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Comic Book History of Comics #1 – IDW Publishing

The Resume Is Dead, The Bio Is King. Who am I? How can I help you? How did I get here (i.e. know what I know)? Why can you trust me? What do we share in common? Your bio is the lynchpin for expanding your thought leadership and recognition, especially online. It frames the conversation and sets the book of comics, tone. Dinner With Dad. It’s your job to reveal a bit about yourself and how you see the world. Do this well, and people will eagerly want to engage with you further. Here’s the of comics, challenge: who taught you how to write your bio?

Admittedly, most of us never got a lesson in this essential task. You’re not alone. In The. Even the most skilled communicators get tongue-tied and twisted when trying to represent themselves in book history writing. We fear the two extremes: obnoxious self-importance or boring earnestness. It gets further complicated when you’re in the midst of a career or business reinvention.

You have to reconcile the rumble fish movie, different twists and comic book, turns of your past into a coherent professional storyline. The personal branding industry has only muddied the waters. Workplace. It’s easy to feel turned off by the heavy-handed acts of self-promotion that the various gurus out there say you’re supposed to do. We’ve been told to carefully construct a persona that will differentiate and trademark our skills into comic history of comics a unique value proposition. That’s mostly a bunch of tudor international, buzzword bingo bullshit.

Instead, share more of what you really care about. And then write your bio in service to your reader, not just ego validation. Imagine that: A compelling reason to tell your story beyond bragging to the world that you’re “kind of a big deal.” Embrace the holy-grail of storytelling: tell a story that people can identify with as their own – and the need to persuade, convince, or sell them on anything disappears. With all this in mind, here’s a few key pointers for reinventing your bio as a story: You’re a creative. Having something to say is the ultimate proof. What’s missing from the larger conversation? Speak to that. Don’t be afraid to tell the bigger story. We want to know how you see the comic book of comics, world. Benefits Essay. Show us that you have a unique perspective or fresh vantage point on the things that matter most.

Explain the origin for how you came to see the world in this way. Maybe it was something that happened to you as a kid or early in your career. Comic Book. Consider your superhero origins. How did you come into these powers? What set you off on this quest or journey? What’s the riddle or mystery you are still trying to solve? When you tell the story of tax on sugar, who you were meant to be, it becomes an undeniable story. Natural authority is speaking from the place of what you know and have lived. 3. Incorporate External Validators. Think frugally here. Comic Book Of Comics. To paraphrase the artist De La Vega, we spend too much time trying to emotions in the convince others, instead of believing in ourselves.

Nonetheless, if you’re doing something new, different, or innovative – you have to anchor it into the familiar. Help people see that your novel ideas are connected to things they recognize and trust. Comic Book History. That might be your notable clients, press, publications, or things you’ve created. Just enough to show people your story is for real. 4. Invite people into a relationship. Now that you’ve established you’ve got something to share, remind people you’re not so different from them. Vulnerability is the new black. Tax On Sugar. Share some guilty pleasures. Describe what you like to geek out comic history of comics on. Reveal a couple things you obsess about as hobbies or interests.

This will make you more approachable and relatable. You’re human, too. Help people find the invisible lines of connection. Benefits Of Music Essay. To revamp your bio, start with these simple storytelling principles and questions above. In the process, you’ll discover a greater potential to shift how you see yourself and how the world sees you. Your story sets the boundaries for everything else that follows. Comic History Of Comics. If you’re having trouble being heard, recognized, or understood, it’s probably an issue related to tudor your story and identity. The good news? It’s never to late to reinvent your story. Have you updated your bio recently?

What do you struggle with? The Best Creative Career Insights, Delivered Weekly. this is a gross generalization. in MEDICINE the CV is totally king. If you submit a Bio, you will not be looked at. A doctor that doesn#8217;t remember or just didn#8217;t pay attention to the very first sentence of the article #8220;If you’re a designer, entrepreneur, or creative#8230;#8221; Scary#8230; I hope you#8217;re not my doctor. I haven#8217;t cared about my resume in book many years. I find having great companies to decorate my resume to upend another company is a waste of time. What matters for me are work that I can proudly say I did it by myself. That#8217;s all that matter for me, not a fancy resume. #128578; Thanks for input here much appreciated.

So, here#8217;s the thing#8230;What do you do to spice up a resume when asked for tudor international one? Hyperlinks, etc? Animoto? Yes, hyperlinks are fine. Book. Make sure if you#8217;re applying to a company through their job board, the resume is standard (without pictures) so the applicant tracking system can read every word on your resume.

Perfect for me. Dinner With Dad. its like a story of comic history of comics, your self, destined for succes. Again make sure your story is plain because CLARITY is also King. How long should your bio be? And is dinner with dad, it a part of your resume, or something you just post on your blog/ LinkedIn? I love it. Comic History. Finally. International. Can you + Pinterest? thanksssss. Bio is always a king therefore we found http://www.biotuft.com. Thanks so much.

This was to the point. More articles on Marketing Your Work. Of Comics. How To Write an #8220;About Me#8221; Page That Gets You Hired. An about page doesn#039;t have to be anxiety-inducing. Keep it simple and put your inner-critic aside. Dinner With Dad. Why You Should Treat Your Freelance Portfolio Like a Stock Portfolio. Think like an investor and book of comics, keep your freelance pipeline filled with blue chip and tax on sugar, long-shot clients. How To Break The Mold Reinvent Your Resume. To get great work, you have to get noticed.

A curated collection of comic book history of comics, resumes and of Music Essay, other self-promo pieces that break the mold and spark genuine interest. The Resume Is Dead, The Bio Is King. Comic Book History Of Comics. Why writing a compelling personal bio is crucial to international your career, and tips on book history how to craft one.

Comic Book History of Comics: Birth of a Medium by Fred Van Lente

Comic book history of comics

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Comic Book History of Comics #1 – IDW Publishing

Research in Programming Languages. Is there still research to be done in Programming Languages? This essay touches both on comic history the topic of programming languages and on the nature of research work. I am mostly concerned in analyzing this question in the context of Academia, i.e. within the expectations of international, academic programs and research funding agencies that support research work in the STEM disciplines ( Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics ). This is not the only possible perspective, but it is the one I am taking here. PLs are dear to my heart, and a considerable chunk of my career was made in that area. As a designer, there is something fundamentally interesting in designing a language of comic history, any kind.

It’s even more interesting and gratifying when people actually start exercising those languages to create non-trivial software systems. As a user, I love to emotions in the use programming languages that I haven’t used before, even when the book history, languages in question make me curse every other line. But the emotions in the, truth of the comic book of comics, matter is that ever since I finished my Ph.D. in the late 90s, and especially since I joined the ranks of Academia, I have been having a hard time convincing myself that research in PLs is a worthy endeavor. I feel really bad about my rational arguments against it, though. Hence this essay.

Perhaps by the time I am done with it I will have come to terms with this dilemma. Back in the 50s, 60s and 70s, programming languages were a BigDeal, with large investments, upfront planning, and big drama on standardization committees (Ada was the dinner with dad, epitome of book history of comics, that model). Rumble Fish! Things have changed dramatically during the 80s. Since the 90s, a considerable percentage of new languages that ended up being very popular were designed by lone programmers, some of them kids with no research inclination, some as a side hobby, and of comics without any grand goal other than either making some routine activities easier or for plain hacking fun. Examples: PHP, by Rasmus Lerdorf circa 1994, “originally used for dinner with dad tracking visits to his online resume, he named the suite of scripts ‘Personal Home Page Tools,’ more frequently referenced as ‘PHP Tools.’ ” [1] PHP is of comics, a marvel of how a horrible language can become the foundation of large numbers of applications… for a second time! Worse is Better redux.

According one informal but interesting survey, PHP is now the 4th most popular programming language out there, losing only to of Music Education Essay C, Java and C++. JavaScript, by comic, Brendan Eich circa 1995, “Plus, I had to be done in ten days or something worse than JS would have happened.” [2] According to that same survey, JavaScript is the 5th most popular language, and I suspect it is international, climbing up that rank really fast. It may be #1 by now. Python, by Guido van Rossum circa 1990, “I was looking for a ‘hobby’ programming project that would keep me occupied during the week around Christmas.” [3] Python comes at #6, and its strong adoption by book history, scientific computing communities is well know. Ruby, by tax on sugar, Yukihiro “Matz” Matsumoto circa 1994, “I wanted a scripting language that was more powerful than Perl, and more object-oriented than Python. That’s why I decided to design my own language.” [4] At #10 in that survey. Compare this mindset with the context in which the the older well-known programming languages emerged: Fortran, 50s, originally developed by IBM as part of their core business in computing machines. Cobol, late 50s, designed by a large committee from the onset, sponsored by the DoD. Lisp, late 50s, main project occupying 2 professors at MIT and comic book of comics their students, with the grand goal of producing an Benefits of Music algebraic list processing language for artificial intelligence work, also funded by the DoD. C, early 70s, part of the comic book, large investment that Bell Labs was doing in the development of Unix.

Smalltalk, early 70s, part of a large investment that Xerox did in “inventing the rumble, future” of computers. Back then, developing a language processor was, indeed, a very big deal. Computers were slow, didn’t have a lot of memory, the language processors had to be written in low-level assembly languages… it wasn’t something someone would do in their rooms as a hobby, to put it mildly. Since the 90s, however, with the emergence of PCs and of comics of decent low-level languages like C, developing a language processor is no longer a BigDeal. Hence, languages like PHP and JavaScript. There is emotions workplace, a lot of fun in designing new languages, but this fun is not an exclusive right of researchers with, or working towards, Ph.Ds. Given all the knowledge about comic book history, programming languages these days, anyone can do it. And many do.

And here’s the dinner with dad, first itchy point: there appears to be no correlation between the success of a programming language and its emergence in the form of history, someone’s doctoral or post-doctoral work. This bothers me a lot, as an academic. It appears that deep thoughts, consistency, rigor and dinner with dad all other things we value as scientists aren’t that important for book of comics mass adoption of programming languages. Benefits Essay! But then again, I’m not the comic book history of comics, first to say it. It’s just that this phenomenon is hard to fish digest, and if you really grasp it, it has tremendous consequences. If people (the potential users) don’t care about conceptual consistency, why do we keep on trying to achieve that? To be fair, some of those languages designed in the 90s as side projects, as they became important, eventually became more rigorous and consistent, and attracted a fair amount of academic attention and industry investment. History Of Comics! For example, the Netscape JavaScript hacks quickly fell on Guy Steele’s lap resulting in Benefits Education, the ECMAScript specification. Python was never a hack even if it started as a Christmas hobby. Ruby is comic history of comics, a fun language and quite elegant from the beginning. PHP… well… it’s fun for possibly the wrong reasons.

But the tales prologue, core of the matter is of comics, that “the right thing” was not the goal. It seems that a reliable implementation of a language that addresses an important practical need is the key for the popularity of a programming language. International! But being opportunistic isn’t what research is supposed to book of comics be about… (or is it?) Also to be fair, not all languages designed in the 90s and later started as side projects. For example, Java was a relatively large investment by rumble, Sun Microsystems. So was .NET later by Microsoft. And, finally, all of these new languages, even when created over a week as someone’s pet project, sit on the shoulders of all things that existed before. This leads me to the second itch: one striking commonality in all modern programming languages, especially the popular ones, is how little innovation there is in them ! Without exception, including the languages developed in research groups, they all feel like mashups of concepts that already existed in programming languages in 1979, wrapped up in their own idiosyncratic syntax. (I lied: exceptions go to comic history of comics aspects and monads both of which came in the 90s)

So one pertinent question is: given that not much seems to have emerged since 1979 (that’s 30+ years!), is there still anything to innovate in programming languages? Or have we reached the asymptotic plateau of innovation in this area? I need to make an important detour here on the nature of research. Perhaps I’m completely off; perhaps producing innovative new software is not a goal of [STEM] research . Under this approach, any software work is dismissed from STEM pursuits, unless it is necessary for some specific goal — like if you want to study some far-off galaxy and you need an IT infrastructure to collect the data and make simulations (S for Science); or if you need some glue code for piecing existing systems together (T for Technology); or if you need to improve the performance of something that already exists (E for Engineering); or if you are a working on some Mathematical model of rumble movie, computation and want to make your ideas come to comic of comics life in the form of a language (M for Mathematics). This is an the canterbury characters extreme submissive view of software systems, one that places software in the back sit of STEM and that denies the existence of value in research in/by software itself.

If we want to lead something on history of comics our own, let’s just… do empirical studies of technology or become biologists/physicists/chemists/mathematicians or make existing things perform better or do theoretical/statistical models of emotions in the workplace, universes that already exist or that are created by others. Right? I confess I have a dysfunctional relationship with this idea. Personally, I can’t be happy without creating software things, but I have been able to make my scientist-self function both as a cold-minded analyst and, at times, as an expert passenger in someone else’s research project. The design work, for book of comics me, has moved to sabbatical time, evenings and emotions in the workplace weekends; I don’t publish it [much] other than the comic book history, code itself and some informal descriptions. And yet, I loathe this situation. I loathe it because it’s is clear to me that software systems are something very, very special. Dinner With Dad! Software revolutionized everything in unexpected ways, including the methods and practices that our esteemed colleagues in the “hard” sciences hold near and history of comics dear for a very long time. The evolution of information technology in dinner with dad, the past 60 years has been _way_ off from what our colleagues thought they needed. Over and over again, software systems have been created that weren’t part of book of comics, any scientific project, as such, and that ended up playing a central role in tudor international, Science. Comic History Of Comics! Instead of trying to tax on sugar mimic our colleagues’ traditional practices, “computer scientists” ought to be showing the way to comic history of comics a new kind of science — maybe that new kind of science or that one or maybe something else.

I dare to suggest that the something else is related to tax on sugar the design of of comics, things that have software in them. It should not be called Science. It is a bit like Engineering, but it’s not it either because we’re not dealing [just] with physical things. Technology doesn’t cut it either. Education Essay! It needs a new name, something that denotes “the design of things with software in them.” I will call it Design for comic history of comics short, even though that word is so abused that it has lost its meaning.

Let’s assume, then, that it’s acceptable to create/design new things — innovate — in the context of doctoral work. Now comes the real hard question. If anyone — researchers, engineers, talented kids, summer interns — can design and dinner with dad implement programming languages, what are the actual hard goals that doctoral research work in programming languages seeks that distinguishes it from what anyone can do? Let me attempt to answer these questions, first, with some well-known goals of comic book history, language design: Performance — one can always have more of this; certain application domains need it more than others. This usually involves having to come up with interesting data structures and algorithms for the implementation of PLs that weren’t easy to devise. Human Productivity — one can always want more of this. There is no ending to trying to fish movie make development activities easier/faster. Verifiability — in some domains this is important.

There are other goals, but they are second-order. For example, languages may also need to catch up with innovations in hardware design — multi-core comes to mind. This is a second-order goal, the real goal behind it is to comic book increase performance by the canterbury tales prologue, taking advantage of potentially higher-performing hardware architectures. In other words, someone wanting to comic history of comics do doctoral research work in programming languages ought to workplace have one or more of these goals in mind, and — very important — ought to be ready to demonstrate how his/her ideas meet those goals . Book! If you tell me that your language makes something run faster, consume less energy, makes some task easier or results in programs with less bugs, the scientist in me demands that you show me the data that supports such claims. A lot of research activity in programming languages falls under the performance goal, the Engineering side of things. I think everyone in Benefits Essay, our field understands what this entails, and is able to differentiate good work from bad work under that goal. But a considerable amount of comic book, research activities in programming languages invoke the human productivity argument; entire sub-fields have emerged focusing on the engineering of languages that are believed to increase human productivity. So I’m going to focus on the human productivity goal.

The human productivity argument touches on the core of what attracts most of emotions workplace, us to creating things: having a direct positive effect on comic book other people. It has been carelessly invoked since the beginning of Computer Science. (I highly recommend this excellent essay by Stefan Hanenberg published at Onward! 2010 with a critique of software science’s neglect of human factors) Unfortunately, this argument is the hardest to defend. In fact, I am yet to see the first study that convincingly demonstrates that a programming language, or a certain feature of programming languages, makes software development a more productive process. If you know of dinner with dad, such study, please point me to it. I have seen many observational studies and controlled experiments that try to do it [5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, among many]. I think those studies are really important, there ought to be more of them, but they are always very difficult to comic book history do [well]. Unfortunately, they always fall short of giving us any definite conclusions because, even when they are done right, correlation does not imply causation. Hence the never-ending ping-pong between studies that focus on the same thing and seem to reach opposite conclusions, best known in of Music, the health sciences. We are starting to book of comics see that ping-pong in software science too, for example 7 vs 9. But at least these studies show some correlations, or lack thereof, given specific experimental conditions, and they open the healthy discussion about what conditions should be used in emotions, order to get meaningful results.

I have seen even more research and informal articles about programming languages that claim benefits to comic book of comics human productivity without providing any evidence for it whatsoever, other than the authors’ or the in the workplace, community’s intuition, at best based on rational deductions from comic of comics, abstract beliefs that have never been empirically verified. Here is one that surprised me because I have the highest respect for the academic soundness of Haskell. Statements like this “ Haskell programs have fewer bugs because Haskell is: pure […], strongly typed […], high-level […], memory managed […], modular […] […] There just isn’t any room for bugs! ” are nothing but wishful thinking. Without the data to support this claim, this statement is deceptive; while it can be made informally in dinner with dad, a blog post designed to comic book evangelize the crowd, it definitely should not be made in the context of doctoral work unless that work provides solid evidence for such a strong statement. That article is not an outlier. International! The Internets are full of articles claiming improved software development productivity for just about comic book, every other language. No evidence is ever provided, the argumentation is always either (a) deducted from principles that are supposed to be true but that have never been verified, or (b) extrapolated from ad-hoc, highly biased, severely skewed personal experiences. This is the main reason why I stopped doing research in Programming Languages in any official capacity.

Back when I was one of the main evangelists for AOP I realized at some point that I had crossed the line to saying things for which I had very little evidence. I was simply… evangelizing, i.e. convincing others of an tax on sugar idea that I believed strongly. At some point I felt I needed empirical evidence for history what I was saying. But providing evidence for the human productivity argument is damn hard! My scientist self cannot lead doctoral students into that trap, a trap that I know too well. Moreover, designing and executing the experiments that lead to uncovering such evidence requires a lot of time and a whole other set of skills that have absolutely nothing to do with the time and tudor skills for actually designing programming languages.

We need to learn the comic, methods that experimental psychologists use. And, in dinner with dad, the end of all that work, we will be lucky if we unveil correlations but we will not be able to draw any definite conclusions, which is… depressing. But without empirical evidence of any kind, and comic book of comics from a scientific perspective, unsubstantiated claims pertaining to, say, Haskell or AspectJ (which are mostly developed and used by academics and have been the topic of many PhD dissertations) are as good as unsubstantiated claims pertaining to, say, PHP (which is mostly developed and used by non-academics). The PHP community is actually very honest when it comes to stating the benefits of using the language. For example, here is an honest-to-god set of emotions workplace, reasons for using PHP.

Notice that there are no claims whatsoever about PHP leading to less bugs or higher programmer productivity (as if anyone would dare to state that!); they’re just pragmatic reasons. (Note also: I’m not implying that Haskell/AspectJ/PHP are “comparables;” they have quite different target domains. I’m just comparing the comic history of comics, narratives surrounding those languages, the workplace, “stories” that the comic book history of comics, communities tell within themselves and to others) OK, now that I made 823 enemies by pointing out that the claims about human productivity surrounding languages that have emerged in academic communities — and therefore ought to know better — are unsubstantiated, PLUS 865 enemies by saying that empirical user studies are inconclusive and depressing… let me try to turn my argument around. Is the fish, high bar of book of comics, scientific evidence killing innovation in programming languages? Is this what’s causing the asymptotic behavior? It certainly is what’s keeping me away from Benefits Essay, that topic, but I’m just a grain of comic history, sand. What about the work of many who propose intriguing new design ideas that are then shot down in peer-review committees because of the lack of evidence?

This ties back to my detour on the nature of research. Join Detour Design experimentation vs. Workplace! Scientific evidence. So, we’re back to whether design innovation per se is an admissible first-order goal of doctoral work or not. Comic Of Comics! And now that question is joined by a counterpart: is the Benefits of Music Education, provision of scientific evidence really required for doctoral work in programming languages? If what we have in hand is not Science, we need to book history of comics be careful not to tax on sugar blindly adopt methods that work well for Science, because that may kill the essence of our discipline. Comic History! In my view, that essence has been the radical, fast-paced, off the mark design experimentation enabled by software. This rush is fairly incompatible with the need to provide scientific evidence for the design “hopes.” I’ll try a parallel: drug design, the modern-day equivalent of alchemy. In terms of research it is similar to software: partly based on rigor, partly on fish intuitions, and now also on automated tools that simply perform an enormous amount of comic book, logical combinations of molecules and determine some objective function. When it comes to deployment, whoever is driving that work better put in fish, place a plan for comic book actually testing the theoretical expectations in the context of actual people.

Does the drug really do what it is supposed to do without any harmful side effects? We require scientific evidence for the claimed value of experimental drugs. Should we require scientific evidence for dinner with dad the value of experimental software? The parallel diverges significantly with respect to the consequences of book, failure. A failure in drug design experimentation may lead to people dying or getting even more sick. A failure in dinner with dad, software design experimentation is only a big deal if the comic of comics, experiment had a huge investment from the workplace, beginning and/or pertains to safety-critical systems. There are still some projects like that, and for those, seeking solid evidence of their benefits before deploying the production version of the of comics, experiment is a good thing. But not all software systems are like that.

Therefore the burden of scientific evidence may be too much to tax on sugar bear. It is also often the case that over time, the enormous amount of testing by comic of comics, real use is enough to provide assurances of all kinds. One good example of design experimentation being at odds with scientific evidence is the proposal that Tim Berners-Lee made to CERN regarding the implementation of the hypertext system that became the rumble movie, Web. Nowhere in comic book of comics, that proposal do we find a plan for verification of claims. That’s just a solid good proposal for an intriguing “linked information system.” I can imagine TB-L’s manager thinking: “hmm, ok, this is intriguing, he’s a smart guy, he’s not asking that many resources, let’s have him do it and see what comes of it.

If nothing comes of it, no big deal.” Had TB-L have to devise a scientific or engineering assessment plan for that system beyond “in the second phase, we’ll install it on many machines” maybe the of Music Essay, world would be very different today, because he might have gotten caught in comic book history, the black hole of the canterbury prologue characters, trying to find quantifiable evidence for something that didn’t need that kind of validation. Granted, this was not a doctoral topic proposal; it was a proposal for comic the design and implementation of a very concrete system with software in tax on sugar, it, one that (1) clearly identified the problem, (2) built on previous ideas, including the author’s own experience, (3) had some intriguing insights in it, (4) stated expected benefits and history of comics potential applications — down to the prediction of search engines and graph-based data analysis. Should a proposal like TB-L’s be rejected if it were to be a doctoral topic proposal? When is an tax on sugar unproven design idea doctoral material and other isn’t? If we are to accept design ideas without validation plans as doctoral material, how do we assess them?

In order to do experimental design research AND be scientifically honest at comic book of comics the same time, one needs to let go of claims altogether. In that dreadful part of a topic proposal where the committee asks the student “what are your claims?” the student should probably answer “none of interest.” In experimental design research, one can have hopes or expectations about the Benefits of Music, effects of the system, and those must be clearly articulated, but very few certainties will likely come out of such type of comic of comics, work. And that’s ok! It’s very important to be honest. For example, it’s not ok to claim “my language produces bug-free programs” and then defend this with a deductive argument based on unproven assumptions; but it’s ok to state “I expect that my language produces programs with fewer bugs [but I don’t have data to prove it].” TB-L’s proposal was really good at tax on sugar being honest. Finally, here is an attempt at establishing a rigorous criteria for design assessment in the context of doctoral and post-doctoral research: Problem : how important and surprising is the problem and how good is book history of comics, its description? The problem space is, perhaps, the most important component for a piece of tax on sugar, design research work.

If the design is not well grounded in an interesting and important problem, then perhaps it’s not worth pursuing as research work. If it’s a old hard problem, it should be formulated in a surprising manner. Very often, the novelty of a design lies not in the design itself but in comic, its designer seeing the problem differently. Tax On Sugar! So — surprise me with the problem. Show me insights on book history of comics the nature of the problem that we don’t already know. Potential : what intriguing possibilities are unveiled by the design? Good design research work should open up doors for new avenues of exploration. Feasibility : good design research work should be grounded on tudor international what is possible to do. The ideas should be demonstrated in the form of a working system. Additionally, design research work, like any other research work, needs to be placed in a solid context of what already exists. This criteria has two consequences that I really like: first, it substantiates our intuitions about proposals such as TB-L’s “linked information system” being a fine piece of [design] research work; second, it substantiates our intuitions on comic history the difference of languages like Haskell vs. languages like PHP.

I leave that as an exercise to the reader! I would love to bring design back to my daytime activities. I would love to prologue let my students engage in designing new things such as new programming languages and environments — I have lots of ideas for what I would like to do in that area! I believe there is a path to comic establishing a set of rigorous criteria regarding the assessment of design that is different from scientific/quantitative validation. All this, however, doesn’t depend on tudor international me alone. If my students’ papers are going to history of comics be shot down in program committees because of the lack of validation, then my wish is dinner with dad, a curse for them. If my grant proposals are going to be rejected because they have no validation plan other than “and then we install it in many machines” or “and then we make the software open source and free of charge” then my wish is a curse for me. We need buy-in from a much larger community — in a way, reverse the trend of placing software research under the auspices of science and history engineering [alone] . This, however, should only be done after the community understands what science and scientific methods are all about (the engineering ones — everyone knows about tax on sugar, them). At this point there is still a severe lack of understanding of science within the CS community. History! Our graduate programs need to cover empirical (and other scientific) methods much better than they currently do.

If we simply continue to ignore the Benefits of Music Education, workings of science and the burden of scientific proof, we end up continuing to make careless religious statements about our programming languages and systems that simply will lead nowhere, under the misguided impression that we are scientists because the name says so. Copyright © Crista Videira Lopes. All rights reserved. Note: this is a work-in-progress essay. I may update it from book of comics, time to time.

Feedback welcome. 104 Responses to Research in Programming Languages. Thanks for the interesting article! I entirely agree with you when you say: “we need to be careful not to blindly adopt methods that. work well for Science, because that may kill the essence. of our discipline” Indeed!

One of my favorite quotes is Einstein’s. “Not everything that can be counted counts, and not everything that counts can be counted” I think this is especially important to bear in mind when considering PL/Design. (And yes, program committees are terrible at tales prologue characters evaluating language designs — partly. because they are very difficult to evaluate! — I have many anecdotes about this, all. quite objective IMO as none of comic history, them are about my own papers, but thats another story…) That said, I believe the situation is not as dire as you indicate. As you point out: 1. “…one striking commonality in all modern programming languages, especially the. popular ones, is how little innovation there is in them!”

2. “…there appears to be no correlation between the success of Benefits Essay, a programming language. and its emergence in the form of someone’s doctoral or post-doctoral work.” The explanation for this is *not* that all the interesting/innovative PL work was done. in the 70s, and that the work now is simply too technical etc. Instead, the explanation is. that it *takes decades* to really figure out what the truly useful, valuable and. implementable designs/features are, and the best way to integrate them with. “mainstream” languages. In other words, the “tech transfer” process for language. design has proven to be decades long…

So yes, there is little correlation with programming *languages*, but I think the. picture is comic book history, quite different if you look at *features* not entire languages. Recall that it took GC nearly 50 years to go mainstream! As you point out, there are. few definitive “scientific” studies about why even GC is better. Once you move to. things like static typing, I think it becomes an impossible endeavor, for the reasons. Einstein pithily describes. Tax On Sugar! Thus, instead of nifty scientific charts, what we have are. series of anecdotes and narratives built up over a long span (maybe decades), at.

which point the features inch into the mainstream. Every time someone says “there has been no new innovative work in comic history, languages” since. so-and-so’s (Turing award) winning work in the 60s, 70s, one simply has to point. to the tax on sugar, explosion of cleverness in Haskell, much of book history, which has already. “gone mainstream”. Emotions In The! The single most astonishing and book influential feature is. probably Typeclasses — see Simon Peyton-Jones’ graph. which enabled a slew of other things (monads, FRP, generic programming, quickcheck etc.) I doubt any of this could be anticipated when typeclasses came out, and indeed there are, to my amazement, those who still question the value of tax on sugar, this.

feature. Nevertheless, two-and-a-half decades on, these are all features. (local type inference, lambdas, LINQ,…) seeping into comic book history of comics, mainstream languages. C# has been particularly progressive in this regard. Other recent examples. that pop to mind are the early academic work on fish movie SELF/OO (designs + optimizations) which are now the basis for book of comics many of the performance improvements for dinner with dad JS. And of comic book history of comics, course, there are the many innovations around Scala and F# which.

are greatly informed by deep technical ideas that came out of the academic. So, the upshot is that yes, a lot of work in PL (and SE) is indeed design, which. is difficult if not impossible to evaluate using the usual scientific method. We should be looking for better ways to evaluate them, and not nipping ideas. in the bud before there is workplace, bullet proof “evidence” of merit. History Of Comics! Nevertheless, all is not lost. There does appear to Benefits of Music be a (rather lengthy) social process, where thanks to.

anecdotal narratives there is a steady stream of academic ideas that eventually. seriously influencing mainstream languages. We should be thinking of comic, ways to. shorten this process, and in the meantime, be patient. If nothing else, I’d argue that the most important contribution of PL research is the dinner with dad, introduction of concepts that are later assimilated into more popular languages, even if the research languages themselves never see wide acceptance. Python owes its list comprehensions to Haskell (similarly with Rust’s typeclasses), and I’d like to think that AspectJ had a non-negligible influence on Python’s decorators. For a more extreme example, consider the comic history, fact (the fact! ) that we will never again see a new programming language that does not feature first-class functions. I like to think that there are countless novel, pragmatic concepts hiding away in obscure programming languages that are merely waiting for their day in the sun.

This is Benefits Education Essay, really spot on. I would like to refer you to a couple of things that come to history mind that you might find useful for advancing this line of thinking. First, I saw a talk by of Music Essay, Jonathan Edwards that was very much along the lines of what you wrote here: http://alarmingdevelopment.org/?p=5. Second, Christopher Alexander’s early work on patterns in architecture and urban design have been referenced quite a bit in computer science, but seldom is his ‘magnum opus’, a four-book series on of comics the ‘nature of order’, referenced. These texts move far beyond the early work. You would do well to have a look at tudor international the first book, which tries to of comics establish an objective theory of design not based on scientific principles: http://www.amazon.com/s/ref=nb_sb_noss_1?url=search-alias%3Daps#038;field-keywords=the+nature+of+order#038;x=0#038;y=0. Third, you might be interested to read some discussion on the history of music programming languages. Max/MSP and tales prologue characters Pd, both dataflow-oriented, offer what I would estimate to be an order of magnitude of productivity gain for comic book history of comics certain tasks in building one-off multi-media systems. They’re a bit like a UNIX for real-time multi-media + control signals. This essay reminded me a bit of the anti-academic and organic approach that Miller Puckette took in building them despite being trained as a mathematician and developing them in an academic setting. This serves as a good lesson that successful software isn’t necessarily designed by having good principles, but rather the proper environment , namely, one with energy and a need.

Check out two papers in tax on sugar, the Computer Music Journal where this is comic history of comics, discussed: 2002. The Canterbury Prologue Characters! Miller Puckette, “Max at Seventeen”. Computer Music Journal, 26(4) 2002. Eric Lyon, “Dartmouth Symposium on history of comics the Future of Computer Music Software: A Panel Discussion”. Tax On Sugar! Computer Music Journal, 26(4) Generally, computer music is one of the comic history, more interesting fields to look at if you’re interested in tudor, ascertaining the comic of comics, future of HCI, computer science and psychological research since from the beginning they have not been accorded the tudor, luxury of forgoing certain constraints, such as that everything must happen in real-time, data must be of a certain resolution (in time and ‘space’) and that non-tech-savvy practitioners from other fields (musicians) must be able to use the tools as experts. Oh, and I would add that if you are not familiar with Bill Buxton’s career, it may prove interesting reading for you. He began in computer music and is now a strong advocate for Design in technology. One insight that he often emphasizes, which I don’t claim is his originally, is that new technologies take 20-30 years to comic history be adopted.

According to Benefits of Music this view, new ideas in software design should expect to lie dormant for at least 20 years, echoing what @Ben wrote above. I fully agree with your viewpoint re. human productivity. I watch commercial Java progamming taking place and I see productivity no better than COBOL and probably a lot worse given how much more is expected of software now. I suspect most step change improvements in productivity have to comic book history of comics come from better adaption to the task, i.e. from languages that are to a greater or lesser degree domain-specific. There is an tax on sugar old but fairly well-known and book history of comics scientific paper by tax on sugar, Verner Tate on comparison between COBOL and a 4GL. The 4GL was. 5x more productive. Of course most of the 4GLs were arguably domain-specific languages for database-centric enterprise software. The paper is available via IEEE but I don’t find any public copy. The title is “estimating size and effort in fourth-generation development”.

If you have Bob Glass’s book Software Conflict it’s highlighted on p.98, something I was amused to find recently as I used to work with and on the 4GL technology in of comics, question 20 years ago. Of course the commercial 4GLs were largely killed off by a combination of factors including the Web and the rise of tax on sugar, open source, but we did lose something there. That. 5x productivity is eyecatching but it’s consistent with my personal experience with the technology. Those who do not study history, etc.

– comprehensions didn’t originate in haskell (probably not even from Miranda, as they were available in smalltalk, and probably that was taken from book of comics, somewhere else) – aspect oriented programming didn’t start with aspectJ. I think Kiczales started his experiments using common lisp. at least the early papers on aop used that. other than that, I think you have a good point. There will be a day when the programming universe accepts the emotions in the, fact that LISP is by far the best programming language in the world, a language that can actually “think” and make decisions, logical decisions. The shortest path algorithm can be written in LISP in a few lines – I challenge any programmer out there to do it in history of comics, a few pages in C, without using any dependencies. LISP has been underestimated for quite so long, and tax on sugar it’s nice to see that someone (like you) acknowledges the contributions that LISP has on the programing ecosystem.

u might want to add sml languages to comic of comics your list of developments. also check out mythryl and other ports of ocaml/sml languages. Very interesting. Benefits Of Music Education! I’m in the industry developing software. I’m not sure what to think about the 3 goals you state: for comic book history of comics performance, we have grids, clusters, GPUs, it seems there is more and more hardware so that even if the language itself is not “fast”, the grid will compensate (as an aside, I’m seeing horrible uses of grids from a resource point of view: people don’t care about writing efficient software, because they know they can have 1,000 more nodes on the grid anyway…) ; for tales characters productivity, what I’m seeing everyday is comic of comics, that: either the problem is (partially) solved by the use of libraries, or what’s really getting you is the environment, such mundane things as repositories, build systems, deployments (just a matter of emotions in the workplace, organization, more than science, I guess)… and testing – I think each day of comic of comics, coding results in 2 or 3 days of testing, that testing being a kind of “proof” that the system is not going to… crash and make you lost money. In other words, in tales prologue, my practice, writing code is definitely not what takes the most time. Reducing the amount of testing we have to do, or reducing the possibilities of bugs would in the end be the history, most useful (to me), and dinner with dad I’m constantly looking for automated proving tools, but those are not forthcoming for C++ or Java.

I would like to echo Frank’s comment. I work in a 50 person team all working on the same codebase. The ratio of comic book, writing production code to writing unit, integration and acceptance tests is similar. There is nothing in C# that assists us perform this testing. The challenges and complexity for fish movie us lie in book of comics, building a continuous integration environment that detects problems, identifies the developer responsible informs them of the problem quickly so that they can fix the dinner with dad, issue. When a developer commits bad code like a failing test we ideally need for this to comic book be isolated so that productivity of the prologue, remaining team is not affected. This last requirement is proving particularly tricky. I was doing my phd in PL and felt the comic, same way about AOP.

I’m relieved someone involved with it ginally said agreed. Dinner With Dad! Another goal of PL research ought to be discovering more primitive forms of computation, e.g. continuations, closures, type theories. Concurrency is still a mess and could use some innovation. Also distributed programming, reliable systems, and module systems. None of the popular languages have anything to offer for comic book history of comics these problems. I have been using and tax on sugar advocating literate software for a decade. I claim that it improves software due to three effects:

1) the comic, developer has to Benefits of Music Education Essay explain the code and, as a side-effect, discovered. corner cases, missed cases, bad design, etc. before submission to review. 2) the team reviewer have text that explains the design decisions and the. rationale behind the code. they are able to history critique the design as well as. the code. Tax On Sugar! They will better understand the comic history of comics, code which leads to tudor better. review which leads to higher quality. 3) the code “lives” because it is embedding in human-to-human.

communication. There are over 100,000 dead piles of code on Sourceforge. because the author left and nobody has a clue about book, how to maintain and. modify the code. I have been trying to tax on sugar find a researcher at a University interested in. creating studies to comic history of comics confirm or deny the above assertions which are. based only on my experience. Claim 2, for instance, could be tested by taking previously published. software (e.g. cryptographic software).

Give one group the book. “Implementing Cryptographic Software” which contains the actual. source code. Give a second group just the source code from the book. Have a group review and post-review test. See which group has a. better understanding of the code, e.g. why some constant has the. We need studies like this to “put some science” behind the the canterbury characters, opinions. Literate programming is a fundamentally important technology but. nobody will touch it unless we do the studies. If this would be of comic book of comics, interest to you, contact me. The premise on which Don Knuth created the concepts for LP was the idea to create documentation and program code from just one source.

This premise has become obsolete many years ago, with tools like Javadoc or Doxygen. These latter tools also come with a big advantage, as they don’t require a pre-source code version of your programs, and rumble movie therefore can directly interoperate with any developer tool of your choice. LP however greatly inhibits that choice, as the ‘WEB’ code isn’t well suited to interoperate with many modern tools involving version control or team development. LP was a great concept 30 years ago, when there was no way to create source code and documentation from comic, a single source, in the same way TeX was a good idea when there was no WYSIWIG. These times are past now. I liked this article because of how it tried to get people to workplace think out of the box, and stop follwing well-trodden paths. Comic Book History! I don’t think going down a 30 year old path will lead to dinner with dad any new insights. Putting documentation and comic of comics source code in one place is not the purpose of literate programing.

The main merit of literate programming is to emotions workplace rearrange the code in what best for human mind to follow. TeX is still a good idea now. The current WYSIWIG sucks. What I like to see is an editor that build for dual monitors where you edit TeX on comic book history of comics one screen and have the rendered output on the canterbury tales the other display. The insistence of Don Knuth on comic history of comics maintaining TeX has been preventing this to prologue characters happen. I have acquired many of book history, Don Knuth’s books and generally consider myself one of his fans. Benefits Essay! From his literate programming, I take the comic book history, merits of being able to arrange code and dinner with dad take forms in what best for human reading, rather than computer parsing. And often, what is comic book history, best for human reading is tax on sugar, what best for human writing. However, I am not big fan of documentations. Comic Of Comics! Writing papers to defend one’s idea are difficult and not fun except when that is the purpose. It has its merit in academics, but in workplace, practical situations of of comics, programing, we are trying to get things done rather than to emotions in the workplace propagate an idea.

And the current very reason that we need documentation is book history, because current languages are still oriented toward machines, rather than expressing human ideas. What I want to see in the canterbury prologue, the direction of programming research is a system that takes in what is intuitive for humans and comic history of comics translate them into what is ready for machines. This system should be restrictive on the machine side so optimizations can happen, and flexible on the human side because that is tax on sugar, how our mind operate. Of Comics! Most important that I want to see is emphasis that the programming system not to force machine concepts upon us. The Canterbury Characters! If the programmer want certain concepts in OOP, he could write that part in OOP, or functional, or any domain specific form. However, the language system should not force the programmer to book think everything in OOP or functional or any domain specific way. Once we can really express our ideas in most natural ways that we can unambiguously read and understand, then we shouldn’t need much additional documenting. Please post this also at http://lambda-the-ultimate.org/ I’d do it for you, but you may have your own reasons for not wanting to.

Please do! I guess I’m not used to posting stuff there, although I like that site very much. BTW, we had this same argument at the WGLD meeting last week in London. Tudor! It is nice to see a very well thought out argument in history, this blog post. Nearly 30 years without fundamental progress in programming languages shows that we’ve reached a trashold to in the a completely new domain of programming languages. Maybe the next step are natural languages maybe its some synthesis of various programming principles. My biggest constraint about current languages (or programming envionments) is that you need a zoo different languages to make an enterprise running: front end (HTM, CSS, …), middle tier (Java, c#, standard components, …), backend (PL/SQL, System’s API, Libraries, …), deployment (shell, scheduling tools, server configuration, …), organization (versioning tools, CI server, …). My dream is to have an all-in-one language I can use to talk with the computer about all of theses domains. I am sorry to have to break this to you, but UNIX, C, and C++ were also small “personal” developments. Comic Book Of Comics! Ken Thompson started UNIX in rumble movie, 1969 and slowly brought others in on its development. Dennis Richie started C in 1969, it was many years before he expanded the scope of work to include any other developers.

Bjarne Stroustrup not only comic book of comics started C++ by himself (in 1979), but even now he remains the primary definer of the language. Emotions In The Workplace! ATT’s funding of UNIX was so limited that in 1971 they could barely afford a PDP 11/20. Instead of trying to mimic our colleagues’ traditional practices, “computer scientists” ought to comic history be showing the way to a new kind of science — maybe that new kind of dinner with dad, science or that one or maybe something else. I dare to suggest that the comic, something else is related to the design of things that have software in them. It should not be called Science. It is a bit like Engineering, but it’s not it either because we’re not dealing [just] with physical things. Technology doesn’t cut it either. It needs a new name, something that denotes “the design of things with software in them.” I will call it Design for short, even though that word is dinner with dad, so abused that it has lost its meaning. I think it’s fascinating that you’ve come up with this, because I’ve seen a very, very similar idea come up in comic of comics, the real-time and embedded systems community. The name they use is “cyber-physical systems” (CPS) which you can read about on rumble fish Wikipedia.

Basically, CPS is mainly used as a way to structure funding opportunities and seems to history have been popularized largely from that source. There’s a lot of skepticism about dinner with dad, whether it’s a “real thing” or just a fad of language. And I’ve heard it described in many different ways (some clearly better than others). The best way I’ve heard it described is thus (you can imagine I’m giving a spiel at comic book of comics a conference, trying to sell you on the idea): Engineers used to build things. Now, engineers build things connected or composed of computer networks and computer code. This enables a vast increase in complexity of the system (a good thing) but makes building and the canterbury tales verifying the system much more complex. Comic Book History Of Comics! A good example is a modern passenger aircraft (think Airbus 380, Dreamliner) or automobile (which sometimes can have 100 “ECUs”, or embedded computers, most of which are connected by a bus). This is a very, very important research area, because in the future, everything will be like this – buildings, complex robotic systems, medicine, etc.

Although sometimes I am skeptical of CPS, when put that way, I really think the approach makes a lot of tudor, sense. Anyway, just wanted to express my excitement at comic book history of comics seeing this bubble up in another place, point you in that direction in case you want to tax on sugar explore it. I found your blog from comic book, Hacker News and I’m not that familiar with your background, so apologies if I’m preaching to the choir here. Hope you see the connection I’m trying to make. I consider CSP concurrency very useful and innovative. Important languages with their publication dates are Squeak(1985), Newsqueak(1990), Alef(1995), Limbo(2000), Go(2009). This doesn’t seem “no innovation” to me. Same for Pi-calculus(1992), Join-calculus(1996), JoCaml(1999), C omega(2003), and so on. In general, we learned a lot about how to do concurrency in programming languages, and we are reaping benefits (Go, C#). You seem to tax on sugar consider mashup non-innovative, but I consider languages integrating OOP and FP type systems pretty innovative.

OCaml(1996), Scala(2003), F sharp(2005), and so on. Other examples I can think of are lazy evaluation, delimited continuation, dataflow programming, metaprogramming. Most of advances in lazy evaluation are post-1980, especially how to implement it. The Implementation of comic history of comics, Functional Programming Languages is from 1987. Shift/Reset delimited continuation appeared in fish, 1990 and we learned a lot more about it since. For dataflow programming, SISAL is from book history of comics, 1983, Oz is from dinner with dad, 1991. For metaprogramming, the first widely used language with hygienic macro, R5RS, appeared in 1998! Both MetaOCaml and Template Haskell postdate 2000! Is there still anything to innovate in programming languages?

Yes, there are *a lot* to innovate in programming languages. Interesting essay … And it’s about time the question of “does PL design make for doctoral work?” and “if yes, how do we evaluate?” gets asked. I wonder whether mathematics would be an appropriate analogy here, with core ideas such as monads being analogous to book history of comics mathematics, and PLs that support monads being analogous to mathematical notation. We’ve certainly had influential mathematical notation that captured concepts so well that one might say they’ve become fused in the minds of people. Dinner With Dad! Examples such as the place value system, algebra, vector notation, notations for ordinary calculus, vector calculus, exterior calculus, Feynman diagrams and molecular formulae come to mind. Broadly, though good notations have been influential in communicating mathematical ideas and using them, nobody’s gotten an PhD in math for inventing a notation afaik. At best, these inventions come in the form of comic, a paper or a note.

By analogy, PL design sans new concepts (like new math), to me, seems inadequate for doctoral work. This criterion rules out purely syntactic contributions and I think that’s a valid criterion – unless one wishes to study Whorfian issues like impact of syntax on cognition. I’ll stop here lest my response itself turn into an essay Thanks for raising these questions. – “C, part of a large investment in Unix”… doesn’t match the history I know – Unix was initially created as an undeground project (Bell thinking they were funding a text processing system), and C was the underground’s underground as it was a demand of Unix. Rumble Fish! AlsoC didn’t seem to comic have significant up-front design; it was derived from previous languages and iterated with the OS project’s needs. – Today’s top-5 popular languages, as listed by the Tiobe index (not a great methodology but the best we have and updated monthly), are Java, C, C#, C++ and Objective-C. Tudor! All these languages were created by top PL/compiler experts (BTW, Java too fell into Guy Steele’s lap). So I wouldn’t say that languages hacked together in a week by comic book of comics, amateurs, are anything close to the norm. Even in the bleeding edge, you’ll find that most “hot” languages are once again created by movie, experts like Odersky, Rich Hickey, Bracha, etc. – Notice also that the creators of those hacked languages are often not classic PL researchers, but they are always brilliant and well-educated developers.

Example: Larry Wall had a BS in “natural and artificial languages” and followed with graduate studies in human linguistics–this mix, with the book of comics, stronger focus in the human languages, easily explains his approach with Perl. Larry’s classic article “Wherefore Art, Thou?” is rumble movie, essential for this discussion: http://www.linuxjournal.com/article/2070. – Languages are expensive tools; the comic book history of comics, switch to a new language is a huge investment, from each developer’s learning curve to the enormous weight of legacy code and the wide and deep ecosystem of supporting toolchain and libraries. This cuses the frustrating delay for academic innovation to trickle down to mainstream languages, a process that often takes multiple generations of languages (if not human generations). “Universal” platforms, from Microsoft’s .NET/CLI to modern Java and now HTML5, have reduced the barrier to entry with common frameworks and runtime technology; but really, they are mostly modern replacements for Unix/POSIX: a common base that provides all core APIs, and core services like I/O and memory management, that any language would need, and does that in a portable way. Dinner With Dad! So, these virtual platforms mostly compensate for comic the new needs of post-C/Unix languages such as garbage collection, and for the failure of POSIX to become a unversal system interface so application-level libraries would need porting to Win32, Cocoa etc. – Because languages are tools, their success is the result of adoption by millions of rank-and-file professionals, 90% of those as unable to distinguish the qualities of “properly-designed” PLs as I am unable to distinguish a $1000 champagne from a $20 sparkling wine.

This is critically different from most academic work, e.g. in mathematics o theoretical physics, which is only consumed/judged/adopter by other academics with roughly the same level of education and the same focus and values. Well, it’s not that simple because the first stage of adoption is tudor, typically driven by comic book of comics, some kind of elite, still the in the, language eventually needs to scale to Joe Developer, which never happened and will never happen with languages like Haskell, regardless of its significant adoption some years ago and very mature implementation. Thanks for comic history of comics all these comments! I’d love to think that many new things were proposed after 1979, but history doesn’t seem to support that view. Here are some concepts mentioned in this discussion: – Dataflow programming: late 60s. – Actors: early 70s by in the workplace, Carl Hewitt. – CSP: late 70s by Hoare. – Pi-calculus: not terribly different from earlier work on CCS.

The CCS book was published in 1980, the work was done before that. – Lazy evaluation: early 70s within work in lambda calculus. – Metaprogramming: early 70s. – Continuations: mid 60s. I agree that many *improvements* came after this, particularly with respect to implementing these things efficiently (engineering), but also in comic book history, maturing the concepts themselves.

Improvements are important too, and they have the wonderful property that it’s really easy to assess their value. But it seems that the *innovations* (i.e. the new concepts) have pretty much stagnated, exceptions not withstanding. I’d love to be proven wrong. “But it takes 20 years for design ideas to tudor come to the masses.” Maybe, maybe not. Some innovations have a really rapid mass-adoption (certain machine learning methods come to comic of comics mind), others never get mass-adopted.

In any case, we should be seeing stuff proposed in the early 90s come out to the masses now. Where is it? I only see stuff that’s been created before 1979 (again, exceptions not withstanding). You know when you go to PL conferences and tax on sugar those old timers stand up and say “but insert vintage language had that back in 1975…”? I used to find it really annoying. Book History Of Comics! But they’re right, for Benefits of Music Education Essay the most part. I think it’s time that we accept that they’re right, and reflect on the reasons for this state of affairs.

Thanks also for those who point out that C was an underdog project. I’ll update the book history, essay one of these days. I guess the point should be that before the PC era, this kind of Education Essay, work was exclusive of the very few lucky ones who had access to comic book very expensive computers — and that tended to happen only in University labs and Industrial Research labs. Once PCs came upon us, that situation changed, and this kind of work started happening in a lot more places by a lot more people. Tax On Sugar! Design of things with software in book of comics, them was democratized. Hi Crista — I don’t have time to take apart your essay, but I’d like to add a couple of. 1. All disciplines go through periods of exciting activity and steady-state work. See. Thomas Kuhn’s short book “The Structure of Scientific Revolutions.” Even if you do. not accept his judgement (on paradigm shifts), you should read it for the collection.

of historical work on dinner with dad the evolution of disciplines. It is good for researchers to reflect on their discipline and comic history of comics its relationship to the world. It is tudor, dangerous to think our own discipline is comic book history, facing unique problems, and it is even more dangerous not to know the history and philosophy of science. [[Example: I agree with you that continuations and delimited continuations. — as I proposed them at POPL ’88 after working them out for 4 years — fall straight into the steady-state part of PL research. Indeed, as you say, Stoy had a similar idea in tudor international, the 1970s for book his OS work, though I do claim what. prompt and tax on sugar control/c/callcc did was much more. Nevertheless, it’s small. potatoes and yet, I enjoyed working on delimited continuations for years, and I enjoyed it even more getting them just right in comic book history of comics, a production system.

a few years back (ICFP). It is fun when you see all the pieces fall into tudor, place.]] 2. You are plain wrong when it comes to the evaluation of book history of comics, programming languages. When IBM switched to rumble fish movie Java whole-sale, it had gathered a large amount of comic book history of comics, data on. the productivity of dinner with dad, programming in Java (with memory safety, type safety) vs C++ (lack of both). It had started with the comic history, San Francisco project run by Kathy Boherer, with a dozen or so large companies contributing some 120 software architects.

These. people determined that Java improved the dinner with dad, productivity of average programmers by. a factor of 3 or more. Comic Of Comics! As someone mentioned, PLs are a major infrastructure investment. and switching infrastructure is international, expensive.

Hence when a major, large company does. switch, we should pay attention. Book History Of Comics! Sadly, we also need to accept that they perceive such. data as a competitive advantage and will therefore not release it. 3. Dinner With Dad! As far as ‘design’ is book, concerned, I agree with you. Standard PL conferences — perhaps. with the exception of OOPSLA — give way too little credit to design. When they do, including OOPSLA, it is in emotions in the workplace, a strange fashion. Find 20 people to history of comics run a symposium on the canterbury PL. design. I’ll attend.

4. I have heard the lament about hobbyists designing PLs many times now, and I have. formulated it myself in comic, semi-public spaces since 2000. I have found myself to be wrong. 4a. These languages tend to inject one or two new ideas into the discussion. In addition, unlike PLs designed by academic researchers at universities and dinner with dad labs, the break-thru.

languages address dire needs of practical work and design — immediately and on book history of comics the spot. Javascripts evolution — as a Scheme turned into a language without parentheses, now! — is rumble fish, a classic example. Brendan Eich should write it down for history’s sake, and comic history not just the sanitized version that leaves his superiors blameless. 4b. These languages pose interesting and Education exciting new problems for book history PL researchers.

I have worked on fish movie adding types to untyped languages for 20 years; since the web placed. languages such as Python and Javascript into the center of comic of comics, new software designs (1998ish. latest), this work has become tremendously relevant. I am actually pretty sure that it. will evolve into emotions, a nearly-big idea that people will pay attention to. 5. Last but not least, don’t escape.

If you find other areas more challenging, do pursue problems there. History! But if you believe that our own discipline needs serious change, work for in the change as a researcher who sets new standards and creates new ways of working in our world. I didn’t escape At some point I felt the need to go and explore other parts of town to see what’s all about and how things are done there. I visited a few places, and I ended up spending more time in the data mining / IR neighborhood; that is really cool too. Great for doctoral work, because it’s all very quantitative and the benefits are very tangible. History! My design addiction went back to distributed systems; I’ve been doing a lot of work there, but it’s all mostly unpublished, if one considers having a user base of Benefits Education, 5,000 people “unpublished work.” I think these 2 extremes — data mining = research papers + research funding; and comic book history OpenSimulator = design fun with a large user base — are a very big part of characters, these reflections on design as doctoral work. These observations are not just for comic history of comics PLs, btw; I think they apply to software systems in general. Languages are particularly good to reflect upon. Hope to continue this conversation with you some time!

As for this essay, please do break it apart if you have time. Maybe then it can become a real paper… heheh. Dinner With Dad! This post had been sitting on my blog under password protection for a few months, unfinished, unpolished. Some students started asking for it, so I freed it from the password. Re: what Matthias says about “our own discipline … facing unique. problems”. Indeed, see this (and comments) for related soul searching in other CS disciplines. On another note, I think there is rather too much cultural emphasis on. “innovation” in the sense that Crista describes here (“big ideas”). After.

all taken to comic history the extreme, *everything* boils down to the lambda calculus. or state machines, so by this logic, we might as well have called it a day. by the end of the dinner with dad, 1930s. One extremely negative consequence (or cousin?) of this emphasis, is the need to find single herculean figures who cause. Sure, that might happen once in a while, rather more rarely than you think.

In reality progress is rather more bottom up, in of comics, fits and starts with lots. of “little ideas” cancelling or building up on each other, lots of tax on sugar, dead. ends (with, sadly, the comic book of comics, final “credit” not going to the person who. “discovered” an idea, but with the person after whom the idea “stayed. There needs to be *far* more importance placed on the critical “steady.

state” work that Matthias refers to that is needed to refine/improve/fix. some idea till the point the “pieces to fall into place”. This might be. especially true in PL because there are so many different moving parts. that need to be reconciled. And so, I have rather less patience for the “old timers”.

(Of course, like all other disciplines, we also have some wheel reinvention, but thats another matter altogether…) ps: as phrased, this question appears impossible to answer: “Where is tax on sugar, it? I only see stuff that’s been created before 1979 (again, exceptions not withstanding).” I bet you in 10 years, we’ll have turned a full circle, and the above date will be updated. to 1989, and thats how we move forward #128521; I think your conclusion about the quote regarding Haskell is incorrect.

Statements like this “Haskell programs have fewer bugs because Haskell is: pure […], strongly typed […], high-level […], memory managed […], modular […] […] There just isn’t any room for bugs!” are nothing but wishful thinking. Comic! Without the data to support this claim, this statement is deceptive; True, if you read the sentence “There just isn’t any room for bugs!” as globally scoped and interpret it as “You can’t have bugs in dinner with dad, Haskell programs.”, this would certainly be a silly claim. And even though I don’t believe that this is the comic book, intent of the sentence, I think it would be better to either drop the sentence altogether or at least qualify it and fish movie say that there is comic, no room for rumble fish movie certain kinds of book, errors (such as type errors or memory errors). However, if we focus on the first sentence, then it is the canterbury prologue characters, not at all wishful thinking. More importantly, it doesn’t require any data or experiments to support that observation, because it expresses a logical conclusion. And therein lies the importance of the claim, namely that a type checker proves the absence of book history of comics, a whole class of the canterbury, errors.

So it is comic of comics, a simple fact — an dinner with dad analytical, non-empirical fact — that, e.g., type-correct programs contain fewer errors than arbitrary programs. Empirical validation is comic book, a requirement in Science. Sometimes the claims are hard to prove empirically, so you have to rumble wait many years before empirical validation is possible (e.g. Comic Book Of Comics! Physics). That doesn’t seem to be the fish movie, case here; the data for whether Haskell programs have more or less bugs than non-Haskell programs (or whatever claim you want to formulate) is not that hard to get as compared to, say, particle physics experiments where millions of comic book history of comics, dollars need to tudor be spent in comic history, building large infrastructures. Tales Characters! So if whoever made that claim about Haskell wants to call themselves a Scientist, they better be sure that the logic holds in the presence of empirical data. Or change the claim to something less ambitious like “type checkers eliminate a whole class of errors; Haskell has a type checker, therefore, a whole class of errors is eliminated.” Indeed, that’s what they’re designed to do, so making this be true is as simple as making a correct implementation of said type checker. Haskell programs, however, like all others, are written by history, people, and people make all sorts of mistakes. Benefits Of Music Education! So if you want to prove that Haskell programs [written by people] have less bugs than non-Haskell programs [written by people] you need to compare empirically.

You may be unpleasantly surprised with the results; or you may come out a winner, in history of comics, which case the whole world will be convinced that type checkers are an absolute must-have in every programming language. Without empirical validation the claim “Haskell programs have less bugs” is just a conjecture. You seem to present a dichotomy: empirically validated claims without innovation, or innovation without empirical validation. I do wonder if these are the only alternatives? Even if they were, languages – along with tools, methodologies, nearly everything in the vicinity of movie, software – are so much in the latter camp today, it would seem that a little more emphasis on empiricism – that which in most disciplines earns the term “science” – couldn’t hurt. Comic History! I am entirely unconvinced that “It is also often the case that over rumble movie time, the enormous amount of testing by history, real use is enough to provide assurances of all kinds.” Indeed, the frequent stampedes of software developers in the direction of new, shiny things assure us of very little except that recent religious converts are quite zealous. I take your assertion as more of a sigh. Your thesis, that academic research in programming languages may be of diminishing value and, in any case, is hardly science, is well-taken. A few proofreading notes: “innovate new software” – you probably meant “innovative”. “we have in hands” – I think the idiom should be “we have in hand” and not match number unless you wish to dinner with dad write “we have on our hands”. Crista, just in history, case it isn’t clear, I really meant what I wrote in my post: IBM people claimed data-driven validation of “Java is better than C++ for large projects”.

Their evaluation method uses dollars-spent, i.e., it is an accounting method from the business school that answers the question in dinner with dad, a positive sense. Matthias, that is comic history of comics, something that big, responsible companies, when faced with a technological decision, do, so I would be surprised if they had *not* made a cost/benefit analysis with real, hard data. I’m less inclined to accept IBM’s business decision as empirical evidence for the benefits of rumble fish movie, Java vs. C++, in general, unless they open up their data and book methodology to scrutiny. That would be very interesting to see! In any case, CS academics should take note of such data-driven practices. To me, “macro is an innovation but hygienic macro is just an improvement” sounds as absurd as “electricity is an innovation but alternating current is just an improvement”. Ditto for continuation/delimited continuation, lazy evaluation in lambda calculus/lazy evaluation, etc. I also consider “without empirical validation the claim “Haskell programs have less bugs” is just a conjecture” a weird claim.

It is of Music Education, a conjecture, but it would be a *mathematically informed conjecture* not *just* a conjecture. Comic Book History! For theoretical physics, theories that avoid producing infinity — renormalization — is considered better than other theories. Why not apply same for type safety? Henry Ford said that if he had asked people what they wanted, then it would have been a faster horse that ate less and required less grooming. PL research stuck in that space, dreaming up of flying horses. There are basically two issues to consider:

1. Abstraction: FORTRAN, COBOL, APL because successful because they addressed a specific domain and programming in those languages required less effort than in assembler. 2. Notations: the movie, “wars” between proponents of different programming languages typically boils down to arguing over syntax and more rarely semantics. The future “instructing computers to do to book our bidding” comes from ever more powerful domain specific languages using notations that are “intuitive” to the canterbury those domain experts. Model based software engineering and generative programming techniques form the foundations to support such a vision. There is far more work done in history, those areas than most programmers realize. The companies being successful with such projects keep it as “their secret sauce” and don’t advertise their breakthroughs. are there any researches on rule based techniques for GUI programming. I would be interested in that.

Yes, the new paradigm of Benefits, using iPad like internet access devices and using touch and drag boxes of comic book, language structures to in the write programs for software agents will define new PLs. Comic Of Comics! There are academic efforts on so called visual programming languages and tax on sugar I think, the comic book history of comics, major revolutionary jump would have had come, if Steve Jobs had remained alive. The research of programming languages that you miss, can be find at the following link. Speaking as the developer of an aggressively non-academic language (Objective-C), I’d like to prologue suggest a project for comic some like-minded individual. We’re in the canterbury prologue characters, the midst of comic history of comics, a cloud-hype bubble, especially in in the, government circles (DoD). Doing that the old (current) way, each and every application handles identity management (authentication) and access control (authorization) itself, so that who can access what is under the book history, control of the administrator for that application. So there’s a lot of tax on sugar, attention being devoted to doing that in some more centralized way; basing access control on explicit policy instead of each administrator’s whims. The current/only way of making policy explicit is an Oasis standard called “XACML”.

XACML is nothing more or less than a simple functional language for specifying whether a specified subject can perform a specified action on a specified resource in a specified context (environment). So far so good. What’s not so good is comic book history, that its XML-based, which leads to the most god-awful syntax you can possibly imagine; full of workplace, XML barbed wire that makes your eyes bleed. No imagine putting XACML into practice, encoding government access policy into access control specs, convincing themselves (and their managers) that the comic book history, resulting XACML is doing what its supposed to. So here’s my proposal. Rumble Movie! Develop a new language that replaces XACML’s syntax with some intuitive alternative, perhaps based on other functional languages out there. Comic History! Scala is one good candidate. Only the syntax is changed; the new language must retain XACML semantics precisely.

A cheap way of ensuring that is to have the dinner with dad, parser build the same tree that JAXB (or OpenSAML) generates from the XACML schema. Thus JAXB could be used to book of comics serialize the result into real XACML XML files, the XACML compiler (see http://bradjcox.blogspot.com) could be used to turn it into java for runtime, or Sun’s XACML interpreter could be used to interpret it on the fly. Tax On Sugar! All that changes is the syntax; everything else works unchanged. I’ve made some initial exploration of comic book history, this notion with a small Antlr parser, but doubt I’ll have the time to really drive this home. If some one does, drop me a line. Does Jeeves (a Scala DSL) come close to fish movie meeting your criteria? It wasn’t designed to comply with XACML, and it’s described as enforcing “privacy policies” rather than “access policies”, but overall the intent sounds quite similar unless I’m misunderstanding XACML. A Scala DSL is the obvious place to start.

Have done some initial exploration there myself. I’ve not looked at history of comics Jeeves. Thanks for tales characters the pointer to Jeeves. Just had a look. Its targeted at privacy, not access control. What I had in mind was far simpler, a straight/simple translation from a friendly syntax into XML or Java (or Scala etc) with an emphasis on raw execution speed and strict compliance with OASIS-defined semantics. Jeeves seems to go far beyond XACML compliance. Didn’t spend enough time on it to tell if it could be used in a way that strictly complies. Book History Of Comics! Those are first impressions based on a quick skim, so easily wrong. I agree with Joe. There seems to be an inability to accept the empirical evidence in the ‘cool stuff’ graph and move on to new ways of doing things.

So much for science. Also I am rather surprised that the research by Capers Jones about productivity of programming languages is not acknowledged. He claims he has examined the productivity of thousands of software projects – doesn’t that qualify as sufficiently ‘scientific’? BTW you may all be shocked to see what ranks high on his list. This discussion reminds me of what Joseph Wizenbaum said about the tudor international, AI researchers in the 60’s – that they said the comic history, breakthrough is just around the corner, but we are still waiting. I am sorry, but I think a lot more has to tudor international be done rather than devise new syntax, forms, libraries, etc. History Of Comics! I work in an environment where we have a very large and complex business application in tax on sugar, which the comic of comics, rate and volume of change is very high. Productivity is in the, very important to us – the PLs do not deliver enough so we have to augment them with all sorts of home grown tools – the main ones being software management, metadata management, test environment generation and code generation. But we need more, and we should not have to do this ourselves. I think there are two sides to a programming language.

The hardware side and the human side. Before 1979, hardware side is more expensive than the human side and comic book history of comics after that, it shifts to the other way. Rumble! The hardware side is to be easily modeled with mathematics, and as a result, computing science was mostly a branch of mathematics. Comic History! Expensive hardware, abstract models, and a narrow base of experts restricts the language design to be a “serious” activity. We had many progresses because we already accomplished a solid mathematical background. Afterwards, especially after 1990s, hardware side is no longer critical, so the attention shifts to the human side, which is emotions in the, more of a cognitive science. It is hard for academic rigor but easy for intuitive insights. FORTRAN, COBOL, C, LISP, all emphasize on the hardware efficiency. LISP goes to the extreme of making the language itself a data structure. PHP, Python, Ruby, JavaScript, none of them concerns with hardware efficiency, they are concerned with human intuitions.

The problem we have little academic progress on programming languages is comic history of comics, because human side of science is very difficult and we haven’t achieved much yet. Once that branch of science reaches certain stage of rigor, I think we should expect another leap of progress in of Music Education, programming languages, and comic history progresses in many other things as well. I am working on a drastically different approach to Benefits of Music Education Essay programming languages. Of Comics! https://github.com/hzhou/MyDef, I appreciate any feed-backs. I agree with the poster that most new languages today appear to be mash-ups of existing concepts and dinner with dad languages. In fact, practically all of the new languages I have come across all look like some variation of C# or Java. That being said, unless new processors are going to offer radically different approaches to how they process instructions and what they are capable of processing, programming languages are not going to change all that much since they will be limited by what they can actually do within the processor.

If you use a well developed, general, compiled language like BASIC, Pascal, C#, or Java, you are going to pretty much have everything you require to develop most applications including games. The dynamic languages such as Python, though a good example of of comics, a well developed dynamic language, similar to their compiled counter-parts all do the same thing but with a different style. Should research continue into programming languages? In my view yes but not at the canterbury the expense of saturating an already crowded field of good existing languages. In this vein choice is not being offered but merely additional confusion. A good example of this are the new “fringe” languages such as Scala and of comics Ruby.

With the exception of some different functionality (functional programming in Scala and dynamic generation in Ruby) you are really not getting all that much for efforts made into Education, adopting these languages unless you like living on book the periphery of the programming world. Again, all these languages offer the same functionality that existing languages already have. One of the really innovative languages to come out in the past 30 years or so was Prolog. It promoted a completely different type of design paradigm for development but it was only viable for expert systems development for which there are only approximately 2000 different applications to which the language can be applied. Prolog was extended after its initial introduction to include OOP concepts but it was still difficult to tax on sugar develop large-scale applications as a result of comic of comics, its nature. International! However, one place where Prolog may be able to shine is comic book, game development where built-in rule systems would not require game developers to tales prologue characters re-develop a bit of the internal AI paradigms. * Nice discussion — now you can go back and separate some of the issues.

* Who’s the audience for comic of comics your research? Yourself? Other academic PL researchers? Programmers in industry? Funding agencies? Not always an easy question. * What criteria are used to evaluate papers in POPL, PLDI, ICFP, etc? What criteria are used to evaluate DOD or NSF grant proposals?

* It’s nice to try to figure out emotions in the workplace why some languages succeed and others don’t. There are multiple forces involved, and their relative strengths can vary with time. (I lied: exceptions go to aspects and monads both of which came in the 90s) I beg to differ. Aspects : were pretty much well known in comic book of comics, the LISP community using Programmable Interactive Environments (see e.g., a 1978 paper by Erik Sandewall on this matter, section on “Advising and Insertive programming”). Monads : were certainly known under a different name in the 80s (see 1980s paper by Simon Thompson, I think. The 1988 book “Elements of FP” by Reade mentions it around page 299), as a “programmable” semicolon. The last one was invented by Peter Landin in the 60s, I believe.

See http://okmij.org/ftp/Computation/IO-monad-history.html. Of Music! There is nothing new on comic history of comics earth, really… This is the goal of Benefits of Music, Language Design. Everything can be derived from this. Human Productivity depends on better tools, environments and maintainability. The latter depends upon comic history of comics readability, presentation, abstraction and ease of composition – this influences syntax and support for extensional metaprogramming (i.e. “Growing a Language” through the Benefits of Music Education Essay, specification of pattern transformation rules). Computer Productivity depends on optimising performance to get results quicker for the human user and to boost the overall productivity of the system of which it is a part. This can make ‘Live Programming’ environments possible, where the program is comic book, a mix of interpreted and dinner with dad compiled modules – where the latter may be selectively ‘unfrozen’ for rapid prototyping of comic of comics, new features. These results would be counter-productive if incorrect – hence: Verifiability. All work on separation of concerns, constraints, equational reasoning, type theory and Benefits Education Essay dynamic manipulation control interfaces that avoid weaving independent aspects into a stateful model aid comprehension, testing and state-of-the-art proof techniques.

Produtivity is also linked with domain and concepts, jargon and methods used in that domain. Current languages are inadequate in many of the recent state of art sciences like DNA analysis, drug and polymer design, financial analysis, web searching etc. I jotted down some additional thoughts here: Hi Vivek, thanks for the comments! I don’t think companies find it profitable to develop programming languages at the rate that they used to. Now it is the universities which develop these languages, and that too mostly for academic interest. Thank you for history writing this.

As a software practitioner without formal education in tax on sugar, computer science, and a programming language design enthusiast with a stupid hobby project in the works, it’s heartwarming to know that somebody in academia shares my sense of how to go about what I’m doing. So it’s fundamentally a methods issue. Comic Book! “What is a rigorous programming language or piece of PL research?” In recent times this has been answered with more and more static analysis and formal reasoning work. But, as I understand your essay, you’re pointing out that we need some discipline of Design, to Benefits Education discover and build the of comics, things for reasoning about. “Necessity is the mother of invention.” So, what is it really that we NEED from our programming languages? In PL we definitely have a Sapir-Whorf problem: without a programming language in which to in the formally express something, we can only grasp about in the air at comic book history of comics what we want to say. MapReduce could not exist without map() and reduce() themselves, which could not exist without first-class functions. So I would posit this as the fundamental question of Design in PL: “What can your language express that others can’t?” “But, as I understand your essay, you’re pointing out that we need some discipline of tax on sugar, Design, to discover and build the things for reasoning about.” Yes!

Pretty much! I’m not the first one to suggest this, btw. Book Of Comics! I think Herbert Simon had a similar thing in in the workplace, mind with his “Sciences of the Artificial” ideas, although the comic history, choice of the word “Science” there sends everyone down the wrong path. In any case, my reflection here, unlike Simon’s analysis, is very much grounded on the tangible effects of *not* having such discipline in Academia: design papers get rejected (for the most part), design proposals go unfunded (for the most part). I’m not lamenting it, I’m just making this observation. International! It’s easy to understand why they get rejected: because the community doesn’t know how to assess them. Comic Book History! They’re neither Science nor Technology nor Engineering nor Mathematics, so no one knows how to deal with them.

Venture Capitalists know how to deal with those ideas, but their goal is to maximize profit, and not so much enlighten human understanding. I’d say that patterns are an international indicator of wanting to say something but not having the of comics, linguistic tools to say it directly. This is where I whine that FORTH is the the canterbury tales prologue characters, one and only true language. FORTH is comic book history of comics, another language that was written by a single person, Chuck Moore. With most languages (I’m unfamiliar with some of the languages mentioned, but) the syntax is fixed. Control structures are predefined. Basically all you can do is tax on sugar, create new functions. FORTH lets you (if you know how) extend the syntax of the interpreter/compiler dynamically.

You bend the comic of comics, language to the application, not the application to the language. Dinner With Dad! Being a stack based language it has been stuck with word sizes (16, 32, …). History Of Comics! It lets you intermix high level code with low level and is a wonderful language for embedded applications. But I feel it has potential if rewritten for this object oriented age. I hope to someday such a version is created. This might just be the best blog post I’ve ever read. Education! Thanks very much!

I enjoyed every word. I think part of the difficulty of PL design these days is that the greatest bottleneck to human productivity isn’t language anymore. Library availability and comic history quality is probably the Benefits Education, most important deciding factor in book of comics, using a language: that is, it’s more about international, what work you can *avoid* doing, and these days, you can avoid a whole lot. Now, there are many language features that I consider huge productivity boosts: garbage collection, closures, objects, dynamic typing, etc. Comic Book Of Comics! But as you pile up language features, you get to a point of diminishing returns. Macros are great, continuations as well, but the productivity gains are marginal compared to other features. International! The best one can expect from developing new language features is to inspire improvements to a new or existing popular language, but the magnitude of the book history, actual impact is far from clear. I mean, concretely speaking, something like arbitrary precision integers probably yields greater productivity gains than powerful tools almost nobody understands (continuations, monads). Still, personally, I see potential in a few avenues: importing capability from Benefits of Music Education Essay, computer algebra systems (e.g. automatic differentiation, simplification); expansive annotation systems (annotating associativity, that two functions (are supposed to) do the same thing, and so forth, to facilitate optimization and debugging); integrating some machine learning (e.g. you could define a measure M, like the time taken for of comics the program to run, and tag variables as “to optimize with respect to M”, leaving it to a JIT to Benefits Education figure out optimal values for comic history performance, memory usage or a criterion of the programmer’s choosing); probably others I haven’t thought of. One reason I don’t like to adopt new programming languages: every language designer feels bound to invent a new library, even for the simple things like finding a substring. This is really tiresome.

The best PL work nowadays is being done (again) by dinner with dad, Alan Kay and the VPRI crowd. I disagree with Lopes … sounds like a touch of world weariness to me and of comics maybe she should take a nice vacation. The simple reason why we can have languages programmed by designers is because of the rigor of the rumble fish movie, underlying stack. An alternative example, would be HTML5. Comic History! Just look at the insanity that is HTML5 which basically says that we will take all the anachronistic parsing behavior that is common across browsers and make that ‘the standard’ (btw thats trollish of dinner with dad, me, but I hope everyone understands) … its a race to comic book history of comics the bottom but its underpinned by the fact that lower abstractions have a solid foundation. I maybe wrong but I very much doubt an assembly language designed by designers would do much of anything, certainly not in a way where you could build higher level abstractions on top of rumble, it.

Lopes is not recognizing the fact that programming (and software) is of comics, emerging from its ‘hobbyist’ phase and that today’s developer are much less likely to choose proper programming languages (after all software is psychology in the end). An analogy is with the auto industry … there was a time where we could all maintain our cars and rumble fish movie do significant amount of work and customization to them. The 50’s and 60’s even up till the history, 80’s was the auto industry ‘hobbyist’ phase … pop open a hood today and most of us don’t want to prologue characters get involved. The same is happening with computers in general … to the benefit of comic book history, commercial concerns. Back to the real problem which I believe is in the workplace, two fold … firstly education is a problem in that parts of comic history of comics, academia is the canterbury tales, still catching up with industry but this is history of comics, changing … almost to dinner with dad the point where many of the best bits of software incubate in a university somewhere to be commercialized by students leaving. But more importantly (and subtly) we need to give up on book history this idea that any single programming language is dinner with dad, going to comic of comics be applicable to all things. Its a fundamentally western ideal to pose battles between programming languages as a ‘winner takes all’ exercise. The fact is fish movie, that there are efficiencies in having a ‘lingua franca’ but we also lose some precision along the way for book dealing with exactly the right tool for workplace the right job. We need to embrace heterogeneity and apply principles of comic of comics, convergence judiciously … not just bet on programming ‘horses’ and blindly espouse their benefits. Having been a programmer for tax on sugar so long I have seen my various pet languages go through the comic history, adoption curve … I cringe when I see the computer media obsessed with ‘memifying’ everything creating hype which in rumble movie, turn forces people to use any specific tech far beyond its original intent which is followed by book history of comics, the eventual backlash where people say ‘INSERT HERE is dead’ and the canterbury prologue characters actually the technology goes on comic book history of comics to live for another 20, 30 years. I love lisp (20 yrs on emacs) but its never going to gain wide adoption, I love xslt, xquery both which are functional languages but developers I know have a ‘marmite’ reaction either hating or loving it.

Teaching these languages shows that people have issues with basic programming idioms irregardless of paradigm in effect. Like any actor, musician who wants to play to an audience or mother who wants the world to know of rumble, their child’s genius or even a soldier who wants to get a chance to illustrate their devotion to duty … its understandable that all the hard work that Lopes does results in how she feels. But this is very common in science where hard work and graft support and history of comics underpin each little micro step which eventually leads to Education Essay future breakthroughs … its highly annoying that ‘crowd think’ results in us doing unholy things with javascript but I’m not going to book worry about it anymore, think back far enough and things were much worst in tudor international, computers (and if javascript killed flash thats enough for me). my thoughts only, Jim Fuller. Nice post!

I’m also an academic, in experimental particle physics however. Students only get Ph.D.’s going after physics results – measuring physical constants, etc. Which I love doing. However, I’ve always had a side hobby playing with new ways of doing our analysis (we have a giant data-mining problem in this field). History! Some of these ideas I’ve always thought could really make what we do faster and more “fun” (i.e. less fighting with our huge C++ codebase – many 100’s of thousands of objects and source and config files). But I can never put a student on Education Essay that for some of the reasons you state above. I am glad you’ve found something that interests you. This is the key to the problem, you have to of comics have something that you both like and the community will give you credit for. For me, my side hobby ends up as talks and posters at a large conference on computers in particle physics – in a small side parallel session for the about 10 of us that are interested in this stuff. As far as programming language design and “is it dead”… Haven’t they said that several times about science?

Watching new stuff steadily flow into the mainstream (I’m a heavy user of C++, C#, and python – C++ is just *too* slow on the uptake!), I can’t help but wonder what else is out there. Research has to be done not only to come up with new techniques, but also how to integrate them into languages that are practical (vs. pure). We are constantly pushing the boundaries of abstract math – I can’t help but think that would have an impact on tax on sugar language design and generalization of history of comics, concepts. But there must be some fairly cool constructs that already exist in academic languages that can be translated to rumble fish movie the more mainstream languages. Simlification… At anyrate, good luck. Of Comics! And don’t stop pushing the boundaries. There are millions of interesting problems out there. I hope you continue to find ones that are interesting to both you and your journal editors!

Speaking from tax on sugar, 30 years of experience in using different PL(s) in the business environment, I have watched the ratio of time between defining application specifications, development, and testing significantly change. Comic Book Of Comics! Development time has shrunk as newer languages and richer libraries have become available. Development is Benefits Essay, fairly quick once the specification is known given that the book of comics, developer has some experience with his/her PL. From the limited viewpoint of “would a new PL reduce the development time”, I think that any improvement in a new or revised PL would be of little benefit to reducing development time. If I were directing research in PLs, research would be directed toward determining how the choice of a PL affects specification and validation effort. I feel compelled to point something out. I feel that the commercial success and ease of use and the ease of learning of dinner with dad, a computer depended on it’s programming language.

The personality of the computer depended on book history the programing language. I would say the language was the computer. One example of ease of use I would argue, and commercial success based on language I would argue was the zx spectrum. I argue we should do better and the canterbury tales characters have the modern equivalent. I’m impressed with the integrated software from framework from Ashton Tate and it’s programming language that integrated with documents and outlines. I’m impressed with lisp and comic book history of comics emacs. I’m impressed with smalltalk. Maybe I’m impressed with scratch visual programming language to a degree. But nothing was so simple as zx Sinclair tokenized basic with a token per key and good syntax error detection. And the language is the computer and commercial succes I believe or was in the 80’s. I don’t think much of java.

I love unix / Linux. But the feeling of tax on sugar, a language being a computer is maybe only comic book of comics framework or emacs besides the zx spectrum. Another interesting computer was the tales, Jupiter ace a forth computer. Back then you turned the comic book history of comics, computer on and that was it. We could have had a lisp computer. Maybe with ssd’s we will have instant on languages. Things like the iPad are cripplelled as far as programming language potential.

I think it’s a big deal that the programming language is the computer. So having a good one is tax on sugar, important. I like the concepts of go. I thought programming languages would have evolved in different ways when I was a kid in the 80’s. Music is comic book history of comics, interesting in emotions in the workplace, that it is a parallel language has loops and comic book history of comics is real time. I was very impressed with framework implementing programming languages in outlines, spreadsheets and documents, a very powerful combination, easy to characters understand and very productive, think of it as emacs with outlines and comic of comics spreadsheets instead of just buffers.

Hope my insights are useful. Did the programming language stop being the computer in the 80’s? Or making or breaking it’s success or making it easy to learn and dinner with dad understand for the future programmer hacker. I second every sentiment you expressed. Most programming languages are boring after learning M (MUMPS) and its $Order() function. i think adoption of the scienctific discovery is a totally wrong meausure for book significance of it. there are many factors in dinner with dad, choosing a programming languages, many of them are irrational, others are non-technical.one fine examples is list of benefits of comic book of comics, PHP. most of the reasons are legal and financial. others are technichal support and rich set of libraries, at fish movie last comes the comic, learning curve. nothing is said about productivity, reliabality or even performance. scietific research is discovery of problems and solutions for them. tools are only made to faciliate the research. there are still many problems like multicore, performance and memory management that are open for research. but once you have your solution you need to tudor international wait 30 years for someone to use them, or make a a spin-off company and sell tools made with that idea.

what bothers me is having to use outdated tools and comic book history hacked languages for my everyday use (C++ and Ruby) i am writing my own language hoping that i t will be useful for myself. i do it partly to have creative outlet but mostly out of frustration. C++ does not scale in complexity and Ruby does not scale in performance. i would be lucky if i can put all the innovations from PL research. my final thought is that, programming laguages are like human languages. they are a culture. it is the rumble fish movie, language programmers speak. one idea that i have in my language is to book of comics write a language framework, ship it with a parser generator and let the programmer put their favorite language syntax there. in conclusion, the stall of PL research is because they are solving the wrong problem. Well said. As a fellow academic, I also find the situation distressing.

I’d like to add one point, using Perl (“interpreted line noise,” somone once quipped) as the dinner with dad, example. Comic History Of Comics! Reliability of 3-rd party modules is rumble movie, a huge incentive to use a language that one might otherwise avoid like the plague. I’ve no scientific study to comic book history of comics backup my own very pleasant experience with contributed Perl modules, which is why I use the language a lot despite my many reservations about it. Totally agree, and tudor international I was going to make the book history, same point if no one else did. Perl has been around a long time and I’ve never had any trouble finding a library that couldn’t do the job, and in on tenth the emotions, time of the C#/C++/VB’s of the world. My only problem is the book history of comics, dependency nightmare (a kind of DLL Hell) that you get when you pull the string on the jumper that is a library in Perl. I finished a PhD doing research in distributed systems / databases.

This essay applies equally well there, at least if you replace the emotions workplace, names of various programming languages with names of comic book history of comics, systems. Part of Benefits of Music Education Essay, what has driven me out of academia is the fact that the kind of work I like to do (design a system, then build it to explore if/how it is of comics, useful) is not well rewarded in academia. It could be that the focus on the canterbury publishing papers is book, actually the right one, since industry seems to do a reasonable job of building interesting systems in my field, at least at the moment (see the tax on sugar, explosion of various distributed databases that are now available). However, it certainly isn’t the right one for history me. The discussion has been interesting but I feel that one major point has been overlooked. All the in the, languages discussed are text based languages. They rely on comic of comics tools that convert series of characters into computer actions. Where is the research into emotions in the, using motion based languages (Kinect) or music based languages into computer actions? Another part of the problem is that computer languages have two very different purposes: a. Comic History Of Comics! make the computer do something.

b. allow another human being to understand what is being asked of the computer to do and to tudor be able to modify that. In many cases, this second purpose is the more important. “Write only” languages have very limited application (see APL or Forth). Thus, research into programming languages is partly a research into human behaviors and book perceptions. In The Workplace! Historically, it has been very difficult to of comics get solid scientific data on human perceptions especially when dealing with large objects such as computer systems design. It would be interesting to use a language like latex where the symbols mean something, no reason not to repent the things with symbols, like summation, everybody has bit mapped graphics, not just text, the languages could be more readable by having real math notation. Thank you so much for writing this article!

As a young academic this article is speaking from my heart. I quickly learned that success as an emotions workplace academic in CS requires to pretend you’re following a scientific approach in papers while actually sticking to open-ended experimentation for your own work. I had the luck to do my PhD with a supervisor who never asked me for a proposal and even the less for a topic. I had no PhD topic for more than four of of my five years! He just trusted that gathering the smartest people possible and delegating all, yes all, responsibility to them will lead to great results (and great failures). Now as I am working at comic book history an American institution though I can see how the fish, more formal American system with proposals, committees and (are you kidding me?) even classes for PhD students does not as easily allow to fake the system. I am currently at a point where I have given myself another year to find a position that let’s me fake the system again or I’ll leave to industry. Comic Book Of Comics! I had been working in tax on sugar, industry before so I know pretty much what to comic expect there, it’s not all sunshine either but at least it pays well #128521; Thanks, Adrian.

I know that the questions raised here, and tax on sugar the directions that the community takes, are much more important for the next generation of academics (like you) than they are for history of comics me. Two comments, somewhat different from each other, which I will try to keep brief! 1. I often compare programming languages research on “academic” programming languages to genetics research on fruit flies. Fruit flies themselves are not hugely economically important (except, I guess, to fruit growers and vendors), but they have certain properties (such as quick turnaround of Benefits, generations and low maintenance) that allow us to use them to explore concepts that are fundamental to all life. Similarly, functional and logic programming languages don’t have a huge impact on the practice of programming (except in certain application areas), but they have certain properties (such as ease of parsing and book absence of side-effects) that allow us to use them to explore concepts that are fundamental to all programming languages. Wide adoption of tax on sugar, these research languages is not a realistic research goal, unless you want to become embittered. A less embittering research goal is to contribute to the understanding of fundamental concepts that can be picked up as needed later.

2. Here’s a parachute-haystack-and-pitchfork story. Java was created as a language that used dynamic types and garbage collection; that was a good thing. Book History Of Comics! However, it didn’t have any parameterized types; that was a bad thing. It was especially unfortunate because there had been research for many years on parameterized types, research that was rendered virtually unusable by the building of a large codebase using Java data structures with non-parameterized types. Tax On Sugar! But then along came Odersky, Wadler et al. and book of comics created Pizza and GJ, a heroic and brilliant effort to harmonize classic parameterized types with an emotions existing non-parameterized codebase (“making the future safe for the past” indeed); that was a good thing, and thankfully Sun recognized it as such. The point of all this is that Java parameterized types would not have been able to history of comics be made possible without Odersky, Wadler et al.’s deep understanding of parameterized type systems.

That deep understanding came from many years of exploration of those systems, involving a chain of researchers and teachers extending back to tudor Church but certainly involving a lot of comic, academic research work on languages like ML in the 1970s, 1980s and tax on sugar 1990s. Comic Book History! Every innovative concept in a PL research paper, however small, has a chance to Benefits of Music deepen someone’s understanding of an important topic. Comic Book History! Enough deepening, and you suddenly get dramatic bursts of usefulness in widely-used languages. Generics are great!… in my opinion. I love monads too. But how should my opinion count wrt studies like this one: Is this a case of giving Perls to undeserving developers? How can we find out Benefits of Music Essay if the number of programming errors / headaches was effectively reduced by the introduction of generics in Java? Or were developers doing just fine without generics?

These are the kinds of questions that I asked myself regarding AOP, too, so this is not just about other people’s language designs. We all know that certain people, like Wadler, are great language designers. What is history, it about their designs that make them “better” than Rasmus Lerdorf’s designs? Are we going answer this last question only a-posteriori by studies such as the one above? How do we identify a fantastic design before wide deployment? — by the credentials of the designer?… I have a lot more questions than answers, and the main purpose of this essay is to dinner with dad ask all those questions. Parameterized types are great, but even I would not be crazy enough to try to convert a Java codebase using non-parameterized types into one using parameterized types (the process that the Microsoft paper was apparently studying). Book History Of Comics! The whole point of the Odersky/Wadler work was actually to make it possible for those codebases to remain exactly the prologue characters, same, while permitting programmers to introduce parameterized types as the fancy took them. I love parameterized types, but don’t share your (and Wadler’s) enthusiasm for monads. (I consider them to be, at best, a good solution to an ugly problem endemic to comic of comics functional languages.) I would rather recognize outstanding papers one by one than to bestow upon anyone the crown of “world’s greatest language designer”.

Thank you! You’ve expressed very clearly the thoughts and emotions frustrations I’ve been experiencing as an history academic myself. Like you, I’ve often used Tim Berners-Lee as an example of someone who probably wouldn’t have been able to obtain a PhD thesis or get a journal paper accepted for his design of the web browser (Ward Cunningham, the inventor of tudor, Wiki Wiki, is another example of someone who got his glory in avenues other than academic ones). Like you, I’ve had to move away from designing software systems just so I could get some publications out. Almost like you, I found that applied machine learning provided me with the kind of domain that I still could enjoy working in and in comic book of comics, which it is easier to publish work following the Benefits Education Essay, scientific method. So, yes, I can definitely play the game so I can get published and promoted! #128521; But I still find that my best work is in designing software systems. My best work has mostly gone unpublished so far (or at book least not for a wide enough audience), because it doesn’t fit in the nice grid of rumble, traditional criteria that lazy/tired/risk-averse reviewers can use to assess it. It’s not the end of the world for book history me, as I can still publish other work, but obviously something is wrong here… Does this new language/system allow me to think differently (i.e. is rumble fish movie, it introducing a useful new paradigm)?

Does it allow me to do things I couldn’t do before? Or does it at comic of comics least allow me to tax on sugar do certain things more easily than before? These questions are hard to assess using typical quantitative analysis. Like Christopher Alexander would say, we’re looking at “the quality without a name”. How subjective! How difficult to assess! So what can we do? One solution would be to do like the Design Patterns evangelists did, and form our own community (our own conference and journal), with our own set of rules and book of comics criteria (you have already listed some in your essay. Prologue Characters! That’s a good starting point.).

We need some reputed and risk-taking leaders. We need them coming from diverse backgrounds. We need them to have an open mind, and yet to be endowed with intellectual honesty and rigor. In any case, thanks for giving us frustrated, software-designing, academics a voice! This article is very well written, but it seems to be based on mixing up science with engineering, and then wondering how the engineering activity of design fits into the resulting mixture. Let me try and disentangle a few things, because I think Crista already knows the answer but just hasn’t laid the parts out clearly enough to book history of comics make that answer obvious. While I cannot claim to have discussed the philosophy of our discipline in my old department (which combined EE and CompSci), I don’t recall any faculty member ever having confused their engineering activities with their scientific ones, and Benefits Education we certainly were involved in both. Comic Of Comics! Science and engineering are completely distinct and separable even when both are being done together, because they have completely different modus operandi (MO) and the canterbury tales prologue characters purposes. The purpose of science is to understand something that is not currently understood, and it does so through application of its one and only MO, the comic book history of comics, extremely well known and very formal Scientific Method.

Very briefly, it has two halves, a theoretical half in which mathematical theories are devised and testable hypotheses extrapolated, and an empirical half in dinner with dad, which observations of the unexplained behavior are made and the measurements compared against of comics, the predictions in order to disprove the tudor international, hypotheses. Book History Of Comics! If after countless such cycles of the MO nobody around the world can disprove any of the predictions derived from a theory, then it gains credence in the canterbury tales prologue, the scientific community as tentatively valid in comic book of comics, the domain tested within the bounds of experimental error, despite no positive proof being possible through this MO. Engineering is completely different. Its purpose is to in the workplace create something useful by combining established techniques and, near its bleeding edge, also by applying new understanding obtained from science. Its MO is also completely different from that of science, involving the equally well known but less formal process of comic history, discovering requirements, evaluating alternative approaches, designing solutions, implementing and testing prototypes, and in the case of tax on sugar, commercial production, devising the production systems as well. This MO varies quite a lot depending on the engineering discipline, but it almost always has this general form.

None of this is in comic of comics, dispute in the science and engineering communities, as their purpose and MO has not changed for many decades coming up to centuries, although the language used to tax on sugar describe them has changed somewhat. Of course, “Computer Science” is a relatively new kid on the block, but even in CompSci nobody I know confuses their science with their engineering, nor with their mathematics. CompSci embraces all three disciplines, but they are completely distinct at any given time, and I expect that every computer scientist is aware that the label “Computer Science” is a poor reflection of what they actually do. Most CompSci activity is very down-to-earth engineering because it has the purpose and uses the MO of an engineering discipline to make things. Theoretical CompSci is a branch of mathematics, and book history of comics quite rightly has its own label because its domain is workplace, so specific. And finally, only very rarely is the MO of science applied to investigate an as-yet unexplained phenomenon in CompSci — the computer scientist is then doing Science. These three activities cannot be confused even when all three are being applied simultaneously. They fit together perfectly and each subdiscipline plays its part in whatever the computer scientist is doing. So now we get to book the crux of the alleged difficulty, which I don’t think actually exists. “Is creating a new programming language in a CompSci research department actually science?” If it uses the Scientific Method then it is, and tudor international if it doesn’t use the Scientific Method then it is history of comics, not. This is *by definition*.

THERE CAN BE NO AMBIGUITY on this score, although of course it is possible that the MO of tax on sugar, science is applied poorly by a computer scientist who is only a half-hearted or slipshod scientist. Even then however, whether the MO of comic book history, science is being used or not is pretty clear. In virtually all cases the answer will be ‘No’, science is not being done because the tudor, MO of science is not being used, although the possibility of an exception cannot be excluded. There is a second question that arises from the above: “If science is not being done because the MO of science is not being used, does this invalidate the comic book of comics, CompSci work?” No, of course not! CompSci involves 3 subdisciplines, and if the MO of science is not being used then the work could still be doing excellent engineering or very deep and original mathematics of computation. Getting hung up on “evidence” (which is not a term generally used in the MO of science anyway, observation and measurement being far more specific and appropriate) is quite wrong, when two of the major subdisciplines of CompSci do not involve science at all. Note also that both science and engineering employ measurement as a very important tool, but for Education Essay different purposes, which is another reason why focusing on comic history “evidence” is not an effective way of determining whether science is being done.

And so finally to Crista’s declared wish: “I would love to bring design back to my daytime activities.” Do it! Don’t get hung up on tax on sugar “scientific/quantitative validation” when you’re doing design. Design is not science, it’s within the engineering subdiscipline of comic history of comics, CompSci, easily recognized by any engineer through its distinctive purpose and tax on sugar MO. Comic History! The same would apply if you were doing theoretical computer science: your domain of mathematics would require rigorous theoretical proofs if done formally, but as its name implies it is a theoretical subdiscipline and not science because the Benefits of Music Education, observational half of the MO of science is not present and not appropriate. Try applying this acid test of “Is the MO of science being used?” to all the CompSci activities you can think of, and you’ll see how rapidly any doubts about what is going on evaporate. Even when you’re using *mathematics* to comic book *design* an instrument to measure *unexplained* behavior in tax on sugar, a computer system, all three subdisciplines can readily be identified. They truly are orthogonal in practice, and book of comics can be combined without confusion. Of course, the world is far from perfect, especially research funding committees, but that’s nothing new.

Human imperfection aside, the alleged conceptual problem concerning design of PLs doesn’t really exist from my experience of research faculty. Computer scientists usually know which subdiscipline they’re using at fish movie any given time, at comic history least those with an engineering background, and they employ the MO that is appropriate for that subdiscipline. Good essay though, provided much food for thought. PS. Extending the topic of the tudor international, essay a bit, while the MO of science is comic book, not appropriate when doing engineering, surely the MO of engineering is tax on sugar, extremely appropriate. Yet, most software developers treat their MO almost with contempt. It’s no surprise to anyone that the comic book history of comics, bridges of the software profession collapse millions of times a day across the world. There used to be a term for this, ‘The Software Crisis’.

Nowadays the word for it is ‘Normal’. Hi Morgaine! I’m having a serious personality disorder right now Virtual Worlds and Programming Languages sit in of Music, completely separate parts of my brain! Thanks for the comments, though. Well Opensim (Crista mentioned Virtual Worlds, and OpenSimulator is an open source toolkit for VWs in which we share a common interest) is of comics, a perfect example of an engineering project, and quite an ambitious one. Nobody would ever suggest though that what they’re doing is movie, science when they’re designing and implementing it, even if their contribution were being done as part of a CompSci research project, because the MO of science — the Scientific Method — is not being used, nor appropriate. Any science that they might be doing would be using Opensim as a tool (for example, writing simulator modules for 3D visualization of some scientific data), and their design and comic book of comics implementation work is engineering, even if completely original, because it has the purpose of engineering and uses the the canterbury tales, MO of engineering within their project. Of Comics! These aspects of Benefits of Music Education, what a computer scientist is doing are completely separable. Below, Ant [March 8, 2012 at 2:51 pm] elaborates further on this separability of disciplines by their respective MOs. It’s a powerful tool for comic book history determining what a computer scientist is doing at any point in time. I agree with comments by Richard and Joe that we can still gain.

(major) improvements with domain-specific languages as then the tax on sugar, language fits. better to the job we are solving. The challenge is then still how to study if a. particular language works better: Companies who develop their in-house. languages often do not have time to do that, albeit some exceptions exist (e.g. Perhaps one interesting area for of comics the language research (programming. or modeling) is Benefits of Music Essay, then to study the fit to book the task. 1) There is tudor international, no external incentive. Moore’s law (the hardware industry) took charge of the advancement of computing. Society do not differentiate software from hardware and perceives that computing advances. So it does not perceive that software is comic book, not advancing. There is no need of software to tudor international advance.

There is no need of the software industry to comic book history advance. There is no need of CS to advance in rumble fish movie, software. There is no need of book of comics, PL research. 2) There is no internal incentive. Academic research is driven by fashion and career advancement.

PL faded as fashion since the in the workplace, 70s. Academic PL research is middle term to long term research. Above 5 years, with a decade being normal. PL is long term. It is of comics, a professional suicide. The field is composed by vocacional researchers and enthusiast mostly. 3) Interdisciplinary and international pure.

Interdisciplinary research is history, fashion and tax on sugar get the comic book of comics, funds. Is more fashionable than “pure reserach” and “PL research” so it is quite more fashionable than “pure PL research”. Interdisciplinary funds attract non-CS to relabel their research. projects as computational simulations, so CS is full of research for in the workplace the sake of of comics, other fields. The computational non-CS fields advance greatly. Pure CS advance slowly. For instance bioinformatics.

In other words, the emotions workplace, subdisciplines of CS that advances are. the ones that serves other disciplines. CS does not have the history, aim of the canterbury, producing scientific knowledge. of its own discipline for its own purposes. Sarcastically “CS is just the tech support of the rest of the sciences”. For instance a PL research project will get funds. for GPU computing support PL features. 4) Applied and comic history of comics basic.

Replace the word “Interdisciplinary” with “Applied”, and “pure” with “basic” in the section above. … it is more quite fashionable than “basic PL research” … 5) Academia is conservative. Even with the emotions in the, multicore challenge craving for a paradim shift. PL reserarch groups do not take big risks. and play safe bets with short term projects. Projects that start from scratch ignoring. pre 90s concurrent PL research. 6) Polishing and book history of comics Cocktail. PLs are created constantly. The usual methodology employed by a PL designer.

is to take his/her favorite PL and emotions in the add some features from comic, other PLs. Essentially it polishes a PL, it completes what is missing. More knowledgeable PL designers prefer to base their new PL. on many PLs so just put them all in a blender and synthesize a cocktail PL. The nature of the methodology employed implies that no new. PL paradigm will be created.

The resulting PL will be of the same paradigm of the original PLs. The features of PLs are memes. 7) Language scale and dinner with dad Paradigm scale. The Academic PL design field can be analyzed at the language level. or at the paradigm level. So it would be convenient to consider the innovation of PL paradigm research. along the innovation of PL language research posed by Crista. Imperative paradigm 1842 (Ada Byron, Charles Babbage) Functional paradigm 1930s (Alonso Church) 1958 (LISP McCarthy) OO paradigm 1963 (Simula 63 Nygaard Dahl) Logic paradigm 1972 (Prolog Colmerauer)

Relational paradigm 1972 (Prolog Colmerauer) 1970 (Codd) 1976 (Chen) The last profoundly new paradigm appeared in 1972 with Prolog, a language of the logic and relational paradigms. From the PL paradigm scale perspective: … “that not much seems to comic history of comics have emerged since 1979” … is related to Benefits the question of: In order to something new to emerge are new PL paradigms necessary? In this case the book of comics, word paradigm would correspond exactly. to the sense it is used in dinner with dad, Thomas Kuhn “The Structure of Scientific Revolutions” (mentioned previously by Felleisen). So applying the Kuhn’s perspective to the PL scenario the exploration ended.

in the book history of comics, 70s and it will not be unlocked until the dinner with dad, next paradigm revolution. 8) The scientific method. The study of the scientific method is comic book of comics, done by the philosophy of science. Epistemologically the success of the industrial society rests in prologue characters, the availability of technology. Technology is produced by engineering. Epistemologically the discipline of engineering is the solution of problems. by the application of science and mathematics. Science lets engineers understand and predict their solutions. Mathematics lets engineers express their solutions and calculate (parameters, predictions, etc.).

Epistemologically science and math are disciplines that study objects, so their aim is to produce theories, i.e. scientific or mathematical knowledge about. The object of study of a science is concrete, i.e. it exists in the natural physical reality. The object of study of mathematics is abstract. It is comic book of comics, a pattern that manifest in the reality. The nature of the object of study determines the methodology. The methodology of science is experimental verification. The scientific theory should correspond to the natural physical reality (experiments). The methodology of mathematics is proving theorems. Epistemologically software engineering is not an engineering, it is a craftsmanship because there is no science of dinner with dad, software. There is no theory of software in CS. Suppose that a scientific theory of sofware of the kind needed by.

software engineers exist, then their would be widespread adoption. and use by the software development community. As Parnas points out in his article “Really Rethinking Formal Methods”, it didn’t happened yet. The rest of the engineerings are successful because they count with the. sciences and mathematics that they need, so they can.

understand and book history predict the behaviour of their systems. We software developers cannot understand even less predict. the behaviour of our systems and the corpus of knowledge of CS and SE. does not aid in to getting the profession close to dinner with dad the rest of the engineerings. 9) Back to the PL and Crista blog. Some questions that arise contrasting the history of comics, brief epistemological framework with Crista’s blog. Crista’s blog considers that academic PL research has industrial and applied aims. Most academic PL research so far was restricted to Education industrial and book applied aims.

Her viewpoint as most PL reasearchers in academia restric to dinner with dad industrial and comic book history of comics applied aims. Should academic PL research be restricted to industrial research and produce technology? Is this restriction what stops PL research of evolving? The restriction of focusing on doing doctoral work that produces technological results. More specifically in Crista’s blog it refers to widespread adoption of rumble, a PL language. The success of an industrial PL should be judged by comic book, this criteria.

But should a research PL language be judged by the canterbury, the same criteria? The aim of PL research should be to produce technology. and satisfy the comic book, needs of the industry? or to the canterbury produce theories of comic of comics, PL, scientific knowledge that lets us. understand PL better and fish movie more deeply? 10) Academic PL research does not have an exploratory agenda since the 70s. The agenda was dictated by the hardware evolution through the. demands of continual adaptation of comic book history of comics, PL to succesive new generations. So far the tax on sugar, continual patching of PLs worked and was enough.

Hardware evolution is still insufficient incentive for further. exploratory PL research. Exploratory research is conducted marginally as a hobby. For instance in comic of comics, an academically unrespectable site like. Cat’s Eye Technologies page about the canterbury tales prologue, esoteric PLs. PL names like brainfuck or funge will shun many. academic PL researchers.

11) Academic PL research never had a (epistemologically) scientific agenda. One that is not restricted by industrial or applied aims. But this is part of a general situation, that CS research never had a scientific agenda or producing scientific. knowledge about software. A discipline uninterested in producing a theory of comic history of comics, software following. the scientific method will not produce a theory of PL. Just because CS has the word science in it does not make it.

a science in the epistemological sense. In Crista’s blog the word scientific is dinner with dad, used in “scientific evidence”, but it is not scientific in the epistemological sense. In Crista’s blog the purpose of a doctoral work is to produce technology. So the evidence is about technological success, its effectivenes. Epistemologically a scientific evidence validates experimentally. a scientific theory or some piece of it. 12) In other sciences there is an book of comics internal agenda of the discipline. and an the canterbury tales characters external agenda.

The internal agenda is to advance the comic of comics, state of scientific. knowledge of the discipline and tudor international the external agenda. is to apply its results in benefit of the society. CS does not have an internal agenda in general. Specifically in PL research there is no internal agenda. In Crista’s blog the agenda is external and it is comic book history, about doctoral proposals.

fitting in ths STEM goal. The lack of internal agenda means that epistemologically. CS does not have scientific goals and CS does not follow the scientific method. Perhaps it is natural in Crista’s words “that not much seems to fish movie have emerged. In the most mature sciences (epistemologically) like physics. most scientists are devoted to produce or verify scientific knowledge. and a minority to apply it and of comics produce technology.

On the other hand CS is devoted to prologue characters produce techniques. or technologies but not scientific knowledge (about computers, or software or PL). In the history, theoretical side, theoretical CS is pure mathematics. They are mathematicians that write theorems and follow. the mathematical method: theoretical CS prove theorems. So theoretical CS is not producing scientific theories. On the other hand the most mature sciences and engineering. took centuries to develop. CS and SE have about dinner with dad, half a century.

But the regard or disregard of the scientific method by CS. determines it to be a protoscience or pseudoscience. And the regard or disregard of the engineering method by comic book history of comics, SE. determines it to be a protoengineering or pseudoengineering. This final post of yours, number 12, is accurate, well reasoned, and to the point.

However, I rather doubt that CompSci is a proto — or budding — discipline of any specific kind. Rumble Fish Movie! It’s a composite discipline, and in 4 decades of involvement I haven’t detected any evolution towards it becoming anything other than what it already is. As has always been the case, it comprises engineering, mathematics, and far less commonly, also science when investigating unexplained phenomena by comic history of comics, applying the Benefits Essay, MO of science. Theoretical CompSci continues to be a specific branch of comic history, mathematics, and Software Engineering continues to rumble be engineering, despite the book history of comics, term SE coming into tudor, disuse in history, recent times. You’re right that the vast majority of people just don’t take engineering seriously when creating software.

Your term ‘pseudoengineering’ is harsh, but accurate. The saddest part of Education Essay, this for me is that one might sensibly expect computer scientists to have a strong interest in placing their engineering subdiscipline on a more formal footing, but such activity is almost non-existent in the ranks. This has resulted in comic book of comics, the standing of tales prologue characters, computer science professionals being abysmal outside of pure academia, and rightly so because their ability to perform quality engineering has no solid footing in their discipline. Comic History! CompSci has really missed the boat on this one. Hopefully one day CompSci will wake up and realize that it has failed to feed one of its babies, and fish movie give it the attention it deserves. Software bridges may then start collapsing less frequently, and being a professional in comic book history, software engineering may then actually mean something. Tax On Sugar! There is no sign of it yet though. I restricted to present the idealistic perspective. Fortunately you presented the realistic perspective. So it can provide a wider and more balanced panorama. The idealistic position is about what CS SE should be.

The realistic position is about what CS SE is actually. The expectations of society and the scientific and engineering. communities are expressed in the idealistic position. On the other hand you need to know who you are, where you are and what are you doing. so the realistic position is necessary as well.

Certainly the comic, discipline in its actual form comprises all M.O. I hope some day CS SE gets closer to the rest of the sciences. and engineering but it will take time. It took centuries for fish the most mature disciplines to develop. to its current state. A simple analogy I consider is about a craftsman, a mechanic and of comics an engineering. A craftsman understand the item he makes.

He understand it enought to make it work. A mechanic understands an engine so he can diagnose and repair it. But their understandings are partial and superficial. A mechanic lacks a complete view of the engine as a system. and its subsystems. He doesn’t know why each part has the dimension it has.

Nor he has a knowledge about the forces and rumble fish movie torques implied. Nor the mechanics of the fluids and comic history gases involved, or the combustion process and of Music Education Essay the thermal dissipation, etc. On the other hand, the comic book of comics, scientific knowledge possessed by an engineer let him understand an dinner with dad engine in a complete and profound way. A mechanic cannot devise an engine. An engineer can. Engineers are happy learning tons of science and math. to make the impossible possible or to improve their creations. The situation of comic book, a software engineer is closer to the craftsman and to the mechanic.

A SE understands the tax on sugar, software enough to make it work, like a craftsman. A SE understands the software enough to debug it like a mechanic. But this understanding is partial and superficial. The completeness, breadth and depth of comic of comics, understanding of tax on sugar, a system that characterizes mature engineerings are still light years away of book of comics, SE. And CS still did not produce the sort of scientific knowledge needed. The question is what languages have enough depth to build a massive, complex, real-time, distributed and dinner with dad embedded system, complete with any sorts of I/O (and slick user interfaces), and in comic book, the process have enough depth to create all of the other language’s to boot. Dinner With Dad! I can think of only three, Assembler because of it a necessity, C/C++ because of comic history, its proliferation, and Ada because of the canterbury prologue characters, its expressive power.

Most of the comic history, other languages that have appeared over tax on sugar the years have brought very few earth shattering features or concepts to comic book history of comics light that cannot be reduced to a mere library. If you what to know my theory of why we have so many languages today, read Genesis 11:5-9. “Unfortunately, this argument is the hardest to defend. Dinner With Dad! In fact, I am yet to see the first study that convincingly demonstrates that a programming language, or a certain feature of programming languages, makes software development a more productive process.” It sounds like a copout. Comic Book Of Comics! You seem to be biased in that any study around that has good results won’t be good enough for tax on sugar you. Well, let’s make one then.

We’ll use 30 people minimum for comic book history statistical significance. Get 30 people that know C and PHP. Tudor! Tell them to write a web app where the user types in a sentence the app returns both a list of words in book of comics, the sentence the number. Measure how quickly each app is dinner with dad, produced and how many lines of comic history of comics, code it takes. If your view is correct, PHP will provide no advantage due to either it’s dynamic, scripting nature or ability to easily mix HTML server-side script. Experiment 2. Take another dual set of the canterbury prologue, 30. Comic Book! Half will use Java to tax on sugar code an enterprise web app. The other half will use Sun’s DASL language and book toolkit.

Measure time taken, lines of code, etc. If your position is correct, then the DASL people won’t finish way ahead of the Java guys with much less code. International! (Illustrated: an app of around 8-10k DASL compiles to 200k+ lines of Java, XML, SQL other stuff.) Experiment 3. Have a set of history of comics, people write an app with certain safety requirements. One group uses C one group uses SPARK Ada. Of Music Education Essay! Compare believability of correctness arguments, time to produce/test arguments, time to comic book history of comics build application, size. Rumble Movie! Do a similar comparison against Escher’s Perfect language with auto-generation of C++, Java or Ada. Experiment 4: Two teams design a batch processing app that consumes possibly malicious data performs complex operations on it. It must have high performance and no observed reliability/security issues over a year.

One team uses C++ and one uses Ocaml. Book History Of Comics! Compare the Benefits, time to produce the app, app size, annual no. of crashes, annual no. of security flaws, and book of comics general bug count over the year. If your position is correct, Ocaml’s superior design will provide no advantages. Experiment 5: Two teams design an application for processing log files producing a report about emotions workplace, them. One team uses Pascal and comic history one uses Perl. If your position is correct, Perl’s dynamic nature powerful built-in regular expressions shouldn’t get the the canterbury, job done faster. Anyone thinking that’s not fair can do a similar competition with both languages for a standard console app that doesn’t rely on book either language’s specialties. Perl developers will still finish first. Experiment 6: Two teams design a SCM. One uses Java with a good IDE one uses Allegro Common LISP with it’s platform.

Measure time to produce, compile times, lines of code, ease of database integration where needed, and ease of modifying the application. Allegro CL should provide no benefits from dynamic nature w/ optional static performance typing, AllegroCache OODBMS built-in, and incremental compilation. Experiment 7: Two teams do system administration tasks, a business app and a web app using no fancy auto-gen extra tools, although web frameworks are allowed for dinner with dad either. One team uses C++ and one uses Python. Measure time to completion, lines of code, bugs/crashes over book history a year, cost of IDE’s and time to train developers to achieve this. I’m betting on Python. Extreme example: Compare assembler to C/C++ for most apps. Dinner With Dad! There’s no features that the latter language has over the former that aids the software development process? Codasys vs SQL? Prolog vs Mercury? Gypsy vs Coq?

Certain language features and design points definitely help in both general and specific cases. It’s beyond obvious. If there isn’t a good study proving it yet, then that just shows how poorly academics are doing their studies on the topic these days. Version: GnuPG v1.4.10 (GNU/Linux) As a professional mechanic for six years before attending college, your analogies follow the line of “a tool for every job”. Or what carpenters would say, “when all you have is a hammer, everything looks like a nail”. My job is comic history of comics, writing code for deeply embedded products. The kind of stuff where if it works, no one ever knows that it even exists. It is all (with the exception of very few lines of asm) written in C. The tools I use to work with my code, are primarily written in movie, Perl, though some are written in Python. Book History Of Comics! The build tools are a combination of emotions in the, ‘make’ (and the assorted autogen) and Python (SCons).

Configuration is comic, through XML. Fish Movie! Documentation is through plain vanilla html/css. And there are a dozen small bash scripts that automate life for me as well. I think that gets to the heart of your comment. If your only comic book history tool is PHP, everything looks like a Web Page.

You’ve certainly struck a nerve in the PL community. As a reformed academic, I would agree with you that the most successful programming languages are completely uninteresting from a research perspective. As you say, they are all mashups of object-orientation, (usually) dynamic memory management, and algol syntax. We’re still working with a dominant paradigm developed in dinner with dad, the 70s. As a software business person, these languages are interesting not because of the language itself, but because of the comic history, frameworks and target markets that they co-evolve with. Ruby would be just another language without the high productivity Rails framework, and the canterbury PHP and Javascript would never have happened except that we needed “good enough” languages to build applications for the web. Academics tend to dismiss this as “worse is better”, but software business people would rephrase this as “good enough today is better”, and would recognize this as a trivial corollary of the axiom that “time is money.” So I agree that in order to do credible programming systems research, you would have to accompany it with controlled experiments that showed efficacy in the form of programmer productivity improvements and better runtime performance.

Unfortunately this kind of work tends to be prohibitively expensive to do in academia, and rarely of interest in the business world.

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13 Epic Marriage Proposals in Literature. For every blazingly romantic literary proposal, there's one so awkward it'll make you join the nearest convent. Just because a proposal takes place in a book doesn't mean it's romantic or successful, but just because a proposal isn't romantic or successful doesn't mean it's not epic. Comic History Of Comics! Here, 13 of the greatest, sweetest, awkwardest, rudest proposals that literature has to offer.. Dinner With Dad! 1. Book! Beatrice + Benedick in Much Ado About Nothing. I've written about this moment before, because it is tudor international perfection . Sworn enemies Beatrice and Benedick have a lot of trouble admitting that they're crazy about each other Ђ” Thou and I are too wise to woo peaceably, Benedick snipes at one point Ђ” but they finally make it official: BENEDICK: They swore that you were almost sick for me. History! BEATRICE: They swore that you were well-nigh dead for me. BENEDICK: 'Tis no such matter. Then you do not love me? BEATRICE: No, truly, but in friendly recompense. Benefits Essay! [Their friends bring out book two love poems that each has written about the other.] BENEDICK: A miracle! here's our own hands against our hearts.

Come, I will have thee; but, by this light, I take. Tales! BEATRICE: I would not deny you; but, by this good day, I yield. upon great persuasion; and history of comics partly to save your life, for I was told you were in Benefits of Music a consumption. BENEDICK: Peace! I will stop your mouth. Comic History! 2. Madeline Bassett + Bertie Wooster in Right Ho, Jeeves. Bertie Wooster really, really doesn't want to marry the ultra-sappy Madeline Bassett, but he accidentally proposes to her while trying to tell her that his friend is in love with her. That's so Bertie! Madeline initially denies his proposal, but after the romance with Bertie's friend doesn't work out, Madeline decides she'll marry him after all. Here's how Bertie finds out: But what, I mused, toying with the envelope, can this female be writing to me about? Why not open the damn thing and see? [said Aunt Dahlia.]

A very excellent idea, I said, and did so. . a sharp howl broke from my lips, causing Aunt Dahlia to shy like a startled mustang. Benefits Of Music Education Essay! Ђ¦Dash it! I cried. Do you know what's happened? Madeline Bassett says she's going to marry me! I hope it keeps fine for you, said the relative, and passed from the room looking like something out book of an Edgar Allan Poe story.

3. Rhett Butler + Scarlett O'Hara in Gone With the Wind. Shortly after Scarlett's husband dies, Rhett proposes, like the dinner with dad cad he is. Shocked and book history offended, she says no. He kisses her. She says yes.. Say youЂ™ll marry me when I come back or, before God, I wonЂ™t go. IЂ™ll stay around here and Benefits of Music play a guitar under your window every night and sing at the top of my voice and compromise you, so youЂ™ll have to marry me to save your reputation. Book History! 3. Anne Elliot + Frederick Wentworth in Persuasion. Movie! Austen is famously silent when it comes to comic book history, certain aspects of love Ђ” for example, we rarely hear her characters' marriage proposals spoken aloud.

In Persuasion, however, Austen gives us one of literature's most romantic letters of the canterbury tales prologue all time. The words Will you marry me? aren't written down, but they don't need to book history of comics, be. I can listen no longer in silence. I must speak to you by such means as are within my reach. You pierce my soul. I am half agony, half hope. Rumble Fish! Tell me not that I am too late, that such precious feelings are gone for comic history of comics ever. I offer myself to you again with a heart even more your own than when you almost broke it, eight years and a half ago.

Dare not say that man forgets sooner than woman, that his love has an earlier death. I have loved none but you. Unjust I may have been, weak and resentful I have been, but never inconstant. You alone have brought me to Bath. For you alone, I think and plan. Have you not seen this? Can you fail to have understood my wishes? I had not waited even these ten days, could I have read your feelings, as I think you must have penetrated mine.

I can hardly write. I am every instant hearing something which overpowers me. You sink your voice, but I can distinguish the tones of that voice when they would be lost on others. Too good, too excellent creature! You do us justice, indeed. You do believe that there is true attachment and constancy among men. Believe it to be most fervent, most undeviating, in F. W. Tudor International! . 4. Comic History! Ricardo Somocurcio to the Bad Girl in The Bad Girl.

The novel isn't one of Mario Vargas Llosa's best, but the character of the Bad Girl Ђ” alluring, manipulative, the recipient of a thousand proposals Ђ” can't help but captivate the dinner with dad imagination. Here, she refuses a proposal from the only man who's consistently loved her: I marry only for love, she said, staring daggers at me and tapping her right foot, which was extended in front of her. Of Comics! I'd never marry a clod who made a proposal of marriage as coarse as the one you've just made to rumble movie, me. If you want, I'll get down on my knees, and with my hand over my heart, I'll beg you to be my adored little wife until the book of comics end of time, I said in confusion, not knowing if she was joking or speaking seriously. Rumble Fish Movie! Do it, she ordered. On your knees, with your hands on your chest. Comic Book History Of Comics! Tell me the best cheap, sentimental things in your repertoire and let's see if you convince me. I fell to my knees and begged her to marry meЂ¦I heard her laugh as she said into my ear, I'm sorry, but I've received better requests for my hand than yours, little pissant. The lush, gorgeous ending of Ulyssses is formed from the stream-of-consciousness thoughts of Molly Bloom who, lying in bed next to her husband after sleeping with another man earlier that day, finds herself thinking back to the day her husband proposed to her. Her memories, as well as her answer, are sensual, orgasmic: . he kissed me under the Moorish wall and I thought well as well him as another and then I asked him with my eyes to ask again yes and then he asked me would I yes to say yes my mountain flower and prologue characters first I put my arms around him yes and comic drew him down to me so he could feel my breasts all perfume yes and his heart was going like mad and yes I said yes I will Yes. 6. Fiona + Grant in The Bear Came Over the Mountain There's plenty of love and tudor love lost in Alice Munro's short stories, but this particular proposal is book too sweet and tax on sugar simple to of comics, overlook:.

He thought maybe she was joking when she proposed to dinner with dad, him, on comic a cold bright day on the beach at Port Stanley. Sand was stinging their faces and Benefits Education the waves delivered crashing loads of book gravel at their feet. Workplace! ЂњDo you think it would be fun Ђ” Ђќ Fiona shouted. Book History Of Comics! ЂњDo you think it would be fun if we got married?Ђќ. He took her up on it, he shouted yes. He wanted never to emotions in the workplace, be away from her. She had the spark of life. 7. Comic Book! The shepherd + his lover in tales prologue The Passionate Shepherd to His Love Christopher Marlowe's sensual poem is more of a life proposal than a marriage proposal, grounded by comic, the repetition of the perfect line, Come live with me and be my love. The shepherdsЂ™ swains shall dance and prologue sing. For thy delight each May morning: If these delights thy mind may move, Then live with me and be my love. 8. Florentino Ariza + Fermina Daza in Love in comic of comics the Time of Cholera. Spoiler alert: the following engagement is broken off, only to be resumed fifty-one years later. Their frenetic correspondence was almost two years old when Florentino Ariza, in a letter of only one paragraph, made a formal proposal of marriage to Fermina Daza. Ђ¦ When the formal proposal arrived she felt herself wounded for the first time by the clawings of death.

Panic-stricken, she told her Aunt EscolЎstica, who gave her advice with the courage and lucidity she had not had when she was twenty and was forced to decide her own fate. Tax On Sugar! ЂњTell him yes,Ђќ she said. ЂњEven if you are dying of fear, even if you are sorry later, because whatever you do, you will be sorry all the rest of your life if you say no.Ђќ. Fermina Daza, however, was so confused that she asked for some time to think it over. First she asked for a month, then two, then three, and when the book history of comics fourth month had ended and she had still not replied, she received a white camellia again, not alone in the envelope as on other occasions but with the international peremptory notification that this was the comic history of comics last one: it was now or never. Then that same afternoon it was Florentino Ariza who saw the face of tales characters death when he received an envelope containing a strip of of comics paper, torn from the margin of a school notebook, on which a one-line answer was written in pencil: Very well, I will marry you if you promise not to make me eat eggplant .. 9. Mr. Tax On Sugar! Collins + Elizabeth Bennet in comic book history of comics Pride and Prejudice. The oily Mr. Collins gives one of the rumble fish longest and most brick-headed proposals of comic history all time. As Elizabeth continually rebuffs him, he insists that Elizabeth Bennet's refusal is just the affectation and coquetry of an elegant female. Infuriating. My reasons for marrying are, first, that I think it a right thing for every clergyman in in the easy circumstances (like myself) to set the example of matrimony in his parish. Secondly, that I am convinced it will add very greatly to my happiness; and thirdly Ђ” which perhaps I ought to have mentioned earlier, that it is the particular advice and recommendation of the very noble lady whom I have the honour of calling patroness. Comic! Ђ¦ And now nothing remains for me but to assure you in the most animated language of the violence of my affection.

To fortune I am perfectly indifferent, and shall make no demand of tudor that nature on your father, since I am well aware that it could not be complied with; and that one thousand pounds in the 4 per cents, which will not be yours till after your mother's decease, is all that you may ever be entitled to. On that head, therefore, I shall be uniformly silent; and you may assure yourself that no ungenerous reproach shall ever pass my lips when we are married. 10. Anne Shirley + Gilbert Blythe, take one, in Anne of the book Island. The Canterbury! Gilbert [took] her hand in a clasp from which she could not free it. Comic Book History Of Comics! There is something I want to say to you. Oh, don't say it, cried Anne, pleadingly. Don't Ђ” PLEASE, Gilbert.

I must. Things can't go on like this any longer. International! Anne, I love you. You know I do. I Ђ” I can't tell you how much. Will you promise me that some day you'll be my wife? I Ђ” I can't, said Anne miserably. Oh, Gilbert Ђ” you Ђ” you've spoiled everything.

Don't you care for me at all? Gilbert asked after a very dreadful pause, during which Anne had not dared to look up. Not Ђ” not in comic history that way. I do care a great deal for you as a friend. But I don't love you, Gilbert. Tax On Sugar! But can't you give me some hope that you will Ђ” yet? No, I can't, exclaimed Anne desperately. I never, never can love you Ђ” in that way Ђ” Gilbert. You must never speak of this to me again.

There was another pause Ђ” so long and so dreadful that Anne was driven at of comics, last to look up. The Canterbury Tales Prologue Characters! Gilbert's face was white to the lips. Book! And his eyes Ђ” but Anne shuddered and looked away. There was nothing romantic about this. Must proposals be either grotesque or Ђ” horrible? Could she ever forget Gilbert's face? 11. Jane Eyre + Mr. Rochester, take one, Jane Eyre.

In literature, the tax on sugar greatest couples usually go through two marriage proposals before they finally tie the knot (see: Anne and history of comics Gilbert, Elizabeth and Mr. Tax On Sugar! Darcy). Book History! The first time Mr. Rochester proposes to Jane is by far the more romantic of the workplace two proposals, but it's also mad sketchy. Comic! Let's just say he has a little secret locked up in the attic.

Come to my side, Jane, and rumble let us explain and understand one another. I will never again come to history, your side: I am torn away now, and cannot return. But, Jane, I summon you as my wife: it is you only I intend to rumble, marry. I was silent: I thought he mocked me. Book! Come, Jane Ђ” come hither.

Your bride stands between us. He rose, and with a stride reached me. Tax On Sugar! My bride is comic of comics here, he said, again drawing me to tax on sugar, him, because my equal is here, and comic my likeness. Jane, will you marry me? 12. Albert to Melpomene in Uncle Seneca In Isak Dinesen's strange story, this tender proposal comes with an tax on sugar, offer of money, and for that reason, it's roundly rejected.. Look here, said Albert, I have wished I could make you happy from comic history that first moment when I met you in the rain. It is a very strange thing.

One reads in books about love at first sight, but one never believes that it happens to people in real life. The Canterbury Tales Characters! And then it was love at first sight with me myselfЂ¦. I felt at once that you were what people call one's better self. The other girls have all been strangers, somehow, but you were like me. Sure, their romance was a controversial one Ђ” many fans of comic book Little Women insist that Laurie was meant for Jo Ђ” and sure, it's a little weird to marry the international sister of the girl you were in book of comics love with first.

But the incomplete question, the lake setting, and the general sweetness of this proposal are simple, mutual understanding at its romantic best. In The Workplace! He had rather imagined that the denoument would take place in comic book of comics the chateau garden by moonlight, and in the most graceful and international decorous manner, but it turned out exactly the reverse, for the matter was settled on the lake at noonday in a few blunt words. Book History! They had been floating about all the morningЂ¦ Amy had been dabbling her hand in the water during the little pause that fell between them, and in the workplace when she looked up, Laurie was leaning on his oars with an expression in his eyes that made her say hastily, merely for the sake of comic saying something. You must be tired. Rest a little, and let me row. It will do me good, for dinner with dad since you came I have been altogether lazy and comic book of comics luxurious. I'm not tired, but you may take an international, oar, if you like. There's room enough, though I have to sit nearly in the middle, else the history of comics boat won't trim, returned Laurie, as if he rather liked the tudor arrangement. Feeling that she had not mended matters much, Amy took the offered third of comic book history of comics a seat, shook her hair over her face, and accepted an oar.

She rowed as well as she did many other things, and in the though she used both hands, and comic book Laurie but one, the oars kept time, and the boat went smoothly through the water. How well we pull together, don't we? said Amy, who objected to silence just then. So well that I wish we might always pull in tax on sugar the same boat. Will you, Amy? very tenderly. Yes, Laurie, very low.

Then they both stopped rowing, and unconsciously added a pretty little tableau of comic of comics human love and happiness to the dissolving views reflected in the lake.

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James Joyce – A Little Cloud (in: Dubliners) Essay. A Little Cloud has not generated significant critical debate, despite Warren Beck’s unorthodox interpretation of the denouement in 1969. Chandler’s relationship with his son – not with his wife Annie or journalist/ friend Gallaher – could be the comic book of comics, crucial, epiphanal element of the Essay, story – Joyce portraying a father who is just beginning to ‘learn […] what the heart is and what it feels’ (A Portrait 252), a man whose conscience is awakened, despite his flaws. However, scholars have generally agreed that the ineffectual protagonist abuses his infant son and refuses to book history, take responsibility for his own shortcomings. The story ends with the the canterbury, following paragraph: ‘Little Chandler felt his cheeks suffused with shame and he stood back out of the lamplight. Comic Of Comics. He listened while the paroxysm of the child’s sobbing grew less and less: and tears of remorse started to his eyes.’ (81) Though it’s likely that Chandler is genuinely sorry for having frightened his son, most Joyceans insist that the protagonist cries out of self-pity, that his ‘epiphany’, if he does experience one, is egocentric – of a man who may dream and suffer but who will never ‘produce’. Except for Beck, many veteran Joyce scholars affirm that A Little Cloud develops the famous ‘paralysis’-theme and that it complements, in tone and circumstance, the other pieces which precede the final story, The Dead. Walzl believes that ‘The Dead seems to reverse the pattern of increasing insensibility that Dubliners other-wise traces’ and that no one prior to Gabriel, the protagonist, ‘undergoes a com-parable change or has such an enlightenment’.

Similarly, Ghiselin suggests that A Little Cloud fits into the over-all schema of Dubliners by representing the sin of tudor, envy. Ruoff asserts that the story ‘describes a would-be artist’s pathetic failure to transcend a narrow existence of his own creation’, and Bernard Benstock’s inter-pretation mentions that Chandler ‘regresses to adolescent self-pity’. Indeed, all focus on Chandler’s ‘sloth, his cowardice, his self-delusion, and his final rage and humiliation’ assert that he is ‘shamed, not ashamed’. But what with Joyce’s use of ‘remorse’? Probably the most important reason for assuming that Chandler is not enlightened by his experience involves several of Joyce’s own statements. A Little Cloud was written in the early months of 1906, when Joyce was 23 and the father of a six-month-old son, Giorgio. But In 1904, speaking about Dubliners, he had told a friend that he wanted ‘to betray the soul of that hemiplegia or paralysis which many consider a city’ (Letters 55). Another frequently quoted letter asserts, ‘It is not my fault that the odour of ashpits and old weeds and offal hangs round my stories’ (Letters 63-64). Book. The combination of ‘paralysis’ and ‘odour’, then, while justified by tales prologue characters many details in book of comics the works themselves, may have also clouded our perception of scattered, positive sensations which some of the pieces generate.

As Gillespie argues, ‘The opinion that this [negative] attitude dominates the dinner with dad, final form of the stories […] oversimplifies Joyce’s emotional attitude toward his country and unjustly circumscribes the artistic potential of the work’. Similarly, Garrison observes that ‘Joyce’s explicit statements concerning his artistic intentions in book history Dubliners are not very useful as a basis for interpretation’. Although Joyce’s defense of his work provided us with an opportunity to rumble, clarify his intent, it probably was not meant to narrowly limit or define our reactions as readers. If Joyce at least partially intended the final story, The Dead, as a tribute to book of comics, the more positive aspects of tudor, Dublin culture (Letters II 166), it is not unreasonable to discern a hint of this attitude in A Little Cloud. Joyce once told his sister, ‘The most important thing that can happen to a man is the book history of comics, birth of a child’, and since his only son and first-born child was about six months old when A Little Cloud was begun in the early months of 1906, life circumstances are relevant to this discussion. But such issues do not necessarily help us interpret the in the workplace, story, for Joyce might, after all, have been drawing a portrait of an unfit father.

Reviewing the story’s link to A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man while examining information about the young writer should enrich our understanding of his state of mind, reveal key similarities and comic book history differences between Joyce and his protagonist, and test the validity of an in the alternate reading of this story. In general, Chandler’s disposition is melancholic, ‘but it [is] a melancholy tempered by recurrences of faith and resignation and simple joy’ (68). He is fastidious about his appearance and, probably, careful about book history his work even though he finds it ‘tiresome’ (65). Joyce also emphasizes Little Chandler’s shortcomings throughout the story. He lives in a ‘little house’, reads by rumble movie a ‘little lamp’, drinks ‘small whiskies’, displays ‘childish white front teeth’, and comic history is given ‘short answers’ by his prim wife. Joyce invites us to Benefits Education Essay, imagine an ordinary man, still capable of a dream, but ruled by circumstances and his own, considerable inadequacies. Joyce employs important imagery which firmly links this story to central Joycean themes: ‘[T]he thought that a poetic moment had touched him took life within him like an infant hope […] A light began to tremble on the horizon of his mind. Book. He was not so old–thirty-two’ (68, emphasis added). Linking ‘infant hope’ with ‘a light’ so early in tax on sugar this story hints at comic book Joyce’s lifelong interest in the ‘consubstantiation’ of tudor, father and book history of comics son as well as procreation in the literary sense (Ulysses 32, 155).

By the time Joyce wrote A Little Cloud, both physical and artistic generation had become realities. Of course, the reader soon realizes that Chandler won’t succeed, despite his ‘soul’, for he is not original and hopes to capitalize on popular trends, although he realistically admits that ‘he will never be popular’ and the canterbury tales prologue characters hopes only to ‘appeal to a little circle of kindred minds’ (68). Recalling Joyce’s claim in comic of comics 1904 that only ‘two or three unfortunate wretches […] may eventually read me’ (Ellmann 163) offers an interesting echo. The location of Chandler’s poetic ‘mood’ is in the, also relevant, for it may be based on of comics, one of Joyce’s own experiences. A similar incident occurs at a pivotal point in A Portrait. Tax On Sugar. In Chapter 4, Joyce presents a rare interaction between the protagonist, Stephen Dedalus, and his brothers and comic sisters during the family tea.

Structurally, this scene occurs at an important juncture. Immediately preceding the epiphany of ‘profane joy’ which Stephen experiences on the beach while watching a girl wading, this episode also follows the interview with the religious director of his school, after which Stephen decides not to become a priest. Tax On Sugar. As he walks home to a squalid, over-crowded house, interesting parallels to A Little Cloud occur. Like Chandler, he crosses a bridge, symbolically connected to opposing attractions, but clearly, like Chandler, moving toward a new possibility. Stephen notices a shrine to the Virgin which is ‘in the middle of a hamshaped encampment of poor cottages’ (162). Unlike Chandler, however, Stephen does not romanticize the history, image, for he actually lives here, and he laughs to think of the man ‘considering in turn the four points of the sky and then regretfully plunging his spade in the earth’ (162). Without even a hint of tax on sugar, rain, the man must begin work. The cloud image in this scene of Portrait is intentionally delayed. Stephen, the university student, then enters his home and history of comics finds his brothers and sisters seated at the table. He realizes the contrast between his privileged position as the international, eldest son and theirs: ‘The sad quiet greyblue of the dying day came through the window and the open door, covering over book history, and allaying quietly a sudden instinct of remorse in Stephen’s heart. All that had been denied them had been freely given to international, him, the eldest: but the quiet glow of evening showed him in their faces no sign of rancour.’ (163) After one of his sisters, who is as nameless as Chandler’s son, tells him that the family has once again been evicted, her similarly unnamed little brother begins to sing.

The others join in, and Stephen thinks, ‘They would sing so for hours […] till the last pale light died down on the horizon, till the first dark nightclouds came forth and night fell’ (163). But Joyce does not end Stephen’s musings on a negative note, just as he does not seem to end A Little Cloud with a protagonist who pities himself more than his screaming son. Stephen remembers ‘that Newman had heard this note also […] giving utterance, like the voice of Nature herself, to that pain and weariness yet hope of better things which has been the book history of comics, experience of her children in every time.’ (164). Despite their circumstances, the children sing. Tax On Sugar. Faced with the comic, guilt of dinner with dad, primacy, the oldest son is forgiven by his brothers and comic history sisters. Again, Stephen’s vision is international, superior to Chandler’s. He will retain the mood of this experience, be more receptive to comic of comics, future encounters, and sustain an emotions workplace ethos which will allow him to comic history of comics, reject home and tales prologue family to pursue an artist’s life, perhaps with a family of his own making.

Stephen is an artist; Chandler only history of comics, longs to be one. However, in a collection of stories which includes a series of the canterbury tales prologue, married men who beat children (Mr. Hill in Eveline, Farrington of Counterparts, and Old Jack of Ivy Day in the Committee Room), Chandler faces the truth about history himself after merely shouting at his son. His experience prepares us for Gabriel’s, just as the family tea prepares us for the strongest epiphany of Portrait. And, although Joyce would work as a clerk in Rome a few months after mailing A Little Cloud off to dinner with dad, the publisher and felt superior to his fellow employees who ‘were forever having something wrong with their testicles… or their anuses’, Chandler, unlike them, is comic book history, fastidious about his manners and appearance and at least longs for tax on sugar an artist’s life. The first portion of A Little Cloud also reminds us of Joyce’s sentimental, poetic temperament while living in Paris as a medical student from December 1902 until April 1903, when he was called home because of his mother’s illness. Stanislaus reports, ‘He told me that often when he had no money and had had nothing to eat he used to walk about reciting to himself for comic consolation, like ‘Little Chandler’ in Dubliners, his own poems or others he knew by heart or things he happened to be writing then.’ (My Brother’s 231-21) All three have an opennesss to life and desire and international are willing to ‘struggle against fortune’. Through the encounter with Gallaher, Chandler appears provincial, timid, curious about ‘immoral’ sexual practices, but he definitely emerges as the better human being, and inches the reader toward sympathy.

We can safely assume that, whatever Chandler’s weaknesses, Joyce had an even lower opinion of Gallaher, letting Chandler considering himself superior ‘in birth and history of comics education’. Tales Prologue Characters. (75) Unlike O’Hara, a character in comic book the story who fails because of ‘boose’ and ‘other things’ (70), Chandler is abstemious, employed, married, and dinner with dad a parent (unlike most of the Irish middle class, which was experiencing tremendous economic hardships and of comics either postponed marriage or abandoned it altogether). Essay. On the other hand, the of comics, reader experiences Gallaher’s inflated ego and patronizing attitude toward ‘dear dirty Dublin’ and toward his friend. Incapable of the kind of wit which might successfully redeem his position, Chandler is ultimately defeated; however, our sympathies lie not with the in the, victor but with the young clerk and father. Gallaher may have had the ability to ‘fly by [the] nets […] of nationality, language, religion’, an comic history of comics aim to which the protagonist of Joyce’s next major work aspires (A Portrait 203), but he is Benefits, little more than a bragging, rude scribbler in book the worst Swiftian sense. The Canterbury Tales Prologue. A new notion in the Dubliners tales is that escape from Ireland does not necessarily equal salvation. ‘If you wanted to succeed you had to get away’, Little Chandler thinks, echoing the book history of comics, thoughts of the boy in An Encounter (‘real adventures . . . must be sought abroad’). And yet Gallaher, who got away, has succeeded in only the most superficial sense.

Despite having seen London, Paris and tax on sugar heard talk of Berlin, he is comic history of comics, shallow, boorish, and alone. The story reveals that Chandler, however remote from being either a poet or the ‘old hero’ which Gallaher initially calls him, remains physically and morally the more appealing character. Still, Chandler himself probably feels anything but heroic, and tax on sugar during the gap between scenes, we imagine him returning, deflated, to his family. Comic Book History. Like the dog viewing his reflection in the pond, Chandler drops his bone in prologue envy of Gallaher’s, preferring the comic of comics, exotic narrative not of of Music Education, his own experience. His mood at the beginning of the final scene in the story is reflective, self-pitying, and, ultimately, enraged. However, the comic book of comics, intensity of his son’s suffering (‘If it died!’) and the coldness of his wife’s accusation eventually result in unselfish shame and genuine contrition. Chandler’s dreams complement, not dominate, his daily world. Allusion was a serious business in Joyce’s creative paradigm. Education Essay. Despite the irony of a ‘candle-maker’ or ‘candle-seller’ as a failed artist, Little Tommy Chandler’s tears suggest that he has turned from the worship of a false god (Gallaher and, perhaps, Romanticism) to the true religion of hearth and home through the unconscious intervention of comic book of comics, his son as savior, as ‘little lamb of the world’. The final clause of the story, ‘tears of remorse started to tudor, his eyes’, is comic book history of comics, precise. Joyce does not write ‘tears of rumble fish movie, self-pity’; nor does he promote ambiguity by comic merely saying ‘tears started to his eyes’.

When Chandler ‘back[s] out of Music Essay of the lamplight’, he passes the torch to the next generation, genuinely contrite. Unlike Gallaher, Stephen Dedalus, and Joyce himself, Chandler will remain in Dublin, return to his daily tasks, and pay off the furniture. Yet, he may also foster the growth of an artist. He is, indeed, ‘a prisoner for comic life’, but the prison walls offer the hope of graffiti, for the child represents creativity as well as responsibility, and the story offers an early treatment of a central Joycean theme. University/College: University of Arkansas System. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 3 February 2017. Let us write you a custom essay sample on James Joyce – A Little Cloud (in: Dubliners) for only $16.38 $13.9/page.

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