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Censorship/ Censorship In Art term paper 19322. Censorship is usually considered #8220;official#8221; censorship because it is action taken by governmental institutions such as government committees, or universities, to limit the view of a specific artwork or a group of works by general taheri the public. However, these concrete official actions taken to limit public view of specific artwork are only the results of the attitude first of chapter, abstract #8220;censoring attitudes#8221; of individuals or groups of individuals, encouraging the general taheri, actions. Censoring attitudes can arise from feelings of race or gender discrimination, discrimination against the gay community, fear of taboos and controversially issues, and assumed moral or Christian authority. It is these attitudes that are the who wrote theses, basis of censorship, not necessarily the artist#8217;s intentions of their artwork, because each individual viewer of the artist#8217;s specific piece will unconsciously project his/her own anxieties and fears into the artist#8217;s artwork.
What drives the individual to censor the artist#8217;s work is the product of general their attitudes being reflected in the subject matter of the artwork, and the result of tide washing uk censorship is keeping the artist#8217;s work from being exposed or even from being created. General Taheri? A mutually supportive relationship between artists and society would be the the us reject joining, ideal under the general, First Amendment of the United States Constitution. Our society would recognize and support an expanded role for artists. Free and diverse artistic expressions are vital for challenging people to rethink their assumptions and for educating people about past and Biology: Uncoupling Proteins Essay present issues. We should oppose censorship in the arts, and encourage individual and social expression by artists. Only by supporting the voices and visions of artists representing minority of the mainstream, including women, people of color, and people of alternative sexual orientation can artists truly express themselves. However, this is how it would be in an ideal society.
In reality, censorship is common. By examining the life works and general experiences of three artists, David Wojnarowicz, Robert Mapplethorpe, and Francisco Goya, the use of censorship and its affects can be understood. Although modern examples of censorship concerning cultural taboos are almost understandable because of the controversial subject matter, the censorship of art was just as prevalent in the 1700#8217;s in Spain. Censoring was based on protecting public morals, and it took political action in the form of Spain#8217;s Holy Inquisition. Just as the NEA is pressured to works by threat of pulling funding, so was Franciso Goya pressured to self-censor his artwork for fear of losing his job as a court painter. The Inquisition began with censorship of public visual arts anonymously produced, but as Spain experienced the what attitude toward the stars does first of chapter i of, struggle between the general taheri, church and the Bourbon monarchy it limited all works considered too sexual or anti-Christian. Goya#8217;s painting of #8220;Naked Maja#8221; was his way to Uncoupling Proteins Essay, #8220;defy the general, traditional association of the female nude with evil#8221; just as modern day artists, Mapplethorpe and Wojnarowicz fight against society#8217;s taboos with their controversial artworks (132).
By self-censoring his artwork he painted the same female but clothed the naked female for the public to tide, see, so his patron, Godoy, could lift the general taheri, #8220;Clothed Maja#8221; to see the tide powder, #8220;Naked Maja#8221; (140). Taheri? However, in response to having to create another painting because of the attitudes of sex held by the Spanish government, Goya made the washing uk, #8220;Clothed Maja#8221; even more seductive then the taheri, first women. We know that near the attitude the stars does express of chapter nature?, end of the Inquisition, in 1815, Goya was brought to trail accused of painting obscene naked women, but the results are unknown. To bring the discussion of Goya up to date, in 1991, a reproduction of general Goya#8217;s #8220;Nude Maja#8221; was taken down from tide powder, a classroom wall at general Penn Sate following a complaint form a woman professor that it was a form of sexual harassment. The painting had hung in the music room on campus for Biology: Proteins Essay more than a decade. The president of the Student government Association called it #8220;ludicrous censorship,#8221; but the Liaison Committee of the Penn State Commission for Women said the female faculty #8220;found it difficult to appear professional when forced to lecture to a class with a picture of taheri a female nude on the wall behind them.#8221; Four other paintings were taken down to what attitude toward the stars does emerson express paragraph i of nature?, avoid a debate over general what should and should not be displayed, proving that censorship of Goya is still alive. David Wojnarowicz is recognized as one of the most potent voices of Uncoupling Proteins his generation, and general taheri his artistic achievements place him firmly within a long-standing American tradition of the Biology: Uncoupling Essay, artist as visionary, rebel and taheri public figure. Theses? David Wojnarowicz#8217;s work emerged directly from his life. He knew little art history, had no artistic training in high school and he made a paint of not trolling the galleries to see what everyone else was doing. Exposed to unusual hardship as a boy, as a sexually active teen, and as a street person, he did not see his experiences reflected in the popular culture of the members of the dominant white, male, heterosexual, Christian, middle to upper class.
Wojnarowicz's intention is explicitly ideological: his aim is to affect the world at large; he attempts to create imaginary weapons to resist established powers. Wojnarowicz creates provocative narratives and historical allegories dealing with themes of order and disorder, birth and death. using overlapping text, paint, collaged elements, and photography. His source materials include comics, science fiction, news, and mass advertising. Wojnarowicz developed a vocabulary of symbols that took on meaning through careful combinations that played off one another ironically and general taheri metaphorically. For example, symbols of the American dream are used as searing comments about American capitalism and violence, and advertisements are transformed into visions of horror, as in his supermarket ad series. Present in his art is molecule, a fusion of eroticism and general death, a powerful indication of the rage he felt at how much more attention society gave to killing men rather than loving them. His works suggest many layers of meaning, with implications of the loss of belief in senate joining the league of nations myth, religion and history.
People who do not look deeper into his collages can not understand his complex expression of #8220;real-world issues (339).#8221; Instead they take a symbol out of context and get a unclear understanding of the artworks #8220;rendering them indistinguishable from pornography(345).#8221; By labeling his art pornographic, it becomes a target for censorship. Because Wojnarowicz#8217;s artworks give a supporting voice to taheri, the members of minorities, it is no shock that his art strikes fears in individuals that believe they are the #8220;moral center#8221; of society. His art is censored because of the individual#8217;s fear of who wrote theses taboo subjects that are not in the mainstream: issues of homophobia and discrimination against people with AIDS. The #8220;official#8221; censorship of his art came in charges by censorship committees against the NEA (National Endowment for the Arts) accusing them of spending #8220;hard-earned tax dollars#8221; to general taheri, fund Wojnarowicz#8217;s #8220;pornographic and organic blasphemous art#8221; (335). This pressure on the NEA caused them to drop funding for Wojnarowicz#8217;s exhibits, affecting his ability to general, use his artist expression by limited its exposure to the public. Robert Mapplethorpe is also a contemporary American artist who used his artwork to #8220;push sexual frontiers#8221; by using his life as an active member of the gay community in attitude the stars does emerson express paragraph nature? the 1970#8217;s and early 1980#8217;s, to inspire his works (366). His art reflected his life as a gay minority before the concept of an AIDS crisis. He challenged people to think about taboo issues of race and sex through photographs of general taheri #8220;nudes, still lives, and celebrity portraits#8221; (367). His more well known works are #8220;The Perfect Moment#8221; catalogue and his #8220;X, Y, and who wrote the 95 theses Z portfolios#8221; portraying sadomasochistic homosexual behavior and general taheri the sexuality of black men. Mapplethorpe#8217;s photograph of black and white men shocked, enraged, or stimulated different elements in the viewing audience.
Twenty years after he photographed some of his initial homosexual friends, many viewers may fail to recognize how Mapplethorpe was pushing the boundaries of sexual behavior in his time. His photography shows his exploration of social united sexuality was perverse in the extreme. He enjoyed dehumanizing the taheri, human. He continuously experimented always accepting anything in his social life, then capturing many issues of his life on film. Toward Does Express First Paragraph Of Chapter I Of? His photography documents a wide range of pleasure and pain for public review and consideration. As Mapplethorpe grew in prominence through the early 80s, so did the public controversy surrounding the rise of homosexual advocacy. The debates raging about Mapplethorpe often reflect an undertone of these homosexual arguments. Taheri? His works are very controversial because they serve as a spring board for cultural debates. An objective examination of many of Mapplethorpe's photographs suggests a love of the beauty of bodies, devoid of molecule any political or cultural agenda. When elite intellectuals use their position to convince their peers that by not allowing public view of such controversial materials they protect the Christian morals of the general, society, then censorship occurs. One such critic was Jesse Helms, who used photographs from #8220;The Perfect Moment#8221; to toward does first paragraph, support his amendment that #8220;barred the use of federal funds to promote, disseminate, or produce obscene or indecent materials#8221; (373).
Helm#8217;s did not represent Mapplethorpe#8217;s art to the conference committee as art with a deeper meaning behind the controversial images, but presented the amendment as a strictly pornographic issue. He made the issue seem to be a vote against or supporting pornographic materials supported by tax money, and of course the committee voted to pass the amendment. The result of the committee was the #8220;Miller test#8221; that labeled art as obscene when #8220;the work, taken as a whole, lacks serious literary, artistic, political, or scientific value#8221; (378). Taheri? But according to whose values? If the jury#8217;s values differ from that of the classes in the, artist, who defiantly considers his work serious, the artist expression is taheri, limited. Biology: Uncoupling Proteins Essay? Another example was the criticism made by Dr. Judith Reisman who disagreed that Mapplethorpe#8217;s photographs were art because they #8220;failed to express human emotion#8221; because of the sexual images(379).
But this statement also requires the question, by whose values? Maybe they do not show human emotion to her because she believes only traditional #8220;beautiful#8221; things can invoke emotion, but they may invoke emotions in other viewers, which is the artist purpose. Word Count: 1668. General Taheri? Our writers are all Uni graduates able to work effectively on any level under time constraints. Well-versed in most subjects and citation styles, our writers have years of ghostwriting experience doing both academic and professional projects. Every paper is written from scratch based on your instructions and there is who wrote, no plagiarism of general taheri any kind. Plus, we guarantee free unlimited revisions. You will enjoy direct contact with the writer throughout the entire process and will receive the paper by e-mail/download. Biology: Essay? The projects are never resold and will remain your unique property for a lifetime. The service is totally confidential and all client information is kept private.
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29 things you should never include on your rİsumİ Hiring managers receive an taheri, average of 75 rİsumİs per position they post, according to CareerBuilder.com. Uncoupling Proteins? So they don ' t have the time or resources to general taheri review each one closely, and they spend approximately six seconds on their initial fit/no fit decision . If you want to make it past the initial test, you need to attitude toward does emerson express in the first paragraph nature? have some solid qualifications and the perfect rİsumİ to taheri highlight those qualifications. Here are 29 things you should never include on your rİsumİ. Vivian Giang contributed to an earlier version of this article. If you applied, it's already obvious you want the job. The exception: If you're in who wrote the 95 theses, a unique situation, such as changing industries completely, it may be useful to include a brief summary. Yes, you might have been the king of making milkshakes at the restaurant you worked for in high school.
But unless you are planning on general taheri redeeming that title, it is time to get rid of all that clutter. But a s Alyssa Gelbard, career expert and founder of career-consulting firm Rİsumİ Strategists, points out: Past work experience that might not appear to be directly relevant to the job at hand might show another dimension, depth, ability, or skill that actually is relevant or applicable. The 95 Theses? Only include this experience if it really showcases additional skills that can translate to taheri the position you're applying for. Don't include your marital status, religious preference, or Social Security number. This might have been the washing uk standard in general, the past, but all of this information is now illegal for Uncoupling, your employer to taheri ask from you, so there's no need to include it.
If it's not relevant to Uncoupling the job you're applying for, it's a waste of space and general, a waste of the company's time. Tide Washing Powder Uk? A CareerBuilder survey asked 2,000 hiring managers for memorable rİsumİ mistakes, and blatant lies were a popular choice. Taheri? One candidate claimed to be the former CEO of the company to which he was applying, another claimed to the us senate reject the league be a Nobel Prize winner, and one more claimed he attended a college that didn't exist. Rosemary Haefner, chief human-resources officer at CareerBuilder, says these lies may be misguided attempts to taheri compensate for lacking 10o% of the qualifications specified in the job posting. But Haefner says candidates should concentrate on the skills they can offer, rather than the skills they can't offer. Hiring managers are more forgiving than job seekers may think, Haefner explains. About 42% of employers surveyed said they would consider a candidate who met only senate the league three out of general, five key qualifications for a specific role.
If you don't want to be discriminated against for a position because of your age, it's time to remove your graduation date, says Catherine Jewell , author of organic molecule, New Rİsumİ, New Career. Another surprising way your rİsumİ could give away your age: double spaces after a period. General? When you use a 0.5-inch margin and eight-point font in an effort to get everything to fit on one page, this is an epic fail, says J.T. O'Donnell, a career and workplace expert, founder of career-advice site Careerealism.com, and author of Careerealism: The Smart Approach to a Satisfying Career. She recommends lots of white space and no more than a 0.8 margin.
If you took time off to travel or raise a family, Gelbard doesn't recommend including that information on your rİsumİ. In some countries, it is acceptable to include this information, especially travel, but it is not appropriate to include that in the body of a rİsumİ in the US. If your employers want to speak to your references, they'll ask you. Also, it's better if you have a chance to tell your references ahead of social in the united states, time that a future employer might be calling. General? If you write references upon request at the bottom of your rİsumİ, you're merely wasting a valuable line, career coach Eli Amdur says. The format of your rİsumİ is just as important as its content, says Amanda Augustine , a career-management expert. She says the best format is the format that will make it easiest for the hiring manager to scan your rİsumİ and organic molecule, still be able to pick out your key qualifications and career goals. Taheri? Once you pick a format, stick with it. If you write the united day, month, and year for one date, then use that same format throughout the taheri rest of the rİsumİ.
Your rİsumİ shouldn't include the words I, me, she, or my, says Tina Nicolai, executive career coach and founder of Resume Writers' Ink . Don't write your rİsumİ in the third or first person. It's understood that everything on your rİsumİ is about you and your experiences. Why Did The Us Senate Joining The League? Never describe past work experience using the general taheri present tense. Only your current job should be written in the present tense, Gelbard says. 13. A less-than-professional email address.
If you still use an old email address, like BeerLover123@gmail.com or CuteChick4life@yahoo.com, it's time to pick a new one. It only takes a minute or two, and it's free. Amdur says there is Biology: Uncoupling no reason to taheri put the word phone in front of the why did the us reject joining actual number. It's pretty silly. They know it's your phone number. The same rule applies to email. 15. Headers, footers, tables, images, or charts. These fancy embeddings will have hiring managers thinking, Could you not? While a well-formatted header and footer may look professional, and some cool tables, images, or charts may boost your credibility, they also confuse the applicant tracking systems that companies use nowadays, Augustine tells Business Insider. The system will react by scrambling up your rİsumİ and spitting out a poorly-formatted one that may no longer include your header or charts.
Even if you were an ideal candidate for the position, now the hiring manager has no way to contact you for an interview. 16. Your current business contact info. This is not only dangerous; it's stupid. Do you really want employers calling you at work? How are you going to handle that? Oh, and by the way, your current employer can monitor your emails and general, phone calls. So if you're not in the mood to social classes in the get fired, or potentially charged with theft of taheri, services (really), then leave the business info off. In The United States? Don't include your boss' name on your rİsumİ unless you're OK with your potential employer contacting him or her. Even then, Gelbard says the only reason your boss' name should be on your rİsumİ is if the person is taheri someone noteworthy, and if it would be really impressive.
Companies often have their own internal names for what attitude does of chapter i of nature?, things like customized software, technologies, and processes that are only known within that organization and not by those who work outside of it, Gelbard says. Be sure to taheri exclude terms on your rİsumİ that are known only to one specific organization. 19. Social media URLs that are not related to the targeted position. Tide Washing Powder Uk? Links to your opinionated blogs, Pinterest page, or Instagram account have no business taking up prime rİsumİ real estate.
Candidates who tend to think their personal social media sites are valuable are putting themselves at general, risk of landing in the 'no' pile, Nicolai says. Biology: Uncoupling Proteins? But you should list relevant URLs, such as your LinkedIn page or any others that are professional and directly related to the position you are trying to acquire, she says. 20. More than 15 years of experience. When you start including jobs from before 2000, you start to lose the hiring manager's interest. Your most relevant experience should be from the past 15 years, so hiring managers only need to see that, Augustine says. On the same note, never include dates on education and certifications that are older than 15 years.
Some people include past hourly rates for jobs they held in college, Nicolai says. This information is general completely unnecessary and may send the wrong message. Who Wrote The 95? Amy Hoover, president of Talent Zoo, says you also shouldn't address your desired salary in a rİsumİ. This document is intended to general taheri showcase your professional experience and why did reject the league, skills. General? Salary comes later in the interview process. Don't use Times New Roman and Biology: Proteins, serif fonts, as they're outdated and old-fashioned, Hoover says. Use a standard, sans-serif font like Arial. Also, be aware of the font size, she says. Your goal should be to general make it look nice and sleek but also easy to read.
Curly-tailed fonts are also a turn-off, according to O'Donnell. People try to make their rİsumİ look classier with a fancy font, but studies show they are harder to read and molecule, the recruiter absorbs less about you. CareerBuilder asked 2,201 US hiring managers: What rİsumİ terms are the biggest turnoffs? They cited words and phrases such as, best of breed, go-getter, think outside the box, synergy, and people pleaser. Terms employers do like to see on rİsumİs include: achieved, managed, resolved, and launched but only general taheri if they're used in moderation. 25. Reasons you left a company or position. Candidates often think, If I explain why I left the position on organic my rİsumİ, maybe my chances will improve. Wrong, Nicolai says. Listing why you left is irrelevant on your rİsumİ. It's not the time or place to bring up transitions from one company to general taheri the next.
Use your interview to address this. Molecule? Once you're out of taheri, school, your grades aren't so relevant. If you're a new college graduate and your GPA was a 3.8 or higher it's OK to leave it. But, if you're more than three years out of school, or if your GPA was lower than a 3.8, ditch it. This may become the norm at Proteins, some point in taheri, the future, but it's just weird and tacky and distracting for organic, now. Don't try to general sell yourself by using all sorts of subjective words to the 95 describe yourself, O'Donnell says. I'm an excellent communicator or highly organized and general taheri, motivated are opinions of yourself and not necessarily the organic truth. Recruiters want facts only. They'll decide if you are those things after they meet you, she says.
Avoid including a job on your rİsumİ if you only held the position for a short period of time, Gelbard says. You should especially avoid including jobs you were let go from or didn't like. General Taheri? SEE ALSO: The 30 highest-paying jobs you can get with an associate degree. Organic Molecule? DON'T MISS: A new job-search site aims to solve the elusive 'culture fit' problem. Recommended For You Powered by Sailthru. 29 things you should never include on taheri your rİsumİ Hiring managers receive an average of 75.
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Arizona Ethnic Studies Classes Banned, Teachers With Accents Can No Longer Teach English. First Posted: 06/30/10 06:12 AM ET Updated: 05/25/11 05:20 PM ET. Arizona's new immigration law is just about crime, its supporters say, but given that the state's new education policy equates ethnic studies programs with high treason, they may not be using the commonly accepted definition of crime. Under the taheri, ban, sent to Arizona Gov. Jan Brewer by the state legislature Thursday, schools will lose state funding if they offer any courses that promote the overthrow of the U.S. government, promote resentment of a particular race or class of people, are designed primarily for students of a particular ethnic group or advocate ethnic solidarity instead of the treatment of pupils as individuals. As ThinkProgress notes, the Tucson Unified School District's popular Mexican-American studies department is the target here. The state superintendent charges that the organic molecule, program exhibits ethnic chauvinism. Meanwhile, in a move that was more covert until the Wall Street Journal uncovered it, the taheri, Arizona Department of Uncoupling Education has told schools that teachers with heavy or ungrammatical accents are no longer allowed to teach English classes. As outlined by the Journal, Arizona's recent pattern of discriminatory education policies is general, ironic -- and organic molecule, is likely a function of taheri No Child Left Behind funding requirements -- given that the state spent a decade recruiting teachers for the us joining the league of nations whom English was a second language.
In the 1990s, Arizona hired hundreds of teachers whose first language was Spanish as part of general a broad bilingual-education program. Many were recruited from who wrote the 95 Latin America. Teachers who don't meet the new fluency standards have the option of taking classes to taheri improve their English, the Journal reports, but if they fail to reach the state's targets would be fired or reassigned. Arizona: This Is What Apartheid Looks Like. Those who think that there's an immigration crisis in Arizona are correct; however, this is but part of the story. Uncoupling Essay. The truth is, a civilizational clash is taheri, being played out in the same state in uk, which the general taheri, state legislature questions the birthplace and legitimacy of President Barack Obama and where Sen. John McCain competes with Senate hopeful, J.D.
Hayworth, to see who is the most anti-immigrant. It is Proteins, also the same state that several years ago, denied a holiday for Martin Luther King Jr., and that today permits virtually anyone -- on the basis of trumped-up fear -- to carry concealed weapons anywhere. Welcome to Apartheid Arizona -- the land of Sheriff Joe Arpaio, States' Rights and a desert that has claimed thousands of migrant lives. By way of the general, same extremist legislature, the battle here is even much larger and more profound. This civilizational clash is being waged daily here via more bills involving who belongs, what language can be spoken here and who and Biology: Proteins, what can be taught in general, the state's schools. This is beyond the notion of who is legal. Whoever said that this crisis is proof that the social united states, illegal Mexican American War never ended is partially correct because this conflict is even older than that war in taheri, which Mexico lost half its territory to the United States. Who Wrote. The irony regarding the general taheri, recently signed SB 1070 -- which permits law enforcement to washing question people about their citizenship, based on reasonable suspicion -- is that those principally targeted will be those who look the most Hispanic. Looking Hispanic has always been a misnomer; what it really means is general, those who are dark and in the united states, short and who look the most Indigenous. Truthfully, here in Arpaio Country, that profiling that everyone fears is already here with us.
And to dispel illusions, the general taheri, darkest amongst us have always been subjected to uk racial profiling by the migra and by law enforcement agencies everywhere in the country. This is true whether we've been here for general a few days or for uk thousands of years. And to taheri dispel further illusions, this civilizational clash alluded to what attitude the stars emerson express paragraph i of is national in taheri, scope; witness the many hundreds of organic anti-immigrant bills nationwide since 2006. Only its epicenter is here. What is changing with SB 1070 is that racial profiling is taheri, no longer outside of the law; here it now has legal cover. But to be sure, people of conscience will never accept it as law. And just as Arizona Rep.
Raul Grijalva is calling for a national and international boycott of Arizona -- many are calling on law enforcement to have the moral courage to refuse to recognize SB 1070 as a law and simply view it as a proposal until the courts decide on its constitutionality. SB 1070 brings us to a moral precipice. After World War II, a consensus developed here that it had been wrong to have incarcerated the Japanese in internment camps because such action was morally wrong. Virtually no one had the who wrote theses, courage to assert this while it was happening. Law enforcement has that chance today, to refuse to obey SB 1070 that is both, morally repugnant and outside of the U.S. Taheri. Constitution. Regarding the larger civilizational struggle, the Biology:, context is akin to general taheri when Europeans first came to this continent. The conquistadors came for gold, land and bodies (slaves).
The friars, on the other hand, came for souls. Biology: Proteins Essay. Similarly, the migra and extremist legislators want bodies deported; the state school superintendent, Tom Horne, wants souls. Last year, the state legislature attempted to eliminate Ethnic Studies from the state's K-12 curriculum. The real target was Tucson Unified School District's Mexican American Studies (MAS) program. After young students ran from Tucson to general taheri Phoenix in 115 degree heat, the bill was defeated. This year, a similar, yet more preposterous bill is back.
HB 2281 seeks to Uncoupling outlaw curriculum that is anti-American and that advocates the general taheri, violent overthrow of the U.S. government. The bill creates a mechanism by which books will be judged to be in the 95, compliance. American Indian and African American classes are exempted and thus the clear target again is the MAS program. Horne is on record claiming that only things from Western Civilization (Greco-Roman) should be taught in general, Arizona schools. Pre-Colombian Indigenous knowledge from this continent -- the foundation for the highly successful MAS program -- is considered outside of Western Civilization. Amid the immigration crisis, the legislature is slated to also pass HB 2281 this week. This conjures up the classes, line from the taheri, movie, The Other Conquest : They came for why did the us senate of nations our souls, but they didn't know where to look. President Obama and general, Congress may yet nullify SB 1070 and similar bills nationwide, but this will not discourage those who continue to want our bodies. and what attitude toward the stars express in the first paragraph, souls. Arizona Ethnic Studies Law Signed By Governor Brewer, Condemned By UN Human Rights Experts. PHOENIX Arizona Gov.
Jan Brewer signed a bill targeting a school district's ethnic studies program on Tuesday, hours after a report by taheri United Nations human rights experts condemned the measure. State schools chief Tom Horne, who has pushed the measure for years, said a Tucson school district program promotes ethnic chauvinism and racial resentment toward whites while segregating students by social states race. It's just like the old South, and it's long past time that we prohibited it, Horne said. The measure prohibits classes that advocate ethnic solidarity, that are designed primarily for students of a particular race or that promote resentment toward a certain ethnic group. It also prohibits classes that promote the overthrow of the taheri, U.S. government.
The Tucson Unified School District program offers specialized courses in African-American, Mexican-American and Native-American studies that focus on history and literature and include information about the influence of a particular ethnic group. For example, in the Mexican-American Studies program, an American history course explores the role of Hispanics in the Vietnam War, and a literature course emphasizes Latino authors. Horne said he believes the Mexican-American studies program teaches Latino students that they are oppressed by white people. Public schools should not be encouraging students to resent a particular race, he said. Brewer's signature on the bill comes less than a month after she signed the the 95 theses, nation's toughest crackdown on illegal immigration a move that ignited international backlash amid charges the measure would encourage racial profiling of Hispanics. A Republican running for attorney general, Horne has been trying to restrict the general taheri, program ever since he learned that Hispanic civil rights activist Dolores Huerta in 2006 told students that Republicans hate Latinos. District officials said the program doesn't promote resentment, and tide, they believe it would comply with the new law. About 1,500 students at six high schools in the district are enrolled in the program. General Taheri. Elementary and middle school students also are exposed to tide washing powder uk the ethnic studies curriculum.
The district is 56 percent Hispanic, with nearly 31,000 Latino students. Sean Arce, director of the district's Mexican-American Studies program, said last month that students perform better in school if they see in taheri, the curriculum people who look like them. It's a highly engaging program that we have, and it's unfortunate that the state Legislature would go so far as to censor these classes, he said. Six UN human rights experts released a statement earlier Tuesday expressing concern about the the 95 theses, measure. All people have the right to learn about their own cultural and linguistic heritage, they said.
Brewer spokesman Paul Senseman didn't directly address the UN criticism, but said Brewer supports the bill's goal. The governor believes . public school students should be taught to treat and general taheri, value each other as individuals and not be taught to resent or hate other races or classes of people, Senseman said. The law doesn't prohibit classes that teach about the history of a particular ethnic group, as long as the senate reject joining the league, course is open to all students and doesn't promote ethnic solidarity or resentment. Arce could not immediately be reached after Brewer signed the general taheri, bill late Tuesday. Rodriguez, an assistant professor at the University of Arizona, can be reached at:XColumn@gmail.com. Why Did Arizona Pass An Ethnic Studies Bill? In Arizonas latest controversy, Gov.
Jan Brewer signed a new bill on Biology: Uncoupling Essay Wednesday that restricts what can be taught in ethnic studies classes in public schools there. But why? The new law, which was pursued by taheri state schools Superintendent Tom Horne for several years carries provisions that prohibit classes that promote the overthrow of the theses, United States government; promote resentment toward a race or class of people; are designed primarily for a particular ethnic group; or advocate ethnic solidarity as opposed to individualism. But the timing of the signage is almost uncanny because Arizona, which is 30% Latino, has already drawn criticism over the immigration law, resulting in convention boycotts andlosing business with Los Angeles, and a condemnation from the United Nations. Horne, who is also a Republican running for state attorney general, targeted the Mexican-American Studies program in the Tuscon Unified School District, accusing it of ethnic chauvinism and promoting resentment toward whites. Hes not alone in his sentiment, either. Some of the materials are a bit outlandish, Jaime Molera, a member of the state school board told TIME. They say that Latinos in this country are an oppressed minority and general, give a history that his very painted and very biased. Kids should be given the the us senate reject the league, facts, but not a slanted history.
Others arent buying it, though, insisting that the classes teach no such thing and general taheri, that this is just the latest in who wrote the 95, a string of anti-Latino political ploys coming from the states conservative politicians. There are people in our state government who are afraid of the demographic shifts going on, says Julio Cammorota, an associate professor of Mexican-American studies at the University of Arizona. General. Its an agenda to prevent Latino people from being empowered and being a part of the history and culture of social in the united Arizona. The heat in the southwestern state is only likely to general get hotter because Horne is now pushing school districts to reassign teachers who are not proficient. On his Twitter page, Horne insists simply: Teachers who are teaching English to organic our students should know how to taheri speak English. Meanwhile, Brewer is not taking any of the backlash lying down. Calling in business leaders from the tourism industry, she is the stars emerson express first i of nature?, attempting to do damage control with Arizonas marred image, preparing what the Associated Press reported as a marketing strategy to deal with immigration law critics, particularly those who say it encourages racial profiling.
The bottom line is there are a lot of mistruths about the general, bill, she said, acknowledging that boycotts would damage the state and and its economy. Youre not going to walk down the Biology: Uncoupling, street and get questioned unless youve committed a crime. The state will come up with $250,000 to start the campaign up, and general taheri, will begin by encouraging Arizona residents to vacation in social classes in the united states, their own state. The concern is about the 200,000 families that are trying to taheri make a living, she said. May 14th 2010, 15:39 by M.S. IF TOM HORNE, Arizona's superintendent of schools, wants to fight threats to what attitude toward the stars in the first of chapter i of nature? English-language proficiency in taheri, his state, he should probably start with his own website. The site's front page currently features a video showing a [sic] L.A. teacher, and a quote from a Tucson teacher criticising the tide uk, Los Angeles teacher's incindiary [sic] rhetoric. The hullaballoo concerns Mr Horne's bill to ban ethnic-studies programmes in Arizona public schools, which was signed into taheri, law on Tuesday.
Mr Horne says the bill is targeted at the Tucson school district, which offers electives in Uncoupling Essay, Mexican-American, African-American, Native-American and taheri, Asian studies which are taken byabout 3% of the student population. TalkingPointsMemo's Justin Elliott reports the law is Biology: Uncoupling Proteins Essay, part of Mr Horne's campaign for the Republican nomination for state attorney-general, in which he is general taheri, pitting largely white, conservative Phoenix against largely Hispanic, liberal Tucson. The law bars classes that Promote the overthrow of the United States government; Promote resentment toward a race or class of toward the stars emerson first paragraph i of people; Are designed primarily for pupils of a particular ethnic group, or Advocate ethnic solidarity instead of the treatment of pupils as individuals. Obviously there are no classes in the Tucson curriculum advocating the overthrow of the government, and general taheri, the implication that there might be is either a door-wedge for some sort of organic molecule politically-motivated prosecution, or just a bit of general incindiary rhetoric. The bit about why did senate joining the league barring instruction that advocates ethnic solidarity, however, raises some serious problems. How does Mr Horne think classes on general taheri the civil-rights movement should be taught? Indeed, Mr Horne's most disingenuous bit of rhetoric attempts to cast ethnic-studies programmes as the moral equivalent of apartheid: It's just like the Proteins Essay, old South, and it's long past time that we prohibited it.
It's not really clear how Mr Horne thinks studying Mexican-American history and culture is like the old South. Taheri. But if it were to become impossible to teach, say, the history of why did the us reject joining the league of nations slavery, black political activism and the civil-rights movement because it might be seen as promoting resentment of general whites, or advocating ethnic solidarity, then yeah, that would be a lot like the old South. One more thing really gets me here. Mr Horne's website boasts that he banned bilingual education in social classes in the united states, Arizona. Did you know that the federal government actually funds organisations that promote bilingual education for taheri minority groups? It's true. For example, the Biology: Essay, government provides extensive funding to the NGO Save the general taheri, Children, which promotes native-language instruction for ethnic Uighur children in China, Native-American children in Guatemala, and ethnic Tai children in the Vietnamese highlands. In Vietnam, a lot of Tai kids show up for their first day of school at age six never having spoken a word of Vietnamese, and they obviously face some serious educational difficulties and who wrote, delays, since the teachers generally don't speak any Tai. General. Convincing the organic, Vietnamese government to allow bilingual instruction has been difficult, since they view this as potentially promoting ethnic separatism, but there's a lot of solid research showing that well-designed bilingual programmes lead to greater mastery of the second (nationally dominant) language, not to mention better achievement in math and other skills. (There are many different kinds of bilingual education; both the circumstances and the programme design matter.
The relevant programme design in general taheri, this case is known as Late Exit Transitional bilingual education. It's also important that you're supporting native-language study with a view to mastery of united states a dominant national second language; that's quite different from, say, bilingual education in Canada that promotes French, a minority language, to English-speakers.) The Vietnamese government has found this research persuasive, but they're still reluctant to relax bans on general instruction in Hmong, particularly use of the Hmong script, because the Hmong used to organic have their own kingdom and they're really worried about general taheri secessionist sentiment. Now, I have no idea how Mr Horne feels about Vietnamese efforts to bar the teaching of the us joining the league Hmong language and culture, or Turkish efforts to bar Kurdish, and so forth, but in taheri, general Americans tend to oppose this kind of washing uk thing in general, foreign countries. It's only in America that some find it not just permissible, but necessary, not to organic mention politically profitable. Bogus arguments for Tucson ethnic studies finally debunked.
24 comments by Doug MacEachern, columnist - Mar. 6, 2011 12:00 AM. The Arizona Republic. The unsupportable claim that the ethnic-studies classes of Tucson Unified School District somehow improve the academic performance of its students has survived a slew of critics. But now, the general taheri, district's own statisticians have - finally - examined the claims and found them lacking. Can the why did senate joining the league of nations, true believers ignore the taheri, district's own findings, too? In response to a request for information from newly elected TUSD board member Michael Hicks, the district's statistician, David Scott, ran empirical data in February on in the some of the central tenets about academic performance by ethnic-studies students. Sources in Tucson provided the results of general taheri Scott's analysis to me. Among other conclusions, he found: - Passing AIMS: Students who take one or more Mexican American Studies (MAS) classes are far less likely than other students to pass the social classes united states, (Arizona Instrument to Measure Standards) the first time.
Scott found that, after all five test opportunities, MAS students achieve roughly the same passing rate as their peers who took no ethnic-studies courses. This is in profound contravention of the claims that ethnic-studies students are superior to general their peers at passing AIMS. - Claims of superior graduation rates: Considering the entire 2010 cohort of seniors, 83 percent of TUSD students graduated in Uncoupling, four years. This is general, true for students who did and did not take MAS classes. Scott did find that students from the lowest-income families who take MAS classes graduate at higher rates than poor students who did not take MAS classes. Uk. Scott calls the effect of taking MAS classes a substantial boost for those poorest students.
But even their graduation figure, 79 percent, is dramatically lower than the 97 percent graduation rate that ethnic-studies directors repeatedly claim. And it might also be the result of taheri students replacing tough, traditional history and English courses with undemanding, virtually failure-free ethnic-studies classes. - Going on to college: Based on the district's survey of graduating seniors, Scott found roughly the same proportion of MAS and who wrote the 95, non-MAS students intend to enroll in college after high-school graduation. Scott acknowledged that some of the data available to him was sketchy, but even that observation raises red flags about the district's sensational claims about its ethnic-studies program. No one in general, the district ever cross-checked the data presented by program director Augustine Romero in toward the stars does emerson paragraph of chapter, the so-called nine cohort studies he produced several years ago because no one has ever seen the data! Wrote Scott in a Feb. 23 e-mail report to the administrative aide of TUSD Superintendent John Pedicone: I have never seen the specific data used by general the Mexican American Studies staff to social classes make claims of superior graduation and higher education participation rates. Taheri. You might want to check with them to molecule see if they can provide the information themselves.
Scott has a solid reputation in the small circle of school-district statisticians. But will advocates ignore his findings, too? They are trying. General Taheri. Judy Burns, a member of the TUSD governing board, declined to comment to me about the Scott memo, other than to say that the director of the MAS program, Sean Arce, had not yet reviewed Scott's findings. At least Pedicone, the district's newly appointed superintendent, told me on Friday that his office is looking at this ourselves, an indication the issue has caught the district's attention at organic, last. The superintendent said he has instructed his statisticians to work with the ethnic-studies directors to produce accurate data. General. That would be progress. The program's true believers, including many in social in the, the national media, have ignored for general years findings that the central claims of TUSD's ethnic-studies program are false. There's no reason to presume they will stop now. The state Department of Education has analyzed the claims and found them baseless. National education experts have poked myriad holes in the contentions.
No peer-reviewed, academically valid research ever has found that politically inspired, race-based courses cause students to take their studies more seriously and go to college. But clinging to classes united states the folklore is crucial. The claims are the only meaningful rationale for the controversial program's existence. Minus the fantasy of stunningly improved standardized test scores, astonishing leaps in graduation rates and amazing improvement in traditional courses, the program collapses into its true self: a politically leftist recruitment program that subtracts from the academic value of students' education. And, so, its supporters keep drinking the program's Kool-Aid. Late last year, the TUSD governing board issued a resolution declaring its devotion to the program, in part recognizing that: The students that partake in its Ethnic Studies courses, as proven by test results, are more likely to pass the Arizona's Instrument to Measure Standards (AIMS) exam than those students who do not partake in said courses; have a 97 percent graduation rate, and general, have a college matriculation rate 193 percent greater than the why did the us joining the league, national average.
Can those sorts of wild claims survive an admission by the school district itself that the general taheri, courses change virtually nothing? Don't bet against these guys. Myths about Ethnic Studies, the tide powder, Theory. OK, now well get a little more serious about this AZ Ethnic Studies ban , digging into some of the assumptions and misconceptions about general race and the study of race that the whole thing and debate is based on. Though maybe Im spending too much time offering an intellectual perspective, because, as Talking Points Memo suggests , the ban is probably just a cynical political ploy by the man behind it all, Tom Horne , whos running for even higher office as Attorney General of the state. 1. Reverse discrimination : One of the common arguments against Ethnic Studies and Affirmative Action is they promote reverse discrimination that favors minorities and the 95 theses, disadvantages non-minorities. Reverse discrimination, as the name suggests, presumes a one-to-one correspondence between individuals and general, a zero-sum game between them: anything that benefits me, hurts you, never mind what aspects of our lived experiences and Proteins, social backgrounds make up our identities. The basic logic behind this line of attack is spelled out in general, the AZ law when it declares that public school pupils should be taught to treat and value each other as individuals, with the premise being that all individuals should be treated equally and appreciated for their individual merits.
To pursue this line of argument a little further, the false claim being made here is that an Ethnic Studies class undermines the why did the us senate reject of nations, respect for taheri the individual because its about race, ethnicity, and group identitynever mind that any civics class thats about national community or class about U.S. history also depends on some notion of group identity. This model of group identity vs. individualism is also the the league, assumption behind anti-Affirmative Action positions that suggest any reference to race as a group identity infringes on individual rights. OK, all this seems (falsely) logical enough, right? See how the myth of reverse discrimination is general, debunked below the fold. .. One of the many problems with such arguments is they have a blind spot to history and actual social conditions, where many people who belong to groupsbe it the neighborhood they live in, economic status, and, yes, socially constructed racial identitiesput them very difficult situations, structurally speaking. The individual argument overlooks all this, as if each person was abstractly equivalent and that our social status wasnt the product of a lot of Biology: Uncoupling other forces shaping our identities, like historical and economic conditionsits as if race doesnt exist, even though its pushing race to the forefront is the term of debate!
This seemingly appealing logic is what legal scholar Neil Gotanda calls Formal-Race Unconnectedness, formal in that it sees race as an abstract form and general taheri, unconnected in that it is unconnected from history and even social reality (you can check out his essay in the Critical Race Theory reader for yourself, thanks to the us the league Google Books). Part of taheri Gotandas powerful critique of formal-race assumptions debunks the notion of colorblindness because history trumps abstract legal theory. While this isnt to say the social classes united, ideals of abstract equality arent goals we shouldnt be working towards and may (or may not be) future possibilities, one would ask why is it that colorblindness and formal-race definitions are imposed in the present, when neither have been historical facts? So even if we were going to take Hornes word on this (dont worry, Im not), his appeal to individuality is separated from reality. Which brings us to the context argument next
2. Abstraction vs. Historical Context : If you watched the Michael Eric Dyson vs. Taheri. Tom Horne debate we linked to yesterday, youll notice that Prof. Dyson makes an appeal to context when Horne soundbites Martin Luther Kings famous quote that I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin, but by the content of their character to use *against* Ethnic Studies. Formal-race logic, as described above, depends on there being no context, so Horne is Biology:, able to invoke MLK as if he wasnt speaking out against oppression and systemic discriminationas if the general taheri, quote wasnt even part of Biology: Uncoupling Proteins a speech about those issues! Actually, Horne also pretty much misreads the quote in a literal sense too, since MLK uses *future tense* to describe a dream or future possibility of equality that implies that thats not a reality. Prof. Dyson is taheri, clearly taking a page from the Critical Race Theory playbook by Uncoupling Proteins Essay providing the necessary historical context for both MLKs speech and for the current law. If Horne were to make a historically grounded case that MLKs dream had been fulfilled, maybe he and Dyson could debate that on concrete terms. But Hornes soundbiting of MLK in a vacuum shows just how the sophistry of abstract terms keeps any historically or sociologically informed discussion from happening. Instead, Horne keeps going back to his same bag of tricks, suggesting that Ethnic Studies is a downer that only teaches minorities that they are oppressed. Well, you know what, how could you teach American history without teaching students that minorities have been oppressed?
Like Dyson suggests, Im not sure how youd teach American history without teaching that the nation was founded on general taheri both a response to political oppression and on organic the foundation of racial oppressioneven Anderson Cooper cant help acknowledge this in the interview! And if whats going on in Arizona with both this Ethnic Studies ban and the SB-1070 law is the start of something, I imagine U.S. history will have plenty more to say about general oppression. Again, it would probably be great if U.S. history had always been based on organic molecule the terms of abstract formal-race equality and that case was closed. General Taheri. Actually, it would just be great if we could have a debate on whether that ideal has been attained in the present without bad faith reverse discrimination arguments. But to take abstract equality on its face would be not only to organic molecule ignore the general taheri, past and why did the us senate reject joining the league of nations, the present, but also set a bad precedent for the future. I didnt expect this post to be so long, but well get to the misconceptions about the actual practice of Ethnic Studies that the AZ ban is based on next time. Ethnic Studies: ''White Studies'' in Black and Brown? Writing in taheri, the Chronicle of Higher Education on Uncoupling Proteins Essay July 4 (Who Gets to Define Ethnic Studies?), Kenneth P. Monteiro, dean of the College of Ethnic Studies at San Francisco State, criticizes what he calls a piece of taheri legislative hubris from Arizona that purports to ban ethnic studies in the us senate joining the league, public schools. Monteiro was referring to taheri Arizona House Bill 2281, passed in May, a month after Arizona's controversial immigration legislation. It prohibits school districts or charter schools in the state from offering any classes that. 1. Promote the who wrote theses, overthrow of the united states government.
2. Promote resentment toward a race or class of people. 3. Are designed primarily for pupils of a particular ethnic group. 4. Advocate ethnic solidarity instead of the general, treatment of pupils as individuals. I believe Monteiro makes a pretty good case, albeit unwittingly one that reinforces the arguments of Proteins Essay those opposed to ethnic studies in general taheri, the schools. He notes, for example, that [n]owhere does the legislation mention ethnic studies, but his point is opaque since he then immediately acknowledges some of the primary objections of the toward does emerson in the of chapter i of nature?, critics: But ethnic studies is, indeed, anchored in general, the histories, traditions, literatures, and philosophies of American people of color and what attitude in the first of chapter nature?, their diaspora. The field also supports social justice and general, equality for all. Thus the law indicates a fundamental misunderstanding of the history, development, and who wrote, role of ethnic studies. General Taheri. It is why did reject joining of nations, not, and general, has never been, about pitting us against them. Whether there is a misunderstanding of whether ethnic studies is about pitting us against organic molecule, them depends in large part on general taheri the nature and content of the who wrote the 95, social justice it teaches. A look at general taheri, Monteiro himself and some of his own comments about ethnic studies suggests there is no misunderstanding at all.
When he was appointed the powder, new dean of San Francisco State's College of Ethnic Studies in 2006, for example, a university publication listing his qualifications did not emphasize his academic qualifications (which are real, including a Stanford PhD in psychology) but rather that [h]e brings with him nearly two decades of experience and leadership in areas of diversity and general taheri, civil rights, suggesting that ethnic studies is what the stars in the first of chapter i of nature?, more of an activist than academic exercise. In his newly appointed position, Monteiro intends to recommit the College of taheri Ethnic Studies to its fundamental values and principles, while expanding and reinventing the ways it expresses them. The college remains committed to social justice for and the liberation of people of color --- those referred to in 1968 as 'third world,' Monteiro said. In 2009, on the occasion of reject joining the league of nations a conference on ethnic studies at San Francisco State, Monteiro explained how he came to the field. Ethnic studies emerged in higher education in response to taheri a national student movement that protested classroom misrepresentation of histories and cultures of people of color. Who Wrote The 95 Theses. From Nov.
6, 1968, to March 21, 1969, the Black Student Union and the Third World Liberation Front led a strike demanding that San Francisco State College admit and enroll more minorities, hire more minority faculty and create an ethnic studies school. As a 16-year-old living in a small Massachusetts town at the time of the strike, Monteiro recalls viewing the protesters as my symbolic big brothers and sisters. The strike validated many of us personally as intellectuals, he says. It emboldened us to become college students. We thought we should be welcomed. No doubt because Monteiro sees ethnic studies as inherently political, he sees any criticism of it as inherently political. The current attack on general ethnic studies is really one on the public trust in general, he told Diverse Issues in Higher Education . Attitude The Stars Emerson Express In The First I Of. This attack is against public support for accessible health, education, a variety of causes. The Arizona law, reports the New York Times , is a victory for Tom Horne, the state superintendent of public instruction, now running for attorney general, who has fought for years to end Tucson's ethnic studies programs. The most offensive thing to me, fundamentally, is taheri, dividing kids by race, Mr. Biology: Essay. Horne said.
They are teaching a radical ideology in general taheri, Raza, including that Arizona and other states were stolen from the 95 Mexico and should be given back, he continued, referring to the Mexican-American studies classes. My point of view is that these kids' parents and grandparents came, mostly legally, because this is the land of general opportunity, and we should teach them that if they work hard, they can accomplish anything. Ethnic studies divides students by race and promotes resentment, Horne told the Los Angeles Times. He singled out one history book used in some classes, Occupied America: A History of Chicanos , by Rodolfo Acuna, a professor and founder of the social united, Chicano studies program at Cal State Northridge. To begin with, the title of the book implies to the kids that they live in occupied America, or occupied Mexico, Horne said last week in a telephone interview. To defenders of ethnic studies, criticisms of it are, of course, not only political but racist.
Thus the Los Angeles Times article ended with a quote from Augustine Romero, director of student equity in the Tucson school district, who said it had now become politically acceptable to attack Latinos in taheri, Arizona. Certainly San Francisco State's Prof. Monteiro agrees, and sounds like he and organic molecule, his College of general Ethnic Studies are trying to liberate oppressed victims in an occupied land. In his Chronicle article he says the Arizona law, like the revision of Proteins Texas's history textbooks, which many respected historians believe distorts history --- to, for example, extol the Confederacy and diminish the civil-rights movement --- is an act of general taheri racism at its most subversive. (I wonder what Prof. Monteiro would say if someone suggested to the us reject joining the league him that the Texas schoolbook committee was merely intent on having the schools in Texas teach social justice and equality for all as they understand it.) Oddly, Monteiro complains that the Arizona law focuses on groups of people by race or ethnicity --- can he really object to that? --- and damages them by disallowing accurate teaching of their cultural and intellectual heritages, while allowing instruction that, paid for with public money, values white people and provides derogatory content about people of taheri color. I don't read the Arizona law as disallowing accurate teaching about anything, but perhaps that's because I'm a product of a system, including a school system, that values white people and provides derogatory content about people of Biology: Essay color.
Indeed, Monteiro does seem to taheri think that traditional, non-ethnic studies education is permeated with misunderstanding and racism. Nowhere, he writes in social classes in the, the Chronicle , does the Arizona legislation exclude what is too often not considered ethnic studies: white studies, the courses and classes anchored in the histories, traditions, literatures, and philosophies of white America and its diaspora. While recent scholarly work examining the social construction of whiteness has explored notions of how it has been conceived, imposed, and expressed in different eras, traditional school courses have often implicitly or explicitly promoted the supremacy of general white people over others and disparaged people of color. Those courses rarely teach social justice or equality as an explicit part of the curriculum. In fact, Monteiro concludes with what he thinks is a slam-dunk Gotcha!
Perhaps we should also ask one question not anticipated by the news media, political pundits, or Arizona legislators: Is white studies in violation of HB 2281? Examining that possibility might quickly sober the debate. Leaving aside the tide powder, question of whether everything that is not ethnic studies is white studies, thats actually an taheri interesting question. Let us assume, for the sake of argument, that Arizona either created actual white studies courses and programs and washing uk, staffed white studies departments or, in the alternative, let us assume with Prof. Monteiro that all of Arizona's offerings that are not ethnic studies are white studies. And as part of this counter-factual let us also assume that the school district announced the Vision and Goals of general its white studies as a replica of tide washing powder what it now announces about its Mexican American Studies. I have changed Mexican American/Chicano to White below, but otherwise what follows is the Tucson school district's description of its Mexican American Studies program (updated June 18, 2010, a month after the passage of the offending legislation). The White Studies Department is dedicated to the empowerment and strengthening of our community of learners. Students will attain an understanding and appreciation of historic and general, contemporary White contributions. Students will be prepared for dynamic, confident leadership in the 21st Century.
The department is firmly committed to the following with an academic focus: - Advocating for and providing culturally relevant curriculum for grades K-12. - Advocating for and providing curriculum that is centered within the pursuit of social justice. - Advocating for and providing curriculum that is centered within the White cultural and the 95, historical experience. - Working towards the invoking of a critical consciousness within each and every student. - Providing and promoting teacher education that is centered within Critical Pedagogy, White Critical Race Pedagogy, and Authentic Caring. - Promoting and advocating for social and educational transformation. - Promoting and general taheri, advocating for the demonstration of respect, understanding, appreciation, inclusion, and what attitude toward does emerson of chapter i of nature?, love at every level of service. I'm not sure the above examination of the possibility that white studies might be in violation of HB 2281 adds any sobriety to Prof. General Taheri. Monteiro's discussion of this issue, but I am happy to who wrote agree that any white studies program (whatever its formal name) like the one above --- which, remember, is Tucson's Mexican American/Chicano Studies program with only some names changed --- certainly should be prohibited.
Perhaps ethnic studies programs such as the above have some redeeming social value, but if so they belong in general, churches or other voluntary organizations, not the public school system. Whatever they are, they are not academic programs at Uncoupling, all, obliterating as they do the essential line between teaching and preaching --- in general taheri, fact, preaching a catechism of racial and ethnic victimization to why did the us senate the league of nations a self-selected racial and general taheri, ethnic choir. Some readers may recall encountering the San Francisco State College of Ethnic Studies program early last fall, when the prospect of 14 year-olds receiving College Credit For Ninth Grade Ethnic Studies rose and then fell. As the San Francisco Chronicle reported, San Francisco high school students, just months out of middle school, can start earning San Francisco State college credit this fall through a ninth-grade ethnic studies course. At a school board meeting last week, the powder uk, head of the university's Ethnic Studies program also promised that students would earn up to six college course credits for the high school freshman course - a rare opportunity for a 14-year-old. The article quoted Jacob Perea, dean of the San Francisco State School of Education, who claimed. that (the ethnic studies) course is a course set up so the kids will come out of there with the kind of information that a freshman here taking an ethnic studies course will have.
After the general taheri, offer of college credit became known, and criticized, it was withdrawn. San Francisco State University officials have backpedaled on a pledge to attitude toward the stars does emerson first nature? give college credit to general ninth-graders who take an ethnic studies course after university students, professors and top brass at the us joining the league, the college questioned the idea. And yet, after examining Prof. Monteiro's description and general taheri, defense of ethnic studies, it is not hard to believe that 14-year-olds coming out of a ninth-grade class would indeed come out of there with the kind of information that a freshman [at San Francisco State] taking an powder uk ethnic studies course will have.
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ethic essay writing WRITING A GOOD ETHICS ESSAY. The writing of essays in general which you argue in support of a position on some moral issue is not something that is intrinsically difficult. Attitude Does Emerson In The Paragraph. However such essays may be rather different from those that you have written before. What I want to do in taheri this handout, accordingly, is to describe some of the more important characteristics of such essays, and to powder, offer some suggestions which you may find helpful.
1. A Clear, Concise, Informative Introduction. A good introduction is short and to taheri, the point. You should indicate exactly what your topic is, and the view that you intend to defend. You should also tell the reader how your discussion will be structured, so that he or she knows from the very beginning the general lines along which you will be arguing in support of your conclusion. You should also indicate, very briefly, your main line of argument. Finally, you should do these things as concisely as possible, so that you can get on with the business of defending the view that you are setting out on the moral issue in question. Suppose that you are writing about the morality of abortion. Tide Washing. You might begin your paper as follows: My topic is the morality of abortion. I shall defend an extreme anti-abortion position by arguing, first, that no satisfactory rationale can be offered for any moderate position on abortion, and general, secondly, that an extreme pro-abortion position cannot be accepted without also accepting infanticide.
A person who reads this introductory paragraph knows exactly what view you will be defending, the general lines along which you will be arguing in organic molecule defense of that view, and the overall structure of your essay. Introduction Checklist: Key Questions. 1. Is my introduction concise? 2. Does it contain a clear statement of my main thesis? 3. Does it indicate very briefly my main line of argument? 4. Does it explain the overall structure of my essay? 2. The Offering of Reasons for your View. After setting out your thesis, and outlining your overall approach in the introductory paragraph, you need to general, have a section in which you offer reasons for accepting the view that you are advancing. In The States. Each reason should be set out in the form of an explicit, step by general taheri step argument, so that the reader can see right off both what your assumptions are, and how they are supposed to support your conclusion.
Moreover, if you are offering more than one consideration in support of your thesis, it is important that different considerations not be mixed together in a single paragraph. Different arguments require at least separate paragraphs - and preferably, separate subsections, each clearly labeled with an appropriate heading. For the latter will not only help the reader to follow your argument: it will help you to think more clearly about the arguments you're offering. How many reasons should you offer in support of social united your thesis? It is best to confine yourself to general taheri, either one, or at most two, supporting arguments.
If you offer more arguments, there is organic molecule a serious danger both that you will not set out any of the arguments in a sufficiently detailed way, and that you will not discriminate between interesting arguments in support of your thesis, and arguments that are at best marginal. In short, choose your best one or two arguments, and general, develop that argument (or arguments) in a detailed and circumspect way. Checklist for the Offering of who wrote theses Reasons: 1. Have I set out an argument (or at most two arguments) to taheri, provide reasons for thinking that my thesis is true? 2. Have I made all of my premises clear and explicit? 3. Have I developed my argument in a full and detailed way, so that all of the us reject joining the league my reasoning is clear to the reader? 3. Taheri. Consideration of Objections to your Arguments. After offering reasons for accepting your view, you need to consider objections.
The crucial point to who wrote the 95, note here is that objections come in two forms. Taheri. First, there are objections that are directed against the reasons that you have offered in support of your thesis, and which claim, therefore, either that some of why did senate reject joining the league your assumptions are implausible, or that some of your reasoning is unsatisfactory. Secondly, there are objections that are directed against your conclusion, and which attempt to provide reasons for thinking that the view which you are advancing is false. Objections of the first sort are especially crucial, and your main obligation is to address such objections. The reason is that if all that you do is to rebut objections to your thesis, and you fail to consider objections to your argument, then you haven't shown that you have made out taheri, a satisfactory positive case in support of your thesis. How do you arrive at interesting objections to your own arguments? The crucial thing is to look carefully at the assumptions that you have made, and to ask yourself which of tide those are controversial, in the sense that they might well be questioned by an intelligent, thoughtful, and well-informed person. General Taheri. Having located a controversial assumption, you need to consider why a thoughtful person might disagree with it, and then try to respond to that objection. Checklist for Objections to your Arguments: 1. Have I carefully set out the the 95 theses most important objection to each of my arguments?
2. Have I then responded, in general taheri a careful way, to that objection (or objections)? 4. Consideration of Objections to your Thesis. After you have carefully considered objections to your argument (or arguments), the next important task is to consider objections which, rather than being directed against the reasons that you have offered in support of your view, are directed instead against organic, your view itself, and which attempt to show that your view is incorrect. Here you need to set out general, any such objection (or objections) in a clear, careful, and dispassionate fashion, and washing uk, then indicate why you think the objection in question is unsound. How many objections to your thesis should you attempt to consider? Here, as elsewhere, trying to cover too much ground can result in a weak and superficial discussion. Try to general taheri, find the strongest objection, and address it in a detailed way. Checklist for Objections to organic molecule, your Thesis:
1. Have I considered the most important objection against the thesis that I am defending? 2. General. Have I responded carefully to that objection? 5. Exposition of Arguments. At the heart of a paper that examines some moral issue in a critical fashion is the in the states setting out of taheri arguments - both arguments in support of your positions, and arguments directed either against some of your assumptions, or against your position itself. Whenever one is setting out an uk argument, one needs to do so in a careful step-by-step fashion, so that it is general clear to the reader both what assumptions the argument involves, and what the reasoning is - that is, how one is supposed to get from the assumptions to tide washing uk, the conclusion. One thing that it is very important to avoid is the setting out of more than one argument in a single paragraph. For this usually results in too brief an exposition of the arguments in question, and often in general a muddling together of the two arguments, thereby obscuring the structure of the reasoning. Checklist for your Exposition of Arguments: 1. Are my arguments carefully and explicitly set out so that both all of my assumptions, and my reasoning, are clear?
2. Have I, at any point, set out the us senate reject joining the league, more than one argument in general a single paragraph? 3. Are objections and responses set out in the 95 theses separate paragraphs? 6. Logical and Perspicuous Structure. A crucial factor that makes for a good essay is the general presence of who wrote the 95 a logical and perspicuous structure. So it's important to ask how one can both organize one's discussion in a logical fashion, and make that organization perspicuous to the reader. The structure will be clear to the reader if you begin with an general taheri introductory paragraph of the sort described above, and then go on, first, to divide your essay up into sections (and possibly also subsections), and secondly, to what attitude express i of, use informative headings to mark out those sections (and subsections). General Taheri. The reader will then be able to see at a glance how you have structured your discussion. What makes for logical organization? If you do the things mentioned above, in sections I through IV, in the order discussed, the result will be an essay whose overall logical organization is very strong. That is to say, start by setting out your thesis, and outlining your overall approach in the introductory paragraph. Follow this with a section in theses which you offer reasons for general taheri, accepting the view that you are advancing.
Then go on to devote two sections to a consideration of objections. In the first, set out, and respond to, objections that are directed against any controversial assumptions that you have made in arguing in support of your own view. Social In The. Then, in the second, consider objections that might be directed against your thesis itself. Individual sections also need to be organized in a logical fashion. General Taheri. This is organic primarily a matter of setting out arguments in a step-by-step fashion, and of discussing different arguments in different subsections, as discussed above in section V. Checklist for Logical and taheri, Perspicuous Structure: 1. Who Wrote The 95 Theses. Is my essay organized into sections in a logical fashion? 2. Are the taheri sections divided into appropriate subsections? 3. Have I made the overall structure of my essay clear by powder uk using informative headings for general taheri, sections and subsections? 7. Dispassionate and Unemotional Discussion. Another very important feature of a good essay is that the discussion be dispassionate, and that one avoid formulating either the issue, or relevant arguments, in a biased and/or emotionally charged way.
Suppose, for example, that Mary is considering whether there should be a law against the sale of pornography. There are various ways in Uncoupling which she can formulate this question, some of which will strongly suggest one answer rather than another. She might, for example, ask herself whether people should be allowed to taheri, amass fortunes as purveyors of filthy and social classes in the states, degrading material that will corrupt people, and destroy the general taheri moral fiber of who wrote the 95 society. If this is the way she puts the general taheri issue, it will not be too surprising if she arrives at the conclusion that one certainly needs a law against pornography. Suppose, on organic, the other hand, that what she asks is whether people should be prevented from having access to important information about something which is not only natural and very beautiful, but also a means of expressing feelings of tenderness and love. General. When the question is phrased this way, it seems likely that she will arrive a rather different conclusion. Why are emotionally charged formulations bad?
There are two reasons. First, they tend to alienate the reader or listener, thereby making it less likely that others will devote much time to a serious consideration of your arguments. But secondly, such formulations are even more dangerous with respect to one's own thinking, since what they typically do is to make it seem that the right answer is obvious, and this in turn usually prevents one from grappling with the issue in a serious way, and from subjecting one's own view to critical examination. Checklist for Dispassionate and Unemotional Discussion: 1. Have I made use of emotively charged language? 2. Is my discussion dispassionate and fair throughout? 8. Tide Washing Powder. Overall Clarity and Conciseness. Many people, confronted with an essay that is difficult to understand, but which is written in a style which sounds profound, tend to conclude that the topic must be a difficult one, and the writers ideas unusually deep. The appropriate conclusion, however, will generally be a rather less positive one namely, that the author either has muddy ideas, or lacks the general ability to communicate his or her ideas to the 95, others in taheri a satisfactory fashion. Obscurity is not a sign of profundity.
I suspect that this point probably needs to attitude does emerson in the first paragraph i of nature?, be labored a bit, as there are reasons for thinking that many people, in their secondary school education, are encouraged to general taheri, express their ideas in a fashion which sounds profound. Consider, for example, the following experiment, carried out by two English professors at toward the stars emerson express in the paragraph the University of Chicago. Joseph Williams and taheri, Rosemary Hake took a well-written paper, and changed the language to produce two different versions. Both versions involved the same ideas and concepts, but one was written in simplified, straightforward language, while the other was written in verbose, bombastic language, loaded with pedantic terms. They then submitted the two papers to nine high-school teachers, and the us senate the league of nations, found that all nine gave very high marks to the verbose paper, but downgraded the straightforward essay as too simple and shallow. Williams and Hake then repeated the experiment with a group of ninety teachers, and came up with similar results. Three out of four high-school teachers (and two out of three college teachers!) gave higher marks to pompous writing! What should you be aiming at, in terms of taheri clarity, simplicity, and what attitude the stars emerson express first paragraph of chapter nature?, intelligibility?
One way of general taheri estimating how successful your essay is in these respects is by uk considering how it would seem to a secondary school student who knew nothing about the topic. Would he or she be able to read it without difficulty? Having read it, would he or she be able to say exactly what view you were defending and how you were supporting that view? If you can confidently answer Yes to both questions, then all is well. But if there is any room for doubt, then you need to rewrite your essay so that your ideas are expressed in a simpler and more straightforward way. Checklist for Overall Clarity and Conciseness: 1. To what extent is the writing clear and straightforward? 2. Is the writing concise?
9. A Non-Religious, Philosophical Approach. Many people defend ethical views by appealing either to religious or theological assumptions, or to moral principles that are religiously based. Such assumptions or principles are often of a highly controversial sort, and exercises 1, 2, and 3 were intended to illustrate how problematic an appeal either to religious and theological premises, or to moral principles that are religiously based, can be. It is possible of course, that there are religious claims that, although controversial, can be shown to be reasonable. Any such defense, however, is a major undertaking, and in an essay of this length, the chances of general taheri success in doing that are not good. In addition, however, any discussion of religious claims that is toward the stars emerson in the first paragraph likely to be intellectually satisfactory requires a serious background in taheri philosophy of religion. The Philosophy Department has a number of philosophers who are experts in the area of the stars does express first paragraph i of philosophy of religion, and if you are interested in exploring religious issues, you may well want to consider taking one of the general philosophy of religion courses that the Department offers.
This, however, is a course in ethics, and here you need to confine yourself to non-religious, philosophical arguments: religious assumptions, and moral claims based on senate reject the league of nations, a religious point of view, are almost always going to be very controversial, and virtually impossible to defend successfully in an essay of the length you are writing here. Any such claims, then, are to be avoided. In the preceding sections, I have discussed the features that make for taheri, a good essay that is focusing upon the critical discussion of a moral issue. In this final section I want to who wrote theses, mention briefly what I think is the general taheri most helpful idea for producing an Biology: Uncoupling essay that has these characteristics - namely, the formulation of an taheri explicit plan, both for why did the us, the essay as a whole, and for individual sections. To do this, you might proceed as follows. Taheri. First, on a filing card, or a small sheet of paper, list the main sections into which your discussion will be divided, as discussed above. Secondly, for who wrote, each of those sections, take a filing card, and write down both the general main claims that you want to advance in that section, and toward the stars does in the first paragraph of chapter i of, a brief description of any arguments that you'll be putting forward, or examining. Thirdly, for each of the arguments that you'll be discussing, write down, on another filing card, the basic structure of that argument. Finally, re-examine everything that you have written down. Can you see a more effective way of dividing the discussion up into sections? Is there a better way of general organizing the material within a given section?
Can any of your arguments be given a better step-by-step formulation? The plan that you initially draw up is not, of course, set in powder concrete, and as you do more reading for general, your essay, or talk to other people about the the us reject joining the league of nations issue that you're considering, you'll often see a better way of organizing the material, or other arguments or objections that you need to taheri, consider, and so on. You can then modify your original plan. The crucial thing is always to have at Uncoupling Proteins Essay least a tentative plan in mind, for even when you're just beginning to think about a topic, that will help you to do so in a focused way.