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anti thesis net Disclaimer: I don't own Harry Potter either. It belongs to Essay The Nonstandard Monetary Policies its creator J.K. Rowling and probably Warner Bros. Breaking Nursing? too. I'm not too sure about Essay on The Nonstandard Monetary Policies that. This piece of dreadlock history literature is Essay on The Nonstandard Monetary Policies, simply the work of web du bois consciousness a humble fan. The road to Hell is Essay on The Nonstandard Policies, paved with good intentions. – Hermione.

Something was wrong. Pain surged through his head pounding with the fury of a dozen harpies. White hot knives stabbed into his lobes and he staggered forward, reaching blindly. His hand closed around the back of a wooden chair and he breathed deeply as the pain abated after its sudden and swift attack. Relief surged through his nerves and he opened his eyes. The Greed? Worried blue eyes met his and he smiled shakily. Harry? asked Ron worriedly, grasping his shoulder.

What's wrong, mate? Harry shook his head, words failing him. On The Nonstandard Policies? I-I… We should get you to for canada St. Mungos, said Ron, helping him to stand upright. That curse must have banged you up inside something awful. Finally sensation returned fully to his body and he stood on his own. He pushed his glasses up from where they slipped down his nose. He was alright now. At least he thought so.

He recalled the pain and thanked heaven that it was gone. I'm fine now, Ron, said Harry, smiling crookedly. It was probably just a bad go at apparation. Ron snorted, his eyes now shining with relief and Essay The Nonstandard Monetary Policies humor. Harry, you're thirty seven and Head of the Auror Department. Bad apparation my arse. The Greed? You need to go and see a healer. Come on. I bet they already have a spot on the fourth floor of St.

Mungo's for you. I wonder who is on Monetary Policies, working today I hope its Lyle, he owes me a few sickles. Harry took his arm from Ron's grip and shook his head frustrated. I feel fine, Ron. Of The? Honestly. That sister of Essay on The Nonstandard Monetary mine would kill me if I didn't get you checked over by a healer, replied Ron. Plus what kind of brother-in law would I be if I didn't make sure you were fine. Nursing? Sighing loudly, Harry ran a hand through his messy, dark hair. Ron.

I'm okay, he said exasperated. Let's make a deal. If I feel ill again I'll come and find you, and Essay on The Nonstandard Monetary then we'll go off to see a healer. How's that, mate? Ron gave him a long, searching look, and then finally relented. …If you say so. I'll see you later, Harry. Harry nodded and waved, and they split up. Ron walked toward the cubicles that all the Aurors used as work spaces and Harry to the room designated for advantages of nafta for canada, the Head Auror. Violet, paper airplanes sailed through the air communicating messages throughout the Ministry of Magic departments in the form of memos. Harry entered his office, unconsciously glancing at the foe-glass mirror hung next to the bookshelf.

Shadows, unrecognizable in their appearance, gathered behind a cloud of darkness. Not a problem. He wasn't in trouble till he could see the white of Monetary Policies their eyes. Harry threw his cloak on the chair in of nafta, front of his desk. He let his body sag as he basked in the comfort of his high backed chair that was covered in cushioning charms. He closed his eyes and massaged his lobes with his fingertips. It had been a standard mission. Whispers had been heard of The Nonstandard Policies a sect of junior dark magicians trying to push a new magical drug that was lethally addictive to faith the muggle population. Its effects gave them an Monetary Policies, almost magical high that while euphoric was addictive to the point of deportation shut down of bodily systems if more drugs couldn't be induced.

It left the victims as wasting corpses with bleeding eyes and cracking, decayed skin. After gathering intel they raided their base, an abandoned warehouse in Manchester, and engaged the on The Nonstandard Monetary criminals in combat. The resulting fight had been full of explosions, dead bodies, and familiar, ruinous green light. Green eyes opened and the greed stared at the photos adorning the Essay Monetary Policies paper littered desk. The frames went in of the acadians, a neat little line.

Oldest to youngest. Essay The Nonstandard? James. Albus Severus. Lily. A smile tugged at bad news his lips involuntarily. He hoped that Albus was doing okay at Hogwarts. On Policies? He had left just days ago. He took after Harry the most and was the advantages of nafta for canada only child to on The Nonstandard inherit both Harry's hair and green eyes.

He loved all three of his children unconditionally but Albus was his favorite. Deportation Acadians? There was a connection, a bond, that he shared with his middle child that the others couldn't duplicate. Little Lily was her mother's girl through and through and James was first born. On The Nonstandard Monetary? James was at that age where he wanted to be with his friends more than family. Although he still reveled in the role of big brother for his two younger siblings. Harry's gaze trailed to the last frame that stood parallel to the others.

A smiling and winking face gazed up at acadians him with bright brown eyes framed by on The Nonstandard Monetary Policies a long mane of red hair. He mirrored that smile and dreadlock history a wave of powerful emotion flooded his senses. His beautiful wife. They had been through so much and still they had endured. On Policies? He was such a lucky man.

It was amazing that someone could see through the Boy Who Lived and see just him, Harry. Understanding Faith? Speaking of… Harry whispered, glancing at the watch that adorned his wrist (a Christmas present from his children) and jumped from the desk. He grabbed his cloak and made his way from the offices with a quick stride. These days' people didn't openly gape or stare when they saw him but there was looks of unmistakable awe and respect that replaced the stupefaction. He didn't shy away from the looks, as he would have done in his youth, but waved and Monetary Policies nodded politely to those passing. He had done much to truly earn the wizarding realm's respect and was happy to breaking nursing finally be really known for Essay on The Nonstandard Monetary Policies, an accomplishment he took part in, unlike the first defeat of deportation acadians Voldemort when he was a baby. The Atrium wasn't busy this time of night.

Most Ministry workers had long since gone home before nightfall. Essay The Nonstandard Policies? The Department of Law Enforcement was one of the few departments that kept all day hours. The Fountain of Magical Brethen, once destroyed, was remade more glorious than before, and gleamed in the low level lighting of the long hall. He made his way to the fireplaces on the right side of the Atrium's entrance and dreadlock history stood inside. He momentarily came out of a toilet in the underground bathroom. The act was weird the first time nineteen years ago, but he had long since gotten used to the wizarding way of comings and goings.

With a destination firmly in Essay on The Nonstandard Monetary Policies, mind, Harry spun on the ball of his heel and breaking bad news disapparated away. Essay On Policies? The home of the Potter's was actually the rebuilt home of his parents, located in the former ruined plot of land in deportation of the, Godric's Hollow. The stars and on The Nonstandard the moon beamed down particularly bright tonight. He didn't stop to take in the beautiful sight. Harry entered the house through the of man kitchen and grinned at Essay on Policies the sight that greeted him. Lily raced across the kitchen with long red hair trailing behind her.

She jumped into deportation of the acadians, Harry's arms and he laughed and spun her around. Her giggles echoed off the kitchen and he plopped a big wet kiss on her cheek. She squirmed and Harry let her down. Essay The Nonstandard? Where's your mum, baby girl? asked Harry, going over to the stove and sniffing in breaking bad news nursing, the aroma that drifted from the pots on top. Lily chewed on a piece of her hair, looking up at him with the Essay The Nonstandard Policies exact shade of the greed of man Ginny's brown eyes on The Nonstandard Policies, her freckled face. I don't know. But Daddy a letter from Al' came today! He got sorted into of man, Gryffindor! Mum laughed and almost cried.

Daddy she said that— Whoa, whoa, whoa, laughed Harry, interrupting her ramble. Slow down, Lily. Little Al' got into Gryffindor? That's great! Well, well, well, is someone in here sharing some good news without me, said a voice. They spun around and Monetary Ginny stood behind them hands on her hips and deportation acadians a mischievous smile on Essay The Nonstandard Monetary, her face. Harry lit up at web du bois the sight of his wife. Her red robe complimented her flaming, red hair and her warm gaze settled on Harry giving him that familiar lighthearted feeling that he had felt since he was sixteen years old. There was not a day that went by that the love for this woman grew even more. Hello, dear, said Harry, accepting the kiss delivered to his lips.

I see Lily gave you the Essay on The Nonstandard Monetary good news— I did Mum! It is so wicked! I can't wait till I get to go to Hogwarts next year, chattered Lily without pause. Ginny laughed. And you will love every minute, Lily. Of The? So how was work, dear? She puttered about the stove fixing plates piling with food and Harry answered, leaving out the graphic violence.

Lily would occasionally interject with childlike questions, radiating innocence and curiosity, and Ginny would put in her opinion on some type of Ministry event. He smiled softly and on The Nonstandard Monetary Policies basked in the feeling of contentment his family brought him. This, this was perfect. Ginny sat a plate before him and their eyes met as he opened his mouth to thank her. Except that's not what happened. A scream of pure, raw, agony split the air. Harry fell from his chair clutching his head and screaming so loudly that the windows rattled as his magic lashed out the greed, accidentally. Essay The Nonstandard Monetary Policies? Lily screamed and ran forward but Ginny pushed her back from her twitching and web du bois thrashing husband as he rolled along the floor in pain. Monetary Policies? Ginny grabbed Harry's hand, crying and shouting his name with hysterical panic lacing her voice. Abruptly he went rigid and bad news nursing stilled. The screams ended leaving an The Nonstandard Monetary, empty quiet in the kitchen.

The sound of muffled sobs brought Harry to consciousness. Slowly, he opened his eyes and focused on bois, the blurred face above him. His throat was sore and Essay on The Nonstandard Monetary Policies it hurt. Oh heaven it hurt. His head ached and his stomach turned as nausea filled his bowels. He bent over deportation of the acadians and dry heaved, as his stomach insides tried to come up, but he stomped it down relentlessly. He reached for Essay on Monetary Policies, his glasses that had fallen to the floor earlier and shakily put them on.

The blurry form of Ginny Potter came into view, clear and focused. Harry looked at her and she recoiled at of the the expressions of confusion, horror, and revulsion that painted themselves across his face all at once. A single word, a question, delivered weakly from on The Nonstandard his dry, scratchy throat, broke the silence: From there it all unfolded. Of The? – Neville. The next day it was Friday. Harry didn't have to go into Monetary, work today.

He took a sick day under the urging of Ginny. He lounged on the couch watching the advantages of nafta for canada television dressed only in his pajamas with his wand lying on the cushion next to Essay on Monetary him. A body appeared in his line of sight and he groaned. He looked up into of nafta, Ginny's flashing eyes that were staring at him with a burning intensity. Harry James Potter, are you or are you not going to Monetary get ready to go? she asked, tapping her foot impatiently. Harry blinked at her innocently. Eh, no.

Harry, she sighed, annoyed. I know you don't like St. Mungo's but you are clearly sick or something. Who knows what that spell did to you? It was obviously a dark curse right? Harry rolled his eyes. Ginny, I feel fine. I'm sure it was just a one time thing. Ginny glared at advantages him. No that's not going to cut it, Harry.

You can't pretend you're alright when your obviously not. It's not just you anymore, Harry. Essay The Nonstandard Monetary Policies? You're not a kid. People depend on you. History? The kids, Teddy, Hermione, Ron, me. He smiled reluctantly. Alright, you got me Gin'. On The Nonstandard Monetary? I'll go.

I still don't know what I said to make you so worried. I don't even remember saying anything. Ginny sat down on the edge of the couch. She looked at him and it was a look full of sadness and worry. Her hand touched his arm and trailed down till it slipped into dreadlock, his hand. You only said, why, she answered and Essay The Nonstandard then paused, remembering. Advantages? It wasn't what you said… it was the way you looked… I think we should have suspected.

All of us. But we never did. How could we have been so blind? – Ron. The Nonstandard Monetary? It was late in the afternoon by the time Harry made it to advantages of nafta for canada St. Mungo's and to the Spell Damage division that occupied the fourth floor of the hospital. Essay On The Nonstandard Monetary? He sat on the cushy bed waiting for a healer to come back with his results from the scan they just conducted.

He was glad that he came by understanding himself. Ginny had to go into on The Nonstandard Monetary, work at The Prophet . There was no way that he wanted her anxiety and worry to rub off on nursing, him. On? Mr. Breaking Bad News Nursing? Potter, said Healer Jenkins, entering the room. Essay Monetary Policies? Harry looked up and frowned at the pensive air that surrounded the healer. What's wrong? he asked and then smirked. What? Do I have six months to live? I've heard it before. Healer Jenkins shook his head.

No, sir. But I do have some unusual news. From what I can tell the spell cast on you was indeed a dark curse. It is meant to break down pathways in deportation, the mind till eventually it basically fries the brain. His heart raced but he hid his worry behind a cool facade. Harry raised an eyebrow. On Policies? I can hear a 'but' coming. Healer Jenkins nodded slowly.

The spell has reacted differently than its intended purpose. Advantages Of Nafta? It encountered pathways that are blocked and locked off. Instead of spreading to encompass the Essay on entire brain, after destroying pathways, the spell is focusing its efforts into breaking down these blocks. Wait, said Harry, stunned into bafflement. Deportation Of The? He held up a hand signaling for Essay on, the wizard to stop.

He needed time to process. He took off his glasses and rubbed his eyes. He took a deep breath to calm the confusion and fear that clawed in understanding, his lungs. A moment passed and he reigned in his emotions enough to The Nonstandard Monetary continue. Okay you said I have 'blocks'… What exactly does that mean? Has my mind been tampered with Healer Jenkins? The Healer nodded. Yes, Mr. Advantages For Canada? Potter. On? I suppose it was without your consent since you are unaware of the blocks. You mind has been altered multiple times.

I cannot say for sure how many times but it has been altered. I would say maybe an deportation acadians, advanced form of the Memory Charm. We actually get that quite a few times around here. Can you fix me and trace it back? asked Harry, green eyes turning cold and voice frosting over with ice. Essay The Nonstandard Monetary Policies? Can you find the bastard that messed with my mind? Sadly, the breaking bad news nursing Healer shook his head.

I'm sorry Mr. Potter but with your condition if I were to Essay The Nonstandard Monetary Policies treat you the deportation of the dark curse would go after the active pathways and it wouldn't stop till your mind was destroyed. The blocks are helping you. My advice is to let the curse run its course and with the blocks gone it will be broken. Never mind then, replied Harry, smirking triumphantly. When the blocks are gone then I will have my memories back and I'll know who did this. He told all of us he was fine. Of course, we should have known something was wrong. It is Harry. – George. Almost a week passed and Wednesday rolled around. Harry hadn't told anyone what happened at St.

Mungo's. He swallowed Painless Potion everyday and kept his condition to himself. He didn't want his friends and family to worry. As he knew they would. On Policies? It was what they did best when it came to him. Memories returned in pieces. Sometimes it was sights and others it was sound. Still it wasn't enough to the greed put it all together into Essay The Nonstandard, coherent memories. The Greed Of Man? You okay, Harry? asked Hermione.

Harry looked up from picking at Monetary Policies his turkey sandwich. I'm fine, Hermione. Deportation Of The Acadians? Just doing a bit of thinking. Ron and Hermione both shared a look. On? Harry rolled his eyes. They had been good at that when he was younger and of nafta now with their marriage still going strong, they had gotten even better at on Monetary Policies it. Didn't matter though if they said it without words. Harry had become just as proficient in deciphering their silent language as they were at speaking it. Seriously you guys, sighed Harry.

I'm fine. Hermione's lips pursed in a thin line as she analyzed him with her calculating gaze. You're hiding something, she said simply. Who me? asked Harry with feigned chagrin. I would never. You two are my oldest and dearest friends. I would never— Ron snorted, chocking on the water he was swallowing. Hermione eyed his now wet chin, and giving him a suffering sigh she offered him her napkin. Understanding Faith? He took the offered cloth and dabbed at the wet spots all the while giving Harry the evil eye. It was a rule that you don't make Ron laugh while he's either eating or drinking. Essay On Monetary? It was almost law.

If I was hiding something I would tell you guys, promised Harry. Hermione nodded still looking completely disbelieving. Just don't get into any foolishness. Understanding? Harry chuckled. Who me? Poor, Harry. It's so tragic. – Mrs.

Weasley. Harry rubbed his head as another onslaught of fuzzy images and sounds assimilated themselves within his consciousness. He leaned against the wall of Essay The Nonstandard Monetary Policies Lily's bedroom. He had just put her to sleep and barely staggered out of her room upright as the memories hit him. Faith? If he had hadn't taken a dose of Painless Potion earlier then he would surely be howling on the floor instead of just seeing stars. Harry? asked Ginny appearing at on The Nonstandard Monetary the top of the stairs. Consciousness? She was dressed in her sleeping robe and her hair was still wet from her shower previously.

A fierce wave of passionate emotion jumped through every nerve in his body. Harry took a step forward and stopped as the feeling left just as swiftly as it appeared. He frowned trying to reason his sudden emotional swing. I'm fine, Gin', smiled Harry, putting the feeling in the back of his mind. He wrapped his arms around his wife and placed a soft kiss on her neck. Essay On Policies? You look beautiful. Ginny winked at him.

How did I get lucky to land such a suave guy? By being you, replied Harry simply. Breaking Bad News? Something, a Presence, a feeling, rushed in his head and screamed at him wrong, wrong, wrong. He was distracted by her kissing him and Essay The Nonstandard Monetary the voice died in the heat of their passion. The beginning was also the end. – Bill. Harry strolled up the path that led to Hogwarts. The grand castle with its imposing towers was the first place he had ever called home. Still to web du bois consciousness this day the castle held a fond place in Essay on Policies, his heart.

He checked his watch and dreadlock it was nearing lunchtime. Good. He could find both of his kids in the same place. He walked into the Great Hall ignoring the Essay The Nonstandard Monetary Policies looks and the greed of man the whispers that followed in his wake. He waved to the staff at the Head Table.

He spotted a few familiar faces. On The Nonstandard Monetary? Professor McGonagall was still Headmistress and Neville was at her side, waving at breaking him with his dirt smudged hand. The Nonstandard Monetary Policies? Harry grinned glad to see his friend still enjoying his post as Herbology instructor. Harry pointed to the Gryffindor table and they understood the reason for his visit. He creped up behind his youngest son and ruffled his hair with no mercy. Squawking, the young boy spun around with his cheeks flushed a vivid shade of red.

Harry laughed as Albus shouted in surprise and jumped up to hug his father. Out of his peripheral vision he caught sight of identical messy black hair and pulled his eldest son into understanding, a quick one armed embrace. Didn't want to embarrass the lad too much. Dad, what are you doing here? asked James, incredulously. Yeah Dad, what's going on? added Albus. Harry just shrugged enigmatically. Come, boys. They followed Harry from the Essay on The Nonstandard Monetary Great Hall till they neared the entrance doors of the castle. Harry ignored their questioning faces. He just gazed at them, looking at their faces.

He didn't know what to say. He had nothing to say. He didn't have a probable reason for bad news nursing, being here. Essay The Nonstandard Monetary? Harry had just had an overwhelming urge to see his kids, to confirm with his own eyes they…existed. He had already been to see Lily at the day school in Godric's Hollow and now his boy's were looking at him for answers. Answers he didn't have. Cant a father just see his sons? Harry finally settled on saying. James raised an of man, eyebrow, his brown eyes narrowing in a look that reminded him all too much of his mother.

Harry almost took a step back, and barely resisted the urge to snap at him to on The Nonstandard Monetary Policies never look that way again. But he pushed back the impulse. He was having a lot of urges lately and it all tied to the blocks on consciousness, his mind fading. What he would find he knew internally, without a doubt, that it would change his life completely. Dad? asked Albus, touching his arm and staring at him with worried green eyes. On Monetary? Seeing his own eyes staring back at him from the face of his child comforted him. Breaking? He didn't know why but it always did and right now he needed that comfort.

A damn was breaking inside of him. What it was going to release was going to be big. Harry shook his head to clear his thoughts. Nothing to worry about boys. I just wanted to make sure you both were doing alright here. James immediately launched into a tirade about on Monetary Policies how their Victoire, their cousin, nicked his quills last night to write a letter to Teddy, who was off traveling the world.

Harry smiled good naturedly amused at how much James sounded like Ron. He had definitely taken after his uncle with his tendency to meddle in other people's love affairs. Harry glanced at the greed Albus who still staring at him suspiciously. He completely saw through Harry. It was a gift he always had.

Albus was uncanny with his ability to read his father. He knew something was wrong but he wouldn't say anything till Harry did. The bell rang and Harry bid his boys to hurry off to class. Albus hugged him one last time and after shooting his father another suspicious look, he took off after his sprinting brother. The Nonstandard Policies? Harry watched his kids go with a fond smile. He turned to go as well and his eyes caught sight of the courtyard nestled on the side of the advantages castle surrounded by a flowerbed. Tall, red flowers were in full bloom near the gazebo. Red flowers. Red. Red.

Red. Red. Essay? Red. Understanding Faith? Red. Red. Red. He swallowed as his throat suddenly went dry. He walked on autopilot to the courtyard. Essay Monetary Policies? His legs carried him to a stone bench near the gazebo.

He stared around him as his body physically shook and understanding faith thrummed as his mind was assaulted with images. He closed his eyes as stars flared behind his eyelids. A groan left his lips as the sensation of a hot wind cascaded over his body. And he remembered. Hard to believe it happened so long ago. He was only sixteen. – Hagrid. It's weird that Slughorn is gathering us all together for his little club, eh? asked Harry, idly running his hand over Essay Monetary the gazebo's railing.

We're only teenagers. It's a tad bit too early to try and cultivate us. Ginny nodded. Double? I'm only on The Nonstandard, fifteen. Just because I can do a mean Bat-Boogey Hex doesn't make me special. The man is obviously short a few gobstones. There was a silence and it started to of nafta for canada become a bit uncomfortable. Harry was about to excuse himself but Ginny grabbed his arm. Frowning he opened his mouth to question her but stopped at the odd glint in her eye.

Blushing, she dropped his arm and stepped back. Wait, she said softly. Don't go. I want to ask you something. Is it true that Dumbledore told you that your greatest power against Voldemort was love? Harry nodded slowly, not really sure where she was going with this. Yeah. I think it has something to do with how awful our childhoods were and The Nonstandard Monetary how I didn't let it get to me. I appreciate and feel love differently and strongly than him and most people. I thought it was something like that, muttered Ginny, thoughtfully. Dreadlock History? He heard a cry of Essay The Nonstandard Perfectus Totalus! and breaking bad news saw a flash of white light before he went down, flat on his back and stiff as a board.

Panic surged through every nerve of his body. A weight slid itself on his torso and Ginny settled herself on top of his stiff, unmovable body. He glared at her with his eyes, demanding her to let him go. This had gone far beyond some stupid prank. He hated being helpless in a situation and this was a prime situation. He tried to gauge her intentions and didn't like what he saw. Essay Policies? She didn't look crazy, angry, or under the Imperius Curse. Harry had seen this expression on many girls that followed him around Hogwarts.

Love. She was in love. Love sick girls were perhaps the most dangerous people to be around. Their actions were erratic and insensible. He had to double consciousness get out of here now. Now, now, she whispered, soothingly. It just won't do for you to panic.

Harry glared at her. What did she want from him? Was she a Death Eater? Ginny saw his eyes flick toward her arm and she shook her head. On The Nonstandard Monetary Policies? I'm no Death Eater scum, she said with a grimace. You have questions. Lets talk, Harry. Let's really talk. Her voice trailed off holding the word talk , stretching it out, like a caress. Bois Double Consciousness? When I was little girl I was told stories about the Boy Who Lived who defeated the big, powerful Dark Lord. You were my hero.

I imagined you being my knight come to take me away and Policies lavish me in the life of the famous. When I was ten, I ran after the Hogwarts Express waving beside it, like a silly little girl. Do you remember, Harry? You had a seat by the window and you turned just enough that your scar showed and understanding our eyes met. I stopped dead. I thought my heart had stopped. Then you left the station and the train was gone, taking you with it.

Harry didn't know what the hell she was talking about. There was no meeting of the eyes. He had looked at her sure. But she was running beside the train and waving like a loon. It was hard not to look. Crazy, psychopaths he was used to. Fanatic girls were still new to him. Now it looks like the latter could fit into The Nonstandard Policies, the first category. I let my crush get the best of me sometimes, admitted Ginny with false shame. Of The Acadians? But I thought once you spent more time around me you would be drawn to me the way I'm drawn to you. I've finally started to become a bit popular and still nothing ! She slammed her hand down on his chest and he inwardly wheezed at the force of the contact.

She didn't notice. Ginny was staring into the distance, remembering. You only see me as Ron's little sister. Nothing else. Never nothing else. And now that damn Ravenclaw comes into the picture— I see the Essay on The Nonstandard Monetary Policies way you look at dreadlock history her sometimes, your lips twisting up in that little smile when your laughing, that spark in your eyes. You don't even notice it, but I do. I notice everything about you.

And I will not have you falling for Luna Fucking Lovegood! She was heaving by the time she ended her rant. Her chest was rose and fell rapidly and she greedily sucked air into her lungs. Harry stared, stunned. Those flashing eyes and that twisted snarl were a look he had never seen before on Ginny.

He was starting to get a little scared. On Monetary? She really believed what she was saying. Understanding Faith? Did she really watch him that much? But he didn't think of Luna that way. He had too many things to The Nonstandard Policies worry about to really put thought into romance. Sure, Luna did have that way— Your thinking too hard, Harry, said Ginny suddenly calm, visibly composing herself before his eyes. Your eyes do this squinting thing when you're doing intense thinking, like now. Understanding? We will have a future together.

I have made sure of The Nonstandard Monetary Policies that. From her pocket she produced a vial containing a silver-white liquid. It had a reflective sheen to of nafta for canada it and when she uncorked it, immediately Harry was hit with the fragrance of treacle tart, a broomstick, and something flowery, maybe roses. Harry was starting to Policies get nervous. He tried with all his might to squirm but his body wasn't responding to his will.

What was she going to do to him? This, my dear Harry, is Amortentia, whispered Ginny, staring at consciousness the vial with a gleam of hope and anxiousness. It's the most powerful love potion in the world. You can't manufacture love. Everyone knows that, Harry thought, narrowing his eyes at Essay on The Nonstandard Policies the vial.

It was something Professor Snape drilled into their heads when he taught Potions. The only thing it could produce is a strong infatuation or obsession. Ginny had truly lost touch with reality. Ginny caressed the vial and advantages of nafta for canada licked her lips. This will solve all our problems, Harry.

See, you said it yourself that love is your power. You love on a level that is Essay on The Nonstandard, beyond most. Most people would be able to detect a love potion's effects after witnessing someone under the influence. You will become so devoted and understanding dedicated…but who would know the Policies difference… Harry Potter is normally so passionate about dreadlock people… now it will just be toward me . Essay The Nonstandard Monetary Policies? She let out the greed, a high pitched giggle that made Harry shudder inside. No. Essay Monetary Policies? No. He was not going to just sit here and be mind fucked into submission. For Canada? He gathered his will and focused . He fought against the spell pushing all his thoughts into Policies, movement.

He turned his head and his shoulders twitched. Ginny moved quickly snatching his head in an iron grip. She held his chin steady and bois used the other hand to bring the vial toward his lips. He screamed inside his mind hoping beyond hope that somebody would come and Essay The Nonstandard stop her. The red flowers that bloomed in the courtyard caught his eye and that image froze in his mind as the scalding hot liquid was poured down his mouth. She massaged his throat forcing the muscles to for canada relax, forcing him to Essay on The Nonstandard Policies swallow. There, there, said Ginny softly, compassionate brown eyes staring intently into Harry's own panicked green ones. Everything will be alright.

No one will ever be able to counter the potion unless they know you're under its power. Don't worry, love. Of The Acadians? We will always be together. It was like a flood of water that started at his head then continued down his body. The potion worked itself inside his body, filling nerves with false senses and rewiring his brain into thinking her fantastical wish was his reality. The more he fought off the The Nonstandard foreign, invading thoughts the more they consumed him. They swallowed him up and he drowned in the power of the potion. Deportation Of The? A hand settled on his chest, caressing the flesh beneath. You are mine, Harry James Potter, Ginny stated with a cold edge of promise. Harry's eyes opened and he gazed at her with new emotions. The potion thrummed through his body influencing his perception.

Before Harry was the most beautiful girl he had ever seen. Her red hair was vibrant even in the dark night against the backdrop of stars. Her flawless skin and Essay The Nonstandard shining eyes were hypnotizing and he knew without a doubt that she was his goddess. How could he have not seen her before? Really see her. Had he been clinging to her status as Ron's little sister, which prevented him from seeing all that she truly was. A woman who was the deportation of the acadians other half of his soul— Ginny lips suddenly split into a full, intoxicating smile once she took in his worshiping eyes. That will do.

The skin beneath her palm tingled and pulsed. Harry felt her touch as if it were the hand of Essay Policies life giving him energy and power. Under her touch the Amortentia pulsed with a life of its own till it felt like a being within his own body. A being of primal emotion. Of The Acadians? A monster in his chest that controlled and lived only for Ginny Weasley. Yes, that will do nicely, she repeated. She whipped out on Monetary, her wand. Now to faith erase the evidence from your mind. I love you, my Harry.

Obliviate ! Ginny, as the baby, was used to getting her way. – Charlie. The swinging doors to the third floor section of on Monetary St. Mungo's were thrown open with such a force that they dented the walls when they hit. Healers and deportation of the nurses stepped back, gawking at the famed Harry Potter, who was staring at the staff with a visible cloud of tingling, swirling, magical energy surrounding him like a halo. He was a sight and a fright to behold as the gaping witnesses couldn't help but flinch under that visible aura of power and those deep, furious green eyes. A brave Healer, the chief attendant, stepped forward. Essay On The Nonstandard Policies? C-can we help you, sir? Harry glared at the shaking man.

What does one have to do to get tested and cured for Amortentia around here? Do you know who gave you the potion? It's important, said the Healer, medical interest, and a healthy curiosity forced him to recover from his star struck and fear. Harry lips twisted into dreadlock history, a bitter snarl. The bitch who calls herself my wife. He had a right to be angry. On? She fooled us all. – Mr. Dreadlock? Weasley.

He hadn't felt this free in years. His entire body felt different. Lighter. Liberated. Essay Monetary Policies? Harry digested the memories that were now unlocked to his mind. Bois? Ginny had used a Memory Charm on him multiple times. More times came after the first time at the courtyard on Hogwarts grounds.

There had been other times when her charm had begun to on fade when they were younger, newlyweds, and he almost fathomed his true self. He had been under the effects of the of man Amortentia, but knew that she wasn't right, wasn't sane. Essay The Nonstandard Monetary Policies? He wanted to blame someone for not noticing he was under a love potion. Anyone. But he knew it wasn't anyone's fault. He had always been too passionate, too emotional… of course people had assumed when he fell in history, love he would be just as passionate, emotional, obsessed. Oh, Merlin it's dark in here! A light flickered on and Ginny appeared in the doorway of the lit up living room. Monetary? Harry! she gasped, startled. What are you doing sitting here in the dark? Harry didn't rise from the armchair he sat in.

He didn't move. He didn't look at her. I took Lily to your parents for the night, he whispered so quietly that she had to strain to hear it. History? Ginny dropped her wand on the table near her and on The Nonstandard stepped forward then stopped. She stared at the blank look on her husband's face and advantages of nafta whatever she saw made her stop cold. She opened her mouth and then closed it as those green eyes she loved so much nailed her in place. I always knew in the back of my mind that I couldn't be attracted to someone who reminded me of my mum in looks, said Harry in a voice lacking all warmth and humor. Essay On The Nonstandard Policies? Ginny frowned. Harry, what on earth has gotten into you? Harry shook his head.

I can't believe half of my life has been this big lie, he laughed harshly. I guess it wouldn't be the first time though. She stilled. It was a careful stiffening of her body that caused Harry to take notice. What are you talking about? asked Ginny slowly with deliberate innocence. Deportation Of The? You know exactly what I'm talking about you crazy bitch, snapped Harry, his eyes flashing. Essay Monetary? I've finally come to web du bois my senses. Essay On The Nonstandard Monetary Policies? My mind is bad news nursing, whole and that monster in my chest has been given a quick AK. Ginny's face went slack and Essay on The Nonstandard then pale with shock. You know… …Everything, finished Harry, smirking darkly.

I don't even want to know why. You did enough speechifying that day twenty-one years ago. You are a vile, evil, insane, sorry excuse of a witch and history I hope you rot in Essay Monetary Policies, hell next to Voldemort and his fucking death eating, ass kissers— Ginny found her voice. Harry— At the sound of her voice a tornado of fury welled inside of him and exploded outward. Understanding Faith? Wind rushed the room in a raging tempus pushing back the furniture and throwing items into walls with shattering force. On The Nonstandard Monetary? Harry stepped through the sudden gale toward Ginny. Don't.

Ever. Say. My. Name. Like. That. Double? He bit out furiously through clenched teeth.

Don't talk to on The Nonstandard Monetary Policies me as if you mean it, like you fucking care . He reigned in his emotions and understanding the wind left as quickly as it came. His wand was clenched in a white knuckled grip at his side. Sparks of sickly, green light fell from its tip and hit the floor with soft hissing sounds. Essay On The Nonstandard Monetary? His arm whipped forward and his wand pressed hard into dreadlock, her throat. Ginny made a sound of Essay fear. Harry, don't… I did it for you. For us. Give me one reason I shouldn't send you to Hell by double way of the on The Nonstandard Monetary Killing Curse train, demanded Harry coldly.

TELL ME! Our children, she replied in a quiet plea. Harry's other hand jerked forward and he stopped it in mid reach. Dreadlock History? His fingers clenched and unclenched in Essay on The Nonstandard Monetary Policies, spasm like twitches. Those convulsive fingers were alarmingly close to faith her neck. He slowly brought his arm down, still glaring at her.

I should break your neck for saying that, stated Harry. I can't believe that you brought children into this make-believe fantasy, this lie. Ginny slowly smiled. You don't believe that. Essay Monetary Policies? You love me and our children. This life is all we both ever really wanted. I love my children, but I hate their hellspawn of a mother, replied Harry truthfully. History? The doorbell chiming startled her… and made Harry smile. On Monetary Policies? And that would be the Hit Wizards come to cart you away. Ginny moved fast, diving for her wand. Harry didn't make it to the top of the Auror division by fame alone.

His wand was drawn and the Full Body-Bind curse was uttered before Ginny's hand wrapped around the handle of her wand. The curse struck her and history her arms snapped to her sides and Essay on The Nonstandard Monetary then her entire body tipped over. Web Du? She fell hard on Essay on The Nonstandard Monetary, her back and acadians Harry smiled, hearing her head crack solidly against the floor. Harry bent over The Nonstandard taking joy in the panic and alarm that shone in her eyes. Shh, shush now. There, there, he said mockingly.

Everything will be okay. The kids are mine and I'm sure one or two might forgive you one day and visit you in Azkaban. He smiled at her. And for understanding faith, the first time in twenty one years he truly meant it. What's done in the dark will come to the light.

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An essay-writing guide for History of Art students. Monetary. Posted by Katie in History of Art on December 5, 2015. About 2,500 words later and I#8217;ve just finished writing my essay for Conceptual Art and its Aftermath in deportation Britain. It#8217;s that time of year when the library starts getting busier, most of the books you need are on-loan, and the books you have taken out are being recalled (the other day I took a book out and one day later it was recalled. Ridiculous). And it#8217;s all because most of us are busy with writing our pre-Christmas essays. Yay. Seeing as I#8217;ve just finished my essay, I#8217;m going to give you some pointers on how I think a good History of Art essay should be written!

Obviously each and everyone of us has their own way of doing things, and I may have missed some things out, so don#8217;t take what I say as gospel. This is just how I go about it! Here goes#8230; Find out which artist(s)/movement/period interests you . I recommend writing about a topic that actually interests you, because it makes everything so much more bearable. Going to lectures and Essay Monetary Policies, seminars should help you decide which artists or movements you like the most. Do your research . This is an obvious one I guess. Have a look at the reading list provided by your professor for an idea on which books to take out the library. Web Du Consciousness. The David Wilson Library has loads of art history books, so really make the most of it. Also have a look online. Art museum websites are fairly good, such as the Tate, but avoid doing your research on unofficial websites that aren#8217;t reliable.

When doing research, try to learn as much as you can about the historical context and the biography of the artist(s) you#8217;re focusing on, because this will help when analysing specific artworks. Essay The Nonstandard. Look for things that you can discuss in your essay. Decide on a specific, interesting argument to discuss in your essay . Bad News Nursing. For some modules, your tutor will provide you with a list of titles to Essay on The Nonstandard Monetary choose from when writing your essay this makes choosing a line of argument fairly easy. The Greed. However, for Conceptual Art I had to come up with my own essay title. I really struggled at first to come up with an interesting line of The Nonstandard Monetary, argument that would make for a good, thought-provoking read. Consciousness. The best piece of advice I can give at this point is to make sure you have something to say.

It sounds a bit obvious, I know, but you need to make sure that your reader has actually learned something after reading your essay. Focus on something specific about the artist, avoid talking generally about them, and avoid reciting their biography. Try to write critically and avoid being too descriptive. Choose a few artworks to discuss in your essay . With History of Art you#8217;re going to Essay The Nonstandard Monetary want to analyse some artworks to back up your points. I think around four, maybe five artworks is enough if you want to go into advantages, quite a lot of The Nonstandard, depth for each one. The artworks you choose should provide a lot of for canada, scope for discussion and be relevant to The Nonstandard Monetary your line of argument. When I choose artworks for my essays, I don#8217;t necessarily choose the ones that I like most. I choose them based on whether they will help me develop my argument. Make an double essay plan. Essay Policies. Plan and structure what you#8217;re going to say into an introduction, middle, and conclusion.

You can even plan each individual paragraph if you want. I think a lot of people rush over essay planning and go straight into writing the real thing, which doesn#8217;t work for everyone. Making a plan will help you to give your thoughts and ideas a bit more structure and coherence. Write your essay. Obviously quite an important part of the bad news nursing, essay-writing process. On. I don#8217;t really know what else to say apart from: write! I should mention at this point about coming up with an essay title. A lot of of man, professors will tell you to write your essay and then come up with a title afterwards.

While this can work for a lot of people, I like to have a good idea of what my title is going to be before I start writing. So, do whatever suits you best. Come up with a title either before or after writing the essay. Both ways work. If you come up with a title before writing, just make sure that when you do start writing, you stick to what the title is on Policies, asking you to write. Coming up with a title afterwards is fairly easy as you can tailor it towards what you#8217;ve discussed in double the essay. Cite the Essay The Nonstandard Monetary Policies, sources you use and advantages of nafta, provide a bibliography . This can be tedious but it#8217;s important that you don#8217;t neglect this part. You don#8217;t want to be penalised for Monetary plagiarism. The Greed. Each department varies with the type of Policies, referencing they prefer, so make sure to web du bois double ask your professor if you have any doubts.

Check your work . Make sure what you#8217;ve written is Monetary, clear and makes sense. Make sure the breaking nursing, information you provided is accurate. Check your grammar. Policies. Check for any spelling mistakes. Dreadlock History. You know the drill. On The Nonstandard Monetary Policies. Complete the final touches . Make sure your essay is paragraphed and double-spaced. Choose a simple, readable font. Add headers and advantages of nafta for canada, footers for Essay Policies your student number, name of module, page numbers, etc. Submit your essay . You finished your essay! Woo!

Once you#8217;re completely happy with it, you#8217;ll be ready to submit it. You#8217;ll need to submit a hard copy and an electronic copy on Turnitin. There we have it! Thank you for web du bois double consciousness reading and on Monetary Policies, I hope some of you found this useful! Share this page: Share this page: Hey I'm Katie and I study Modern Languages with History of Art. I'll be blogging about my experiences as a final year student at the University of Leicester and of the acadians, letting you know how I'm coping after having just spent a year abroad in Italy! Alongside my studies I'll be spending my 4th year as Secretary for the Erasmus and on The Nonstandard Monetary Policies, Exchange Society, so you can expect an insight into both the academic and social side of Leicester.

I love art, travelling and meeting new people.

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International Finance and Financial Crises: Essays in Honor of

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cobra law essay This guide is written for students who are following GCE Advanced level (AS and A2) syllabuses in English Language. This resource may also be of general interest to language students on university degree courses, trainee teachers and anyone with a general interest in language science. On this page I use red type for emphasis. Brown type is used where italics would appear in print (in this screen font, italic looks like this , and is unkind on most readers). The Nonstandard! Headings have their own hierarchical logic, too: Main section headings look like this. Sub-section headings look like this. Minor headings within sub-sections look like this. What do the consciousness, examiners say about this subject? In preparing this topic area candidates should study: conversational analysis; stylistic analysis of texts; historical and contemporary changes, as appropriate.

In particular they should examine: influential power (e.g. advertising, politics, media, culture) instrumental power (e.g. law, education, business, management).. One obvious feature of how language operates in social interactions is The Nonstandard Monetary, its relationship with power, both influential and instrumental. Neither rule nor law, neither discipline nor hierarchy sanctions influential power. It inclines us or makes us want to behave in certain ways or adopt opinions or attitudes, without obvious force. Advantages Of Nafta! It operates in such social phenomena as advertising, culture and the media. (Strictly, we are not coerced into buying what the advertiser shows us, nor will we suffer any penalty for Essay The Nonstandard Monetary, our sales resistance.) Instrumental power is explicit power of the sort imposed by the state, by its laws and conventions or by faith, the organizations for which we work. Essay On The Nonstandard Policies! It operates in dreadlock business, education and various kinds of management. (In many, but not all cases, if we resist instrumental power, we will be subject to some penalty or in trouble.) Note: instrumental here does comes from the same root as the Essay on Monetary Policies, instrument we play to make music - they are related etymologically. But it has a quite different meaning today from instrumental as used to describe music. In your studying instrumental power, please do not for a moment think it has anything to do with the power of music.

In some spheres of social activity, such as politics or law, both kinds of power may be present at the same time: we are subject to laws (enforced by penalties), but some legal processes, such as trial by jury, rely on attempts to persuade. Politicians impose laws, taxes, and bureaucratic systems (instrumental power) but seek to influence us to deportation, endorse their policies or turn out to vote for The Nonstandard Monetary, them (influential power). They may wish to influence us to use our collective power to return them to understanding faith, office, where they will use their executive power to direct some aspects of our lives - a curious paradox of The Nonstandard our system of parliamentary democratic representation. (That is they get us to understanding, give them the Essay Policies, power to tell us what to do and how to live. And we really do have the advantages for canada, choice, collectively, as we show when we vote for The Nonstandard Monetary, a change of advantages of nafta for canada government.) In looking at how power is exercised through language, you should be able to refer to real examples you have found, and explain these texts. But you should also have a theoretical approach that will enable you to interpret language data you are presented with in an exam. Among other things, you should look at Essay Monetary, pragmatics and speech act theory, lexis and semantics (forms and meanings), forms that include or exclude (insiders or outsiders), structures (at phrase, clause and discourse level), forms of address, phatic tokens , as well as structural features of speech, which may be used to exercise or establish power.

And in faith some contexts, you will need to be able to show how rhetorical devices are used to influence an audience. Consider, for example, how conversational maxims may be adapted for reasons of on Monetary Policies expedience, rather than integrity. Does all power corrupt in language, as (according to Lord Acton) it does generally? Persuasive techniques in understanding language. This guide looks at Essay on The Nonstandard Monetary, the different subjects that examiners specify, but there are many techniques that are common to various contexts.

In this section you will find some guidance on these. As well as looking for them in texts that you study, you may try to web du bois double consciousness, use them in texts that you produce - for example in original writing or editorial writing tasks. You may think of on Monetary these primarily as devices in poetry, but they abound, consciously or unintended, in almost all spoken and many written texts, as when political reporters talk of a raft of measures. Satan (Andy Hamilton) in an episode (from 2001) of Old Harry's Game (a radio sitcom set in Hell) remarks of one of the faith, characters that he is The Nonstandard Policies, shaking like a Millennium Bridge and of another that he has the willpower of double consciousness Bill Clinton at a cheerleaders' convention. Essay Monetary! The first is a simile, the dreadlock history, second a metaphor. Both were topical in 2000, and exploit assumed attitudes in Essay The Nonstandard the audience - that we know (and are amused by) the engineering problems of the Millennium Bridge (good to the greed, look at, perilous to walk on) and the reputation of President Clinton. George W. Bush uses it for more serious effect when (in a State of the Union address) he describes the American faith in freedom and democracy as a seed upon the wind, taking root in on The Nonstandard many nations. You will find these techniques not only in web du double grand and serious contexts.

If you want to collect metaphors, listen to soccer reports on Radio 5 #45; some of the summarizers even have their own favourite stock of Essay on The Nonstandard Monetary images. Stuart Hall can be relied on for these, whether he is using the dead metaphor School of breaking bad news Science for Everton FC or likening the soccer player Emile Heskey to a wildebeest. Careless speakers or writers may mix metaphors inadvertently, but some authors do it intentionally. Even Shakespeare does this, as when Hamlet proposes to take arms against a sea of troubles #45; presumably both the playwright and the Prince realize that this is a strange action. The audience sees it as a metaphor of an impossible struggle. (W.B. Yeats used this idea in a poem called Cuchulain's Fight With the Sea ) Mixing metaphors can have comic effects, as when a character in Mel Smith's 1989 film, The Tall Guy , remarks of an attractive woman that: She's like a hungry leopard in full bloom.

In fiction, mixing metaphors in dialogue is Policies, a stock way to make the reader question the dreadlock history, intelligence of a character. In other contexts it may come from the Essay, attempt to compare or relate things others have said. Many years ago, the late Enoch Powell, warning about the future effects of large#45;scale immigration referred to rivers of blood running in of the the UK. In January 2003 the UK Home Secretary David Blunkett referred to Britain as a coiled spring. Monetary! In Any Questions (a radio programme in which various experts answer questions from the audience), Jonathan Dimbleby, the host, first said, (summarizing others' comments), the country's like a coiled spring and this could spill over. then asked, [is] David Blunkett's coiled spring a tributary of Enoch Powell's river of blood? Mr. Dimbleby appears to bois, have seen that this is an inelegant mixing of metaphor, but his main purpose was, in posing the question, to relate the Essay The Nonstandard Monetary Policies, statements of bois consciousness others, who chose the Monetary Policies, original images. In rhetoric, a speaker may return to or develop a metaphor, to make an advantages for canada argument seem more compelling.

In John F. Kennedy's 1961 Inaugural Address to The Nonstandard Policies, the American people, we find an extended metaphor of lighting a fire to give light to the world: The energy, the faith, the devotion which we bring to this endeavour will light our country and the greed, all who serve it, and the glow from that fire can truly light the world. Another powerful technique is to refer to, or even quote, a powerful phrase that the audience may already know. There is some risk in this, as the author needs to be sure that enough of the Essay on The Nonstandard, audience will be aware of the allusion or reference, unless the quoted phrase works well even if its origin is not known. In the lines quoted above, Kennedy seems to allude to the image, in St. John's gospel, of Jesus as the light of the world. Ronald Reagan's speechwriter, Peggy Noonan, borrowed an image from acadians, John Gillespie Magee's poem High Flight to Essay, explain the disaster in 1986 when the Challenger space shuttle exploded:

We will never forget them (the crew), nor the last time we saw them this morning, as they prepared for their journey and waved goodbye, and slipped the surly bonds of earth, to touch the face of God. (Magee's poem begins: Oh, I have slipped the surly bonds of deportation of the acadians earth and Essay on The Nonstandard Monetary Policies, ends . I've. Deportation Of The! Put out Monetary, my hand and touched the face of God.) In commenting on language data, you may find it hard to detect allusion #45; in a way it is almost impossible unless you know what it is to history, which the speaker or writer alludes. On the other hand, there are many contemporary texts in which a young person has more chance of detecting a reference than an older one. Essay On The Nonstandard! A good example is a short feature (in the Guardian newspaper's tabloid supplement) that purports to be an extract from a chat forum, but is bois consciousness, really a spoof.

In a January 2003 edition, one of the chatroom guests was supposed to be Kim Howells, a junior minister who has been in the news for attacking modern art. He rebukes the other users of the chatroom for Essay on The Nonstandard Monetary Policies, their non#45;standard spelling, adding: I blame Mrs. Dynamite. For Canada! The author intends the reader to be amused by the way Kim Howells tries to on, show an awareness of youth culture, yet reveals his ignorance in advantages of nafta changing the title from Ms to Essay, Mrs (Ms Dynamite, as younger readers will know, is the stage name of the breaking nursing, rap singer Niomi McLean#45;Daley.) Three#45;part structures and lists are memorable and The Nonstandard Monetary Policies, resonant in many kinds of text. Of Man! Here are some examples:

And now abideth faith, hope, charity, these three. St Paul, 1 Corinthians 13.13 (King James Version, 1611) The grandest of these ideals is an on Monetary Policies unfolding American promise that everyone belongs, that everyone deserves a chance, that no insignificant person was ever born. George W. Bush, Inaugural Address, 2001 If you're a daring designer, a budding botanist or simply green#45;fingered, we want to hear from you. Alan Titchmarsh, Gardeners' World Live , BBC TV, June 2001. Lists of three are not so common in unprepared speaking, but you should look out for them in advantages for canada any language data you have to Essay on The Nonstandard Monetary Policies, study. A useful rhetorical device is to repeat a key idea or phrase #45; this may seem crude, but it may lodge in web du bois consciousness the minds of the Essay on The Nonstandard Monetary, audience. We see it in a speech made by Harold Wilson, during the 1974 UK General Election campaign: This election is not about the advantages, miners; not about the militants; not about the on The Nonstandard Policies, power of the unions. Many writers, especially those who write for public speaking, will divide a sentence or clause into two balanced parts.

This was the basic principle of poetry in much of the ancient world. There are almost limitless examples in the pages of the web du bois, King James Bible, which was translated to be a version for public reading. Sometimes the second half echoes or develops the first half #45; this is Essay The Nonstandard, synonymous parallelism . Sometimes the two halves are opposed or contradictory, and bad news, this is antithetic parallelism or simply antithesis . We see this in some lines from George W. The Nonstandard! Bush's Inaugural Address, where he refers to US history as: . the story of a power that went into advantages of nafta, the world to protect but not possess, | to defend but not to conquer. In this example the thought of to protect but not possess, is carried further by to defend but not to Essay on The Nonstandard Policies, conquer. In speaking these lines, there will be a pause after possess. For a more familiar example, look at the British National Anthem: God save our gracious queen, | long live our noble queen.

Antithetic parallelism or antithesis. The first example comes from a speech of Winston Churchill, in which he challenges the understanding, Luftwaffe (the German air force): You do your worst #45; and Essay on The Nonstandard Monetary, we will do our best. A celebrated example comes from Kennedy's Inaugural Address (quoted above): And so, my fellow Americans, ask not, what your country can do for double consciousness, you. | Ask what you can do for your country. And we can see antithesis in George W. Essay! Bush's images of America's faith in freedom and breaking bad news nursing, democracy, first as a rock, then, by Essay The Nonstandard Monetary Policies, contrast, as a seed:

Through much of the last century, America's faith in freedom and web du double, democracy was a rock in a raging sea. On The Nonstandard Policies! | Now it is a seed upon the wind, taking root in many nations. If you wish to of man, make a statement, it may be a good idea to ask a question or series of questions to introduce it. This is a common technique in information leaflets, which often pose the question from the on Policies, reader's viewpoint #45; How can I protect my baby from common infections? and breaking bad news nursing, so on. It can also be powerful in political rhetoric #45; How can a Labour government raise standards in education? leading to an exposition of the Policies, party's policy. For example, Welcome to the Labour Party , a booklet which gives information to new members, contains pages where statements are introduced by questions, each set out as a section heading, such as: How can I get involved?, What happens at local policy forums?, Do I have to go along to understanding faith, a local policy forum to have my say? and on The Nonstandard Monetary Policies, What is the future?

Using the same initial consonant is a common ploy of poets and advertisers. It can be irritating if it's overdone, but makes lines quotable or memorable. Of Nafta! In George W. Bush's inaugural speech we note f aith in f reedom and The Nonstandard, r ock in a r aging sea. Winston Churchill, in faith his speech about the Luftwaffe addresses the Nazi leaders and refers to the Nazi party as the g risly g ang who w ork your w icked w ill. You can create some good effects by using similar words but with slight differences of form and meaning. Andy Bodle in a listings article for the film Rancid Aluminium does this by describing the film as part arthouse, part shithouse. Here are a couple of examples.

The first comes from Dorothy L. Sayers' Introduction to her translation of Policies Dante's great narrative poem, Purgatory : Between the history, bishops who assure us that the family is the one and only seedbed of all the virtues, and the psychiatrists who warn us that it is a hotbed of all the vices, we hardly know how to advise any child to enter upon the hazard of existence. The second comes from Vladimir Nabokov's essay On a book Entitled Lolita . This is an appendix to his novel of the same name. In the essay, Nabokov claims (or pretends) that he can admire but cannot emulate: . the accuracy of judgment of those who pose the on Monetary Policies, fair young mammals photographed in magazines where the general neckline is just low enough to provoke a past master's chuckle and just high enough not to make a post#45;master frown. Broadly speaking, advertisers persuade their audience to adopt attitudes to lifestyle, products and services. It is rare to find advertising that seeks to influence explicitly or directly. Less rare are advertisements in which the link to a product or service is implicit or ambiguous. Web Du Double! Consider a TV advertisement (May 2000) which depicts Aimee Mullins a model (who is also a paralympic athlete, sprinter, and double below#45;the#45;knee amputee) preparing for the finale of a fashion show for on The Nonstandard Monetary Policies, Alexander McQueen #45; the advertisement was made for an Internet service provider, FreeServe, but did no more directly to advertise FreeServe than show the company name and logo. There is an history oblique link to the name of the company in the idea of the model's freedom to run with the on The Nonstandard, wild animals depicted in dreadlock history the fashion show. At the on The Nonstandard Monetary, same time the advertiser skilfully links a possibly un#45;sexy technical service with ideas of beauty, fashion and positive discrimination. Advertising has a lexicon, which may change over time, but is fairly stable #45; new, improved, proven and other qualifiers are seen as reliable.

David Ogilvy in Confessions of an Advertising Man (quoted by Shirley Russell; Grammar, Structure and Style , Oxford, 1994, p. 177) identifies a basic lexicon of qualifiers such as: new, good, crisp, better, fresh, natural, fine, free , and of verbs such as: buy, give, taste, go, look, feel and use . Special registers (technical, scientific or pseudo#45;scientific) may be used for breaking, appropriate products. Essay On The Nonstandard Monetary Policies! Torque, BHP, valve, ABS for cars or keramides, pro#45;B, hypoallergenic in personal hygiene products. Look out for special lexical uses according to product, image and of the acadians, target market. Pot Noodle #45; everything else is Essay on The Nonstandard Policies, just pants. Pants is (or was in understanding 2000) fashionable as a mild term of disapproval among young people (especially young men) who may be supposed to want food which is The Nonstandard Monetary, inexpensive, quick to make, and needs no special preparation or utensils. Advertising borrows and adapts structures and forms from history, texts of all kinds. Many broadcast advertisements are dramatic, with a narrative conducted through dialogue. Others may show a narrative by images alone, to the accompaniment of music and/or a voiceover. Can you think of examples? Puns, alliteration, assonance, onomatopoeia, rhyme and other kinds of comic or poetic wordplay are common in advertising. Ambiguity, irony and Essay on The Nonstandard, allusion (reference) are also powerful techniques.

Advertising often makes use of short texts #45; whether in print or broadcast media #45; where every word has to work hard (in this respect very much like poetry). It is very common for the advertiser to understanding, use words that belong to some other special lexicon, as if to establish a rapport with the Essay on The Nonstandard Monetary, target audience. So a 2002 television advertisement for John Smith's Bitter (beer) opens as if it were a broadcast of an international diving event (the advertisement appeared shortly after the deportation of the acadians, 2002 Commonwealth Games). The Nonstandard Monetary! After divers from of nafta, other countries execute technically perfect dives, the Essay on The Nonstandard Policies, British diver jumps in, making a great splash and almost losing his trunks, to of nafta for canada, rapturous applause and perfect marks from the judges. The commentator utters the phrase, which is the slogan of the campaign: top bombing. The non#45;standard noun, bombing , suggests something which is typically male, fun and demotic #45; it is unpretentious, aimed at people who have traditional ideas of bitter as a down#45;to#45;earth and blokeish drink, in contrast to continental lagers or drinks with other social pretensions. It is very easy to find special lexis in Essay on Monetary Policies any advertisement. But in explaining how it works, you will need to think about how far the copywriter is bois double, using a particular register, or feature of on style, which in turn is related to the product brand and image, and the attitudes or values of the audience. Look at the following examples of extracts of text from adverts, culled from a quick look through a selection of understanding newspapers and magazines (the product and the producer appear in The Nonstandard Monetary Policies parenthesis after the advertisement text): The British Airways Sale. Go on.

Take off. (Reduced#45;price flights/British Airways) Imagine a healthier fitter you. (Tanita body fat monitor) Move Mountains. (Sim City 4 PC/Dixons) Not so much a price as an invitation. (Flights to the greed, Spain/Iberia Airways) Every year 39,200 women are newly diagnosed with breast cancer. (Medical insurance/AXA PPP healthcare) Go Mobile. (Voyager laptop computer/Evesham Technology) A win, win, win, win, win, win situation. (6 months' free business banking/Barclays) Demon slashes all broadband set#45;up fees. (Broadband Internet service/Demon) Not even the taxman can catch it. (Saab 95 saloon) We don't need your tears we need teachers urgently (Voluntary Service Overseas) Lose weight, the healthy herbal way. (Weight Loss Aid/Herbal Concepts) Great tasting nutritious supplements. (Build#45;Up Nutrition/Nestle) Helps reduce and overcome smoking at The Nonstandard Monetary Policies, your own pace. Web Du! (NicoBloc) Always on call. (Day Night Nurse) Technology with style. (DWF614SS dishwasher/Smeg) It only takes a few seconds to realize a diesel can have Va Va Voom. (Renault Clio) Kurt Geiger for her. Paul Smith for The Nonstandard Monetary, him. Tax#45;free prices for you. (Airport shopping/BAA) Authentically French mellow cheese. (Cheese/Port Salut) Having your own ringtone saves you answering someone else's call. (Call Sign/BT) Look for the lexical words ( nouns, verbs, adjectives and understanding faith, adverbs ). What ideas do they suggest? Does the text suggest the on Monetary Policies, ideas of good value (low price), of style, status, sophistication, convenience, fitness and so on? The Iberian Airways advertisement repeats the idea found in many airline ads of good value, while at the same time suggesting something personal about visiting Spain, through the noun invitation #45; which we associate with parties and celebrations. The advertisement for BAA's Airport shopping works in a similar way: it refers to advantages of nafta, the low (tax#45;free) prices, yet targets its audience very precisely by The Nonstandard Policies, naming the history, fashionable brands on sale #45; if we do not know what Kurt Geiger or Paul Smith makes, then the advert will pass us by. There is also an assumption that the brands appeal to the different sexes, which works in that the writer of this guide recognizes Paul Smith as a designer of formal clothes, but does not know Kurt Geiger. (The advertisement also has a three#45;part structure to point up the special lexis .) The advertisement for BT's Call Sign service will appeal to on Monetary Policies, a wide audience, but until we know what a ringtone is, we are not likely to wish to of man, have our own.

The meaning of the on Policies, noun is self#45;explanatory #45; but here it moves from its original context of use (mobile phones) to the related context of web du double consciousness fixed telephones #45; so the advertisement targets householders rather than predominantly young people with spending money. The Barclays advertisement uses a phrase that is a cliché or buzzword among business people: a win#45;win situation implies an arrangement that benefits people at either end, and challenges the received wisdom that if X gains then Y loses. So in using the Essay Monetary Policies, phrase, the breaking bad news, advertiser keeps to a register familiar to the business customer, while printing the adjective six times to on Policies, indicate the double, number of months for which the free offer runs. Technology with style is one example of a pattern familiar here #45; that suggests that the on Monetary Policies, product has two things that the audience may think to be normally contradictory or oxymoronic (the idea of having your cake and eating it). The Greed Of Man! Sometimes the opposition is of price and quality (as in the claim that good food costs less at Sainsburys). Here the advertiser contrasts functionality and aesthetic appeal, and claims that the brand in question (Smeg) has both of these at once. Similarly the advertisement for NicoBloc combines the idea of efficaciousness (it works) with that of its not being too difficult for the would#45;be non#45;smoker to stop smoking. This appears in the suggestion of reducing (consumption) before stopping altogether. The verb overcome has connotations of victory in battle, rather than the Essay The Nonstandard, breaking of a habit or a simple change in understanding behaviour. On Monetary! These is probably very apt, since the target audience for deportation of the acadians, this advertisement may well have an extreme view, and see the attempt to stop smoking as akin to The Nonstandard Policies, a great military action. (The advertisement comes from Healthy Times a magazine distributed, free to readers, by dreadlock, the retail chemists UniChem #45; so the audience has already been targeted.

Advertisements for products that help people stop smoking do of course appear in more general contexts, as in TV advertising.) This same contrast also appears in the Renault Clio advertisement #45; but here the Essay The Nonstandard Monetary, lexis is more explicitly making the distinction, in diesel and Va Va Voom . The adjective diesel has immediate denotations of the advantages of nafta for canada, known properties of this engine type #45; the engine has a longer life, is more dependable and gives better fuel economy, but takes longer to reach high speeds. On Policies! The advertiser wants to suggest that the car nonetheless has a combination of style, flair, power and youth appeal (not normally associated with diesel engines). Rather than use any of of the these words, Renault has invented its own compound abstract noun #45; Va Va Voom . This is alliterative, and has an interesting sound #45; being quite memorable. The advertisers develop the image by association with, for example, the soccer player Thierry Henry #45; who is on Monetary Policies, French, but lives and works in England, and is exceptionally talented and athletic. Dreadlock History! At the same time, M. Henry is shown in situations that suggest a caring and feminine side #45; with pets, sitting at home among soft furnishings, for instance. In this way the advertisements appeal to potential drivers of both sexes, and are highly specific to The Nonstandard Policies, one make and model of car. By inventing the advantages for canada, word, the advertisers are able to adapt it so that it carries exactly the suggestion they wish to make to Essay The Nonstandard Policies, the audience #45; it should have no prior negative connotations . One of the advertisements playfully suggests that the new term is part of the standard English lexicon by asking what is the French for Va Va Voom ? Does advertising have distinctive grammar ? Yes #45; in several ways. Web Du Consciousness! First, advertising, like poetry, often allows the author more licence to depart from standard forms than in other kinds of text. And second, it makes use of short forms, of what Professor Crystal calls minor sentences . There is a connection with pragmatics , therefore, in that the advertiser makes very great assumptions about the audience.

It is acceptable to puzzle or intrigue in Essay on Monetary ways that would not be at all appropriate if the audience really depended on the advertisers' information. One very common technique is for breaking nursing, the author to Essay on The Nonstandard Monetary Policies, set nouns and noun phrases or verbs on their own, where the reader or listener supplies the missing elements by conjecture #45; rather as in interpreting notes, so that, for faith, instance, does what it says on the tin is Essay on The Nonstandard Policies, understood as this product meets the breaking nursing, claims that are printed on the side of the tin. This form may sometimes but not always resemble the forms used in Essay on The Nonstandard Policies headlines, so that it is especially suitable for adverts in newspapers. Here are some examples taken more or less at random from a trawl through some daily newspapers (January 2003): Happy New Rate Deals to remember Currys sale/Free delivery plus Buy now pay 2004 EMAIL, INTERNET TEXT MESSAGES Winter welcome Free servicing for 3 years Summer seats on sale new year new fares The confidence to succeed Precious metal for breaking nursing, precious little. On their own, these do not tell you how typical they are.

A casual mental count suggests that, in these newspapers, the advertisements in Essay on The Nonstandard Policies which the first line (or text nearest the top of the breaking bad news, display box) is not a grammatically complete structure (sentence or main clause) outnumber those that are complete in a proportion of at least three to The Nonstandard Monetary, one. But a more complete survey from a bigger sample would be a suitable task for research. Faith! Among the on, few complete structures are: i want extra MONEY Apply now How do you see yourself? Look at the clues Travel with Eurotunnel from just £5. In the 1960s advertisers would often use grammatical conversion , taking a brand name (a noun) and using it as adjective, adverb or verb . This tendency has recently returned as in understanding faith these examples: There is no attempt to alter the form of the word to correspond to its grammatical category, such as by adding an affix like #45;ish, #45;ic or #45;esque , nor of using an Essay Monetary extra word: that's so like Suzuki how like Heineken. In the UK, there are some state controls on deportation acadians what advertisers may or may not claim about Essay Monetary their products.

Advertisers, therefore, often exploit the possibilities of the greed of man connotation (suggested meaning) rather than strict denotation (stated meaning) and imply that products have various merits, without saying so explicitly. One common way of doing so is to use pseudo#45;technical lexis or scientific names for everyday things. However, this is not desirable in all contexts. In cosmetic and pharmacological products, most advertisers will use scientific lexis to suggest efficacy, as in these examples: Perle de Caviar draws the essential elements of long#45;lasting beauty and a youthful complexion from the depths of the ocean. trace elements, amino acids, mineral salts, iodine and The Nonstandard, plankton. Combining a perfect balance of web du bois consciousness these precious elements, each Perle de Caviar product provides an on The Nonstandard Policies intense thalassotherapy treatment designed to hydrate and regenerate. Regime elevates the use of cosmetics to of the, something complex, while the ® symbol suggests that there is something technically sophisticated in the product. It may really simply denote the registration of the trade name to protect against Essay on Monetary, misuse. This pseudo science is not simply found in the advertisements proper but in the joined#45;up marketing, so that people who apply and demonstrate the the greed, products are beauty therapists #45; which may imply similar learning, academic qualifications and status to, for example, speech therapists or physiotherapists.

The beauty therapist wears a white garment like a lab coat, implying some kind of likeness to a pharmacist. On! Compare the of man, examples above with one designed for a scientifically qualified readership. This is an advertisement for Xalatan a 0.00#37;5 eye drop solution of latanoprost, licensed for use in March 2002, and advertised in The Pharmaceutical Journal of Essay on The Nonstandard Monetary Policies November 2002. The advertisement includes details of acadians nine references to the product in Essay on Monetary Policies published scientific sources, followed by detailed prescribing information, divided under standard headings such as Presentation, Indication, Dosage and dreadlock history, Administration, Contra#45;indications, Precautions, Side Effects, Interactions, and information about the drug's effects in Pregnancy, Lactation and for Driving, Overdosage, Pharmaceutical Precautions, Legal Category, Packaging Quantities and Basic NHS price and details of the Product Licence Number and Holder . This degree of on The Nonstandard Policies information distinguishes licensed pharmaceutical products from beauty treatments. In the latter case, the advertisers might wish us to breaking, believe that Laboratoires Garnier and the Ponds Institute are comparable to medical research institutions. In the west, Ponds appears to have dropped references to the fictitious institute #45; a search on the Web leads to some amusing spoofs, though the Essay, Ponds Institute is still used in advertisements in the developing world. A register of breaking bad news nursing pharmaceutical laboratories in France (at www.pharmaxie.com) does not show Laboratoires Garnier under entries for the letter g. In relation to food and drink, however, advertisers are usually keen to stress its naturalness. So while the Essay on The Nonstandard, product packaging will list all additives, flavourings and colourings, advertisements will identify the brand and basic food content, as in breaking Filippo Berio/The World's Finest Olive Oil/Filippo Berio/Olive Oil/Pure Genius #45; the brand name and on The Nonstandard Monetary, the principal ingredient appear twice, along with the adjective pure, to suggest the idea that there is nothing but the natural oil in the bottle that the advertisement depicts.

A full#45;page advertisement for Cobra beer, in Sainsburys Magazine for January 2003, shows lots of blank space, a small photograph of two bottles of Cobra, the Web site address, and this text: If you like Cobra,/drink Cobra and The less gassy bottled beer that puts you under no pressure. There are some exceptions to dreadlock history, this rule of thumb, however #45; vitamins and mono#45;unsaturated fats, for example #45; which advertisers do sometimes mention. Advertisers occupy the spaces where we are typically attending to other things #45; watching television, reading or browsing a magazine on the way to work, looking at posters on an underground train, platform or escalator, or from a car, bus or bicycle. On The Nonstandard! They will try to appeal to all our senses and different language processing faculties at the same time. It is understanding, quite common for on The Nonstandard Monetary, a TV advertisement to feature any or all of these at the same time: musical track, sound FX, voiceover, dialogue spoken by character or celebrity in or out of advantages of nafta role, static text, moving text or text spelling out The Nonstandard, letter by letter on screen, with or without extra graphic embellishment . What we do, if anything with these, may vary from person to person #45; but is something one can research. You can do this, for advantages of nafta, example, by showing advertisements to people (categorizing the people by whether they have seen the advertisement before, and Essay on Policies, how often, as well as by other things like sex and age), then asking them whether they think the advert contains an example of each of the kinds of text that the researcher has identified. (It is breaking bad news nursing, possible to add some that are not there, as distractor questions, to eliminate some kinds of respondent.) A very good pragmatic approach is to consider the position and viewpoint that the audience is being asked to adopt. This can be something very simple, as in an assumption that we all want to Essay The Nonstandard, save money. This assumption is very widespread among advertisers and marketers.

Regularly someone telephones me to ask if I would like to save a given figure on my utility bills. My stock response is to of the, say that I do not wish to save this amount (or even a lot more) to change something with which I am currently content, thinking it a fair price for Essay on The Nonstandard Policies, a reliable service. This often leads the caller to question whether I really mean what I say, and to revert to a script that stresses this potential saving. By no means all advertisements make this assumption. Others assume that the breaking nursing, reader or listener has anxieties about his or her self#45;image, and that he or she can become more attractive by on Monetary, wearing the watch or clothes advertised, or driving a different car. Understanding! An extreme (and offensive) example was a TV advert that featured a young man mounting a supermarket trolley and racing it around a supermarket. A female voiceover spoke the phrase: Inadequate car. Essay Monetary Policies! (The advert is offensive in suggesting that the choice or ownership of a marque of car is the web du bois double, measure of a human being.) Various advertisers of mobile phones try to persuade existing owners that they need to replace a model that is not stylish and a likely cause of ridicule, as in an advertisement series (shown on UK television) for Phones4U. In these adverts the comedian Paul Merton speaks a voiceover: We'll find the right phone for you. Essay The Nonstandard Monetary Policies! Does the advertiser consider how far the audience may resist the notion that there is a right phone for us? A more objective approach to pragmatics might be to consider what grammatical person or form of address advertisers use, if they try to speak directly to us.

Do they use imperatives (Look at the clues), do they make statements (We don't serve lobster in the directors' dining room) or do they plant noun#45;phrases (Free servicing for 3 years) and leave us to of nafta for canada, work out what to do about these? Discourse structures in advertising. Advertising is Essay on Policies, highly derivative and history, imitative (if not parasitic or plagiarizing) in the genres, text types and structures it uses. In effect, any kind of on The Nonstandard Monetary Policies text that exists for any other purpose may be the blueprint for an advertisement. (This is not a one#45;way relationship: dramatic narratives and comic animations often borrow structures and techniques that first appeared in advertising. And there are many examples of television or print fiction that started life as advertisements #45; the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles in the 1990s or Torchie the Battery Boy in the 1960s.) A very common general approach (for any broadcast medium and cinema) is to create narratives #45; which may be self#45;contained or episodic. While the advertiser may not wish to point out that these are narratives, this is not always the case.

A series of deportation advertisements for the BMW Mini car uses the Essay on The Nonstandard, format of stories with a plot consisting of three or four statements, read as voiceover with accompanying action #45; the subject of each sentence is usually New Mini, and of man, each example ends with: The end. Essay On The Nonstandard Monetary! It's a Mini adventure. Breaking Bad News Nursing! At the opposite extreme would be a series of Policies advertisements produced by the agency McCann Erickson for Nescafe's Gold Blend brand of consciousness instant coffee. This campaign ran from November 1987 to 1993, containing twelve episodes released at the rate of one or two a year. The agency produced a compilation of the Essay on The Nonstandard Policies, first eleven episodes before screening the dreadlock history, conclusion. The story was adapted as a romantic novel, entitled Love Over Gold . An even longer#45;running series featured the OXO couple Katie and Philip, in a series of domestic scenes. The Gold Blend series may have prompted the advertisers of the Renault Clio to make a series of advertisements featuring a French father and on Policies, daughter (Papa and Nicole) into web du bois consciousness, a more coherent narrative, ending with a wedding, which sends up the classic film The Graduate . In this advertisement, two entertainers, then at the height of their popularity (Vic Reeves and Bob Mortimer) played the jilted groom and the successful old flame who runs off with the girl. A Channel 4 poll showed this series to be the most popular of on Monetary all UK TV adverts, while other studies have claimed that the double, series was the most successful in Essay The Nonstandard terms of the audience's ability to identify the bois, product advertised. As styles of Essay on The Nonstandard Monetary Policies TV broadcast have developed (say lifestyle programmes or reality shows), so advertisements have moved to emulate them. Of Nafta! So we see the home makeover and DIY show mirrored by Essay on, advertisements for Homebase, in which Neil Morrissey and Lesley Ash appear as a couple (loosely resembling the characters they played in the sitcom Men Behaving Badly ) while post#45;watershed documentaries about sexual behaviour clearly have inspired the campaign (starting in 2002) for of the, Pot Noodle (It's dirty but you want it) in which a young man visits various clubs and Essay on Policies, asks young women in underwear or bondage gear whether they do Pot Noodle, or in advantages for canada which a young woman (seemingly a girlfriend) accuses the young man of indulging in on The Nonstandard Policies his Pot Noodle habit. You can find many advertisements by going to the Web sites of the various agencies, or looking for named directors of commercials.

But two big portals worth visiting are: As a critique of double consciousness advertising, you should look at Essay on, Adbusters , at adbusters.org/home. The features of political language vary, as do its purposes. Where politicians interact with society generally, their purposes may be, to persuade voters with a party loyalty to turn out to vote; to move a floating voter's party allegiance, or to make us adopt general political or social attitudes, so we support a given policy. Politicians may also use particular language forms when answering journalists' questions. Where politicians engage in language interactions with other politicians, they may use other particular forms #45; either loosely or under the rule of an arbiter, such as the breaking bad news nursing, Speakers in the UK House of Commons and the US House of Representatives. And finally, a contemporary feature of political language use is Policies, what is known as spin #45; providing information to the media in such a way as to favour a desired interpretation, not explicitly stated. Persuasive language techniques, especially in speech, take their name from the Greek noun for a professional speaker, rhetor (the Latin equivalent is orator ). Deportation Acadians! Many of these techniques are found in written records of speeches in The Nonstandard Monetary Policies the ancient world #45; such as Jesus' use, in Matthew's and of the, Luke's gospels of Essay on The Nonstandard Monetary parable, antithesis and patterned speech which even survive translation into English: Blessed are those who mourn, | for they shall be comforted.

Blessed are the pure in heart, | for breaking bad news nursing, they shall see God. We have similarly ancient records of political speeches, such as those of Demosthenes, that show the use of techniques that are as effective today, as they were in the past. Max Atkinson, of Oxford University, suggests that political speechwriters consistently rely on a range of powerful techniques: alliteration, allusion, antithesis (inversion), asking questions and suggesting answers, lists (especially of three items), metaphor (especially extended metaphor), parallelism, parenthesis, repetition and redundant questioning. To see these in action, you should look at examples of speeches written for Essay The Nonstandard, politicians, and find out how these work. Obtaining example data for this purpose is web du consciousness, very easy. You can use the official record of the UK House of Commons. (This is called Hansard after Thomas Curson Hansard, who began producing reports unofficially, and put his name to the record in 1829.

Hansard's reports were so accurate that they became the standard record on Monetary Policies merit. At the start of the of man, 20th century the UK government established an on The Nonstandard Monetary Policies Official Report. History! It dropped the Essay The Nonstandard Monetary, Hansard name, but popular usage preserved it, and in 1943 the understanding, name was officially reinstated, even though the report now has no connection with the Hansard family.) Hansard 's reports are available in print and on the World Wide Web, as are records of proceedings in Essay on Monetary Policies the parliaments of many other countries (which also use the name Hansard ). In the UK, the BBC has a digital television channel ( BBC Parliament ) that broadcasts debates and the greed of man, meetings of select committees #45; from which you can make recordings and transcripts. The federal government and state governments in the USA also publish the text of Essay on Policies speeches, such as the web du, President's Inaugural Address and Essay on Policies, State of the Union speeches. Once you have found your transcript, what can you do with it? One exercise is to look for rhetorical techniques in action. Consider this extract from a speech made by web du bois consciousness, the late Harold Wilson, the Labour leader, before the 1974 UK General Election: This election is not about the miners; not about the militants; not about the power of the unions: it's about the disastrous failure of three and on The Nonstandard Monetary Policies, a half years of Conservative government which has turned Britain from the path of prosperity to consciousness, the road of Monetary ruin. What is Mr.

Wilson doing here? We find. repetition of the formula not about, and consciousness, antithesis between is not about and it's about. Path of prosperity and on The Nonstandard, road of ruin repeat the same form, use alliteration and are related metaphors. In John F. Kennedy's Inaugural Address from January 20, 1961, we find an the greed of man extended metaphor (of lighting a fire to give light to the world) and a concluding antithesis: The energy, the faith, the devotion which we bring to this endeavour will light our country and all who serve it, and the glow from that fire can truly light the Essay Policies, world. And so, my fellow Americans, ask not, what your country can do for you. Ask what you can do for your country.

The last two sentences use many of the same lexemes , but transpose (switch) the subject and the indirect object. (You can find the whole text of the speech and an audio recording [Real Audio] to bois consciousness, download at the JFK Library and Museum, hosted by the University of Massachusetts Department of Computer Science at: For a humorous allusion, consider Margaret Thatcher's: To those waiting with bated breath for that favourite modern catchphrase the Essay on Policies, 'U#45; turn', I have only one thing to say: You turn, if you like; the acadians, lady's not for turning! There is wordplay on Essay on the homophones U#45;turn/you turn, and a reference to Mrs. Thatcher's Iron Lady nickname, while the deportation acadians, final phrase is a painful pun on the title of Christopher Fry's play (about a witch): The Lady's Not for Burning . Ronald Reagan's speechwriter, Peggy Noonan, borrowed an Essay Monetary Policies image from John Gillespie Magee's poem High Flight to bois, explain the disaster in 1986 when the Challenger space shuttle exploded: We will never forget them (the crew), nor the The Nonstandard Policies, last time we saw them this morning, as they prepared for their journey and waved goodbye, and slipped the surly bonds of breaking bad news nursing earth, to touch the face of God. Now look at Essay The Nonstandard Monetary Policies, these longer extracts (from which some of the of man, examples above come), and see if you can find other ways in which the writer (not the Monetary, same person as the speaker, usually) uses specific techniques to achieve particular effects. In the long history of the advantages for canada, world only a few generations have been granted the rle of defending freedom in its hour of maximum danger. I do not shrink from Essay Monetary Policies, this responsibility; I welcome it.

I do not believe that any of dreadlock us would exchange places with any other people or any other generation. Monetary! The energy, the faith, the devotion which we bring to this endeavour will light our country and the greed, all who serve it, and the glow from that fire can truly light the world. And so, my fellow Americans, ask not, what your country can do for you. Ask what you can do for Policies, your country. I'll tell you what happens with impossible promises: you start with far#45;fetched resolutions; they are then pickled into a rigid dogma cold. And you go through the years, sticking to that: outdated, misplaced, irrelevant to the real needs. And you end in the grotesque chaos of breaking bad news a Labour council #45; a Labour council #45; hiring taxis to scuttle round a city, handing out redundancy notices to Essay Monetary, its own workers. I'm telling you now: no matter how entertaining, how fulfilling to short#45;term egos #45; I'll tell you and you'll listen #45; I'm telling you, I'm telling you #45; you can't play politics with people's jobs and acadians, people's services. Parliamentary and unparliamentary language. In the UK Parliament, a range of special language features marks proceedings.

These include: a special lexicon and forms of address, disallowing personally abusive epithets use of special structures Parliamentary privilege #45; freedom from liability for slander rules for taking and holding turns procedures for supportive and explicatory interventions submission to Essay on Monetary Policies, the arbitration of the chairman or woman, the Speaker and Deputy Speakers. David Crystal ( Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language , p. 378) suggests also that maxims of of man conversational theory do not apply to parliamentary dialogue. Essay The Nonstandard Monetary! Other participants or commentators do not assume that speakers are telling the truth, are speaking clearly or with relevance. This may need some clarification. In some ways, debate is like social conversation #45; people speak in sequence, respond to each other and develop ideas. And outside of deportation of the occasions when MPs adopt ritual enmities (Prime Minister's Question Time or the Essay on The Nonstandard Monetary, presenting of a new draft bill, say), the speakers may follow cooperative rules and observe conversational maxims. Bad News Nursing! But they have other motivations than the success of the Essay on The Nonstandard Monetary Policies, conversation #45; and (in pragmatic terms) may want the exchange not to breaking nursing, be successful, that is in coming to The Nonstandard Monetary Policies, an accommodation. For an exhaustive discussion of how different theoretical models usefully explain parliamentary discourse, have a look at Chris Christie's Politeness and of man, the Linguistic Construction of Gender in Parliament: An Analysis of Transgressions and Apology Behaviour at www.shu.ac.uk/wpw/politeness. In this article, Chris Christie effectively qualifies Professor Crystal's assertion, as she does see what happens if one uses models from Pragmatics (specifically politeness theory) to explain Parliamentary exchanges. The UK parliament has a s pecial lexicon #45; something you will find in the political systems of on Monetary many states. This includes terms denoting the institutions, practices and officials of the parliament #45; things like bench (back bench, cross bench, front bench), Black Rod, speaker, under#45;secretary, whip (noun and verb).

This lexicon is dreadlock history, very extensive (there are many guides available to explain the meanings of terms). The Nonstandard Monetary! Some are descriptive and more or less self#45;explanatory, such as: Committee of Selection, Disclaiming a Peerage and breaking bad news, Prime Minister's Questions (though here we need to know that the questions are asked of or to, but not by, the Prime Minister, who gives the answers). Others are opaque #45; we need to Essay Monetary Policies, know more information in order to understand the meaning, as with: 1922 Committee, Another Place, Chiltern Hundreds, Hansard and I Spy Strangers . You can find explanations of these and other terms on various A to Z guides, but if you want to know the meaning of these particular terms they are as follows ( Hansard is explained above): Below is a list of further words and phrases which have a special meaning in the context of of man Parliament. How many do you know? Check the BBC's, or Parliament's own, A to Z guide to find out what they mean. Go to: Any hours motion. Below the gangway.

Cabinet Office Secretariat. Chairman of Ways and Means. Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. Chancellor of the exchequer. Chief whip (government) Clerk of the on Monetary, Parliaments. Contempt of web du consciousness Parliament. Crossing the Floor.

Disclaiming a peerage. Early Day Motion. Father of the on The Nonstandard, House. I Spy Strangers. Journal of the Commons. Leader of the House. Early Day Motion. Father of the House. I Spy Strangers. Journal of the Commons.

Leader of the House. Lord Privy Seal. Orders in Council. Orders of the Day. Parliamentary Private Secretaries (PPSs) Points Of Order. Prime Minister's Questions. Printed Paper Office. Private Bill Office. Private Member's Bills. Private Notice Question.

Public Accounts Committee. Public Bill Office. Readings of Bills. Recesses and Recalls. Serjeant at Arms. Ten Minute Rule Bill. Forms of address may confuse the the greed of man, outsider. Simple forms include my honourable Friend, the honourable Gentleman/Lady or the honourable Member for Finchley . The Nonstandard Monetary! These denote an MP simply #45; other members are supposed to know who represents each constituency (electoral area). A friend is usually of the same parliamentary party as the person who uses this epithet.

If the of the, MP is a Privy Councillor (usually a former minister), then he or she is the right honourable Lady or Gentleman . If the MP is a barrister (as many are) he or she may be a learned Lady or Gentleman . The Speaker and Deputy Speaker chair debates. Remarks should be primarily addressed to them, using the formula Madam/Mr. Speaker or Madam/Mr. Deputy Speaker. For example, here is a comment from Hansard for 21 January 2003, in which Mike O'Brien (Parliamentary Under#45;Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs) refers to Ann Clwyd: I pay tribute to the work of my hon. Friend the Member for Cynon Valley. (In Hansard hon. is the standard abbreviation for honourable.) Directly addressing another person with the The Nonstandard Monetary, second person pronoun (You) is disallowed and may earn a rebuke from the Speaker, as in this exchange: Mr. Prescott: You might be #45; perhaps that is new new Conservatism #45; but you should have a chat to your mate on the Front Bench. Mr.

Deputy Speaker: Order. I am sorry to stop the Secretary of State's speech, but I would be grateful if he would use the correct parliamentary language. In this case the Speaker signals his disapproval and calls Mr. Prescott to attention with the call: Order. Of The! This is on The Nonstandard Monetary, technically a command , even though on occasions a rowdy House ignores it initially. Interestingly, he says nothing about the mate on the Front Bench #45; so Mr. Breaking Nursing! Prescott might have escaped rebuke, had he said, the honourable member for The Nonstandard, North Wiltshire should have a chat with his mate on of nafta for canada the Front Bench, the [right] honourable member for X. Mr. Prescott's error is to use second person you, and speak directly to Mr.

Gray. However, in choosing among possible alternative forms in a given context, speakers may illustrate pragmatic rules or principles #45; perhaps using a polite formula to Essay Monetary, cover hostility or aggression, while in a naturally friendly exchange a less explicitly courteous form may be acceptable. Also, even when a speaker refers to his or her honourable friend, he or she is technically addressing the breaking nursing, Speaker, while the honourable friend is in the third person. In the on The Nonstandard, House of Commons speakers may assert things which elsewhere would allow others to sue them for libel #45; this is Parliamentary Privilege . On the bad news, other hand swearing (of almost any degree) and calling other speakers liars are formally disallowed. The Speaker asks any Member who breaches these rules to withdraw the remark. If he or she persists, the Essay Monetary, Speaker may ban the offender from the House for a given period. The Commons has other rules defining contempts, such as giving false evidence to a Select Committee, threatening MPs about how they vote , and offering bribes . To vote, members go through a lobby. If they support a motion, they go through the Aye (yes) lobby ; to oppose it, they enter the No lobby . To give the for canada, result, the Speaker states the number of votes for Aye and No , and says that either the Ayes or the Noes have it. In a debate, the Speaker of the House calls MPs to take a turn . The holder of the turn may allow another speaker to Essay The Nonstandard Monetary Policies, interrupt his or her speaking. The new would#45;be speaker may ask, Will you give way? The MP who is speaking may agree to this, using the form: I will give way.

Etiquette dictates that the new speaker should make a brief contribution before allowing the understanding, first speaker back. This is Essay The Nonstandard Policies, a highly formalized version of turn taking. Of course, on many occasions, the person who has the floor will refuse to allow the interruption, for reasons of time or policy. MPs may not read aloud written speeches during debate, though they may use notes. They are not allowed to read newspapers, magazines and letters.

They may not make use of visual aids, such as diagrams and advantages of nafta for canada, maps. Short slogans, like those in Essay on The Nonstandard Policies advertisements, often mark the speech of of nafta politicians answering questions from journalists (or their opponents). These are repeated in such a way as to persuade the The Nonstandard, listener of their truth or reason. For example, in defending policies which apparently increased unemployment in the UK but raised the value of the advantages of nafta for canada, currency, Mrs. Thatcher coined the phrase: There is no alternative. There obviously were alternative suggested policies but denying their existence made them seem impractical.

Whether or not they were really impractical is not the linguist's concern: we are interested in the linguistic means by which Mrs. Thatcher justified her dismissal of them. A very simple but effective sound bite is the name New Labour . New is well known as an effective qualifier in advertising, and the UK Labour Party in the 1990s was keen to distance itself from the (supposedly unelectable) Labour Party of the 1980s. Constant repetition of the The Nonstandard Monetary, name made it stick. The Conservative Party, then in government, attacked New Labour in the 1997 election campaign with the slogan New Labour, New Danger. Deportation Of The! Arguably, this reinforced the Essay Monetary Policies, idea that Labour had changed and deportation of the acadians, helped the party win the Essay Monetary Policies, election. (broadcast, print, new technologies) While any text may be influenced by the maker's preconceptions and world view, many media texts arise from an explicit intention of promoting given values or attitudes, whether sincerely, because the author believes in them, or cynically, to attract an audience. Web Du Bois Consciousness! As students of language, you have no interest in this #45; your concern is the Essay The Nonstandard, language features in which these attitudes are embodied or expressed . It may be helpful not to think of these preconceptions as bias, since this implies disapproval. They are, rather, the bois consciousness, speaker's or writer's outlook, assumptions or editorial stance . You should be aware that certain media texts proclaim and admit these underlying attitudes #45; opinion columns or current affairs broadcasts explicitly adopt such a stance.

But others, such as reporting, may aspire to on Monetary Policies, neutrality, yet display the author's value systems by choices of lexis or current metaphors . For example: Do we read of refugees, economic migrants or asylum seekers ? Are they bogus , and are they passing through open (or about#45;to#45;be#45;open) floodgates ? (How often do you meet floodgates in dreadlock history a literal, rather than metaphorical sense?) Are those who resist the state guerrillas, freedom fighters or terrorists ? Does a writer introduce ideas of legality to confer (dis)approval, so legal intoxicants (alcohol, tobacco) are distinguished from those that are illegal, and so referred to as drugs . New media texts may reveal very different attitudes, but in similar ways #45; they, too, have distinctive lexis and on Monetary Policies, metaphors. Individual expression rather than central editorial control may permit greater language diversity. Perhaps influential power is of nafta for canada, less monolithic, but appears in trends and fashions. There is plenty of space for critics #45; the World Wide Web abounds with sites that proclaim why X sucks , where X is a powerful business corporation.

Lexical choices reflect shifts in subjective meaning or connotation or contemporary attitudes, so that they carry a sense of approval (approbation) or disapproval (pejoration). They may also be euphemistic , appearing as an Essay on The Nonstandard Monetary acceptable substitute for some word or phrase that the acadians, writer or speaker thinks too strong or direct #45; as when the inadvertent killing of soldiers by their own allies or compatriots is friendly fire, and the killing of civilians is collateral damage. Political correctness (as a linguistic rather than social attitude) represents an attempt to find neutral terms. While PC language is often a subject for ridicule, it arises from a sensitivity to on Monetary, the connotations or implications of more common forms. It is worth paying attention to recurring forms #45; how often does anyone talk about addressing the issues (in the loose sense of talking about things or sorting them out). Context is very important #45; some areas of the media will use traditional and quite literary forms to suggest seriousness and dignity, as, say, on Alistair Cooke's Letter from America , broadcast on BBC Radio 4. Presenters of children's programmes on BBC1, BBC2 and CBBC will use forms closer to those of everyday speech among young people #45; or will they? Perhaps this is generally true, but they will have their own taboos #45; so they will not normally refer to sex, violence, gambling and alcohol, or swear and blaspheme. We can apply the theories of pragmatics to language use in the media #45; but should note some special features of how they work. A simple example might be a political interview, broadcast on radio or television.

What the listener or viewer might miss is an understanding of how far the speakers are aware of the wider audience , and how far the questions and answers are, or are not, spontaneous, as the interviewee may have seen them before the interview is recorded. Another complicating factor is the effect of editing , where an interview is recorded for later broadcast #45; this can remove the sense of two or more people observing the cooperative principle or exhibiting politeness . In the case of broadcast texts generally, one should consider the of nafta, relationship between the author or the publisher and the audience. Take news broadcasts, for example. We are familiar with the convention of a newsreader's sitting down at or behind a desk, but not all newsreaders do this. Essay On The Nonstandard Policies! Some newsreaders greet the audience: Good evening, here is the news, while others say This is [name of news organization] news or simply: The six o'clock news from the of the acadians, BBC. Even things like the newsreaders' clothes may be important #45; suits and ties are common (for men) in on the west and in the developing world, but in some countries newsreaders wear traditional or culturally significant clothes. This is something very easy to study: record a series of broadcasts on radio and TV over a day or two #45; if you have digital TV and radio, you can record bulletins from the greed of man, a much wider range. Then study each and note down how they do certain things.

For example: How many are there #45; one, two, more and of what sex? What do they wear? Do they sit, stand, move, stay still and so on? Do they acknowledge each other? How do they introduce reports from other correspondents? How do they address the unseen audience? Do we see filmed footage (on TV news)?

Do we see any graphic images or captions? Do we see text giving people's names? These are just a few ideas #45; you should be able to think of many more. Essay The Nonstandard! Once you have noted down the information, you might like to arrange it, say in a table. Now you can consider what, if anything, this tells you about the kinds of interaction going on. To take one example Channel 4's seven o'clock (p.m.) news bulletin on Saturday February 8th, 2003 carried a report on the pay rise awarded to the Lord Chancellor, Derry Irvine. To show the value of this rise (£22,000), the broadcaster used on#45;screen graphics showing what this amount would buy (a teacher's salary, so many bottles of bad news claret and Essay on Monetary, other things), while displaying an animated image of of the a fruit#45;machine bearing the Essay on The Nonstandard Monetary Policies, name: Derry's Jackpot. Leaving aside the question of how the viewer may feel about the news story here, we may consider how the use of of the acadians these techniques affects that view.

The image of the fruit machine may be significant to some parts of the The Nonstandard Policies, audience, but may give offence to others, who disapprove of gambling. We may ask whether the broadcaster should use any images or animations to suggest the idea of an unmerited benefit and whether the fruit machine animation makes the story clearer. Breaking! Should the story be left to speak for itself? Or is some kind of editorial slant inevitable? We can apply similar considerations to other spoken media texts #45; say the way in Essay on which a programme host talks to a guest on a phone#45;in quiz or similar activity. On a TV game show, for example, we may see the host's supporting the faith, participants to avoid their being unduly humiliated or, worse, not keeping to the programme's format and on Monetary Policies, structure. Recent broadcasts, of the so#45;called Reality TV genre, are quite different #45; in acadians many of The Nonstandard Monetary these, there is no such protection or nurturing of the advantages, participants. Instead they are subject to Essay on Monetary, insult by the hosts or other participants. It is relatively easy to study grammar , by looking at very specific features of language data such as verb tenses and pronoun choices #45; these can become conventional in certain forms or genres, and harden into a kind of style.

So, with broadcast news, we will be familiar with the forms in: Fifty#45;three people died when their bus collided with a train in central China early this morning. The clause structure is subject + verb (past imperfect tense) + adverbial . Dreadlock! This is an effective model or structure because the grammatical subject also signals the subject of the story (the victims of the crash), then says what happened, then gives information about how and why it happened, or further information about the circumstances of the event. On The Nonstandard Monetary Policies! If we look at. The Prime Minister flew to understanding, France this afternoon for a meeting with President Chirac. we can see that this is more or less the Essay Monetary, same structure. Understanding Faith! Some kinds of text, like reportage, use formulas like this, because the writers work at speed and Essay The Nonstandard Monetary, are meant to dreadlock, publish the story rather than create literary work. Do persuasive media texts have distinctive grammatical forms that reinforce their tendency to persuade? Perhaps.

What might these be? Well, I have just used one in the two previous sentences #45; taking what might be declarative sentences and Essay, recasting them as questions and understanding faith, answers . Qualifiers can be used, as their name implies to qualify the meaning of verbs and nouns #45; so that our view is Essay on Policies, affected #45; which really takes us back into semantics and stylistics . Are there distinctive structures for persuasive texts in the media? First, we may want to identify what such persuasive media texts might be. Some are easy to name, as they are explicitly intended to alter our view #45; as with party election or political broadcasts, editorials in newspapers and campaigns, such as the campaign in 2001 by the News of the World (a UK Sunday newspaper) to introduce Sarah's Law (the equivalent of the US Megan's Law, here named after murder victim Sarah Payne), such that families could know the of the acadians, identities of convicted paedophiles living near them. Other texts may have less obviously persuasive qualities #45; such as a documentary broadcast that leads the Essay on Monetary Policies, audience to some kind of position or view. Sometimes the text will seek to persuade through ridicule, using the structure and style of some other kind of text, but subverting it. What are the structures for deportation acadians, these texts?

Editorials may be a few hundred words in length #45; a headline, a simple introduction, an elaboration of Essay The Nonstandard Monetary Policies argument with examples, leading to a simple conclusion. While the lexicon and style may vary according to the target readership of the advantages of nafta for canada, newspaper, the structure is more or less the same for different kinds of newspaper. The party election or political broadcast in the UK is limited in time to The Nonstandard Monetary, a few minutes #45; so the writers have developed structures like extended advertisements. Deportation! The extract below comes from on The Nonstandard Monetary, a 1994 party political broadcast for consciousness, the Labour Party, which had a running time of 4 minutes 40 seconds: [Opening shot: Time#45;lapse photography of the sun rising over the Palace of Westminster] TONY BLAIR: [voice#45;over] It is an Essay on Policies honour to lead this party. I accept it with excitement.. [cut to shots of Blair reviewing papers in the back seat of a car] .. but also with humility, and with a profound sense of the dreadlock history, responsibility that is Essay Policies, placed upon me. [cut to someone adjusting the rear#45;view mirror to show Blair] [Cut to Radio Two studio] VOICE#45;OVER: [station identifier] Radio Two #45; Jimmy Young.

JIMMY YOUNG: And in the studio with me now, the new Leader of the Labour Party, Tony Blair. Web Du! Good Morning Tony. TONY BLAIR: Good Morning Jim. [Cut to vox pops] VOX POP 1: Tony Blair has a sense of vision. VOX POP 2: You know what they say about politicians, they never look you in the eye. He certainly does. VOX POP 3: I feel I can trust him. [Cut to Blair talking to camera; caption The Rt.Hon. Tony Blair MP Leader of the Labour Party]

This is more complex than a newspaper editorial. The editorial has a common theme, but also may have a reasonably clear argument, using examples to illustrate it. Essay The Nonstandard! In the broadcast, there is of the acadians, still the common theme, but there is not a simple or clear line of argument, rather a series of elements that are assembled loosely. The writer relies on the audience to supply the connections, so that we do not have an obvious sense of someone's telling us what to think. The image of the sunrise and the recording of Tony Blair's accepting the The Nonstandard Monetary Policies, leadership of the party both suggest the idea of change #45; in 1994 the Labour Party was trying to persuade the of man, British electorate to return Labour to power.

We can see how the writer first shows Tony Blair or has him speaking on a voice#45;over, but does not have him speaking straight to camera until some way into the broadcast. The party political broadcast must have quite a distinctive style, since it lends itself to comic treatment. A search on the World Wide Web will turn up many spoof broadcasts, including several Monty Python Sketches. The extract below comes from Essay, a broadcast (November 2001) of the ruling People's Action Party of Singapore and published on the party's Web site at www.pap.org.sg. Web Du! It is far simpler than the Labour broadcast above: In two days' time, you will be casting your votes. Essay On The Nonstandard Monetary Policies! Before you vote, ask yourself this question: in this economic downturn, who can help you find jobs? Nobody can say when our economy will recover. History! The US is Essay Monetary Policies, fighting a war against terrorism #45; in Afghanistan and in the US itself.

If the war goes badly, the dreadlock history, global recession could drag on. The Nonstandard Monetary! Singapore could then take one and a half to two years to recover. This is why I have called for elections now, as I want your strong mandate for our programme to save and create jobs for deportation of the acadians, you. JOBS TODAY, JOBS TOMORROW. I am especially concerned for Essay on The Nonstandard, older Singaporeans. They have families to look after. They find it harder to find and dreadlock, fit into Essay on The Nonstandard Policies, new jobs. This is true of most older workers, factory workers, office workers, professionals too. How do we help you? First, let us try to save existing jobs.

Next, let us help retrenched workers find new jobs. Dreadlock History! Thirdly, for the longer term, we must create more jobs. This broadcast is no more than a speech #45; we do not (on the Web document) have an indication of The Nonstandard what might be shown on TV or if it is a radio broadcast only, but it seems to be the text of the greed a speech by the leader. Essay Monetary Policies! In the advantages of nafta for canada, Labour broadcast, Tony Blair eventually speaks about the economy and jobs #45; but here the speaker moves straight to these subjects, without any real preliminaries. There is no suggestion of how to create jobs, but the noun is repeated many times. The notion of on The Nonstandard Monetary Policies a canon of classic works of faith art has not gone away, but is in creative tension with alternative contemporary visions. We cannot readily call these modern since this label has been appropriated for works from the early 20th century, and post#45;modern smacks of the 1980s. Some works, hailed in Essay The Nonstandard Monetary Policies the moment of consciousness publication or exhibition as masterpieces, are quickly forgotten. Nevertheless, most developed societies allow space for vigorous public debate about art and culture.

And we are comfortable with a distinction between popular, lowbrow or commercial music, writing and so on, and serious, classical or highbrow art. Culture, especially popular culture, exerts a massive influence on how people think and Monetary Policies, see the world. And this is reflected in a range of language forms. When we need comfort, our friends tell us that they are or will be there for of man, us. Unless we are pedantic we do not ask where there is. Soap operas and advertisements present us with tidy versions of real life scenarios and the language forms we need to understand or endure them: a lexicon for our troubles and problems, helpful phrases and even extended discourse structures or paradigms for on, coping. Deportation! Have a good cry we are told, because we have to grieve (a metaphor of on The Nonstandard Policies pressure which must be released before it does harm, often appears). You owe it to yourself or because I'm worth it express positively attitudes that seem far less attractive when called selfish or narcissistic. The fictional trial of a character for a topical crime (rape, wife beating, road rage) may provoke intelligent reflection leading to greater understanding. But it may be so plausible and convincing that it replaces proper public debate. What kinds of persuasive texts might there be in the general category of culture?

These would include satire, polemical writing, poetry and theatre . While some legal processes are used to enact power, others are devised to allow lawyers to persuade a judge or a jury, within an adversarial system of dreadlock history persuasion. This has its own distinctive language forms, and Essay on The Nonstandard, is much more constrained by rules than other kinds of persuasion #45; so much so that failure to obey the rules can overturn the decisions of a court. David Crystal ( Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language , p. 374) distinguishes between the language of the legislature (Parliament) which institutes a legal text (sets down the dreadlock, law in Essay Monetary Policies written form) and double, the language of the judiciary (law courts and judges) which interprets and applies it. The law also has its own lexicon: this preserves archaic terms, perhaps to promote respect for its processes or intimidate. While this continues to be acceptable in criminal law, in April 1999 civil courts saw a change in on Policies their lexicon.

A Mareva injunction (which prevents the sale of assets during litigation) became a freezing injunction , in camera became in bois double consciousness private , a minor or infant became a child , a plaintiff became a claimant , inter partes became with notice , ex parte became without notice , while pleading was replaced by statement of case . These changes were made on the recommendation of Lord Woolf, the Master of the Rolls , whose own title reflects the archaic origin of much legal lexis. The Norman Conquest established French (which included many Latin loanwords) as the language of law and politics. Later, Latin was used, and English only replaced Latin as the language of English law in the 17th century. Essay Monetary Policies! For this reason Latin phrases abound ( mens rea, ab initio, certiorari, ex parte ) as do French loanwords ( lien, plaintiff, tort ). To show the deportation, difference between areas where one is under obligation and those where one has some room to choose, the law makes use of modal verbs such as may, must, shall . To establish its general applicability the law uses pronouns such as all and whoever or generic nouns such as vehicle or person . To simplify or modernize the language of the law seems desirable, but may be problematic. Ordinary people may have a better sense of Essay on The Nonstandard understanding and double, therefore more respect for laws expressed simply and Essay Monetary Policies, plainly. But some apparently obscure terms may have been coined precisely to express subtle or unusual meanings or distinctions. And if the law uses the common register, then an updated term may itself become obsolete, as its common meaning misleads people about web du bois consciousness its legal sense. Fiona Kerr, who used to Essay The Nonstandard Monetary Policies, practise law, gives this example of what she calls the difference between lawyer#45;speak and understanding faith, normal language: The general public use murdered interchangeably with killed, no#45;one ever says he manslaughtered him.

Consider also what most people mean when they refer to personal property as compared with my understanding of it as everything which isn't land (roughly speaking). When Mrs Bloggins does her own will and leaves her personal property to the nice lady who looked after her cat whilst she was in hospital, she may intend to leave her collection of tin ornaments and a few skirts, but is The Nonstandard, she intending to bad news nursing, also bequeath her savings to said nice lady or did she intend to on Policies, leave them to her son, along with the house? Only a Judge can decide and by the time he has, there won't be any savings left for the winning litigant to spend #45; and the loser could be in debt. Law is often expressed in lengthy sentences marked by lists of items to ensure that nothing is missed out understanding faith, which the law should cover, so we know later whether or not it applies in a certain case. Parentheses or subordinate clauses appear frequently to clarify a preceding clause. Alternatively a number may refer to a footnote, where a phrase is more extensively or unambiguously defined. Legal documents are notorious for hyper#45;complex syntax , with several degrees of subordination of clauses . They also allow, often without clarifying punctuation, lengthy adverbial phrases , such as: And any such release settlement discharge shall as between you and the undersigned be deemed to have been given or made upon the express condition that it shall become and be wholly void and of no effect if the assurance security or payment on Essay the faith of which it was made or given shall be void. While literary texts (such as Dickens' or Hardy's novels) suggest that in earlier times ordinary readers could process complex syntactic structures, and deportation of the acadians, understand their meaning, modern readers or listeners may find this troublesome.

Shorter and less complex syntax is easier to understand, while some features of punctuation, typography and layout can all aid comprehension. Essay Monetary Policies! It is not so much that lawyers in the past did not know how to make themselves understood. They perhaps never intended to understanding, do so. Advocacy , as practised by barristers in criminal courts, can be contrasted with advertising. In one case, there are no rules, while approaches change and Essay on Monetary, are expedient #45; advertisers do whatever works. Advertisers are constrained by some standards and a code of practice. But advocates in the law courts are subject to faith, very precise rules about evidence, kinds of argument and turn taking, among other things, in a forum (the court) over which a judge presides. As regards sequence, barristers must outline a case and Policies, then present it, with the counsel (advocate) for the prosecution going before the defence counsel. The prosecution must prove its case beyond reasonable doubt; the defence, as barristers and judges often remind juries, does not have to prove anything #45; it is enough to discredit the prosecution or show that the prosecution has not proved the case beyond reasonable doubt. Bad News! Each side may question its own witnesses, but the Essay on The Nonstandard Monetary Policies, other side may subsequently cross#45;examine (question) them. Each side must sum up its case, and of man, the judge must also sum up the whole proceedings and advise the Essay Policies, jury about how to advantages of nafta for canada, arrive at Essay The Nonstandard Monetary Policies, its verdict.

In asking a question of advantages a witness, an advocate is not normally allowed to Monetary, invite the witness to web du double, agree with a version of events the advocate has described #45; that is, by The Nonstandard, asking leading questions. In some state court systems of the USA the breaking nursing, opposing counsel may call out Essay The Nonstandard Monetary, Objection and the judge may direct the jury to disregard what they have heard. In the UK, judges make such rulings directly without the protest of Objection. In order to make the trial fair to the accused, the deportation of the acadians, prosecution may not refer to any crimes of which he or she has been convicted in the past, though the defendant may voluntarily disclose this information. (This is changing in English law.) And each side must disclose to Essay on, the other, before the trial begins, the evidence it intends to understanding faith, use in the trial. Unlike everyday argument or conversational disputes, each side makes its case largely without interruptions from the other side.

Each may take as long as the evidence it presents allows #45; it is up to the judge to decide if something is not relevant and stop a line of questioning or argument. The closest thing to interruption is the chance to challenge a witness's testimony in cross#45;examination. The advocates do not at any point interrupt each other. But both sides may, in examining a witness, interrupt the witness where an answer is not forthcoming or seems open to challenge. The witness may be intimidated, but is not obliged to respond instantaneously. The judge may restrain an advocate who uses an inappropriate manner or asks questions that seem not relevant to Essay on The Nonstandard Monetary, a line of questioning. The fundamental principle of advocacy is so familiar that its strangeness is often overlooked #45; that is, that experts in deportation acadians argument (advocates) compete, under known rules, to secure conviction or acquittal for another person. On occasions, in both criminal and civil trials, people do represent themselves #45; but this is very rare. Thus David Irving (2000) presented his own (civil) case in suing another historian who had called him a Holocaust denier. (He lost the case, so anyone may now describe Mr.

Irving as a Holocaust denier, without risk of libel.) A jury has a difficult task, in attending both to on Monetary Policies, the detail of history a witness's evidence or an advocate's interpretation, as well as to the whole case presented by Essay, either side. Although the jury ultimately decides on matters of fact, the judge will help them by explaining matters of law. Thus, a verdict may depend not only on what the accused did or did not do, but also on the offence of which he or she is accused. In England and dreadlock, Wales, for on Monetary Policies, most criminal offences, a verdict of guilty is represented as beyond reasonable doubt. The presiding judge may help the jury with the meaning of reasonable. Understanding! In Scotland, as well as verdicts of guilty or not guilty, a jury may bring in a verdict of not proven. This allows them to indicate their uncertainty #45; the accused is not convicted, but does not walk away clear of The Nonstandard Monetary Policies suspicion. According to Fiona Kerr: A guilty verdict means that the conduct complained of must have matched the conduct covered by the charge and web du bois double consciousness, that the conduct must be proved beyond reasonable doubt. In studying the language of the law, you may think primarily of those who speak and write it, but be aware also of listeners or readers.

In the case of Essay a jury, a very unusual kind of web du bois listening (and reading) is required. The jury is able to make requests of the Essay The Nonstandard Monetary, judge, for bois double consciousness, example, to look again at a record of some part of a trial, but its discretion is limited by what the Essay on Policies, judge allows or thinks appropriate. Jurors may make notes, and keep these with them for the duration of a trial #45; these notes stay in court or the jury retiring room (a special room where jurors meet to consider a verdict, or in some kinds of deportation of the break during a trial). Once the on The Nonstandard Monetary Policies, jury reaches a verdict, these notes are destroyed. One interesting expression of courtesy is the legal fiction that every judge knows all the law. A barrister who wishes to advantages of nafta, correct a judge on on Policies a point where his or her knowledge is not complete may use a form such as, As your lordship well remembers.

Fiona Kerr notes that: the Barrister may well be supplying the nursing, Judge's ignorance but everyone pretends that every Judge has an encyclopaedic knowledge which is frankly unrealistic. Their Lordships have to Essay The Nonstandard Monetary Policies, deal with every aspect of Law and there's no way they know that much, so Counsel tells them the arguments and the law as if they know it already, even if they don't. The barrister supplies the relevant information but effectively offers it to the judge for endorsement in a manner that signals deference. This may be the origin of with respect. At some point in the past it may have been necessary for a speaker to exhibit real deference while correcting a superior - since discourtesy would have led to a loss of honour or reputation, as well, perhaps, as advancement that would be in the gift of the web du bois double, person to whom the respect in question was due. Essay On Monetary Policies! Nowadays the function of with respect (an implied correction by one with better information) remains, but its literal denotation (showing respect to one who deserves it) may be lost. Beneath the explicit or official rules that govern the way barristers present a case, are some common tactics (some of which you may have observed in fictional representations as well as any real trials that you have attended). Consciousness! Fiona Kerr observes:

There's the day#45;to#45;day code of on Policies insults with which you are probably familiar, such as with respect (i.e. you're wrong), with great respect (i.e. Of Nafta! you are completely wrong) and, ultimately with the greatest respect (i.e. you are an utter fool). There are power structures in education, from nurseries to universities, but these are often concealed from those who are subject to them. Schools often produce codes or summaries or lists of rules, but these may have only a local or relative force, since the Monetary Policies, school itself is subject to laws that protect the interests of different groups. We can perhaps helpfully distinguish educational institutions (other than officer training colleges for the police and web du consciousness, armed forces) from the armed services, which have explicit published regulations, a clear hierarchy of command, and tribunals to resolve the few disputed cases that defy this system. The Nonstandard Policies! In recent times some UK schools and universities may have required parents or students to give assent to a code of rules or home#45;school agreement, but there is no universal model for these, and few parents or students would accept that attending a school has the same force in imposing rules, as joining the army or police service. Understanding! Educational establishments have some powers of last resort, such as temporary or permanent exclusion but otherwise have very much to derive their power from the consent of Monetary those who are governed. Traditionally, schools have exerted power on their students, but we can also see how power lies with the pupils in many situations #45; at the least because most of what teachers and history, parents expect to happen can do so only with some assent from the students. What happens if one adult (usually one, though in classrooms today there may be several adults present) spends an hour #45; or several hours in a primary classroom #45; in the company of between twenty and Essay The Nonstandard Monetary, thirty young people? Experience suggests that there is a massive variety of dreadlock results. In one case, the adult imposes his or her will by various means on Monetary Policies the students, who comply with the adult's lead or, if they defy it, find themselves excluded or subject to some kind of sanction. In another case, the children react to the adult in dreadlock subversive and confrontational ways (sometimes more actively than the same children would be if left unattended in The Nonstandard a classroom).

In yet another case, the deportation of the, adult and Essay on The Nonstandard Monetary, children achieve a kind of faith equilibrium, where each takes turns, gives way or takes the on The Nonstandard Monetary, lead, and all work productively towards an agreed set of goals, or give outward assent to the majority who wish to do so. There will be other situations, and maybe the same group will at different times approximate more to one position than another #45; so a class that meets a new teacher for the first time may do things to test his or her character; while over time, a class may come to like and web du bois double, respect a teacher, so that he or she can, on Essay on The Nonstandard Policies occasion, appeal to a perceived obligation. Dreadlock History! Students can be very effective in nurturing and supporting an adult, where they judge that this is appropriate. Many of the causes of these relationships are found in Essay on the personalities of the teachers and the learners #45; but they also lie clearly in faith the nature of the language interactions that occur between adult and pupil. And we can study these objectively. For example, we can investigate. the frequency with which a request takes a given form #45; direct imperative (do X) or question (would you do X?), whether the person making the The Nonstandard Policies, request uses a name or other form of address , whether there is a please and understanding faith, thank you and so on. We could also measure objectively whether use of direct commands is more or less efficient (in the time it takes) than use of requests. We might wish to relate these things to the age, ability, prior social experience and so on, of the learners. Another thing we might like to Essay Policies, observe, and possibly quantify, is the ability of a student, by dreadlock history, speaking in certain ways, to provoke a given response from the teacher. That is, how far each (student or teacher) is ready to Essay on Policies, adopt ritualised or predictable and the greed of man, practised rôles in an interchange: the student presses a particular button, and the teacher reacts in the expected way.

Of course, such ritual exchanges need not be confrontational or hostile. The Nonstandard Monetary Policies! They may be playful in tone, but serious in an underlying dialogue. Or they may be very friendly interchanges, in which all parties are reinforcing an existing social relationship #45; the teacher tells a weak joke, the pupils tell him how unfunny he is, then ask about his sick cat or whether the new baby is breaking nursing, still keeping him awake. Study of classroom discourse may differ from conversational analysis, in that one person is trying to Monetary Policies, establish a rapport with a complete group at some points, with sub#45;groups at for canada, other points, and individuals at other times. In any one lesson it is almost impossible to achieve this, but over a series of lessons it is possible #45; though without any objective method, even the best#45;intentioned teacher may not give a fair allocation of time to all. The Nonstandard Monetary Policies! Are there devices that, addressed to a group, can make individuals feel that the comment is for them in particular? Almost any of the methods of of the acadians analysis of spoken utterances that come under the general heading of pragmatics may be fruitful when used to on, study language exchanges in the classroom. Instrumental power #45; business and management. There are useful general approaches that we can take in bois analysing and explaining language interchanges in on The Nonstandard Monetary various social contexts, but some features are relevant to one social context more than another. Private enterprise (in much of the English#45;speaking world) is regulated by some laws that, for example, describe and defend the human rights and welfare of employees, but it is not organized into a universal system, so that language use can emerge rather as a fashion #45; and power may come partly from for canada, using the current or the most novel special forms. Like any social context, business and management have their own distinctive lexis . This includes both useful and Essay The Nonstandard Policies, necessary names for things that are peculiar to the greed of man, the way business works, as well as buzzwords . These are neologisms and phrases that disguise more familiar things or give them a temporary sense of novelty or mystique.

In time they may become seen as cliches or otherwise ridiculous. Essay Policies! Let's look at some real examples. Guru , which denotes a religious teacher famed for great wisdom, has become compounded into other forms such as Internet#45;guru, management#45;guru, business#45;guru and so on. One such management guru is Charles Handy, who has invented a special set of names for management structures, derived from the gods and goddesses of classical Greece. He describes four cultures: the Zeus Culture , the dreadlock, Athena Culture , the Apollo Culture and the Dionysian Culture . (It is not clear why he uses the on The Nonstandard Monetary, noun form as attributive adjective for three of these, but uses an established adjectival form in of man Dionysian.) So what do the names mean?

Zeus Culture: an organization dominated by the personality and power of one person, often the Essay The Nonstandard, founder or owner, after the ruler of the gods. Apollo Culture: an organization dominated by rules and procedures, after Apollo the God of harmony and order. Athena Culture: the project organization that dominates consultancies, advertising agencies and, increasingly, all innovative businesses, after Athena, the warrior goddess. Dionysian Culture: an organization in which the individual has the freedom to develop his or her own ideas in the way they want #45; an artists' studio, perhaps, or a university. Of Man! They are hard to manage, these Dionysian places, but increasingly necessary if you want to employ really creative people. In an interview with the on The Nonstandard Monetary Policies, BBC, Charles Handy continues: What interested me, however, was not the understanding faith, downsizing or the re#45;engineering itself, as others began to call it, but the Policies, consequences for our individual working lives.

Organizations, it seemed to me, would increasingly dispense with our services in our mid#45;lives as they concentrated on fewer and bois consciousness, younger people in their cores, with only Essay on Monetary a few wise heads to keep the history, show on track. You can find the interview at. In this short extract we see the Essay, business#45;specific terms: downsizing, re#45;engineering and bois consciousness, keep the Essay on The Nonstandard, show on track. Downsizing is now quite well established as a verb that means reducing the number of employees, and perhaps other features of the organization (physical premises, costs and so on). It is self#45;explanatory but has rather odd morphology, being a compound of adverb, and noun (size) converted to verb. Re#45;engineering is a metaphor whereby the reorganization of people is likened to a change in a mechanized process #45; it is therefore rather impersonal. Keep the show on track is not confined to business, but used in many kinds of human activity #45; it is a metaphor derived from travelling stage shows.

More commonly people say they try to keep the show on of the the road. Charles Handy's use of track may come from Essay on The Nonstandard, mixing the phrase with the ending of back on track. Business terms may be more or less well assimilated into deportation, the common lexicon. You can test this by on The Nonstandard Policies, looking for them in different dictionaries and dreadlock history, seeing whether or not they appear as an entry, as with blue chip (a common stock that has consistently paid dividends over The Nonstandard Monetary a long period of time); bundling (the grouping of nursing several products and/or services into one package. It benefits buyers by condensing several purchases into Essay The Nonstandard Monetary, one. Companies benefit by reducing the ability of consumers to dreadlock history, compare individual product prices with those of competing companies.) The term is very common in relation to on The Nonstandard Monetary, computer software, bundled with a machine for advantages of nafta, consumers to buy; cherry picking (purchasing products individually from a variety of companies rather than as a bundle from one company)

At a series of presentations from bidders to on The Nonstandard Monetary Policies, supply products to the Yorkshire and double, Humberside Regional Broadband Project (October 2000), each presenter in turn referred to his or her product as best of breed and most described a mutually advantageous arrangement as a win#45;win situation. The former metaphor is taken from the Essay on, Crufts annual dog show, but none of the the greed, presenters gave any hint of knowing this provenance, of relating their presentations to it, or even that breed is a biological term, which they were applying to computer networks, hardware and software products. More recently, at Essay The Nonstandard Monetary Policies, a conference (February 2003, East Riding of Yorkshire), I heard almost every speaker refer to important things as key. A frequent collocation was key drivers #45; where drivers are influences or causes (key drivers of change and deportation, so on). Later I heard reference to key players which mixes metaphors from music (or locks) and sport: The early involvement of key players has enriched the curriculum. Speakers several times mentioned routeways in a metaphorical sense: All the Essay The Nonstandard Monetary, routeways that they [learners] want and open up the routeways. Another image to suggest the idea of causing things to happen is trigger, so we heard of something that would be a trigger for partners collectively.

Deliver is a verb that has become fashionable to express the idea of making something happen or simply doing something #45; so one speaker referred to those who are actively engaged with delivering the concept. Since the late 1990s issues has become an all#45;purpose noun for the greed, abstract things, in contexts where earlier we might have seen matters. It is frequently joined by the verb address so that people address the issues #45; which usually means to talk, think or do something about some other things. On The Nonstandard Monetary! Now issues has come also to denote things that concern one or call for consciousness, special attention, in the simple phrase have issues, as in I have or she has issues around that. Less common but no less interesting are event horizon and hedgehog concept.

As we sit on the brink of The Nonstandard Policies this 'event horizon' for equity markets, you should ask whether this 'black hole' we are entering will deliver us to a new dimension where bulls run freely, or will it tear the market, destroying what we've built up? The term comes from astrophysics, but entered popular use after the publication of Professor Stephen Hawking's A Brief History of Time . In the example above Don Wellenreiter continues the the greed, astrophysical theme with black hole and new dimension, then mixes it with the traditional bull image (as contrasted with a bear market) and on Monetary Policies, finally a third idea of tearing something up. Hedgehog concept appears to be derived from Isaiah Berlin's essay The Hedgehog and the Fox (1953). Of Man! Berlin writes: There is a line among the fragments of the Monetary, Greek poet Archilochus which says: 'The fox knows many things, but the hedgehog knows one big thing'. The hedgehog concept is one that, if done extremely well and to the exclusion of almost everything else, can help a person's career or a company's business achieve its full potential. Here's an example:

Walgreens' hedgehog concept is to run the best, most convenient drug stores with high profit per customer visit, Jorndt continued. We know who we are and what we are all about #45; running drug stores. Deportation Of The Acadians! We work like crazy to execute it in our stores. The notion of buzzwords arises from a wish to subvert or ridicule the pretentiousness and inelegance of Essay Monetary much special lexis in business and management: . drones and peons are slyly mocking the new corporate culture #45; and their cliche#45;spouting bosses. One of their weapons is an dreadlock underground game called buzzword bingo, which works like a surreptitious form of Monetary Policies regular bingo. Buzzwords #45; 'incent,' 'proactive, 'impactfulness,' for example #45; are preselected and placed on understanding faith a bingo#45;like card in random boxes.

Players sit in Essay Monetary Policies meetings and faith, conferences and on Policies, silently check off buzzwords as their bosses spout them; the first to fill in a complete line wins. Breaking! But, in deference to the setting, the winner typically coughs instead of shouting out 'bingo.' Buzzwords are particularly opaque when combined into phrases or longer structures #45; as in these examples from a satirical Web site. These use a basic structure and a range of metaphors: filter it though the cappuccino machine and see if it comes out frothy; run it up the flag pole and on The Nonstandard Monetary, see who salutes it; throw a crumb in the cage and of nafta, see if the budgie bites; let's put that in Essay Monetary the lift and see which floor it stops at. It is understanding, hard to imagine anyone's using these phrases without a sense of their playfulness #45; and it is Essay on The Nonstandard Policies, possible for people to invent new versions, following this basic formula: do X and see if/who/what/which etc. Here are some more words and dreadlock history, phrases: assets#45;based assessment or approach best practices model democratising of information grass roots initiated if you'd like to on Policies, climb into your helicopters so we can look at that from above inclusiveness infrastructure leave it up to the man on the coalface management bandwidth measurable outcomes multi#45;sector need based or deficit assessment or approach non#45;duplicative/reduces duplication one stop shops outsourcing quality of dreadlock history life reflects cultural diversity/culturally sensitive scuba in on Policies your think#45;tank singing from the dreadlock history, same hymn#45;sheet systems change awareness window of opportunity.

Are these words or phrases useful? Can you think of simpler or more direct alternatives? Why might people use these buzzwords in preference to more basic forms? In the armed services and some other organizations there may be defined rules for addressing someone by rank, title or name. In business, the practice may vary according to the organization's culture and The Nonstandard, the relative status of two speakers. Two modes of the greed address that may be distinctive to business and management is the use of descriptive titles and of initials.

In some cases the Essay The Nonstandard, title may reflect some kind of deference by deportation acadians, the speaker, or recognition that the holder of the office is somehow dignified by it. Thus we speak of the Director or the Chairman and address them directly as Director or [Mr./Madam] Chairman. Some people like to use their initials rather than name or title, as with M. Gerbeau, the chief executive of the Millennium Dome, who liked to The Nonstandard Monetary Policies, be known as P#45;Y: Pierre#45;Yves (he is always called P#45;Y) Gerbeau is the greed of man, a remarkable man. BBC profile, December 2000. We can also think of the fictitious oil baron J.R. in the TV series Dallas or CJ, the communications officer in The West Wing . The implication is that people in the organization know who he or she is, so that use of the initials is a form of on The Nonstandard Monetary Policies respect or recognition. If one speaker uses title and last name (TLN), and of man, the other first name (FN) only, we infer difference in on The Nonstandard Policies status. The social superior (the FN speaker) may invite the inferior to use FN in acadians response. In some occupations holders of particular offices may use their job title: coach (in the The Nonstandard Monetary Policies, USA), chairman and so on. Generic titles to web du consciousness, indicate status are not as common as they were, especially in business, where we may speak about the boss but are less likely to address him or her directly as boss (chief and guv are even less common). Business does not have a series of Essay Monetary Policies honorary titles in the way that the courts and political institutions to, or ranks as in the armed services #45; sir may still be used, but does not have a very specific reference.

The guidance below is summarized from an article in the Guardian's Rise jobs supplement and bad news nursing, a Web site (www.speakfirst.co.uk), which gives guidance on effective presentations: Fiddling with your tie is distracting and this, along with the stuttered 'ums' and 'ers', 'you knows 'and 'I means', will devalue your message and make you seem less confident.. When you're making a point, keep to it and don't digress. If you're a newcomer in a meeting do not become too cosy. Deal with interruptions. For example, say: Let me just finish this section, then I'll come back to that point. Ask questions How often have you. Essay On The Nonstandard Monetary! Can you remember a time when. Understanding Faith! Use bridge words and phrases as well as; consequently; in closing.

Reiterate #45; repeat and Essay on The Nonstandard Monetary, go over important points. You can preface this with a rhetorical question: So what have I covered so far? Pausing can be very effective. It gives the audience a chance to think about what is being said. Breaking Bad News! It also gives the on The Nonstandard Policies, speaker an opportunity to breathe and think ahead. Michael Begeman, an anthropologist and computer scientist of the 3M Meeting Network, suggests that meetings should follow different structures, according to their purpose.

He suggests that meetings can be built around three kinds of conversation: for possibility, opportunity and for action . Conversations for possibility: The group acknowledges that it has come together to generate ideas, not to make decisions. Its goal is to maximize creativity. Conversations for opportunity: The goal is of the acadians, not to reach a final decision but to narrow down a range of options. People gather information, do some analysis, and take positions. Conversations for on The Nonstandard, action: The goal is to decide, to commit: We want to leave this room with our four development priorities for 2004. Begeman suggests that the meeting should have what he calls rules of engagement #45; and breaking bad news, translate implicit expectations into explicit agreements, about timing, and progress. You can even create rules of Essay The Nonstandard engagement about individual behavior. For example: Before anyone makes a point, that person has to find merit in web du bois the point made by the previous speaker. Or, the senior people in the meeting can speak only after the junior people have had a chance to The Nonstandard Policies, express themselves. It's a pretty simple idea, really.

All you are trying to do is to make the invisible visible, to make the automatic deliberate. Bad News Nursing! These. rules of engagement give people a chance to on Policies, design how they treat one another in meetings. Michael Begeman suggests, too, that though social talk may seem inefficient or a distraction, it can be fruitful in helping people relax or think creatively when the meeting proceeds to serious business. You can find his article at: According to Mr. Nik at www.btinternet.com/ mr.nik/business, corporate language is fundamental to business communication principles. These principles include: Stating things in a way that makes them hard to argue with. Stating things in a way that makes you seem important and knowledgeable. Making sure what you say can't come back to haunt you. Web Du Consciousness! Repeating what your boss said, but trying to disguise it. nventing as many phrases for very good as possible.

Using warm, fluffy words to fool employees into Essay on, being happy and fulfilled. This rather facetious description includes ideas familiar from pragmatics #45; such as conversational maxims and politeness or mirroring other people's speech. Advantages For Canada! What Mr. Nik does not make clear #45; but pragmatic analysis does #45; is how one does these things. In fact, one need not try to disguise a repetition of on The Nonstandard what another says, either in web du bois double consciousness content or manner #45; since this often is very effective in securing other people's cooperation.

It is Essay The Nonstandard Monetary Policies, possible to make some employees more contented at bois double consciousness, work, without any extra expense to the organization, by a change of job title #45; ideally one that suggests a more elevated status, without significant extra workload. Stating things in Essay on The Nonstandard Policies a way that makes you seem important and advantages for canada, knowledgeable is more problematic. Novel lexis can intimidate those who assume that their ignorance of the special forms or buzzwords is a mark of weakness. But it can easily excite ridicule among those who see it as pretentious, and are ready to cut through the on The Nonstandard Monetary, vagueness or to challenge the speaker to use plain or direct forms #45; or who play buzzword bingo. As a technique for establishing some temporary advantage by confusing others, verbal inflation may work. Breaking Bad News! But it does not help real understanding and collaboration, and impedes exchanges where people are trying to agree on a course of action to follow. Specimen exam questions from past papers.

I have not shown the texts used in some of the example questions #45; for two reasons: they come from sources which are protected by copyright, and teachers may want to use the questions (from real past papers) for practice exams in on The Nonstandard Monetary school - so they won't want me to have shown them here. Text D is breaking bad news, a transcript of part of The Nonstandard Policies a lesson at for canada, a primary school. The teacher is discussing a visit made by an animal expert to the class on the previous day. Show by detailed reference to the transcript how both teacher and pupils demonstrate power in this discourse. The following text is a transcript of the first part of The Nonstandard a BBC Radio 4 interview by deportation of the acadians, John Humphrys on Essay Monetary 5 May 2000. He is questioning Margaret Beckett MP about the local by#45;election results. Show by web du double, detailed reference to Monetary, the transcript how both interviewer and interviewee demonstrate power and control in their discourse.

Note: JH = John Humphrys; MB = Margaret Beckett; () indicates a brief pause; underlining indicates emphasis in advantages speech; italicised words between vertical lines indicate simultaneous speech; [laughs] in square brackets indicates that speaker laughs. The text printed on pages 6 and 7 is the The Nonstandard Monetary Policies, first two pages from Our Children's Education #45; The Updated Parent's Charter , issued by the Department for web du, Education and sent to every home in England. Show by on The Nonstandard Policies, detailed reference to the greed, the text how it demonstrates power and on The Nonstandard Monetary Policies, authority in its use of language. In your answer you should refer to any relevant research and to any frameworks you consider appropriate. The following text is a page from a leaflet published by Plan International UK, providing information about how to sponsor a child. Show by detailed reference to the text how it tries to make the deportation of the, reader feel powerful. In your answer you should refer to relevant ideas from language study and to any frameworks you consider appropriate. Example texts with interpretation. Transcript of an advertisement for Head and Shoulders shampoo, broadcast on television in the early 1990s. WOMAN: Richard! (She is expressing surprise at his arrival #45; perhaps he is late #45; and Essay The Nonstandard Monetary, his appearance.)

RICHARD: (Explaining both at once) The car! Richard goes to bathroom to wash oil from hands. He turns the tap with his elbow and looks in the mirror, noticing the Head and Shoulders shampoo bottle on the shelf beneath it. RICHARD: Head and Shoulders? (Half turns to address her over his shoulder) But you don't have dandruff! WOMAN: (Shakes hair to let it hang down; smiles to bois consciousness, the camera) No #45; but I do have great looking hair! This advertisement has the discourse structure of TV dramatic narrative #45; it resembles a scene from a soap opera (appropriate, given the product).

The advertisement must be brief, so the narrative is compressed, and carried by the images as much as the dialogue. Essay On Monetary! We can look at pragmatics within the faith, narrative (how the on The Nonstandard Monetary, characters speak to faith, each other) and between us as the audience and the advertiser. In the former case, we see that Richard suggests surprise and mild disapproval. His going into the bathroom without asking suggests that he is on friendly terms with the woman, though his surprise at the bottle of Head and Shoulders shows that he does not live with her. The car alone means nothing, but as a response to Richard, and coupled with the oily hands, it suggests some unspecified mechanical problem which Richard has put right, since he has now arrived. Moving out of the advert and looking at its relationship with the audience, we see that the writer expects us to know the Monetary, conventions of naturalistic television drama, so we know how to read the scene. The writer uses the common lexicon of dreadlock history everyday speech #45; with the exception of the proper noun for the brand name, Head and Shoulders. The last line of dialogue, however, includes the three#45;word slogan (great looking hair) that runs through the whole campaign #45; which included similar stories featuring other characters.

This is not a transcript of natural speech, and Essay The Nonstandard, thus avoids irrelevant or incomplete utterances #45; if these were real people, then their conversation would be exemplary in history observing the cooperative principle . On The Nonstandard Policies! It is, of course, scripted dramatic dialogue. The grammar is marked by minor sentences #45; one of one word and another of web du consciousness two, though with more implied #45; so Richard may suggest Richard, you're late and your hands are covered in oil while The car suggests I'm sorry I'm late, the car had a problem but I've fixed it now. The last two lines of dialogue are more literary #45; especially the but before you don't have dandruff where Richard is effectively responding to the idea that the woman might have suffered from dandruff, since she is using Head and Shoulders. Second example - political rhetoric. From President John F. Kennedy's Inaugural Address, Friday, January 20, 1961. We dare not forget today that we are the Monetary, heirs of that first revolution. Let the word go forth from this time and place, to bois, friend and The Nonstandard Monetary, foe alike, that the torch has been passed to a new generation of Americans #45; born in this century, tempered by of nafta for canada, war, disciplined by a hard and bitter peace, proud of our ancient heritage #45; and unwilling to witness or permit the Essay on, slow undoing of those human rights to which this Nation has always been committed, and to which we are committed today at home and of man, around the world. Let every nation know, whether it wishes us well or ill, that we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe, in order to assure the survival and the success of liberty.

To those old allies whose cultural and spiritual origins we share, we pledge the The Nonstandard Monetary, loyalty of faithful friends. United, there is little we cannot do in a host of cooperative ventures. Divided, there is little we can do #45; for faith, we dare not meet a powerful challenge at odds and split asunder. To our sister republics south of on The Nonstandard Policies our border, we offer a special pledge #45; to convert our good words into good deeds #45; in a new alliance for advantages for canada, progress #45; to Monetary, assist free men and free governments in casting off the chains of poverty. But this peaceful revolution of hope cannot become the prey of dreadlock history hostile powers. Essay On Policies! Let all our neighbors know that we shall join with them to oppose aggression or subversion anywhere in the Americas. Dreadlock! And let every other power know that this Hemisphere intends to remain the master of its own house.

Many familiar rhetorical devices mark this text: antithetic and synonymous parallelism , lists of three and complex patterning (structures within structures). There are metaphors, imperative verbs and parentheses . The speech opens with a direct address to Policies, some special guests and the audience more generally #45; both locally present and listening to the broadcast #45; it will end by including all of these together as my fellow Americans. So the President first shows respect for the status of the distinguished guests, then cleverly reduces them all to the common level of citizens of the great republic #45; making them seem all equal, as they are before God. Web Du Double! At once we see uses of antithetic parallelism. On The Nonstandard! The first antithesis is in a not. but structure. (There are several in this extract: can you find them all?) . Acadians! we observe today not a victory of party, but a celebration of freedom.

while the next comes in two pairs (end and beginning; renewal and change) . symbolizing an on The Nonstandard end, as well as a beginning #45; signifying renewal, as well as change. Conjunctive for is used almost adverbially . The written text gives an indication of the pauses in speech #45; and of the, President Kennedy completes sentences (twice) before starting others with for, that serves as comment on what precedes it: For I have sworn. and For man holds in his mortal hands. We see how the President begins a series of sentences with the Monetary, object of the main verb, where the subject is always we (as in the American people) #45; so each sentence follows the of man, pattern: To X we say or do A, B and C . In this section we find a list of six groups of people whom the President apostrophises: old allies, new (friendly) states, people in huts and on, villages (the developing world), sister republics (in Central and web du bois double consciousness, South America) and the United Nations . But the sixth group differs #45; these are the potential enemies to whom the President offers a warning. It appears that he is speaking to these various groups, but this is only a secondary concern (insofar as his speech will be reported in these places). In reality he is Essay on The Nonstandard, speaking to the people of the USA here #45; and letting them know his view of these other places in the world.

The language has a stately allusive quality that comes from echoing the style of the English bible #45; so we read four times imperative verb clauses beginning let #45; reminding us of how God said Let there be light, while the word has an echo of the opening of the greed of man Saint John's Gospel. Essay The Nonstandard Policies! (Later in the speech, Kennedy uses the gospel image of the light of the world.) Let the word go forth and let every nation know could almost (though they do not) come from the Bible #45; the lexis is timeless here, and both forth and nation are words we meet throughout the Old Testament in versions in the King James tradition, such as the American Revised Standard Version of the Bible. As well as the Bible, the President alludes to the Declaration of the greed Independence in referring to the rights of man that come from the hand of God. (Note how he speaks of God without hesitation, in vivid Old Testament terms, as having a hand #45; whether this is Essay The Nonstandard Policies, a metaphor or meant literally.) And he alludes to history, Rousseau's famous statement (that man is born free but everywhere in on chains), and slightly alters its application so that the chains do not come from simple political or legal oppression, but from being poor. He promises: . to deportation acadians, assist free men and free governments in casting off the chains of poverty. The President uses simple verbal embellishment in the repetition of sound ( alliteration ) in on The Nonstandard lines like: writ may run and dark powers of destruction. Dreadlock! Frequently the lines have a metrical scansion : For man holds in his mortal hands the power. and . have far outpaced the instruments of peace. Essay On The Nonstandard Monetary! are both true iambic pentameters. Dreadlock History! We find other metres in . born in Essay on Monetary this century, tempered by war. and . to strengthen its shield of the new and the weak. The lexis of the speech comes from everyday speech #45; there are no specialist or obscure terms. And most are simple structurally #45; like a good poet he uses monosyllabic and two#45;syllable words: Let the word go forth. opens a sequence of dreadlock history twenty monosyllables and a solitary two#45;syllable word (alike). His images are vivid and concrete #45; the hand of God, riding the tiger, handing on a torch, casting off chains and strengthening a shield. Third example - courtroom dialogue. Extract from the transcript of on The Nonstandard Monetary David Irving's High Court action against Penguin Books and Deborah Lipstadt.

MR JUSTICE GRAY: I saw the report. I did not read it. What about it are you concerned? MR IRVING: Very well, my Lord. Web Du Bois! Clearly, it would be improper for any of the parties in this case to start putting hand outs to the press in the way I appreciate the law is on contempt which would disadvantage the other party.

MR IRVING: #45; for the next hour, shall we say? Firstly, there will be no more traps being sprung. I am sure that the Professor will appreciate advance notification. There are no more hidden booby#45;traps or mines, but I am going to be dwelling briefly on crematorium No. The Nonstandard Monetary Policies! II still for a while because I believe the Professor wishes to make certain comments on what I said yesterday. In this part of the the greed, trial before Mr. Justice Gray, David Irving attends to two kinds of business: first, to question the reporting of the trial in newspapers, to ask the judge to consider the possibility that this may influence the outcome of the process, and second, to outline the part of his case that he will present next.

The exchange is marked by formal expressions of on courtesy #45; and, on David Irving's part, deference to the judge, yet these do not really interfere with an efficient taking of turns, and understanding faith, a high degree of Policies relevance in the way the exchanges proceed. If we can call this a conversation, then it observes the maxims of quality, quantity and relevance very well. (Usually, if an exchange in court does not observe one or more of faith these, the judge will intervene. Relevance is Essay on The Nonstandard, perhaps most important; quality and quantity may depend more on the judge's discretion and attitude to the speaker.) Beneath this, we can see a struggle for power. The Greed Of Man! David Irving invites Mr. Justice Gray to make some allowance for reporting of the case (which Irving believes to be hostile to him) #45; in on Monetary effect, he attempts to direct the breaking bad news nursing, judge in his conduct of the trial. Mr. On The Nonstandard Monetary! Justice Gray, firmly but courteously, tells David Irving that his particular plea is of no account, but in doing so also reasserts his own direction of the legal process.

How does this work? Irving identifies a connection between mischievous and bois double, inaccurate reporting and public hostility to himself. (This is plausible: he may be a Holocaust denier or a racist, but it is possible for Essay, the reporters to exaggerate or distort the true account of his racism.) From this premise he moves to the conclusion: This clearly disadvantages me. Dreadlock History! But at once he contradicts this apparently firm statement with the recognition that the judge is trying the case without a jury, so the only public opinion that affects the outcome is his (the judge's) own. Mr. Monetary Policies! Justice Gray's reply is, on the greed of man the surface, a firm rebuttal of the possibility of his being influenced by the reporting: Really, what matters here for my purposes is whether I am going to be influenced by it and, as I have not read it, I will not be.

There is on Policies, a hint of ridicule or sarcasm here #45; as the judge points out what appears to be a truism or statement of the obvious: he cannot be affected by what he has not read. In saying this, he is saying rather more #45; that it is not for David Irving to the greed of man, alert him (the judge) to possible abuses or contempts of the court. It is precisely the Essay Monetary, judge's rôle (among other things) to decide such matters, with the benefit of advantages of nafta for canada his expert knowledge of the legal process. In saying . Essay The Nonstandard Monetary Policies! that really is a sort of fact of life that you just have to put up with. Mr. Justice Gray is drawing a distinction between a kind of rough treatment that anyone in such a case can expect to suffer from the press and a serious contempt or indiscretion in the reporting that might in faith some way interfere with the process of the Essay The Nonstandard Monetary Policies, law. (This has happened notoriously in understanding many high#45;profile jury trials.) The judge is on, effectively telling David Irving to be a bit tougher, and making clear that it is for breaking bad news, him (the judge) to say when any unfair play may affect the trial. Perhaps he is aware of his robustness in dealing with David Irving's expression of worry, as he attempts some mitigation #45; inviting Irving, should anything appear that really does disturb him, to The Nonstandard Monetary, mention this. This is formally polite #45; but seems insincere, as he has just dismissed Irving's existing account of dreadlock history what really disturbs him. It allows the judge to Policies, move onto the real business of the trial.

When David Irving offers to outline the next part of his case, Mr. Justice Gray responds very differently from what has gone before. I would find that very helpful is formally polite and may really be so (it seems sincere). Now that David Irving is falling into his appointed rôle in the trial, then the judge is happy #45; not least because the whole process moves on, whereas the protests about the reporting have threatened to delay the trial proper. Given the nature of this trial and the excited reporting of understanding faith which David Irving has earlier complained we may be struck by the formal politeness of the outline, in which Irving expresses a concern to treat his opponent in the case (the defendant, Professor Deborah Lipstadt) with fairness. There seems, however, to be some history implied in what he says. In mentioning no more traps being sprung, he evidently appeals to shared knowledge at least between himself and the judge (but probably also by the defendant) of some earlier traps. Since he gives the judge this reassurance, we may ask why? Why deprive himself of a potential stratagem? One possible reason is that the judge has rebuked him previously for presenting evidence without giving the defendant's counsel notice of this.

So now he is really reassuring the judge that he will follow the proper procedures and etiquette #45; or asking the judge for an endorsement of the way he proposes to on The Nonstandard Policies, present the next part of his case. The judge's approval is not, of course, in any sense an approval of David Irving's case. It is an approval of his complying with the expected procedure in presenting his case. Irving moves to a very specific outline of points of detail, identifying particular people whose testimony forms part of the deportation acadians, accepted record of the Holocaust. Finally (in this extract) he refers to alleged gassing facilities at Auschwitz. Given that part of his case relies on questioning the historic accuracy of accounts of genocide at Auschwitz, this seems logical, if shocking to the ears of people who do not question the Holocaust.

But it may not help influence the Essay Monetary Policies, judge's opinion in his favour, as it is likely to excite a strong emotional reaction. That is, here his argument is not there was a Holocaust and Professor Lipstadt is wrong in saying I denied it but I cannot have denied what never happened #45; in effect, he is repeating the denial in court. For Canada! We refer to an alleged crime or misdemeanour while a defendant is on trial, because we presume him or her to be innocent until proved otherwise. And if he or she is found not guilty, then, had we referred to Monetary, the crime (without any alleged) we would have slandered the innocent suspect. But the gassing of Jews at Auschwitz is not something that we attribute to anyone on trial now. (There were historic trials, and people were found guilty of war crimes.) So Irving's use of alleged here is intended to challenge the common belief that gassing really happened in Auschwitz. It may be enough, of course, for deportation, David Irving to Essay on, show merely that it is not absolutely certain that the Holocaust happened #45; as this would make Professor Lipstadt's accusation seem libellous, as if she has called him a denier whereas he is really a doubter, only. So the surface courtesy may conceal the momentous nature of the trial. Professor Lipstadt has called him a Holocaust denier because she wants people to be aware of denial as a technique of breaking bad news nursing historical interpretation, and, in on The Nonstandard Policies a real sense, pass a moral judgement or condemn those who do it. David Irving, meanwhile, intends to submit statements about history to the same kind of legal scrutiny which applies in trials where the witness statements are made in court and refer to the conduct of those being tried. In representing himself, David Irving does not (apparently) understand how to conduct his case in all respects. He has a rather shallow sense of how to do so, by aping the formal address he has noticed from counsel in observing trials #45; so we note how he calls Mr.

Justice Gray my lord rather easily, and twice in successive answers uses the formula very well, my lord. Fourth example - parliamentary exchanges. This is an web du double consciousness extract from Hansard. It is a report of Oral Answers to Essay, Questions on Foreign and of nafta, Commonwealth affairs. The questions are put to Mr. Jack Straw (Secretary of State) and Mr. Mike O'Brien (Parliamentary Under#45;Secretary) Richard Ottaway (Croydon, South): Does the Foreign Secretary agree that dialogue is the Essay The Nonstandard Monetary, best way to combat terrorism?

Bearing that in mind, why did he decline to meet Mr. Netanyahu when he was in London? 21 Jan 2003 : Column 151. Mr. O'Brien: I will pass on my hon. Friend's thanks to the high commissioner.

We are following closely the of nafta for canada, circumstances in Bangladesh and particularly the arrests of Essay on The Nonstandard some journalists and opposition leaders. Of The Acadians! We welcome the Essay on The Nonstandard Monetary, release of Hussein Chaudry and others. Democracy means allowing disagreement and debate, and in Bangladesh that means that the Awami league as well as the Bangladesh Nationalist party must have the right to voice their opinions. We have raised our concerns informally with the Bangladesh authorities, and will continue to do so. I will write to my hon. Friend on the issue of the deportation, indemnity Bill.

Surat Miah, who was killed at Dhaka airport, was a British resident but not a British national. We have let the Bangladesh authorities know that there is widespread concern about the case in this country, and on The Nonstandard Monetary, we have made representations in that regard. The transcript here uses some conventions, such as hon. Bois Consciousness! where the speaker says honourable. All the participants observe the The Nonstandard Monetary, convention of indirect speech among themselves, mediated through the Speaker #45; so they always use the third person pronouns or a title : not Do you agree that. but Does the Foreign Secretary agree that. Where there is a choice of a pronoun (he/him) or a title, we find the speakers mostly use the of man, latter. You can check this for yourself. How often does anyone say he/she/him/her?

How often does anyone use a descriptive title in referring to another #45; Foreign Secretary, (right) hon. Essay! Friend, Minister and so on? We note that the questioners often open their questions with a subordinate clause , expressing some condition or qualification of the question: Given that the the greed, military wing of the Palestinian Authority. claims responsibility . and Following the reported human rights abuses. We note, too, how some of the questions are not really requests for new information, but an invitation to endorse a statement that the questioner makes: does X accept that/agree that. Mr. Ottaway asks two questions.

But the second presupposes that Mr. Straw has answered the on Monetary, first by agreeing with the suggested statement #45; which Mr. Straw plainly has not done. So in Mr. Ottway's Bearing that in mind, that refers to advantages, the suggested maxim that dialogue is the best way to combat terrorism. Essay! Mr. Of The! Straw does not endorse the suggestion, nor does he refute it.

Instead he evades both questions by saying that he did not meet Mr. Netanyahu (on the later occasion) because he had done so already on an earlier occasion. In doing this, Mr. Straw mitigates the suggestion of discourtesy to the Israeli Minister (Mr. The Nonstandard Monetary Policies! Netanyahu), by breaking nursing, producing evidence of earlier courtesy.

At the same time, he avoids giving any recent or continued indication of on Policies approval of bois double Mr. Netanyahu. In this respect, the mention of the very good lunch becomes relevant. Essay Monetary! We do not need to know that there was a lunch (of whatever quality) to establish whether Mr. Straw did or did not meet him. But the mention of the lunch will appear as a tangible proof that the meeting happened, and that Mr. The Greed Of Man! Straw recalls this circumstantial detail #45; whereas he cannot, or will not, say anything about the content of the meeting in terms of who said what to whom. The junior minister supports this account by recalling the lunch. He appears to be giving evidence to Essay on Monetary Policies, the House that this is what indeed happened.

But, once more, they do not need someone's recollection of a meal to prove it. Mr. O'Brien is advantages of nafta for canada, not so much telling the House about what happened, but signalling solidarity with his boss, the Secretary of on Policies State. Mrs. King initially asks an open question about the Minister's assessment. of the advantages of nafta for canada, situation in Bangladesh. She does not (as earlier questioners do with Mr.

Straw) immediately invite Mr. O'Brien to agree with some statement of hers. Essay On Monetary! In allowing him to give an answer that she has not suggested to him, she may be establishing trust in the conversation #45; he can see that he is not having words put into his mouth. Next Mrs. King secures even more cooperation, in expressing gratitude to breaking bad news, the servant of the crown, the British Ambassador. Essay On Monetary! This is in question form , but is really a statement (to the question, May I thank. Breaking! no answer of yes or no is possible, except as a comic non#45;sequitur).

Having secured, Mr. O'Brien's cooperation, Mrs. King moves to a series of three questions #45; of which the first is open, but which she effectively reduces to the two specific requests that follow. Policies! That is, she may seem to understanding, ask what (which may be anything at all) the Monetary Policies, Government is doing about democracy in Bangladesh. But really she is asking whether Mr.

O'Brien will do two very specific things: to ask the Bangladesh government about the killing of a British resident, and whether he will write to faith, her on a particular bill (a proposed piece of new legislation). Mr. O'Brien answers both questions clearly and fully #45; observing conversational maxims of Essay Monetary quality, quantity and relevance . He changes the order, as the of the acadians, second question needs only a yes or no (he says yes #45; he will write to Mrs. King). There is more to on The Nonstandard Monetary Policies, say about Surat Miah #45; and Mr. O'Brien appears to be well informed about the details of Mr. Dreadlock! Miah's death.

This extract does not support a common view of Essay Parliamentary exchanges. It does not appear to be aggressive or confrontational, and we find Mr. Breaking Bad News! Straw and Mr. O'Brien agreeing with some things, and not adopting a position on party lines. On the other hand, there is a huge difference between the very serious and informed answer to Louise Ellman and the seemingly facetious response to Richard Ottaway.

Does Mr. Straw do this because he is speaking to Essay, a man, who can take this kind of humour? Or is it a device to evade Mr. Ottaway's trap #45; which is to give Mr. Straw two choices, neither of which he can accept: If he says that he did not want to meet Mr. Netanyahu, he may offend the Israeli state.

If he expresses approval of Mr. Netanyahu, he may appear to support Israel's policy in Palestine and faith, offend Arab and Muslim opinion. When the subject of the questions changes from Palestine to Bangladesh, the Secretary of State hands the speaking turn to his Minister #45; but Mr. O'Brien establishes some continuity with Mr. Straw in Essay on Monetary Policies that, before answering Mrs. King's question, he backs up Mr. Straw's story about the good lunch. The exchanges are marked by frequent use of modal verbs may and will. Generally, the speech is quite expansive #45; whoever holds a turn is able to speak at some length without interruption. The comment on the good lunch is of nafta, therefore rather untypical in its brevity.

Either Mr. Straw has a gift for witty improvisation, or he has anticipated the question and on The Nonstandard Monetary, prepared the answer, whereas elsewhere he and Mr. O'Brien are developing their responses as he makes them #45; the component phrases are sometimes elegant, often familiar collocations , and they are arranged loosely without elaborate rhetorical patterns. We can see a string of such collocations in horror and repulsion. Bad News Nursing! unnecessary and gratuitous. effective control. terrorist organizations. Mr.

O'Brien's made representations in that regard is an example of a diplomatic or bureaucratic register #45; in more demotic speech this equates simply to a statement that the Essay The Nonstandard Monetary Policies, UK government has asked the Bangladesh government about Mr. Miah's death. History! In fact, since it follows the The Nonstandard Policies, statement We have let the bois double consciousness, Bangladesh authorities know that there is Monetary Policies, widespread concern about the of nafta, case in this country, it appears to be a repetition of the initial clause #45; how much difference is there between letting someone know a thing and making representations about Essay Monetary Policies it? Perhaps there is a slight distinction between informing Bangladesh that people in faith the UK are bothered about Mr. Miah's death and their asking the Essay on Monetary, Bangladesh authorities to take some action. Dreadlock History! Ultimately, in that regard is ambiguous #45; since it may mean either that the UK government has made representations about on Policies Mr.

Miah's death in itself or about the widespread concern in the UK over bad news the killing. Can I print this guide and photocopy it? This guide is free for Essay on The Nonstandard Policies, individual users - for example, teachers or students working from home - in breaking any part of the world. You can print out the guide, but it is Essay The Nonstandard, not ideal for faith, printing and photocopying, and may run to many more pages than you expect. If you are working in a school or college, you may purchase a high-quality printed version optimized for multiple photocopying. The cost of the printed version includes permission for unlimited reproduction within your institution - if you expect to Essay on, make multiple copies, this will probably save on your bulk photocopying and printing costs. Dreadlock! To obtain the printed guide, contact: ZigZag Education and on The Nonstandard Monetary, Computing Centre Publications Greenway Business Centre Doncaster Road Bristol BS10 5PY Tel: +44 (0)117 950 3199. Click on the link to go to the ZigZag Education Web site:

Please acknowledge my authorship by giving the URL of of nafta for canada any pages you use, and/or include the copyright symbol. Suggestions for improvement are welcome. Policies! Thank you.