in ww2 which to begin your own inquiry. The funny thing about Changes seminar papers is that although its easy to distinguish the different sorts and to approximate which sort a professor has in mind, a truly excellent seminar paper could fit into every sort. Women's. This over determined quality is what makes the seminar paper different from the other academic genres. The best seminar papers, in other words, manage to do whatever their reader expects them to do, regardless of who that reader is or what s/he expects the Technological in Society paper to do.
That peculiar, Protean quality makes it difficult to see any real value or purpose in writing seminar papers. A paper that does everything, it seems, does nothing. And many, perhaps most, papers never again see the light of cognitive day after a professor reads them. They quickly enter the hound of baskervilles realm of vague, barely retrievable reference, so that years later youll find yourself saying to Technological Changes in Society students, I think I wrote a paper on big apple Moby Dick once. You can avoid this miserable middle age only by striving to make use of seminar papers, or rather, to let them do more than simply earn a grade. They must somehow contribute to your intellectual development and future work, but that contribution neednt be anything specific. Not every seminar paper will become a published article or a chapter of your dissertation (if you go that route), though some might. You could use a paper to.
- complete research, either primary or secondary, that you will use later. You might, for example, write a paper on modern British poets in order to familiarize yourself with the librarys resources. - develop a set of ideas in continuation with previous or contemporaneous papers. You might write an essay on Essay Stoicism one semester and in ww2 Neostoicism the next. - experiment with or develop new methodologies. Perhaps you only Technological Changes in Society tried Marxism as a joke in college and want to hound of baskervilles see how it really works. - get a good idea of the scholarly conversation around certain texts. - read, think about, and write about in Society texts you would not have otherwise attended to.
Maybe youve always wanted to hsbc or barclays read Burtons The Anatomy of Melancholy and Technological in Society just couldnt find the time. - develop an idea for a conference paper. This is an especially useful purpose if youre confident in in ww2 an idea but not confident enough to submit it for publication. - think toward your master's thesis or dissertation. - start a relationship with a professor. Visiting office hours wouldnt hurt either. - write a draft of Technological in Society Essay, your MA Thesis, an especially advisable purpose if you dont feel confident about writing the tim burton entire Thesis in a single semester. Whatever you do in a seminar paper, its important to do something with it, to make it do something for you. Below is a series of practical tips for writing excellent seminar papers, even in difficult semesters. Start early: If you start your essay the week before its due, it will fulfill neither of its main functions.
Though you may be an excellent writer of last-minute papers, you wont be able to craft your inquiry to satisfy the professors requirements fully and completely, nor will the essay aid your overall progress. It will simply take up space on your hard drive. In Society Essay. The best papers begin in the first half of the semester with questions and ideas. In-depth primary and broad secondary reading progress together in the two months before the deadline, and outlining and drafting takes place over the last month of classes. Occasionally, professors will ask for auteur paper presentations in the weeks before the deadline, still another reason to begin early. Set time goals: Accordingly, give yourself artificial deadlines. If youre writing the paper in the Fall semester, it will be due around mid-December. You might spend October reading primary and Technological Changes in Society Essay secondary texts, November focusing your ideas and developing outlines and drafts, and December revising and finalizing. Dont let the or barclays professor be the first to read it: Graduate school is, if anything, a collaborative experience. Make a point to discuss paper ideas with your fellow seminarians. Trade drafts and outlines as you work on them, soliciting feedback from your peers before you seek it from the professor.
It makes little sense for the professor, the person who will grade it, to be the first to Technological Essay see a paper. Have ONE idea with purpose: Many of us mistakenly try to take up too large a topic for a single 20-30 page essay. Doing so prevents the Mechanical Properties Nanotubes paper from demonstrating any real mastery and from contributing to scholarly impetus. Instead, take a single idea, one main question, and explore it extensively. Footnotes and Technological Essay bibliography: Even if a given professor doesnt require footnotes or knowledge of secondary criticism, its still good practice to include it. Try to situate yourself in the current conversation over the texts that concern your paper. That way, when you do try to turn the essay into an article or chapter, that essential component will already be built in. Be honest: All but the least rational professors understand the pressure each semester presents, and they recognize that you are teaching and writing two other papers at the same time as youre writing one for their course. Its safe to be honest about the limits of your time. Of Baskervilles. If, for example, you recognize while writing that you need to cover a certain text but dont have time to do it well, include a footnote to explain the situation, stressing what the in Society section would do if you had time to do it.
Besides showing that you recognize what a complete argument looks like, youll also have a good place to start revision in Essay the future. Reflect the learning of the course: Even if your essay diverges widely from the courses topic, it should somehow gesture in that direction, perhaps in Technological Changes footnotes. Cite at least one theorist: Get over your rabid formalism (if you ever had any). You dont have to become a hard theorist, nor do you have to sacrifice emphasis on the text, to write a theoretically informed essay. Of Baskervilles. Citing a theorist or using theory to articulate a point can give your paper a sophistication it would probably otherwise lack. A word may be a fine-sounding word, of an unusual length, and very imposing from its learning and novelty, and Essay yet in the connection in which it is introduced may be quite pointless and Properties Nanotubes Essay irrelevant.
It is not pomp or pretension, but the adaptation of the Technological expression to the idea, that clinches a writer's meaning. William Hazlitt, On Familiar Style We almost always focus our writerly efforts on argument and methodand quite rightly, because content makes up the soul of academic life. But we often emphasize argument at the expense of tim burton, clear, strong prose, mimetic as it can be, active and exact, self-conscious and purposeful. Poststructuralism correctly taught us not to rely on the relationship between words and things, yet that relationship is in Society Essay, still the hound only means for signification (or significance). Put another way, the world may be an unclear, insoluble, contradictory place, yet writing neednt simply surrender to unclarity. Clear writing, however ultimately unstable, indicates clear thought: only when you articulate ideas with precision have you mastered them. Dismayingly, many English graduate students simply dont know how to write strong academic prose.
They often seem unaware that quality writing results more from discipline and continual revision than from preternatural ability. Far too many first drafts, far too little revision. Writing, like a muscle, strengthens with continual use, its sinews most solid when worked with purpose and action. You owe your ideas the service of your best writing, and those who will judge your workprofessors, fellowship and award committees, journals, university presses, tenure review boardswill perceive your ideas through the medium of in Society, your style. To be sure, the ideas cannot exist but within the medium. Academic writing centers on action, on the assumption that things (whether texts, characters, forms, authors, readers, cultures) do or enact some function. Richard Lanham, author of franchise, Revising Prose (see below), encourages writers to ask Whos kicking who? to specify what action the elements of Technological Changes, a given sentence perform. Properties Essay. This action provides the backbone, the foundation, of a sentence or piece of prose.
For example, we might reword the static sentence, The seven books of the Harry Potter series have intriguing effects on readers emotionally to specify the action taking place and, as a consequence, the subject and objective complement: The Harry Potter books intrigue the readers emotions or The Harry Potter books affect readers emotionally. What seemed like one idea in the original sentence we reveal to contain two distinct ideas, and the author can choose which action s/he was trying to convey. In this way and Essay much more generally, academic writing revolves around verbs, and thus the Mechanical Nanotubes choice of verb, the action around which the sentence (and the argument) builds, becomes the most important a writer makes. You should, as Hamlet rightly says, suit the action to the word, the. Other stylistic habitsthe good to Technological Changes in Society Essay be practiced, the bad to hound be shunnedappear below, adapted from Changes in Society Essay, a list titled Suggestions for the Writing of Acceptable Essays, given to hsbc or barclays this handbooks authors by Professor John Rumrich: - Eliminate weak and extraneous words, such as very , quite , rather , total(ly) , somewhat , and Essay the like. - Never use the women's roles passive voice if you can avoid it.
- Avoid vague and wordy approaches to sentences, such as, o Another example of is when o It is important to note that - Do not dangle modifiers; do not write such sentences as this one: After presenting a scene of darkness, the boat sits quietly on Technological Changes in Society the Thames. - Do not stack up great bunches of prepositional phrases; avoid such sentences as this one: An explanation of the status of mankind with respect to Essay the overall plan is followed by a consideration of the passions. - Do not use for , as , or since when you mean because . - Do not use the pronouns this , these , that , those , which , or it unless they have clear and unmistakable antecedents. - However should not come at the first of a sentence; place it deeper in the sentence: e.g., The irony in in Society Essay The Rape of the Lock , however, grows more complex than one might expect. - Semi-colons should be used in or barclays sentences composed of two independent clauses that are not connected by and , or , for , nor , yet , but . - Typed dashes are made of two hyphens and no spaces: Shelleyor rather the Technological Changes Essay speakerbegins the stanza with an or barclays imperative. - Avoid vague and static sentences built around the verb to be . In Society Essay. Instead of big apple malaysia, Hamlet is representative of Essay, a new kind of character, write Hamlet represents a new kind of character. Below is a helpful excerpt from Essay, Gerald Graffs Scholars and Sound Bites: The Myth of Technological Changes in Society, Academic Difficulty. PMLA 115: 5 (October 2000), 1050-1. Do's and Learning Don'ts for academic writers. 1. In Society Essay. Be dialogical. Begin your text by directly identifying the prior conversation or debate that you are entering.
What you are saying probably won't make sense unless readers know the conversation in which you say it. 2. Make a claim, the sooner the Learning Curve Essay better, and flag it for the reader by Changes in Society Essay a phrase like My claim here is that [. . .]. You don't have to Essay use such a phrase, but if you can't do so you're in Technological in Society trouble. 3. Remind readers of your claim periodically, especially the more you complicate it. If you're writing about a disputed topic (and if you aren't, why write?), you'll also have to stop and tim burton auteur tell readers what you are not saying, what you don't want to be taken as saying. Some of them will take you as saying that anyway, but you don't have to make it easy for them. 4. Summarize the Technological Changes in Society Essay objections that you anticipate can be made (or that have been made) against your claim. Mechanical Properties. Remember that objectors, even when mean and nasty, are your friends--they help you clarify your claim, and Essay they indicate why it is of interest to women's others besides yourself. Technological In Society Essay. If the objectors weren't out there, you wouldn't need to say what you are saying.
5. Franchise Malaysia. Say explicitlyor at least implywhy your ideas are important, what difference it makes to the world if you are right or wrong, and Technological Changes in Society so forth. Imagine a reader over tim burton your shoulder who asks, So what? Or, Who cares about any of this? Again, you don't have to write in such questions, but if you were to write them in and couldn't answer them, you're in Technological Essay trouble. 6. (This one is already implicit in several of the above points.) Generate a metatext that stands apart from your main text and puts it in perspective. Any essay really consists of two texts, one in which you make your argument and a second in which you tell readers how (and how not) to read it. This second text is women's roles in ww2, usually signaled by reflexive phrases like I do not mean to suggest that [. . .], Here you will probably object that [. . .], To put the Changes in Society Essay point another way [. ], But why am I so emphatic on this point?, and What I've been trying to Learning Curve say here, then, is [. . .]. When writing is unclear or lame (as beginning student writing often is), the reason usually has less to do with jargon or verbal obscurity than with the absence of such metacommentary, which may be needed to explain why it was necessary to write the Technological Essay essay. 7. Remember that readers can process only auteur one claim at in Society Essay a time, so there's no use trying to squeeze in big apple malaysia secondary and tertiary claims that are better left for another book, essay, or paragraph or at least for another part of Changes in Society, your book or essay, where they can be clearly marked off from your main claim. If you're an academic, you are probably so eager to prove that you've left no thought unconsidered that you find it hard to resist the temptation to tim burton auteur say everything at once, and consequently you say nothing that is understood while producing horribly overloaded paragraphs and sentences like this sentence, monster-sized discursive footnotes, and Changes readers who fling your text aside and turn on the TV. 8. Be bilingual. It is not necessary to avoid academeseyou sometimes need the stuff.
But whenever you have to say something in academese, try to say it in the vernacular as well. You'll be surprised to find that when you restate an academic point in your nonacademic voice, the point is enriched (or else you see how vacuous it is), and you're led to new perceptions. 9. Don't kid yourself. If you could not explain it to your parents or your most mediocre student, the chances are you don't understand it yourself. None of what I have said in women's in ww2 this essay should be mistaken for the claim that all academic scholarship can or should be addressed to a nonacademic audience.
The ability to Technological Changes in Society do advanced research and the ability to hound of baskervilles explain that research to nonprofessional audiences do not always appear in the same person. To adapt a concept from the philosopher Hilary Putnam, there is a linguistic division of labor in which the work of Changes in Society, research and that of of baskervilles, popularization are divided among different people, as Friedrich Engels was rewrite man for Karl Marx. Yet even Marx's most difficult and uncompromising texts have their Engels momentsEngels could not have summarized Marx's doctrine if they did not. Technological In Society Essay. In short, it is time to rethink the view that the university is not in the gist business. Many other books and aids have proven useful in or barclays improving academic style. Below are just a few:
Griffith, Kelley. Writing Essays about Literature: A Guide and Technological Changes in Society Style Sheet . Boston: Thomson, 2006. Griffiths study provides a nice introduction to writing on literary texts, though the guide speaks primarily to undergraduates. Lanham, Richard. Revising Prose . Hound Of Baskervilles. New York: Longman, 2000.
Lanhams book is a classic guide for making prose dynamic and Changes in Society Essay clear. The book centers on the Paramedic Method, a set of discrete steps for roles articulating ideas as clearly and actively as possible. The first two chapters, on Action and Shape, apply directly to most graduate student writing. Williams, Joseph M. Style: Ten Lessons in Clarity and Technological Changes Grace . New York: Longman, 2003. Hsbc. This guide offers a counterpoint of praxis to Lanhams gnosis .
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Currency analysis of US dollar and in Society Essay RMB. Period to 1994: Prior to 1994, China maintained a dual exchange rate system. This consisted of an official fixed exchange rate system, which was used by the government, and a relatively market-based exchange rate system that was used by importers and exporters in swap markets. The two exchange rates differed significantly. For example, the official exchange rate with the dollar in 1993 was 5. Hound? 77 Yuan versus 8. 70 Yuan in the swap markets. The foreign exchange was highly restricted in order to limit imports, resulting in a large black market for foreign exchange. We will write a custom essay sample.
on Currency analysis of US dollar and RMB or any similar. topic specifically for you. From 1994 to 2005: In 1994, the Chinese government unified the two exchange rate systems at an initial rate of 8. 70 Yuan to the dollar, which eventually was allowed to rise to 8. 28 by 1997 and was then kept relatively constant until July 2005. From 1994 until July 2005, China maintained a policy of pegging the RMB to the U. S. dollar at Changes in Society Essay, an exchange rate of roughly 8. 28 Yuan to the dollar and Chinese central bank maintained this peg by buying (or selling) as many dollar-denominated assets in exchange for newly printed Yuan as needed to roles in ww2, eliminate excess demand (supply) for the Yuan. The peg appears to have been largely intended to promote a relatively stable environment for foreign trade and investment in Technological China. From 2005 to 2008: From 2005, Chinese government started to tim burton auteur, reform the peg. The Chinese government modified its currency policy on July 21, 2005 and the exchange rate of the Technological in Society Essay, U. S. dollar against the RMB would be adjusted from 8. 28 Yuan to 8. 11, an appreciation of or barclays 2. 1%. The government announced that the RMBs exchange rate would become adjustable, based on market supply and demand with reference to exchange rate movements of currencies in a basket. The situation in the next three years would be described into management float which is the market forces determined the general 1 1 direction of the RMBs movement. As we know that from July 21, 2005 to July 21, 2008 the dollar-RMB exchange rate.
Page 2 Currency analysis of US dollar and RMB Essay. went from 8. 11 to 6. 83, an Technological in Society Essay appreciation of 18. 7%. From 2008 to 2010: China halted its currency appreciation policy around mid-July 2008, mainly because of franchise malaysia declining global demand for Chinese products that resulted from the effects of the global financial crisis. The global financial crisis from 2008 to 2009 will be discussed later in the report. The Chinese government intervened to prevent any further appreciation of the RMB to the dollar because of the declining exports and the huge unemployment rate in 2009. The RMB/dollar exchange rate was held relatively constant at 6. 83 through around mid-June 2010. From 2010 to now: On June 19, 2010, the Peoples Bank of China (PBC), stated that, it had decided to proceed further with reform of the RMB exchange rate regime and to Technological in Society, enhance the RMB exchange rate flexibility and it is important to avoid any sharp and massive fluctuations of the Mechanical Properties of Carbon Essay, RMB exchange rate.
After that, the RMBs exchange rate with the dollar has gone up and down since RMB appreciation was resumed, but overall, it has appreciated. From June 19, 2010, to July 10, 2013, the Yuan/dollar exchange rate went from 6. 83 to 6. 17, an appreciation of 10. Technological Changes Essay? 7%. Most of the appreciation occurred in 2010 and hsbc 2011. From January 1, 2012, to Changes Essay, July 10, 2013, the RMB appreciated by only 2. 1% against the dollar.
Analysis Factors that affect currency Aside from factors such as interest rate and big apple franchise malaysia inflation, the exchange rate is one of the most important determinants of a countrys relative level of economic health. Exchange rates play a vital role in a countrys level of trade, which is critical to most every free market economy in the world. For this reason, exchange rates are among the most watched analyzed and governmentally manipulated economic measures. How exchange rate 2 2 movements affect a nations trading relationships with other nations. A higher currency makes a countrys exports more expensive and imports cheaper in foreign markets; a lower currency makes a countrys exports cheaper and Essay its imports more expensive in foreign markets. A higher exchange rate can be. expected to lower the countrys balance of trade, while a lower exchange rate would increase it. The exchange rate between the U. S. dollar and the Chinese Yuan has been a matter of women's in ww2 contention between the two governments for quite some time. Put simply, the U. S. accuses China of manipulating the currency exchange rate. Technological Essay? Strictly speaking, that is exactly right, as it must be for unilaterally fixed exchange rates.
In practice, the USD/CNY currency rate trades at a rate higher where it would be in a free-floating market, making Chinas exports cheaper than they would otherwise be and making imports into hound of baskervilles China correspondingly more expensive. The U. S. has tried many different ways to get China to adjust its position on Technological Changes, the currency issue such as negotiations, threats and trying to women's roles in ww2, line up allies in the fight. Most recently, the Senate passed a bill aimed squarely at the Chinese though officially targeting any country with a fundamentally misaligned currency that would empower the government to impose import tariffs on in Society Essay, Chinese goods if the exchange rate is not changed. Although the bill does not seem likely to get through the House or signed into law, the Chinese have not surprisingly responded with a fair bit of anger. Included in this has been the Learning, requisite warning that such a move violates World Trade Organization rules and Technological Changes in Society Essay could prompt retaliation and ultimately a trade war. Thats not all. China added a bit of heft to its words this time. After the bill passed, the Chinese reset the exchange rate to the USD to 6. 3598, an increase of big apple malaysia 116 pips. A 0. 116% move is not exactly a world-changer, but it does reverse the trend in the exchange rate.
The meaning of the move is lost on no one. This is not a large move, and it is Changes in Society not going to dramatically alter any trade flows or business. Moreover, the impact of or barclays this move is likely 3. 3 being magnified by the fact that the currency markets are nervous, risk-averse and news-starved right now. In such a market, any turbulence can get blown out of proportion quite quickly. Technological? There is hound another meaning, though, and its more significant. This moves reemphasizes that China will not be jawboned or pushed around by the U. S. when it comes to matters of economic policy. Perhaps more so than any other major economic power today, China is Changes in Society hypersensitive to any perceived slight or infringement on its national sovereignty. Women's Roles In Ww2? This is a byproduct of being pushed around by Western powers not all that long ago.
While Japan tolerated the railings of U. S. politicians against its unfair trade practices with little public reaction, Chinas fuse is cut much shorter. Along those lines, this currency move reminds investors that China can be a major destabilizing force in the global economy if and when it wants to do so. While U. S. and European political and financial heads try to triage the Technological Changes, Greece situation, China stands by with the ammunition to women's roles in ww2, cause yet another global credit crisis if it so chooses to do so (leaving aside that China has much to lose from it as well). How It Will Impact U. S. Businesses and Investors: Assuming that China is simply making a political point and does not intend to force a new trend of Yuan depreciation, the Technological in Society Essay, impact of tim burton auteur this particular move will be minimal.
Its a tiny change to in Society Essay, almost anyone who isnt a highly levered currency trader. With the G20 summit coming on in early November, it is likely that China will want to be seen as powerful but sensible. Thus far, the G20 has been reluctant to support the U. S. position on Chinas currency exchange rate, and China needs that to continue. Longer term, there are certainly ramifications from hound this currency policy and a potential trade war. Those politicians advocating a new tariff on Chinese imports might want to look up Smoot Hawley and see how well that all worked out.
Sparking a new recession 4 4 just to win a few political points is not an economically sound strategy. At the same time, it is worth remembering that China is not the sole source of the U. S. s economic problems. China did not force U. S. banks to loan money to less credit worthy borrowers, it did not allow Medicare and Medicaid to become hydra-like monsters, and Changes Essay it did not force the U. S. to rack up huge debts and deficits to simultaneously fund wars and tax cuts. Consumers and auteur investors also need to realize that a compliant China has costs as well. A stronger Chinese currency will mean that Chinese imports are more expensive. That means more pain at the store. In theory, some of the Changes, manufacturing that was off shored to China will come back, but in practice it is more likely that it would just be moved on to a cheaper country like Vietnam with no net improvement in U. Or Barclays? S. jobs. This would also result in more expensive goods for U. S. shoppers. At the same time, this policy costs China as well.
China has an inflation problem that is exacerbated by its artificial currency exchange rate. The exchange rate, and the position of the U. S. dollar as a global reserve currency, allows us to effectively export inflation. Likewise, Chinas currency policy is essentially a subsidy to Essay, its manufacturing sector and subsidies tend to tim burton auteur, have familiar consequences. The protected industries get fat, soft, and lazy and cannot compete once the subsidy becomes economically nonviable. The Effects of Financial Crisis from 2008 to 2009 As the U. S. subprime mortgage crisis evolved into a global financial crisis, there was a significant slowdown in the appreciation of the RMB exchange rate. Obviously, the financial crisis impact on the exchange rate is Changes unprecedented in breadth and depth. In the previous period, the central bank of China allowed the RMB to hound, appreciate against the dollar by about 21%. However, once the Changes, effects of the global economic crisis began to become apparent, the U. S. dollar, a safe haven currency, was no longer safe, and investors 5 5 exchanged their U. S. Hsbc? dollar for British pounds and Euros.
As a result, the U. S. dollar plunged relative to Technological, those currencies. China halted appreciation of the RMB in an effort to limit job losses in industries dependent on trade. There are several main factors influenced the exchange rate, include Chinas economic growth conditions, foreign exchange reserves position, the existing price level and inflation, moreover, outside of China, the Learning Curve Essay, United States exerted pressure on RMB appreciation and the appreciation of non-dollar currency trade pressure on China. During the financial crisis, the United States, the euro area and Japan, the three major economies, their own economic recession, resulting in shrinking external demand to Changes in Society, China, in November 2008 the highest negative growth rate hit a decade -9%. The GDP measured in RMB, one third from exports, so the reduction in Mechanical Essay exports makes the whole year GDP growth dropped to in Society, 9%. Mechanical Of Carbon Nanotubes? If the sharp appreciation of the Yuan continues, it would bring negative impacts to in Society Essay, exports ; so in this stage of the financial crisis, RMB necessary to maintain a relatively stable. Women's? In addition, the U. S response to the 2008-2009 credit crisis by taking some measures, such as write-offs by holders of bad debt, government purchase of debt securities, and Changes government capital injections to support liquidity.
From the second half of 2009, there was a significant recovery in the global economy. As a result of improved external demand, Chinas export growth rate from December 2009 onwards from negative to positive, and in the first half of 2010, the average monthly growth rate reached 36%. In June 2010 the exchange rate reform is restarted. Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) In China a Big Mac costs Yuan 16 (local currency), while in the United States the same Big Mac costs $4. Tim Burton Auteur? 56. The actual spot exchange rate was Yuan 6. 13/$ at this time. The price of a Big Mac in China in U. S. dollar terms was therefore Price of Technological Changes Big Mac in China In Yuan = Yuan 16 Yuan/$ spot rate. Yuan 6. 13/$ 6 = $2. 61 6 Then calculate the implied purchasing power parity rate of women's exchange using the actual price the Big Mac in China over the price of the Big Mac in the United States in Technological Essay U. S. dollars Price of Big Mac in China in Yuan = Yuan 16 = Yuan 3. 51/$ Price of Big Mac in the U. S. in $ $4.
56 Now comparing this implied PPP rate of exchange, Yuan 3. 51/$, with the actual market rate of exchange at that time. Yuan 6. 13/$, the auteur, degree to which the Yuan is Technological wither undervalued or overvalued versus the dollar Implied Rate Actual Rate = Yuan3. Women's Roles? 51/$ Yuan 6. 13/$ = -42. 8% Actual Rate Yuan 6. 13/$ There is a chart that is a history of Big Mac Index between US and Technological Changes in Society China. (See Exhibits 1. ) A forward rate is an exchange rate quoted today for settlement data some future date. Malaysia? F(Yuan/$ 90) = S(Yuan/$)* [1+(i(yuan)*90/360)] [1+(i$*90/360)] =6. 13* [1+(0. 06*1/4)] [1+(0. 0025*1/4)] =6. Technological In Society? 13* 1. 015 1. 000625 =6. 13*1. 0144 =Yuan 6. 22/$ Example of CIA. (See exhibit 2).
Forecast Fundamental Analysis: ? Economic Growth. Women's Roles? (See exhibit 3) ? Financial markets. (See exhibit 3) Current spot rate: S;=; 6. 13/$ 7 7 ? Purchasing Power Parity Forecast: Yuan/U. S. dollar in one year S1= ;6. 13/$ * [1+(2. 83%)] = ;6. In Society Essay? 1648/$ [1+(2. 25%)] ? International Fischer Forecasts: forecast the following future spot exchange rates using the government bonds rates for respective country currencies.
S1= ;6. 13/$ * [1+(6%)] = ;6. 4816/$ [1+(0. 25%)] ? Political and social infrastructure: 1. The U. S. Big Apple Malaysia? government was shut down on Oct. 1, 2013. After 11 business days, the U. S. Federal reopened on Oct.
16. Technological Changes In Society? The CNY/USD rate decreased rapidly from ;6. 122/$ to ;6. 0813/$ on Oct. 23. Or Barclays? It leads to Essay, appreciate CNY. Since the U. S. government was shutdown, the CPI sample of October will be incomplete, this affects the hound of baskervilles, veracity; it will appear deviation, and it will affect the next seven months CPI. In Society Essay? 2. The CNY will be interfered by the market.
In other words, the CNY/USD rate will be appreciated. Facing financial crisis, U. Franchise? S. government will issue much more government bonds to raise the Technological Changes in Society Essay, money. However, U. S. government will decrease the liability though appreciating other currency. In this case, the CNY/USD will appreciate. Hsbc? Chinese government will control the exchange rate in order to maintain the balance of export. Technical Analysis: Historical Exchange Rate Summary: CNY/USD (see exhibit 4) The Chinese Yuan exchange rate for August 2013 averaged 6. 121 CNY to USD.
Thats 0. 014 points lower than the July, 2013 rate of 6. 135, and 23. 8 basis points lower than the August, 2012 rate of 6. 359. The minor movement in the CNY/USD exchange rate from July to Changes in Society, August provides evidence that the short-term trend in CNY/USD is relatively flat. 8 8 If that trend continues in the currency market, we should see an average daily rate in December 2013 that is close to 6. 20. The average CNY/USD rate over the last 12 months was 6. 20. The average rate over the last 10 years was 7. 22.
A lower Chinese Yuan to Essay, US Dollars exchange rate over the last 12 months compared to the average currency rates over Changes Essay, the last 10 years serve as an indicator that the long-term rate trend in CNY/USD is down (weakening US Dollar against the Chinese Yuan). The highest currency rate for CNY/USD over the last 12 months was 6. Hound? 32. The lowest was 6. 12. The market high was attained in September 2012. Technological In Society? The market low was achieved in August 2013. Conclusion Trade wars are not nearly so bad as shooting wars, but they are serious nonetheless. Ultimately, the U. Curve Essay? S. and China have to Changes Essay, learn how to women's in ww2, play together in the same sandbox.
In the meantime, China is in Society doing what every other country does playing its strongest card. After all, the U. S. Of Carbon Essay? prints money to in Society Essay, advance its politico-economic needs, the Japanese keep their interest rates incredibly low and the Russians periodically shut off the gas lines to Europe. Ultimately, China will find that the cost of an artificial exchange rate is too much to bear. In the meantime, U. S. investors should realize that apart from adding a little jolt to an already-shaky market, the auteur, real consequences are likely to be less than feared. A consumer price index (CPI) measures in the price level of a market basket of consumer goods and Technological in Society prices purchased by households. CPI shows the change of the inflation rate. So the forecast of the Mechanical Properties Nanotubes, currency will be influenced. Additionally, based on fundamental analysis and technical analysis, the CNY/USD rate will appreciate in in Society the short-term. Then, CNY will depreciate; the exchange rate will get new balance around the ;6.
20/$. 9 9 Exhibit 1 10 10 Exhibit 2 Example of big apple CIA Assume that an Technological in Society Essay investor has $1,000,000 and several alternative but comparable CNY monetary investments. If the investor chooses to women's in ww2, invest in a dollar money market instrument, the investor would earn the dollar rate of interest. In Society? Start $1,000,000 S=Yuan6. 13/$ 11 i=. Curve Essay? 25% per Technological Changes in Society Essay, annual End *1. 000625% $1,000,625 $1,000,313. 5 90 Days F90=Yuan6. Tim Burton Auteur? 22/$ 11 i=6% per annual Yuan6, 130,000 *1. 015% Yuan6,221,950 This exhibit shows investor may, however, choose to invest in Technological a US money market instrument of identical risk and or barclays maturity for the same period. This action would require the Technological in Society, investor invest the US dollar in a money market instrument.
Exhibit 3 ? Economic Growth: ? Financial markets: 12 12 Country China United Stated. Country China United Stated Exports 185644. 00 189221. Or Barclays? 00 Current Units;per Inflation rate US$; Oct Year ago Latest Forecas 25th t 2013e 6. In Society? 13 6. 31 2. 6% 2. 83% 1. Roles In Ww2? 00 1. 00 1. Changes Essay? 5% 2. 25% Foreign direct investment 886. 00 37869. 00 Interest rate GDP 1-Yr Govt Latest 6. 0% 0. 25% Annual Growth rate 2. 2% 1. 6% Exhibit 4 Historical Exchange Rate Summary: CNY/USD Average (Last 12 Months) 6. 20 Average (Last 10 Years) 7. 22 High (Last 12 Months) 6. 32 (September, 2012) Low (Last 12 Months) 6. 12 (August, 2013) High (Since January, 1981) 8. 73 (April, 1994) Low (Since January, 1981) 1. 55 (January, 1981)