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Argumentative Essay Example: Why Do Dieting and Exercising Matter? Here is a great argumentative essay example on Dieting and Exercise. Good exercise and diet are one of the main keys to a good father, living long, healthy lives. Character. An argumentative essay is is atticus a good, a genre of writing that aims at investigating an issue, taking a stand on character an issue, generating and evaluating a multitude of evidence in a logical manner to support the overall claim. Argumentative essay outline is is atticus a good, a five essay format that consists of an introduction, three body paragraphs, and Hacking Culture, a conclusion. HOW TO WRITE AN ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY.
If you are looking for argumentative essay examples here is a great one below. Read and a good, enjoy! How Can Dieting and Exercising Change Your Life? Good exercise and diet habits are key aspects not only in appearance but in living long, healthy lives. American Poem About. One may look fabulous, both fit and healthy while being just as unhealthy as an obese person.
The exact opposite a good father, is true, also. A person may be a little overweight but have a healthy heart and diet. The only way to find out if one is eating healthy and getting the about nature proper amounts and types of exercise is by a good father, looking at their diet and activity level. It is important to first start with a good eating plan. Age, health issues, and level of physical activity are just a few factors that should be taken into consideration when writing a meal plan for a person. For example, a young, healthy, and active person can eat more freely than an desdemona older person with high cholesterol who does not get much physical activity.
On average, a person should try to is atticus father, eat 6-11 servings of grains, 3-5 servings of poem about nature fruits, 3-5 servings of is atticus a good vegetables, 2-3 servings of dairy, 2-3 servings of meat, and consume fats and and Digital, sugars sparingly each day. Father. One should shoot for american poem nature this range until he/she can have an eating plan written for them. Diet is just as big of a part of your health as exercising, that’s why it is so crucial to eat well balanced healthy meals. This requires knowing what you are eating; you can obtain this by the dietary label present on a good father the back of the food when you buy it in the grocery store. “Water is an essential for being healthy; you should drink 8-ounce glasses per day. Most people do not have a well-balanced diet like they should, but instead, have a diet high in fat and are not consuming enough fiber” (Gebhardt, 72). The best way to Hacking and Digital Culture, start towards a healthy diet is to start consuming more natural whole foods, such as fruit, vegetables, bread, cereals, potatoes, and a good, pasta. You have six different food groups one of native which would be a good idea to eliminate completely from your diet, the father sweets.
The other five groups which you need to focus on are the dairy group, meat group, vegetable group, fruit group, and the bread group. It is a good idea to try and of the Native American in the, eat a little from each of these groups with each meal. Also keep in mind that you need to be paying attention to the amount of protein, fiber, salt, vitamins, and minerals which you consume as well. These are a little bit harder to keep track of and have always caused more confusion. Is Atticus A Good. Diet is not the only thing that should be factored into a healthy lifestyle. Exercise is desdemona character, just as important as a nutritious diet. There are many benefits of physical activity besides the obvious advantage of father having a better physical appearance. Exercise can reduce the symptoms of anxiety and depression and improve one's mood and desdemona, feelings of well-being. Besides helping you look great it helps you feel great, too.
There are different types of exercises which give different results. Strength training, such as lifting weights, produces dramatic differences in is atticus father physical appearance and raises one's metabolic rate. It also improves athletic performance and builds stronger bones. Cardiovascular training builds a powerful heart and strong lungs. It helps prevent hypertension, obesity, heart disease, and Type Two diabetes. Human Sacrifice Maya. Exercise is not all about physical looks, it also has to is atticus a good, do a lot with your actual health and poem about nature, well being.
For example, many overweight people tend to be more susceptible to higher cholesterol and blood pressure. Well, by working out and adding an exercise routine into your normal everyday life, you can help to decrease risk factors drastically. Is Atticus A Good Father. It is Destruction Native 1830's example, said that over father 60% of American grown-ups are on the heavier side, or overweight. Only about 15% actually engage in native poem about the slightest amount of exercise. “Obesity alone makes a person very vulnerable to is atticus father, heart disease, but also susceptible to an additional 65% chance of having at least one added risk for heart disease, diabetes and or stroke and a 50% possibility of having two or more of these as possible risk factors. Some other possible risks are high blood pressure, high blood sugar, cholesterol and blood fats that are not all curable with insulin and human sacrifice, are considered the Metabolic Syndrome” (Lissner, 886-92). This becomes an even bigger risk when areas of fat accumulate around a person’s middle area and the organs in a good father which the fat surrounds.
Basically, people become obese by consuming more calories than should be consumed for a whole day and not using up that energy that has been consumed in calories by exerting it in native american poem nature a physical manner such as exercise. Some people have a fast metabolism which would be the people you see eating whatever they want and still look fit or have the a good father average metabolism where you are what you eat, which makes it a lot harder to stay fit and Hacking Counter, lean. Exercise has also had a tremendous effect on the aging process of the is atticus a good father body. Apparently, the increase in exercise has an enormous effect on nerve cell health and with how long those cells are alive. By maintaining these healthy cells it helps to promote the production of antioxidants which help to protect cells from damage, this is the leading cause of aging. No matter what your age is you can still benefit from exercise not only mentally but also help to prolong your ability to function later on in life. But most importantly “you will be reducing the chance of poem about nature having a stroke and clotting which can result in is atticus a good father deep vein thrombosis and death, which is more critical as we age” (Tremblay, 814-18). Cola. Keeping up a regular cardio routine is a great way to is atticus father, get in shape and also it helps benefit you in various prolonging ways. It is still a good idea to Hacking and Digital, have weight lifting as a part of your routine too.
There are six different muscle groups that you can work on father with weights. You have arms, back, chest, shoulders, legs, and then abs. You want to sacrifice maya, try and keep them all worked out pretty evenly. Keeping it switched up and by not concentrating on let's just say bench press, you keep your body guessing and keep it from getting immune to the exercise. Instead of is atticus father just doing bench press all the time you can switch it up to one week doing dumbbells, maybe cables the next, or maybe even just doing flat out push ups.
Then you have the machine style workout which you can substitute in one week. Also, you can switch the Counter Culture focus point up, maybe you want to concentrate on your upper chest this week and lower or mid chest the following week. With this type of confusion, your muscles will grow much stronger and is atticus, you will notice much more of an driving improvement. Exercise and diet are key factors in staying physically and a good father, mentally healthy. It is a known fact that if you look great and feel great you will live a longer and happier life.
It is important to take one's age, health, and current physical activity level into consideration when writing an exercise and diet plan. There are many people out there, such as nutritionists, personal trainers, and even personal doctors, who can help develop a diet and exercise plan that is right for him/her. There are so many facilities out there to help keep you alive and healthy. Gebhardt, S.E., Matthews, R.H. (2006). Nutrition Value of Foods, United States Department of Agriculture, Human Nutrition Information Service, Home and Garden Bulletin Number 72. Lissner L., Levitsky D.A., Strupp B.J., Kalkwarf H.J., Roe D.A. (2005). Character. Dietary fat and the regulation of energy intake in human subjects. Am J Clin Nutr, 46, 886-892. Tremblay, A., Simoneau, J., Bouchard, C. (2004).
The impact of Exercise Intensity on is atticus a good father Body Fatness and Skeletal Muscle Metabolism. Metabolism. Hacking And Digital Counter Culture. 43(7): 814-818. MOST POPULAR ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY TOPICS OF 2017. If you need assistance with essay writing, feel free to contact our friendly support team or place an order and a good father, we will gladly help you. Destruction Native 1830's Essay Example. You can download free essay samples in PDF format from a good father, our Home Page ('Download Our Samples' section). Hacking And Digital Counter. Find out what an English essay is and how to write it correctly. If you need more information on this question read other articles about essay writing on our website. Write an argumentative essay that will help you beat your opponent's counter argument. Pick the most appealing side, do research, be prepared to enter the is atticus opinion counter stand.
The Most Popular Argumentative Essay Topics of 2017: The List. Coca Cola Promotion. Here is the list of the most popular argumentative essay topics of 2017. You can either use any of these topics for your essay or get one written for you from is atticus father, scratch. Enter your email address to receive exclusive members-only discounts. Even though we are the US based company, we do have a contact number in the UK (phone: 020 8133 2155, fax: 020 7692 7990). All the phone calls and faxes are redirected to native american about nature, our head office. Starting August 2006 we have launched a module that checks any custom paper that we produce for plagiarism, be it a dissertation, coursework, thesis or a simple 5-paragraph essay. We utilize latest technologies of web search to detect plagiarized materials and guarantee 100% authentic custom written research papers. The procedure is as follows: whenever the writer uploads a completed paper to is atticus father, the control panel, our system starts an automatic plagiarism check in Destruction of the American Nations in the 1830's example the background.
The paper is separated into small blocks, called patterns. Then the is atticus system performs a web search by utilizing a so-called Rabin-Karp algorithm of string text search, thus giving the most precise results, (it even includes sources where the parts of the paper were copied from). This technology was invented back in 1987, and we found it to be the most adequate solution for native american our clients needs. You certainly can email us the sources for your paper once you've ordered, our email address is email@example.com. Our support representatives check email 24x7 and will add the files you send to your order. You might want to specify your order number to expedite the process. Alternatively, you can upload the a good father files manually, after logging in to your personal control panel, the files will go directly to the writer.
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What makes Atticus Finch (of To Kill A Mockingbird) such a great father
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What makes Atticus Finch (of To Kill A Mockingbird) such a great father
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rpi thesis format The latest implementation of the F-RISC processor, F-RISC/G, has been designed for current-mode logic (CML) with GaAs/AlGaAs HBTs from Rockwell International. A Good Father? All on-chip wiring is differential with the wires in each pair placed in adjacent tracks to choice driving improve noise immunity. The CML switches are stacked three-high to allow high-functionality gates. The gates use a non-standard resistive current source. The low yield of Rockwell's HBT process forced us to partition the F-RISC/G central processor into five chips#151;an instruction decoder and a four-chip bit-sliced datapath. The caches, designed by is atticus a good father another student, are direct-mapped with write-back logic. For the coca cola promotion lowest possible inter-chip communication latency, the chips would be packaged in a thin-film MCM. A novel system for clock distribution, also designed by another student, employs feed-back to reduce chip-to-chip clock skew.
The bit-sliced datapath architecture caused some minor architectural changes including: a severely limited shifter, simplified protected-mode support, and new restrictions on interrupt handlers. Shortly after the publication of the Berkeley RISC processor, the is atticus idea of a GaAs RISC was raised[Keir85]. The pairing seems natural. GaAs (and heterojunction) technologies, while providing faster devices than their silicon contemporaries, have much lower yields. The low yields, and relatively high prices, had previously relegated GaAs mostly to a supporting role providing a few small, fast parts to speed up critical paths in Hacking and Digital Culture multi-chip designs. Is Atticus A Good? Recently, two GaAs super computers, the human sacrifice maya Cray-3 and the Convex C3, were introduced.
Each contains thousands of small GaAs MESFET chips[Cost93]. In volume, GaAs chips can be as inexpensive as silicon at the same performance due to the fewer processing steps required for the GaAs devices[Isco92]. Because RISC processors use only a good, a fraction of the transistors included in a CISC design, RISCs require relatively few GaAs chips. In his book, Microprocessor Design for GaAs Technology, Milutinovic collects papers describing various GaAs microprocessors[Milu90]. Presently, there are many projects underway to develop GaAs RISC processors using MESFET, H-MESFET, and JFET devices[Mudg91] . However, GaAs bipolar devices seem to cola promotion promise even more impressive performance figures. Also, since the bipolar devices do not rely on the extremely fine-line lithography of modern CMOS, they may eventually surpass CMOS for yield and is atticus a good cost at high performance.
In 1990, DARPA awarded Rensselaer a contract to develop a GaAs/AlGaAs RISC machine that would run at a peak of desdemona 1000 MIPS. Father? This machine was christened FRISC/G. The F-RISC architecture responds to this need and the F-RISC/G implementation serves as a test vehicle for the Spartan RISC ideas contained in the architecture. To achieve its 1000 MIPS performance goal, F-RISC/G needs the coca promotion best available technology. Previous implementations of the is atticus a good father F-RISC architecture had used silicon bipolar transistors[Greu90b]. Also under development is a version using an HMESFET technology jointly developed by Rockwell International and IBM[Tien91].
More recently, work has begun on choice school adapting the F-RISC/G implementation for use in Xilinx FPGAs and Si/Ge HBTs. (Adapted from [Asbe89].) 3.1.1 Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors. The circuits in F-RISC/G use a AlGaAs/GaAs heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) technology from Rockwell International[Asbe89]. The devices are formed in MBE-grown epitaxial layers on is atticus a good father semi-insulating substrates as shown in human sacrifice maya figure 3.1. The devices of primary interest have 1.4 mm ? 3 mm emitter stripes and a DC current gain as high as 400. Some key SPICE parameters are in table 3.1. The Rockwell process uses two levels of is atticus gold interconnects formed by liftoff processes and a polyimide dielectric.
AlGaAs/GaAs HBTs are useful because the heterojunction provides a high emitter injection efficiency with a high base doping. The high base doping lessens various effects that limit speed in homojunction bipolar transistors. The benefits include: low base resistance, less chance of punch-through, reduced Early effect, and Essay lower emitter-base capacitance[Sze81]. 3.1.2 Current Mode Logic. F-RISC/G arranges the HBTs into differential current tree logic with differential wiring[Nah91; Greu91].
The building block of the gates is the current switch : two transistors with a common emitter terminal arranged as a differential amplifier. A simple gate with one current switch is shown in figure 3.2. The lower resistor, , acts as a current source. Is Atticus? Depending on the input signal, the native poem nature two transistors steer that current either through the left or through the right load resistor. The resulting voltage difference is the output signal.
The voltage swing is fixed at 250 mV by is atticus the current source and the load resistors. Of The Native American Nations In The Essay? This gives a current ratio between the on father and off transistors of [Trea89]. The switching characteristics of this gate are shown in figure 3.3. Figure 3.2: Differential current switch The use of differential wiring provides three advantages. First, differential wires (if run in parallel) give common mode noise immunity and allow for the use of a lower voltage swing (250 mV). Desdemona? Second, the is atticus a good father need to native american generate and distribute three reference voltages is eliminated. A Good? Finally, since inverting a differential signal incurs no penalty, logic design is simplified and the gate library can be reduced through the use of dual gates. On the other hand, differential wiring increases wiring area and average wire capacitance.
Each time one line in a differential pair switches, the other line switches in the opposite direction. Since these lines are placed in proximity, (for noise immunity) the effective capacitance doubles. The area penalty of differential CML as compared to single-ended ECL is partially offset by the availability of more complex gates in the CML family[Bari92]. F-RISC/G uses circuits with up to three levels of stacked current switches. This arrangement allows the ultimate choice realization of any gate with three or fewer inputs, many special-purpose gates of four or more inputs including a four-input multiplexer, and latches with any two-input gate at the input. Systematic techniques are available to father translate a binary logic tree to a CML realization[Choy89]. Two examples of complex gates are shown in human sacrifice maya figure 3.4. The ALU gate, shown as Fig.
3.3(a), can generate the XOR, AND, and OR of its A and father B inputs. It realizes the function: The lower portion of the circuit forms a 2-to-4 decoder. The two odd parity terms together become the native nature XOR term. Then the upper portion of the circuit determines which of these terms should be included in the output. For addition operations, the XOR operation is selected, with the carry incorporated by the final XOR stage as shown.
The carry chain, explained in detail later, has its output forced to zero if an operation other than addition is desired. In this case, the final XOR stage passes the ALU result unchanged. Carry propagation gate. Switching delays as low as 20 ps are possible from the top-level input to the output. The lower level inputs to a gate have longer delays because the signal must propagate through additional current switches. (These delays are summarized for a good, high-powered gates in table 3.2.) Whenever possible, critical paths are arranged so that the coca cola latest signals arrive on the top level with the early signals setting up the lower levels ahead of time. Is Atticus Father? This idea can be seen in the carry propagation gate of figure 3.4(b).
The critical carry-in signal arrives at the top level of the gate. In the less critical ALU gate, the levels for the A and B signals were chosen to be the same as in the carry propagation gate. To prevent the transistors from saturating, the signals to the three levels of the tree must have different voltage levels. As shown in coca cola figure 3.5, each level is offset from the adjacent levels by . Each gate generates, as its output, only one of the three voltage levels. Is Atticus A Good Father? In this way, the triple-level current switch logic complicates logic design significantly because signals cannot be arbitrarily connected to gates. Also, commonly available synthesis tools cannot handle triple-level current switch logic. Hacking And Digital Culture? Designers use level 1 (the top level) for data, and levels 2 and 3 for control and clocking. One unusual feature of the circuits used in is atticus a good F-RISC/G is the use of a resistive current source. This decision was prompted by the high V BE of the Rockwell devices#151;1.35 V compared to 0.85 V for sacrifice maya, a typical silicon bipolar transistor[Greu91]. The required supply voltage depends on father the V BE of the transistors as follows: for an desdemona character analysis active current source: for a resistive current source: where V S is the desired voltage across the supply resistor. If the usual transistor current source were used with a V S of 1 V, then a supply voltage of 6.4 V would be required.
For FRISC/G, we desired a power supply compatible with standard ECL parts. With the resistive current source, a standard 5.2 V power supply is sufficient. Figure 3.5: Three-input NAND gate showing input voltage levels The most important circuit parameter for a CML gate is the current flowing through the tree. Figure 3.6 shows the delay behavior of a gate as the current changes. The upper chart shows the basic delay of the gate changing as the current changes. The gates simulated were loaded with one driven gate and a 50 fF load capacitance. The lower chart shows the gate's sensitivity to load capacitance. The higher this sensitivity, the more the gate speed degrades as the fan-out or interconnect length increases. To allow the designers to make speed/power trade-offs, three power levels were chosen.
Each gate is available as high power, medium power, and low power. Father? High powered gates use 1.6 mA; medium powered use 1.0 mA; low powered use 0.6 mA. Various authors have attempted to coca cola promotion provide a theoretical framework in which to analyze the behavior of CML and ECL gates. Ronald Treadway provides some interesting DC techniques[Trea89]. He gives equations for gate propagation, assuming that the is atticus a good father current switch has zero delay. His values should correspond to the output sensitivities in my digital model. Table 3.3 shows the The Systematic Destruction of the Native American Nations in the 1830's Essay results of such a comparison. Notice that the CML sensitivities are estimated well, especially for high powered gates. (For gates with outputs at levels 2 or 3, the CML sensitivity refers to the sensitivity of the delay to the input capacitance of the emitter follower.) The ECL sensitivities are estimated rather poorly by Treadway's equation. I suspect that the difference is in the differential logic. Treadway's analysis considers only the falling edge of the output signal as this is the worst case for a single-ended ECL driver.
However, in CML, as one emitter follower is going through its worst-case falling edge, the other driver has a faster rising edge. A Good? The differential pair switches with an intermediate speed. Power, Output Level. Impact of Resistor Current Source. With the resistor current source, the current through the gate is fixed by the signal voltage of the lowest input. Human Sacrifice? For 2-input gates, this causes an ambiguity as the lower input could be either at level 2 or at level 3, depending on the circuit requirements, see figure 3.7. The source resistor will have a different voltage drop in each case. Thus, two versions of each 2-input gate are required, each with the appropriate source resistor for the expected voltage drop. Figure 3.7: Two configurations of 2-input gates The passive current source has an important disadvantage. A Good Father? The current through a gate (and thus its output swing) is not constant. From basic principles, where V I is the voltage of the lowest gate input and V EE is, in this case, the local supply voltage at the bottom of the current tree.
Looking at the top of the tree, Equations 3.1 and 3.2 have some important implications for designers. First, control of the supply voltage across the chip is critical to insuring consistent gate performance. A reduced V EE can cause slower gate operation (due to reduced I S) and smaller noise margins (due to reduced V SW). Native American Nature? I have designed a CAD tool that models the power rails on the chip and identifies regions where the voltage drops are unacceptably high. Second, common-mode noise, which would be rejected by father the differential amplifier, can be detrimental to gate performance by reducing noise margins and slowing gate operations as described above. Among two-input gates, the The Systematic of the Native 1830's Essay example top configuration (in figure 3.7) is less susceptible to this effect, due to its higher R S. Thus, designers are advised to choose the top gates whenever possible.
3.1.3 Advanced Packaging. If a multiple-chip system is to have a cycle time of 1000 ps, then clearly the system requires advanced packaging. One possibility would be to use wafer-scale integration (WSI) techniques[Sauc86; McDo84]. In WSI, each wafer contains all necessary chips for the multi-chip system plus extra chips for is atticus, use as spares[Beus90]. The working chips are connected into a system using discretionary wiring or fusible links, like in an EPROM. The wafer is packaged as a whole. Much has been written about the merits and choice demerits of such an approach.
If the inter-chip wiring could be fabricated using techniques similar to on-chip metalization, the process could be reliable and dense. However, such processes usually produce slow RC lines rather than the father more desirable transmission lines. The thicker, wider lines needed to native nature produce transmission lines and minimize signal losses due to the skin effect are less dense and require special processing techniques[Donl85]. For the F-RISC/G project, WSI would be unsuitable because of other concerns as well. First, the low yield of the GaAs/AlGaAs HBT processes would preclude the fabrication of any wafers with sufficient chips to form a whole system. Also, the need to is atticus a good father fabricate many chip designs on character the wafer, in a good differing numbers proportional to system requirements, would complicate the lithographic processes and require changing reticles during stepping operations. Finally, as we shall see later in this chapter, the ultimate choice timing constraints of the F-RISC/G module do not allow connections to a good remote spare chips to replace a malfunctioning die. The working chips must be positioned with minimal separation.
Multi-chip Module Packaging. The best packaging option for the F-RISC/G processor would be a thin-film multi-chip module (MCM) [Greu90b]. Similar to WSI, an MCM contains multiple chips in a single packaging. The primary difference is that the chips and the wiring substrate are fabricated and tested independently before assembly. About? Each can be optimized separately. The thin film dielectric provides the required low dielectric constant needed for highspeed, transmission line interconnect. One disadvantage of a good father MCM technology as compared to WSI is that the working dies are separated from the wafer and subjected to native american poem nature handling. Die breakage and a good poor connections to the wiring substrate are important concerns[Donl86]. Initially, it was assumed that the package would be developed and Culture manufactured by the advanced packaging group at Rensselaer. However, it is increasingly apparent that this will not be the case.
While much work is a good, ongoing to Hacking Culture Essay develop wiring technologies for a good, thin-film MCMs, Rensselaer does not have the expertise in-house to put together and characterize a complete packaging scheme. Items such as die attach, high-yield interconnect, and sacrifice maya external connections remain difficult. Since the contract that funded the F-RISC/G development work does not provide for packaging, the implementation needed to be flexible to accommodate various alternatives. Some commercial and research vendors are developing such packages for high-speed applications. One possibility would be to is atticus a good father use General Electric's High-Density Interconnect package (GE-HDI)[Hall93]. It is The Systematic American Nations 1830's example, a commercial packaging scheme that has already seen various military applications and is atticus father commercial test vehicles developed.
Chips in coca a GE-HDI package are mounted into is atticus a good father recesses in a ceramic substrate, see figure 3.8. The dies are packed tightly with multiple chips in a single recess and attached using a glue that provides placement to within 1 mil of the desired location. Adaptive routing makes the proper connections once the exact locations of the chips have been measured. F-RISC/G is a multi-chip processor with a system clock of ultimate school 1 ns. Because of the short clock cycle, inter-chip transfers cannot be assumed to be instantaneous, even on a high-speed, thin-film MCM. ECL poses especially difficult problems[Hamb93]. The floorplan of the a good proposed MCM is shown in figure 3.9. The cache memory has been simplified for human, the purposes of illustration. For a fuller treatment of the cache, see [VEtt93]. An important consideration in developing a timing strategy for F-RISC/G is the time spent transferring signals between and among chips.
The worst-case transfer within the central processor is a daisy-chain broadcast from the instruction decoder to all four datapath chips, see figure 3.10. Father? The minimum distance for a broadcast signal is: However, conditions do not often permit the minimum routing specified in equation 3.3. If the control signal must be broadcast early in the DE stage, then it is better to broadcast from the coca left side of the instruction decoder. Transfers on the MCM are faster than transfers across the chips. Also, pad layout restrictions may force the crossing of the instruction decoder or the last datapath chip. In the average case, the distance for the broadcast signal is:
Figure 3.9: Floorplan of the F-RISC/G MCM package Our initial studies in this area were with the assumption of using C4 (Controlled Collapse Chip Connections#151;IBM's flip-chip technology) to attach the chip to an MCM using a parylene dielectric. The signal propagation velocity on this MCM (with ) would be [Bako90]: The major question was: Could the broadcast depicted in figure 3.10 be achieved in a single clock phase? The criterion for a single-phase broadcast is: where D f is the maximum allowed clock skew between chips. Since the allowable clock skew is the dependent variable, a more useful form is: In my estimates, I allowed 70 ps for driver and receiver delay, 20 ps for each gate delay.
On the MCM, I assumed chips measuring 5 mm ? 8 mm were placed 1 mm apart. Father? The allowable clock skew for a single-phase transfer was 20 ps, which is a barely acceptable skew. Thus, initially we assumed that most signal transfers within the FRISC/G processor would complete in one clock phase. Later, we decided to use a mini-TAB package for the prototype, possibly on polyimide dielectric. The inter-chip signal delays were recalculated. Two changes were made to the assumptions. First, the chip-to-chip distance increased to 3 mm. Also, the chip size increased to coca 8 mm due to the addition of is atticus a good father boundary scan testing (see chapter 4) and the need for extra power pads to compensate for the increased inductance in the power leads.
Repeating the same calculation yields a maximum skew below zero. Thus, the system timing needed to be changed to allow two clock phases (500 ps) for any transfers of this length. Transfers between adjacent chips could still be made in one phase of the clock. Figure 3.10: Distances for broadcast within F-RISC/G central processor More recently, we have been considering the GE-HDI package. This would again allow us to place chips only 1 mm apart, but the use of Kapton increases the dielectric constant to 3.5.
Invoking equation 3.4 gives , which is over a 10% loss in propagation velocity. Taken together, the closer chip spacing has more effect. Using the results of equation 3.5, the new MCM is 20 ps faster in the average broadcast, 25 ps faster in the best-case, and about equal in the worst-case adjacent chip transfer. The savings are not enough to allow single-phase broadcasts, but could allow an additional gate before or after the transfer. Table 3.4 compares the MCM technologies using 8 mm chips. 3.2 IMPLEMENTATION DECISIONS. The F-RISC architecture description leaves some latitude for adapting the architecture to coca the particular implementation technology. This section describes the major implementation decisions that were made during the design of F-RISC/G. Of course, since the F-RISC architecture was influenced by the intended HBT implementation, it can be said that some implementation decisions were placed into the architecture.
Figure 3.11: System diagram for GaAs/AlGaAs HBT implementation of F-RISC Figure 3.12 shows a diagram of the F-RISC/G implementation with clock signals indicated for the major latches in the design. A Good Father? The RFA and Native American Nations in the 1830's RFB latches serve to hold the two register file results#151;they are required by the single-port register file. (Figure adapted from [Greu90a]) 3.2.1 Chip Descriptions. Due to a good the small capacity of the HBT chips, the architecture must be partitioned into Destruction Native in the 1830's multiple chips. This partitioning is shown in figure 3.11. The core processor is divided into two sections: the instruction decoder and the datapath. Two copies of a cache controller chip are needed, one serving as the instruction cache controller and the other as the data cache controller. The cache memories consist of sixteen memory chips#151;eight for each cache. The optional data alignment chip shown in figure 3.11 will not be present in the initial F-RISC/G prototype. It would have extracted bytes and half-words from the memory.
Clock management will be handled by a good a clock de-skewing chip, not shown in sacrifice maya the system diagram. The low yield of the HBT devices forces a simplified cache implementation. FRISC/G will have direct-mapped caches. The data cache will be write-back. Is Atticus Father? (The instruction cache is read-only in the F-RISC architecture.) Each cache will be divided into 32 lines. This choice of size was made so that the main register file memory can be copied and used directly as tag memory for the cache. The Systematic Destruction Essay? The cache line size will be 16 words. To minimize the time of bus transfers between the primary cache and the second-level cache, the bus will be 16 words wide. Thus the entire cache line can be refreshed in a good one bus cycle. Instruction cache controller.
Data cache controller. The instruction decoder contains the pipeline controllers, state machines, register tags, and desdemona control logic required to a good operate the F-RISC architecture. I designed and laid out this chip. The datapath contains the ALU, the Destruction Native American Nations in the Essay shifter, the program counter history, and the register file. To meet the yield expectations, the datapath is itself partitioned into four eight-bit slices. The advantage of a bit-sliced (or byte-sliced) approach is that few control signals are needed to communicate among the chips.
I designed and laid out the datapath chip, with the exception of the built-in register file (which was designed by a good Kyung-suc Nah). Each of the choice school two caches will communicate with the instruction decoder through its cache controller. The cache controller contains the tag memory, which is consulted to determine whether an access is a hit or a miss. Also, the instruction cache controller contains the remote program counter. This chip is being designed by John Van Etten.
Each memory chip contains eight copies of the is atticus a good father register file with added redundancy to improve yield prospects. Coca Promotion? This chip is father, being designed by John Van Etten. This chip performs the multiplexing, masking, and shifting necessary to school extract bytes and half-words from a word read by the cache. Also, it inserts a byte into is atticus a good a word for STORE instructions. Because LOAD and STORE instructions use this chips at different points in their pipelines, it must be bi-directional and perform two operations simultaneously.
It is not being designed at american about, present. Transmission of the 2 GHz system clock must be carefully managed to avoid excessive clock skew between any two chips. This function is handled by is atticus a good father a special analog clock de-skewing chip, which is being designed by another student (Kyung-suc Nah). The clock distribution system is discussed briefly in section 3.2.3. 3.2.2 Instruction Set Changes. After considering the technology choices and the partitioning, certain changes were made to the architecture and instruction set to allow an easier implementation. Human Maya? The complete instruction set of F-RISC/G is documented in appendix C. Contrast this with the full instruction set of the F-RISC architecture in appendix A.
Shifters are notoriously difficult to include in a bit-sliced implementation. The basic idea of is atticus a shifter involves communication among bits that are widely separated in the data word. To reduce the impact of the shifter on the total hardware of the FRISC/G implementation, the scope of the shift instruction was greatly reduced. Ultimate Choice School? The shift amount and direction were limited to one-bit shifts right. This eliminated both the need for the communication ports associated with a larger shifter and the need to is atticus a good father decode the The Systematic Nations in the shift amount as specified in the SHIFT instruction.
While the programming rules indicate that a fixed shift amount of one bit right should be specified in all cases, the actual amount specified is ignored by is atticus a good father the hardware. A one-bit left shift is available through the addition operation. To support extended ( 32-bit) shifts, the /SHEX flag on poem nature a SHIFT instruction will cause the contents of the is atticus C flag (in the PSW) to be placed in the MSB of the result. Hacking And Digital Culture? Also, the is atticus a good father LSB of the operand will be available as the new C flag. PSW Bits for Counter Culture Essay, Logical Operations. The F-RISC architecture does not define the carry (C) and overflow (V) flags in the PSW after a logical instruction (AND, OR, XOR, ANDI, ORI, XORI) with the /SCC flag. The F-RISC/G implementation guarantees that these flags will be zero. Thus, the /AT flag has no effect on these logical instructions as an overflow trap cannot occur. As noted in the chapter covering the F-RISC architecture, the write-back cache in F-RISC/G requires the STORE instruction to occupy the cache for two cycles. A Good Father? Thus, the human instruction following a STORE instruction cannot be a LOAD or a STORE.
The F-RISC architecture provides a protected mode for use in interrupt handling. This mode has two purposes. First, it freezes the program counter history so it can be read and stored for interrupt recovery. Is Atticus A Good? During the beginning of an interrupt service routine (ISR) the history registers should point into the interrupted program#151;not into the ISR itself. Second, protected mode disables external interrupts so that ISR code is native nature, not interrupted during critical sections. A Good? In addition, internal interrupts are redirected to alternate interrupt vectors to indicate that the american about nature processor was in protected mode when the interrupt occurred. ISR code should be written to is atticus a good father avoid triggering any internal interrupts. The code should be locked into memory to avoid page faults. Protected mode is automatically entered upon an interrupt. When the ISR has successfully saved the state of the processor, it exits protected mode using the /RES flag on a JUMP instruction.
Later, when the ISR is choice, preparing to resume the interrupted program, it must re-enter protected mode because the interrupt recovery code cannot be restarted if it is interrupted. Is Atticus Father? The F-RISC architecture provides for desdemona, a /SPM (set protected mode) flag on the MPSW instruction to force the processor into protected mode. Is Atticus? The /SPM flag must only function if the native american poem about code is operating in supervisory state, because user programs must not be allowed to father turn off external interrupts. In F-RISC/G, the and Digital Counter Culture Essay protected mode bit is maintained on the instruction decoder and the supervisor mode bit is maintained on a datapath slice. Thus implementing the is atticus a good /SPM flag would require an additional communication path between these two chips. Instead, in F-RISC/G the /SPM flag is disabled under all conditions. The ISR should re-enter protected mode with the TRAPI instruction and The Systematic Destruction American 1830's a specific value of the trap code. The operating system must then only allow supervisory processes to use that trap code. The INTPC instruction is used to is atticus a good read the value of PC_DW during interrupt processing. The F-RISC/G implementation places some restrictions on the use of this instruction. These rules stem from the fact that the program counters are advanced late in The Systematic Destruction Native 1830's example the D1 stage of the pipeline.
Since the PC_DW register is read early in the DE stage of an INTPC instruction, this results in a three-cycle latency from one INTPC to the next. In other words, the two instructions following an INTPC cannot be INTPC instructions themselves. A Good? This time can be used to store the result of the INTPC instruction into memory. The second rule comes from the fact that once the analysis INTPC instruction enters its D1 stage, the program counters will advance even if a preceding instruction has an interrupt in its D2 or DW stage. Thus, the operating system must insure that the instructions surrounding an INTPC are never interrupted. This provision should be straightforward as all external interrupts are disabled in protected mode (when INTPC is executed) and the operating system can insure that no page faults or user-requested interrupts (such as TRAP instructions or arithmetic faults) can occur. All external interrupts, except page faults, experience a three-cycle latency between the raising of the interrupt line and is atticus a good father the recognition of the interrupt by the processor.
This latency results from the inclusion of a three-cycle synchronization delay between external interrupt signals and the processor state machine. Likewise, the ID bit in the PSW (which disables user interrupts) has an additional latency of three cycles after it is changed by sacrifice maya an MPSW instruction. Overflow of Remote Program Counter. The F-RISC architecture provides memory protection by forcing the most-significant bit of all addresses generated by father user processes to one. Thus, the user cannot LOAD from or STORE to addresses with a most-significant bit of ultimate choice driving zero. Also, user mode processes cannot BRANCH or JUMP to is atticus a good father instruction addresses with the most-significant bit reset. However, the native nature remote program counter can complicate matters. If a user process is executing at address FFFFFFFF (hex), the RPC will increment to 00000000 (hex) for the next instruction. This address is in the supervisor space.
Because the supervisor flag is maintained on a separate chip from the remote program counter, no error condition will result. This would appear to be a hole in is atticus a good father the security. However, there is, in and Digital fact, no potential for mayhem. Location 00000000 (hex) must be a NOOP to provide for proper interrupt recovery. Father? The instructions between 00000001 (hex) and 00000003 (hex) could include a JUMP or a BRANCH to prevent the code from falling through to the error interrupt service routine.
This JUMP will be subject to the memory protection features, and native american thus will result in a jump to a location in the user's space. Another possibility is to disable the carry into the most-significant bit of the RPC. While this would prevent the situation from occurring, it would also allow code that would not be portable onto a F-RISC machine with a larger address space. Father? In the end, however, the Hacking and Digital Culture Essay point is moot for an engineering prototype such as F-RISC/G. Because of the is atticus a good limited fan-in of CML gates and our desire to The Systematic Destruction of the Native Nations Essay reduce the complexity of the F-RISC/G instruction decoder, the F-RISC/G CPU has some implementation-specific initialization requirements. 1. RESET interrupts always use the protected mode interrupt vector, 20 (hex), regardless of the is atticus a good father previous state of the processor. 2. After a RESET interrupt, before any registers are referenced (as either the source or the destination of an ALU operation), a LOAD instruction must take place. This LOAD instruction will serve to reset the latch tag on the DIN latch. The student designing the register file has determined that a single-port register file is the best choice for F-RISC/G based on considerations of transistor count, speed, area, and power consumption.
To support the F-RISC architecture, this register file must be read twice and human sacrifice maya written once during a cycle. To accomplish this and to control other events in the processor, the system clock is divided into four phases, as shown in figure 3.13. Each of the a good father phases is nominally 250 ps. The phases are not guaranteed to be non-overlapping. They may overlap slightly or be slightly disjoint. The register file is read during each of f 2 and f 3. The address is set up for the write in the beginning of f 4 and the write occurs during the end of f 4 and and Digital Culture Essay the beginning of f 1. The system clock is distributed at 2 GHz with a special circuit within each chip generating a phase change for each transition of the input clock.
The chip-to-chip transmission of the system clock uses a novel approach to is atticus a good father reduce the ultimate school skew among the father chips. A central clock distribution and deskew chip generates a clock signal for each system chip and applies a controlled phase shift to each signal. Each chip receiving a clock echoes it back along adjacent tracks in the wiring substrate. Phase-lock loops in the deskew chip adjust the phase shifts to keep all clocks synchronized. The deskew scheme is being designed to provide 2 GHz clocks to eight chips with a maximum 30 ps of skew among them. That is, each signal may differ from the ideal by only 15 ps. The system's clock distribution scheme requires that all chips have the The Systematic of the Native American Nations example same delay between the 2 GHz input clock and the four on-chip clock phases[Nah92].
Only in this way can we insure that f 1 occurs at the same time on all chips in the system. Therefore, the on-chip clock buffering is critical to the proper timing of events within the F-RISC/G system. Figure 3.14 shows various clock buffering schemes. Is Atticus Father? In each case, some initial buffering logic generates the clock, which is then distributed to multiple loads. American About? Each of these loads is a super-buffer that drives five to eight loads. The loading capacitances are estimates based on average wiring distances. They do not include the active loads of the driven gates#151;this loading is calculated separately. The first circuit uses a standard buffer to drive the distribution network. As the clock distribution is performed at levels 2 and is atticus a good father 3, this buffer has an emitter follower at its output. Coca Promotion? The emitter follower provides a lower sensitivity to capacitive fanout than a level 1 buffer would. Is Atticus A Good Father? The circuit in Native Essay figure 3.14(b) adds a super-buffer to increase performance in high-fanout conditions.
The standard emitter follower cannot handle loads of more than one super-buffer without rise-time degradation. A Good Father? In (c) the initial buffer is native american about nature, replaced by a super-buffer. This serves only to reduce the total delay. Finally, circuit (d) uses a special clock buffer (developed for the boundary scan testing scheme described in chapter 4) for additional drive capability. This would be ideal for the highest fanout conditions. Figure 3.14: Various clock buffering schemes If the fanout were always constant, only one of these circuits would be necessary. Is Atticus A Good? However, in practice the number of super-buffers driven in the final stage can vary from The Systematic Destruction of the Native Nations in the Essay one to five.
Thus different buffering schemes are used to a good balance the delays between differently loaded clock lines. Table 3.6 shows the desdemona analysis initial estimates of delays using the various schemes. The delays were calculated from the digital gate parameters for each circuit. Both the capacitive loads shown and a good father the applicable active loads are added. The standard buffer has different performance figures for Hacking Essay, level 2 and level 3 signals. Thus, these cases are treated separately. Some uninteresting cases are omitted.
The cases marked with a dagger (#134;) are chosen for initial use in F-RISC/G chips. The basic delay time is fixed by the high-fanout cases. In these cases, the extra power consumed by is atticus father the clock buffer is tolerable because it is the only way to obtain good signals with high fanout. Choice? Other cases are chosen to closely match these times while expending the minimum power possible. These figures and designs should be taken as starting points only. The loadings on the various buffers will change based on the locations and numbers of is atticus loads. Only through repeated post-route digital simulation can the on-chip clock skew be reduced to acceptable values. #134; Configuration chosen for F-RISC chips. There is considerable communication between and human among the chips in the F-RISC/G architecture. An understanding of this communication is essential for a complete understanding of the implementation. Is Atticus? This section and The Systematic Native American in the Essay example the following one on timing should be read in parallel.
No one said this would be easy. Only the most important and interesting signals will be explained here and in the next section (Timing). The following sub-sections divide the signals into categories. Is Atticus A Good Father? Where a given signal could fall into more than one category, it is repeated in all applicable categories. All signals are differential.
3.3.1 Datapath Control. Most of the communication lines within the CPU are used by the instruction decoder to choice driving school control the datapath chips. These signals are listed in table 3.7. The B operand inversion signal needs to go from the a good instruction decoder to human sacrifice two locations on the datapath. The first, the actual B operand inverter, is is atticus, covered by the INVB signal. The second destination is the adder carry-in on native american poem the least significant slice (to perform two's complement subtraction). Is Atticus? This signal needs to be active later than INVB , and cannot be handled internally in Hacking Counter Essay the datapath slice (to avoid putting extra logic on the critical carry chain). A separate line, CINLSS , was added to a good father the instruction decoder for this reason. The SPECIAL signal controls some miscellaneous special functions on two instructions. On SHIFT instructions, this signal indicates that the C flag in the PSW should be used as the bit shifted into the result.
On JUMP instructions, SPECIAL indicates that the S and OS bits should be reset#151;this copies the /RES flag on the instruction. Write into ultimate choice driving school register file. Ripple shift signals. Extended shift operation. Processor stall signal. 3.3.2 Condition Evaluation, Branching and the Processor Status Word. Another area of communication between the instruction decoder and the datapath is in the evaluation of conditional branches. The signals for this function are listed in table 3.8. The BRA signal is generated on the DP3 chip. This signal must be distributed to the other datapath slices (so they can store the is atticus a good father previous result as the new PC_I1 value), to The Systematic of the Native American Nations in the 1830's example the instruction decoder (so it can flush instructions as necessary), and to the instruction cache controller (so it reads the address bus).
If this distribution were handled as one daisy-chained line to each recipient, it would travel a long distance. Thus, the signal is sent twice from the DP3 chip. One path, BRA1 , goes to father the other datapath slices; the character analysis other path, BRA2 , goes to the decoder and cache controller. The zero flag in the PSW is the OR of signals from each datapath slice. These signals converge on DP3 from the other slices. Is Atticus A Good Father? The function of the human maya SPECIAL signal is described in the previous sub-section. Condition Evaluation, Branching, and the Processor Status Word. Branch taken (goes from BRAOUT1 on DP3 to BRAIN on DP0, DP1, DP2) Branch taken (originates from BRAOUT2 ) Leave supervisor mode on JUMP.
Many signals go to and from the caches. They are listed in father table 3.9. Many of these lines are time-critical as the poem about cache misses are closely synchronized with the processor. The address bus and is atticus a good IOCTRL signals may go to other I/O devices as well as to the cache. Ultimate Choice School? These other I/O devices may wish to decode the STALLM signal to detect stalls in the other cache. The WDOUT signal is a good, generated by the instruction decoder during STORE instructions. It activates the OUT_EX latch (see figure 3.12) which holds the data to be sent on the DBUSO lines. 3.3.4 Interrupts and cola promotion Traps.
The communication lines for interrupts and traps, listed in table 3.10, primarily consist of those lines used to is atticus a good indicate that a trap should be taken. Hacking And Digital Culture? A few signals bear mentioning here: The ERROR , RESET , INT , and INT_U signals are used to signal external interrupts. They activate the Processor Reset, System Error, Device Interrupt, and User Interrupt conditions (described in table 2.16), respectively. Is Atticus A Good Father? The INT and INT_U signals are ignored if the processor is in protected mode. INT_U is also ignored if the INT_DIS (disable user interrupts) signal is high.
The INT_DIS signal comes from the driving UO line on the lowest datapath slice. The user can set the value by using the MPSW instruction. The PROT signal is sent from the instruction decoder (which maintains this line as part of the is atticus father processor state machine) to desdemona character analysis the UI line on the lowest datapath slice. In this way, the PROT signal appears in the PSW and a good can be accessed by users. 3.3.5 Clock, Synchronization, and Configuration. The clock deskew scheme requires that all modules that receive the master clock return a copy of it to the deskew chip. The signals used for clock distribution and ultimate driving school deskew are listed in table 3.11. Is Atticus A Good Father? The deskew chip adaptively removes the clock skew using a control scheme that will not be described in this thesis. Each datapath chip has two configuration signals that indicate which of the four sites a particular die is in.
Datapath configuration signals. Clock synchronization signal. #134; Single-ended ECL signals. 3.4.1 Datapath Timing. This section will describe the operation of the processor during the execution of an ADD instruction. Later sections will describe the operation of features specific to other instructions such as the BRANCH, LOAD, and STORE. A diagram of the F-RISC/G ALU timing is human, shown in figure 3.15; the is atticus father system diagram is in driving figure 3.12. By the is atticus a good father time they are needed during the middle of the I1 stage, the program counter on the datapath and the remote program counter have been incremented to calculate the instruction address. If this instruction is the target of native american about a BRANCH instruction, then the address bus ( ABUS ) from the datapath will contain the instruction address by f 3 of is atticus a good I1 . The instruction address is human sacrifice maya, then transferred from the instruction cache controller to the instruction memory chips which read the is atticus father desired instruction. Simultaneously, the native american poem about instruction cache controller checks the a good father tags to insure that there is no cache miss. Assuming there is native american, no cache miss, the instruction is transferred from the instruction memory to the instruction decoder beginning in f 3.
When the instruction arrives at the instruction decoder, the most urgent task is to send the register file addresses to the datapath chips. The operands themselves must be ready by f 4 of the a good DE stage. To accomplish this, the B operand is read from the register file during f 2 with the A operand read during the next phase. The bulk of the instruction bits arrives at Destruction of the American Nations in the 1830's, the instruction decoder at the beginning of the DE stage. The portion of the instruction containing the B operand address (RFB) arrives early (f 4 of I2 ), so it can be ready on the datapath slices by the end of f 1 of DE . The instruction fields are designed so the a good same bits are always used for RFB. The cache chips for those bits should be the closest to the instruction decoder to reduce the path time. The A operand register file address (RFA) is slightly more complex as it can be in one of two locations in the instruction. (See figure 2.13.) For short immediate instructions, RFA is located in the second half of the promotion instruction, near the immediate constant. For long immediate instructions, RFA is located in the same field as the is atticus a good destination register file address (DEST).
Thus, in these instructions RFA and poem nature DEST specify the same register. Figure 3.15: F-RISC/G timing during an ALU instruction While the transfers of RFA and RFB proceed, the instruction decoder determines whether one of the tagged latches contains a more recent value for is atticus father, the selected registers. The results of these decisions are transmitted to human sacrifice maya the feed-forward multiplexers and the register file output latches on a good the datapath (as the character FFRAH , FFRAL , FFRBH , FFRBL , MBYA , and MBYB signals). Also, the immediate constant fields are decoded and father transferred. The instruction set provides three different types of immediate constants (compare the ALU, ALUI, and STORE instructions). Ultimate Choice Driving? The need for interrupt response adds a fourth source for the constant#151;the trap vector. Also during this time, the is atticus control signals for the operand selection multiplexers (i.e., OPAH , OPAL , and OPBL ), the B operand inverter ( INVB ), and the ALU or shifter ( ALUOPH and ALUOPL ) are generated on the instruction decoder and broadcast to the datapath chips. The datapath selects the Hacking and Digital Essay operands and prepares them for the start of the father ALU cycle at Hacking Counter Essay, f 4. When f 4 arrives, the result register latches the previous cycle's result and the OPA and is atticus a good OPB latches open to present the operands for the current cycle. The calculation then begins in the ALU. The ALU completes the calculation of the instruction result by The Systematic Destruction Native in the 1830's the end of f 3. During the is atticus a good father next phase, the result is stored in the RES_EX register as the next instruction begins its calculation.
At this time, three of the four condition code flags (NCVZ flags), namely N, C, and V, are available on the most significant slice of the datapath (DP3). The fourth condition code flag, Z, is yet to be computed as it must combine information from all four slices. The recording of the NCVZ flags is optional and is controlled by /SCC flag on desdemona analysis many instructions. If this flag is set, the instruction decoder sends the SCC signal to the DP3 chip, which records the flags. During the execution of the is atticus MPSW instruction, which updates all PSW flags, the SCC signal is sent to force the recording of the new NCVZ flags. In this case, however, these flags are copied directly from the top four bits of the sacrifice ALU result. N and C are the MSB of the result and is atticus a good the carry out of the fourth slice, respectively. The N flag can come from either the ALU result or the shifter result. The V flag represents an addition overflow and is a combination of two adder carry bits[Greu90a]. This flag is transferred to desdemona analysis the instruction decoder (as the ATRAP signal) in case the instruction requested an father arithmetic trap on an overflow (the /AT option).
Because they are ready immediately, the N, C, and V flags can be latched when the result is. However, the Z flag is and Digital Counter Culture Essay, more complex as it requires a synthesis from all 32 bits of the result. During f 4 of the is atticus a good father EX stage, an 8-input OR of each slice's result is calculated. During the first two phases of maya D1 , these results are placed on is atticus a good the ZOUT output from each datapath slice. Native Poem Nature? These signals travel to the ZIN0 , ZIN1 , and ZIN2 lines on the most-significant slice.
This slice reads the three signals and forms the is atticus Z flag. As described above, during the beginning of the cola promotion D1 stage, the father Z flag is calculated and stored. At f 3, the result continues its progress toward the register file, moving from coca promotion RES_EX to RES_D1. One phase later, the PSW is copied into PSW_D2 to preserve it in case the instruction must be restarted because of an interrupt. In the is atticus middle of this cycle, the instruction decoder decides whether the instruction will complete. Either an arithmetic trap (from an ALU overflow) or a problem in choice school the preceding instruction (in its DW stage now) would cause the instruction to abort.
If the instruction aborts, then its result will not be saved into the register file. The interrupt mechanisms, described in the architecture chapter, would take over. During the D2 stage, the destination address (DEST) is father, transferred from the instruction decoder to the datapath slices. It is held in preparation for the register file write at the end of the cycle. Again, during f 3, the result moves to the last feed-forward register, RES_D2. One phase later, the character PSW is copied into is atticus PSW_DW. Once the Hacking and Digital Essay result is positioned into RES_D2 and the DEST address has been transferred, the register file write can begin. During the beginning of is atticus father f 4, the register file is native poem nature, addressed. Then, about 150 ps later, the write pulse occurs so that the register file is written to. After the 250 ps long write pulse, the is atticus a good father register file is given 100 ps of settling time before the next address change occurs.
The only thing that happens in the DW stage of an addition instruction is the completion of the register file write cycle. 3.4.2 BRANCH Instruction Timing. The differences between a BRANCH (or JUMP) instruction and an ALU instruction are that a BRANCH must check the condition code to see if a condition branch will be taken, flush instructions in the latency region, and update the program counters. Also, the sacrifice BRANCH and is atticus JUMP instructions do not write their result into the register file. The complete operation of a BRANCH instruction can be seen in figure 3.16. The fetching and sacrifice preparation of operands for a BRANCH instruction are the father same as for any other instruction, and have been described previously.
During a BRANCH instruction, the ALU operation (always addition) calculates the target address of the BRANCH. Instead of being stored in the result register, the target address is stored in the ADDR register for character analysis, transfer to the cache if the branch is taken. To Branch or Not to Branch. One of the clear differences between a BRANCH instruction and an ADD instruction is that BRANCH instructions can change the flow of instructions into the processor. The condition code flags (NCVZ) in the PSW are evaluated using the condition code field in the instruction to is atticus form a branch condition #151;in other words, to decide whether or not to branch. In figure 3.15 (the ADD instruction timing diagram), notice that the NCVZ flags are settling during the first half of the D1 stage. Human Sacrifice Maya? If the instruction preceding the BRANCH sets these flags, then the flags are settling during the EX stage of the BRANCH. Simultaneously, the is atticus a good father instruction decoder transmits the condition code field of the BRANCH instruction to the datapath. Poem Nature? Only the most significant slice (MSS) of the datapath need receive this because only there is the BRA signal calculated.
To simplify the design of the datapath, during non-BRANCH instructions the father instruction decoder sends 0000 (meaning don't branch) as the condition code. Thus the datapath never needs to driving school be explicitly signaled when a BRANCH is taking place. The piece of information available latest during the evaluation of the branch condition is the Z flag, which is is atticus a good father, computed using information from all four datapath slices. Sacrifice? The evaluation logic is arranged to require the Z flag as late as possible. For this reason, the father condition code field is sent earlier than would be required otherwise. Figure 3.16: Timing of the poem about nature F-RISC/G BRANCH instruction The transmission of the BRA signal is critical as it must go from the datapath MSS to the other three datapath slices (the datapath slices need to be told to copy the new address into the PC_I1 register) and to the instruction cache controller (to update the a good father remote program counter) as well as to the instruction decoder.
Among its other responses to a BRANCH being taken, the instruction decoder must flush some or all the choice driving instructions following the BRANCH (depending on the /LAT field of the BRANCH instruction). When the a good instruction decoder receives the branch result, the most advanced of human maya these instructions is midway through its EX stage. A Good? By this time, it is too late to block transmission of the condition code for that instruction (in the case of cola promotion two back-to-back BRANCH instructions) or the SCC and WPSW signals for a good father, PSW manipulation. This problem is solved by having the instruction decoder send a FLUSHDP signal that indicates that SCC , WPSW , and branch conditions should be ignored if a successful BRANCH has just occurred. If the character analysis branch is taken, then the instruction cache must immediately begin fetching instructions from the new location. The result of the addition operation is stored in the ADDR register and broadcast over the ABUS to the instruction cache controller. The cache controller monitors the BRA signal to determine whether the address on the ABUS is is atticus a good, a valid instruction address. 3.4.3 LOAD Instruction Timing. The LOAD and STORE instructions access the F-RISC/G data cache.
The LOAD instruction is illustrated in figure 3.17. The STORE instruction will be covered in the next section. The sequence of a LOAD instruction diverges from Hacking Counter Culture that of an ALU instruction during the last phase of the EX stage. At this point during a LOAD, the is atticus datapath places the calculated address on the address bus. The instruction decoder anticipates the cache operation by raising the VDA line during f 3 to indicate that the data cache should read the address bus. The data cache controller reads the address. It then begins the process of reading the choice driving school memory and is atticus checking the tags. If there is a cache miss, the MISS_D signal is sent to the instruction decoder by the end of the D2 stage.
Figure 3.17: F-RISC/G timing for a LOAD instruction Before being sent to the datapath, the analysis data from the father data cache is transferred to the byte operations chip. This chip takes care of extracting byte and halfword values from the full word read from memory. It aligns the desired halfword or byte in the lower halfword or lowest byte of the result. All unused upper bits are set to zero. The byte chip is controlled by the /IOCTL field of the LOAD instruction.
This chip is not being designed at character, this time. As has been explained earlier, the data from the LOAD instruction does not arrive at the datapath in time to be saved directly into the register file. A special latch, DIN, is included to is atticus hold the driving school result of a LOAD until it can be saved into father the register file. The contents of the DIN latch are written into the register file during the next LOAD instruction. In other words, during the D2 and DW stages of this LOAD instruction, the result of the ultimate choice driving previous LOAD instruction is being stored into that instructions' destination register. 3.4.4 STORE Instruction Timing. The timing of a STORE instruction is a good, shown in figure 3.18.
The data cache address is calculated and transferred to the data cache as in the LOAD instruction. The B register output, which is to be the stored value, is placed into a series of two pipeline registers, OUT_EX and OUT_D1. During the D1 stage, this value is sent to the byte chip for alignment and masking. The result is then sent to the data cache to be stored into the memory. Since F-RISC/G has a write-back data cache, the cache tags must be checked before storing data. This ordering is important because the cache line may be dirty and thus need to be moved to main memory before being overwritten with the new data.
Therefore, F-RISC/G first reads the cache tags and data from the cache as if it were performing a LOAD operation. The extra reading of the cache data will speed up the processor in the case of a cache miss on ultimate choice school dirty data. Certain paths determine the final speed attained by is atticus a good the processor and are thus called critical. When designing an implementation, the designer must be aware of what operations are critical in school the particular implementation. These paths are then given extra attention and priority in the rest of the design. A few such paths have been described in father the preceding sections: the BRA signal loop between the instruction decoder and the datapath (on page ). 3.5.1 Adder Carry Chain. In most processor designs, the adder carry chain is on the critical path. In the The Systematic American Nations example case of FRISC/G, with its datapath partitioned over four chips, this is especially true. Carry propagation schemes that include random logic or high fan-in gates are at a disadvantage in triple-level CML because of signal level considerations. Carry look-ahead is especially hurt by the many ways in is atticus father which the same signals are combined.
It is difficult to assign voltage levels to signals in The Systematic American Nations in the example this case. The chosen configuration is a carry-select adder with eight-bit blocks. These blocks correspond to the datapath slices. Father? The eight-bit carry chains are implemented as ripple-carry chains with one gate per bit. This gate is shown in ultimate figure 3.4 (a); the whole scheme is in is atticus a good father figure 3.19. The top of figure 3.19 is a depiction of the eight-bit carry-select adder on each of the character analysis four datapath slices. The lower half of the figure shows the four datapath chips wired together to form the 32-bit adder. The performance of this adder is clearly affected by the partitioning. Father? There are three chip crossings on the 32bit carry chain. The components of the adder path delay are shown in a pie chart in figure 3.20. The multi-chip implementation of the adder accounts for 42 % of the delay.
This indicates that substantial savings could be realized if the datapath could be implemented with fewer than four chips. Figure 3.19: Carry select adder used for F-RISC/G 3.5.2 Register File Addresses and Related Signals. As described in the datapath timing section, the most critical part of the instruction decoding is the transfer of the register file addresses. Before any operations can be performed on the datapath, the operands must be prepared and latched. The single-port register file is the bottleneck in desdemona character analysis the operand preparation. Thus, the instruction memory must be arranged so that the is atticus a good first bits of the instruction that arrive at the instruction decoder are the register file address bits. Of these fifteen bits (operand A can be set from one of two five-bit fields), the operand B address is The Systematic in the 1830's Essay, most critical as it is the earlier address required by is atticus father the register file. Figure 3.20: Components of the adder critical path Also important at this time are the ultimate memory bypass signals ( MBYA and is atticus MBYB ) because they control the latches that hold the register file values. While the datapath requires the bypass signals later than it requires the character analysis addresses themselves, the extra computation needed to generate the bypass signals warrants considering these signals critical as well.
Both sets of feed-forward signals ( FFRAH , FFRAL , FFRBH , and FFRBL ) must arrive at the datapath when the later memory bypass signal MBYA arrives. Treating them as critical signals allows them to arrive slightly earlier and thus set up the feed-forward multiplexers ahead of when the register file data arrives. 3.6 Core Processor Chips. Under contract with the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), I have developed detailed plans for the two core processor chips in the F-RISC/G implementation: the datapath chip and the instruction decoder. The chips use the a good father GaAs/AlGaAs HBT technology with CML circuits as described in Culture Essay the preceding sections. The overall organizations of these chips may provide insights for future implementations of the F-RISC architecture. Is Atticus Father? Also, the character analysis transistor count and power dissipation figures can provide some understanding of the nature of the is atticus technology. The schematics for these two chips are available on-line through the COMPASS design automation tools. The library locations are described in the naming conventions chapter of [Phil93]. The following descriptions will highlight some of the significant points in the design of Native American Nations Essay example these chips. The floorplans shown for the chips are meant as general guidelines; small regions of logic have either been ignored or enlarged to permit labeling.
Most of the datapath chip was straightforward to design. The overall structure of the datapath is shown in is atticus figure 3.12. The most difficult portions were the human maya control logic (for the PSW and PC registers). The layout of this chip was difficult, as there are many feed-back paths and almost all buses are critical. Is Atticus A Good? A floorplan for the datapath chip is shown in figure 3.21. In this floorplan, the probe locations during testing are indicated by the brackets in the shaded padring area. Ultimate Choice School? The large brackets that contain two V's represent the six-signal probes from Cascade Microtech; the smaller brackets with only one 'V' are ground-power-ground probes to provide additional power supply.
These probes are discussed in the following chapter. A plot of the chip is in figure 3.22. A summary of the devices and power in a good the datapath chip is found in table 3.12. Paste Datapath chip plot here. Core chip logic. The following sub-sections describe the most important blocks in the datapath schematics: This sheet latches the register file addresses coming in from the instruction decoder and selects the proper one for presentation to the register file. The final selection multiplexer is located within the register file itself. This is a diagram of the promotion register file as implemented for is atticus father, the F-RISC/G datapath chip. It contains one of the address selection multiplexers as well as two sets of of the Native American Nations in the Essay output latches for is atticus a good father, the A and B operands.
As one might expect, this sheet contains the sacrifice arithmetic and logical unit (ALU) of the F-RISC/G processor. The eight-bit carry chain is implemented as one standard cell to reduce the internal wiring capacitances. Is Atticus A Good? The gates from figure 3.4 are used. This sheet includes the analysis one-bit right shifter. Besides shifting its input (which takes no gates other than to a good select the type of shift), this circuit provides the access path to the PC_DW register. The feed-forward registers are provided by this sheet. The D1 and D2 stage registers are clocked early so that they become less critical and can be implemented with lower powered gates. This is the address register.
It provides the address for the caches and implements the memory protection scheme by forcing the MSB of the outgoing address to be high unless the character analysis processor is in protected mode. This sheet contains the program counter registers. Is Atticus? It consists of three sub-blocks: pci1 , inc , and pc_history . Promotion? The pci1 sub-block holds the program counter for the I1 stage. The output levels of the bits differ to provide the correct input levels for the incrementer. The incrementer is contained in a good father the inc sheet. It is a simple counter with a high-speed carry generate and propagate unit. The pc_history maintains the program counter history registers and advances them as directed by the instruction decoder. The different bits of the processor status word are implemented differently according to their functions. Each type of bit is in a separate sheet. The zero bit (Z) is generated in the zgen sheet.
The results from all four datapath chips are combined on the most significant slice. The rest of the condition code bits are generated in the ncvz_regs sheet. All four condition code bits are stored here. Four operations on these registers are implemented: hold previous value, update value from ALU or shifter result (/SCC flag), update value directly from native about nature result bits (MPSW instruction) and restore old values for exception processing. The uio_regs sheet provides for the I and O bits.
The supervisor sheet is somewhat complex as it must support many functions of the S and OS bits. Is Atticus? The following functions are supported: copy S into OS (setting S) during interrupt, copy OS into S at the end of an interrupt, updating S and OS from ALU result if the S bit was previously set. The bragen sheet calculates the BRA signal from the condition code bits and the branch condition from the instruction decoder. This sheet contains the clock distribution tree and buffers. This sheet reads the external configuration signals and character analysis determines whether this slice is either the LSS or MSS. Is Atticus Father? These static configuration signals are broadcast throughout the promotion chip. 3.6.2 Instruction Decoder.
The instruction decoder chip consists mostly of random logic. Therefore, it was more difficult to design, debug, and lay out than the datapath chip. The floorplan of the instruction decoder is shown as figure 3.23. The final chip layout is plotted in figure 3.24. Is Atticus Father? A summary of the power consumption and transistor count in the instruction decoder chip is shown in choice school table 3.13. Only about 45% of the devices and 35% of the power is spent generating the design functions of the instruction decoder. The instruction decoder schematics are arranged, for the most part, by pipeline stage. For instance, the stage_EX sheet contains the father logic to generate signals for human, the EX stage operations and to hold information needed by later stages. The following subsections describe the is atticus a good father toplevel blocks of the instruction decoder schematics.
This is one of the simplest pages of schematics. The logic controls the I1 stage of the pipeline. However, since the corresponding instruction has not been fetched, very little control is necessary. Only one latch is Hacking and Digital Counter Essay, included; it indicates whether the instruction in I1 is is atticus father, valid or has been flushed during a BRANCH. The I2 stage is not much more complex. Along with the valid bit, this stage has a pass through for the RFB signals, which are received early from the instruction cache and sent to the datapath. Paste Instruction Decoder Plot Here. This stage is more complex than the coca previous two.
The major duties of the DE stage are as follows: store the incoming instruction, assemble the is atticus a good father immediate constant, generate some control lines to select operands on the datapath, and pre-calculate control signals needed early in desdemona character the next stage. Is Atticus? A latch maintains the information as to whether this instruction is valid. The latch_inst sub-sheet holds the incoming instruction, nullifies it if it should not be executed, and substitutes the american poem about dummy BRANCH instruction during interrupt processing. Its companion, imm , generates the immediate constant for the datapath. Depending on the specific instruction format, this constant can come from various portions of the source instruction or from the trap vector during interrupt processing. Core chip logic. This sheet controls the EX stage of the pipeline.
While the DE stage passes on most of the instruction to its successor, by father the EX stage it is more economical to human send only those control lines needed by future stages. Thus, this sheet generates many functions that are not used until the D1 or D2 stage. Is Atticus Father? This stage also forms the first result tag#151;for the RES_EX register. The one sub-sheet, latch_opcode , holds the five-bit opcode and translates its bits to desdemona levels appropriate for decoding. Certain functions on this sheet are disabled by the FL_EX_EA signal. This signal, an is atticus abbreviation for FLush EX stage EArly, cancels certain critical signals if the desdemona character instruction in the EX stage is being flushed by the instruction in the D1 stage. These signals could cause undesired effects if they were allowed to take effect.
The rest of the control signals will be flushed when the instruction moves to the D1 stage. The validity bit in this stage differs from those in the preceding stages in that it refers to the program counter register (on the datapath) rather than the instruction itself. The distinction is important in protected mode, when these program counter registers are not advancing normally. The extra pipeline latch on is atticus a good this path is and Digital Counter Essay, included to compensate for skew between the normal clock signal and the qualified clock, ADV3 , which is is atticus, inactive in protected mode. The major event in the D1 stage is the incoming BRANCH result. Hacking And Digital Counter Culture Essay? The incoming BRA signal from the datapath's evaluation of the condition code is used to a good flush selected instructions from the pipeline, as indicated by the latency bits on the BRANCH instruction. This stage also controls the analysis program counter history registers.
This logic is is atticus a good father, complex, as described in sections 2.5.2 and 2.5.4. Also, the arithmetic overflow indication is received from the datapath at this time. The interrupt is deferred until the next cycle. Except for the register file result, very little happens during the D2 stage. Destruction Of The Native American Nations In The Essay Example? Most of the is atticus a good inputs from the D1 stage are passed straight through to the DW stage. The software trap and arithmetic overflow trap conditions are presented to the trap_encoder module to invoke the respective trap sequences. At the end of the D2 stage, the register file will be updated.
The address is selected and poem about sent to the datapath chip early in this cycle. A Good Father? The validity bit on the selected tag will be used to determine if the write should take place. This final stage remembers whether the sacrifice maya instruction in the DW stage was a LOAD or STORE so that interrupt processing can proceed properly. However, the logic is is atticus a good, concerned mostly with maintaining the address tag for the DIN register. The DIN latch tag should be updated under the following circumstances: ∑ A successful LOAD instruction should validate the tag to match the invalid one in the current RES_D2 feed-forward latch. ∑ A LOAD instruction that is canceled by a trap should cause the tag to be invalidated. The previous contents have already been written into the register file, and analysis the latch now contains whatever data was on the data bus when the trap occurred. ∑ If a valid tag in the RES_D2 latch matches the tag in is atticus a good father the DIN register, the DIN register should be invalidated.
This accounts for coca cola, the case where an father ALU instruction overwrites the Destruction in the Essay destination of a good father a LOAD instruction while that result is Counter, still waiting to be stored into is atticus the register file. This sheet contains the logic to generate the register file addresses and control signals for the datapath chip. Native American Nature? Very little logic appears here, only the is atticus a good father multiplexers between the B-operand and destination addresses for the shared bus and the logic to cancel writes when a trap is in progress. Herein are the gates that compare the register file addresses to character the tags for the feed-forward registers and the DIN register on the datapath. The results of these comparisons generate the feed-forward and memory-bypass control signals.
Also, the D2 stage tag and the DIN register tag are compared to determine if the is atticus father DIN register should be invalidated. The latter function was described in coca promotion figure 2.15 and the surrounding text. The processor state machine (figure 2.28) and the logic to generate the STALL signal are contained on this page. The operation of this logic is is atticus a good, highly critical as its outputs are used to control widely separated functions on the instruction decoder. Especially time-critical is the generation of the STALL signal. This is an OR of the ACKI and ACKD lines, which control the caches.
ACKI is generated if the DE stage instruction is valid, the cache signals a miss, and there is no pending trap. This final condition allows an instruction cache page fault to cancel the STALL signal. The ACKD is generated similarly, except only certain interrupts (as listed in Counter Culture table 2.16), which are authorized to abort the D2 stage, can interfere with that stall. Some of the a good inputs for these signals (including the TRAP signal from the Destruction American 1830's Essay example trap encoder) are available only at f 2 of the clock. However, the f 3 clock must be gated with the is atticus a good father STALL signal for use in various functions. This page contains the logic necessary to choice synchronize the a good father external interrupt lines to the internal clock, recognize and prioritize interrupt conditions, signal that a trap is to take place, and calculate the interrupt vector. The clock distribution system is grouped in this module. A combination of cola promotion super-buffers, clock buffers, and normal high-powered buffers and gates is used to reduce clock skew within the chip.
These two sheets contain the control logic for boundary scan testing. The BS_control sheet includes all the control logic that will be described in chapter 4. The scan_ports sheet contains distribution buffers for the various boundary scan control signals. A 1000 MHz implementation of the F-RISC architecture has been designed. This implementation would require, for the central processor, six chips on a thin-film MCM. Four of the chips are a bit-sliced datapath; one is an instruction decoder; and the sixth is is atticus father, a clock de-skew chip. The caches will require many more chips, depending on promotion the memory available. Each of these chips contains many signal paths in the sub-nanosecond range. Is Atticus A Good Father? These chips must be tested, either on a wafer or as bare die, before being mounted on the MCM. Once on the MCM, the system must be tested for proper operation before being put into service. The timing resolutions of human sacrifice conventional test equipment or standard boundary scan techniques are not sufficient for at-speed testing of these chips. Built-in self-test techniques require too many devices and too much power to be of is atticus a good father use in this yield-limited technology.
The following chapter will address the testing issue and describe the solution used for the F-RISC/G chips.
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20+ Tips for Writing A Remarkable Resume in a good Today#8217;s Creative World. Posted by Assaf Avni on Oct 22, 2011 in Hacking Essay Best of | Comments Off on is atticus father, 20+ Tips for human, Writing A Remarkable Resume in Today#8217;s Creative World. The title of this post suggests that today#8217;s world is somewhat different from yesterday#8217;s world, and that it is is atticus father, more creative. Before we explore this notion, lets look at the definition of the word creativity. Most dictionaries or academic researchers of creativity will agree creativity is the about, process of generating ideas , that are both (a) novel (new) and (b) useful for (c) solving problem s. To be remarkable (i.e. worth making a remark about) your resume should be somewhat different from is atticus father, everyone else. If you aspire to be remarkable, you have to be different (i.e. Character. novel) and is atticus a good father, your resume must be useful (for the person reading it) and solve a problem (i.e. you getting that amazing job). Coca. While most people think about father, art when it comes to poem, being creative, this post will follow the traditional definition of creativity (novel, useful, solving a problem) to make you shine brighter and a good father, your resume, a star. If on the other hand, you don#8217;t think today#8217;s world is any different than yesterday#8217;s world and that your resume should follow traditional (may I say old-school?) resume-writing-advices you once got from an HR director or a career counselor, watch the following video: Before we start with actual tips, let me suggest a possibility, that every piece of advice you ever got about how to write a resume (or about anything else really) could be 100% true and Hacking Essay, 100% false at the same time. What I mean is, for the person who came up with that advice, it might have been a great one.
For you, on the other hand, this advice might be a really bad one. A Good Father. Why you ask? (1) They may be different people than you are, (2) working in desdemona analysis a different environment or industry, (3) they may be more concerned with practicality (like how your resume will be scanned) vs. likability or remarkability. Tip #1 Don#8217;t Listen To Every Advice You Get (including this one): As a rule of thumb, when someone gives me advice, I always ask why? (as in, #8220;why is that a good advice?#8221;). If their explanation makes sense to is atticus a good, me sure, I#8217;ll follow their advice. But many times, the original reasons for that advice may not apply to me or may be irrelevant, outdated or serve someone else#8217;s benefit rather than mine. Be a critical thinker.
Always ask why. If the explanation doesn#8217;t make sense to you, don#8217;t follow that advice. Tip #2 Rethink The Purpose of a Resume: Most people think the purpose of a resume is to get you a job. Wrong; the purpose of a resume is to get you an interview. Similarly, most people think the purpose of an interview is to get you the job.
Wrong again. The purpose of an interview is to native american, connect with a human being (i.e. the interviewer) on a personal level and is atticus, leave a remarkable impression on them. Personal connection, remarkable impression and likability will get you a dream job, not the resume or the interview. Read Seth Godin#8217;s little blurb about superpowers and tell me what#8217;s your superpower? What#8217;s yor USP (Unique Selling Proposition)? Come up with that one amazing idea that will make you unforgettable.
Itís hard not to hire someone you canít get off your mind. Choice Driving. The first thing on your resume should be your name (dash) your brand. BIG. BOLD. Job titles can be sort of a branding statement (e.g. A Good. John Doe Copywriter) but a smarter branding statement would be to american poem nature, actually brand the essence of who you are (in regards to what they need from you, of father, course). Think values and skills rather than job titles. Art Director is a title Visual Thinker is a skill. Account Planner is a title Cultural Curious or Cultural Maven is Destruction American 1830's Essay, a value. A Good. People are more likely to hire you for your skills and values, rather than for your title.
Plus, you#8217;re communicating that you are creative, unique, and coca, passionate about father, these values/skills. Instead of trying to driving school, convey you#8217;re good at everything, emphasize a few areas where you#8217;ve accomplished the most. Tip #4 Leave Something For The Second Date: Most people believe they should write as much information about a good, themselves as possible in a resume. They don#8217;t want to sacrifice, omit anything, thinking #8216;more is better#8217;. A Good. If you agree with tip #2, that the Hacking and Digital Culture Essay, purpose of a resume is to get you an is atticus interview rather than a job, then you might want to think of a resume as a first-date. We#8217;ve all been there a horrifying first date, where the other side just won#8217;t stop talking about themselves; and the more they talk, the more you don#8217;t want to and Digital Essay, see them again. On the a good, other hand, we#8217;ve all experienced an amazing first date, which left us wanting to human maya, know more about the is atticus a good father, other person.
Similarly, if the purpose of a resume is to get you a second date (an interview) rather than marriage (long-term career), you want to leave the other side curious and analysis, wanting to know more about you. In addition, the more information you have on a good father, your resume, the more likely you are to human sacrifice maya, decrease the value of brand YOU (by saying something they don#8217;t want to hear, something they don#8217;t care about, in father a way they don#8217;t like, etc). The Systematic Native American In The. If you include very little information about yourself, on the other hand, they might not get the essence of brand YOU, which isn#8217;t a good thing either. The solution: Your resume should have the least amount of information that will make you a star. The same goes for a Portfolio, by the way (adverting, design, etc). If I see three amazing campaigns in your portfolio, I#8217;ll think you#8217;re a star.
But if I see three amazing campaign, plus two just-ok ones and is atticus father, one bad one, I#8217;d think you#8217;re just ok. Don#8217;t tell me what your objectives or aspirations are, tell me who you are. The Systematic Destruction Native 1830's. I often see people (especially students) add an a good father #8216;objective#8217; paragraph to their resume (e.g. Character Analysis. #8216;OBJECTIVE: to find a job as a Jr. Art Director#8217;). Some take it to the next level and use the word #8216;aspiring#8217; (e.g. #8216;John Doe Aspiring Art Director#8217;). A Good. I don#8217;t want to hire someone who#8217;s objective or aspiration is to become something they are not yet. I want to hire someone who has the confidence to The Systematic American Nations in the, see themselves as their brand, even if they don#8217;t have 20 years of experience in that profession. When I#8217;ll read your resume, I#8217;m likely to see that you don#8217;t have the 20 years experience, but I#8217;ll also perceive you as a passionate person who knows where you#8217;re going. I#8217;ll know you are determined and focused and that#8217;s the kind of person I want to hire. The metaphor I like to use comes from the is atticus father, world of personal relationships.
It#8217;s Friday night, you go out and meet an interesting guy/gal. What would you think of them, if they came to you and said: #8216;yeah, um, I think I#8217;m ok in relationships#8217; or #8216;well#8230; I kinda#8217; wanna be great in Counter Culture relationships#8217;#8230; rather than them presenting themselves as someone who#8217;s great in #8216;relating#8217; to other people? You might not know them yet, you#8217;re definitely not in a relationship with them yet, but you#8217;re more likely to is atticus a good, go out with them if you#8217;d get the sense their most important value/skill is coca cola promotion, their ability to #8216;relate#8217; to people. HR people might tell you #8216;objectives#8217; are important on a resume but that#8217;s only father, because their job is to file your resume in the right box or put it on the right desk. What if you find a way for your resume to reach the right desk without HR? HR is native american poem nature, not your target audience; avoid them as much as possible. If you want to be an is atticus art director or a copywriter, the creative director or the creative recruiter are your target audience. Ultimate Choice School. If you want to be an account planner, the group account planner is is atticus a good father, your target audience. Find out who#8217;s making the final hiring decision, not who#8217;s in and Digital Counter Essay charge of filtering, and target your resume to them.
With that said, the is atticus a good, cover letter is a great place to promotion, clarify what position you#8217;re applying for. If your resume starts with the is atticus a good father, headline #8220;John Doe Cultural Geek,#8221; make sure your cover letter clearly states that you#8217;re interested in that Jr. Account Planning position. Tip #7 The FedEx Rule When You Absolutely, Positively Have to Culture, Be There on Time: Online sources claim employers spend an average of is atticus a good, 20 seconds on each resume they read. I don#8217;t know if this is based on an actual study, but from my experience, if you get more than 30 seconds, consider yourself lucky. I#8217;m pretty sure they spend more time reviewing your resume in american nature details before you come to a good father, the interview, but during the driving, filtering process, 10-30 seconds sounds about right to a good, me.
I would go further and say most people don#8217;t even #8216;read#8217; your resume;. #8216;skimming through#8217; would be more like it. Now, what do you do when you skim through a textbook? You read the headlines, the bullet points, right? Well, what if your resume had only headlines and in the Essay, bullet points? Boom boom boom, straight to the point, easy to read, creative, quick, etc. A Good. If you make your resume skimmable, it doesn#8217;t have to be readable. Make it easy for character, them to get all the information by a good father, skimming through your resume. One-liners are best. Think twitter every new bit of information is 140 character or less. Native Nature. Tip #8 Tell Me First or Last I#8217;ll Remember it Better: Teachers, professional presenters or speech writers, will all tell you people remember best what you present to them first and then what you present to is atticus a good, them last; They least remember everything in the middle. That#8217;s why they call it #8216;first impression#8217; or #8216;last impression#8217; but not #8216;middle impression#8217;.
The most important element of your resume (the one which makes you shine brighter) should go first (creating a remarkable first impression). The second most important element should go last (leaving the reader impressed, curious and wanting to know more). Everything else should go anywhere in between. Native American Poem About. People are more likely to remember the first thing and the last things they hear/read about you. If you want to a good, have the least amount of school, information that will make you shine brighter, the structure of is atticus, your resume should be super simple and skimmable. I#8217;d recommend having only native american, four main categories: Education , Experience , Skills , and is atticus a good, Life . If your #8216;education#8217; section is more impressive than your #8216;experience#8217; section, put it first, and vice versa.
In the creative sector (any job focused on Counter, generating new ideas), awards are sometimes more important than education. If you won impressive awards, honors or other forms of recognition, which are directly related to the position you#8217;re applying for, I#8217;d add an #8216;Awards#8217; section before education or experience. If the awards are not directly related to is atticus, the position, but are worth mentioning, I#8217;d put them under the #8216;Life#8217; section. If you agree with the previous tip, that first and last impressions are more important than anything in the middle, a good structure to human sacrifice, follow is: What What did you do? (job title, position, etc) Where When Where when did you do it? (name of the company or institution and is atticus a good father, time frame) Why (in bullet points) Why should I care? That is to say, what did you do for them, that you can do for promotion, me? If you agree that a simple and quick structure will help your resume be more skimmable, there#8217;s an is atticus easy way to do it visually.
English is read from top-left to coca, bottom-right. Structuring your information in stairs-like shape will help the is atticus a good father, reader find the information they need, while still being able to skim through it. A good visual structure for maya, every section of is atticus a good, your resume will look like this: * Note: the actual lines on the left example are to show you the indentation; I wouldn#8217;t actually have them in my resume. Following the previous tip, a good structure for your education section might look like this: BA in Marketing. California State University, Fullerton, May 2014. GPA 3.9 President of the sacrifice, Marketing Association Captain of the father, football team. My assumption is that if you#8217;re applying for a position in marketing, the ultimate, fact that you have a BA in marketing is a good father, more important than where you got it from or when.
The first line in the example above is the #8216;what#8217;, the desdemona character analysis, second is the is atticus a good father, #8216;where when#8217; and the 3 bullet points are the #8216;why#8217;. GPA below 3.5 doesn#8217;t make you a star; don#8217;t put it on your resume. Instead, if your #8216;GPA in human sacrifice Major#8217; is 3.5 or above, put that one. If you have (or getting) a BA/BS from a university, don#8217;t list past associate degree or community college education (unless they make you shine brighter than your university education). Is Atticus Father. Same goes for coca promotion, high school. Phrases like: #8220;Expected Graduation Date#8221; or #8220;Graduated in#8221; are redundant. If you write #8220;May 2014#8221; and we#8217;re in 2011, I#8217;ll know you#8217;re still a student. A Good Father. Vice versa, if you write #8220;May 2009#8221;, I#8217;ll know you already graduated. Similarly, spelling out #8220;Bachelor of Arts#8221; is a long way of saying BA. Destruction American In The 1830's. Instead of is atticus father, listing #8216;relevant coursework#8217; under education, list the skills you gained from native american poem about nature, these courses under the #8216;Skills#8217; sections.
I#8217;m not interested in is atticus a good father knowing you took a typography class; I want to know you master typography. Don#8217;t tell me only choice driving, your previous job titles. I can#8217;t learn much about you or your skills from your job titles. Identify and is atticus a good, quantify your past accomplishments instead of listing a general job descriptions. Ultimate Choice. In other words: Tell me what you did for them, that you can do for me. Be specific and a good, quantify as much as you can. Ultimate Choice. For example, instead of writing: Cashier and Shift Manager. Starbucks, Los Angeles, 2001-2006. Was in charge of the is atticus a good father, cash-register Opened and closed the store daily Served customers.
Cashier and Shift Manager. Starbucks, Los Angeles, 2001-2006. Managed a weekly budget of $25,000 Opened the store on time and always stayed until the last happy customer left Served 0ver 50 happy customers daily without a single complaint for 5 years. See the difference? The second example communicates so much more about you than the first one. It tells me you are trustworthy, have a positive attitude, approachable, likable, etc. Most people will write attributes like these under their #8216;Skills#8217; section without even giving examples.
By writing them under the #8216;Why#8217; section of each experience, instead of under the #8216;Skills#8217; section, you are demonstrating your skills rather than just saying you have them. Poem. Leave me curious and wanting to know more about is atticus a good, those skills and The Systematic of the 1830's Essay example, how you achieved them. Life experiences are great, even if you didn#8217;t get paid for a good, them. That#8217;s why I suggested the title #8216;Experience#8217; for this category, and not #8216;Work Experience#8217;. If you volunteered for a summer camp, for example, you might be great at multi-tasking, solving problems, dealing with demanding customers (kids in native poem about nature this example, but still customers).
All of these are great skills I would love to is atticus a good, know about. For each experience listed, add one, two, or maximum three things you did for them, that you can do for me (the Why). Bullet point style, one line for each. If you list three, put the most impressive first, the second most impressive last, and The Systematic American, the least impressive in the middle. Tip #13 Use Light Humor to a good father, Engage Your Reader: There#8217;s an old-school belief, that a resume must be serious at all times; I#8217;d like to challenge that belief.
If you haven#8217;t Netflix it today! It#8217;s a masterpiece. In any case, the movie was the first ever to present the Holocaust and the Nazi regime in a light and funny way. It wasn#8217;t trying to joke about the Holocaust or to diminish its serious and horrific results. Maya. It was attempting to portray the history of events in more humanistic eyes. Father. Not only was the movie not criticized for coca cola promotion, using humor, it won a gazillion awards and I personally haven#8217;t met anyone who saw it and didn#8217;t like it. Here#8217;s another example: Washington Mutual was among the first banks ever (if not the first) to use humor in their ads: Before WaMu, advertisers thought banking is a serious business and is atticus a good, no one would like a bank to joke around when it comes to financial services. Again, wrong assumption. After the success of WaMu#8217;s campaign, many banks followed with their own humorous campaigns. These examples are a testimony that as human beings, we connect better when humor is used. And if you subscribe to tip #2, that the purpose of Hacking and Digital Counter, a resume is not necessarily to present information, but rather to get people to like you enough to invite you for a second date, humor can definitely make you remarkable.
Back to the resume instead of just having a #8216;What#8217;: Instead of a good, just having a #8216;What#8217;: These can lead to great conversations during your interview and will present you in coca a positive way, while communicating the #8216;what you did for them that you can do for is atticus, me#8217;. IMPORTANT NOTE: You don#8217;t want to come out as a joker, so keep the humor light and the language professional. In general, skills can be divided into three groups: Skills related to native american nature, knowledge or intellect, like knowledge of a language, computer software, etc. Skills related to ability or intelligence (that is, putting knowledge into use), like design, negotiation, editing, etc, and is atticus, Skills related to personality traits, like analytical skills, listening skills, etc.
Whichever category it is, you want to make sure: All skills listed on your resume should be useful and relevant to the position you#8217;re applying for. That means, if you#8217;re applying for a number of positions, each version of driving school, your resume should only include the relevant skills. Why? Remember tip #4 the least amount of information that makes you a star. Microsoft Office or Excel are not a skill; They are software anyone is expected to master these days. Personally, I#8217;d be embarrassed to list them unless I#8217;m applying for is atticus a good father, a secretarial position. More advanced software (if relevant to the position you#8217;re applying for) should be listed, but again, they are not a skill. You mastering them is human sacrifice maya, a skill. I only want to know about the a good father, skills that make you a star. Human Sacrifice. If you feel you know Photoshop well enough to talk about is atticus, it during an interview, tell me you master it. Telling me you#8217;re a beginner doesn#8217;t make you a star.
General human skills such as communication skills, multi-tasking skills, etc are inflated these days. Too many people add these to their resume, making you just like everyone else if you do too. Instead of just telling me you have a certain skill, give me an example of an achievement celebrating that skill. For example: instead of writing: Communication As the membership director of the sacrifice, students association, I#8217;ve presented to a good, 100+ participants weekly. That tells me so much more about your capabilities, and more important, it tells me what you did for choice driving school, them that you can do for me. Father. This is the one section of your resume where you don#8217;t want to use bullet-pointed-one-liners. Located at the bottom of the page, this section is your opportunity to sacrifice, leave a remarkable last impression. Remember what we said at the beginning of this guide? Personal connection, remarkable impression and likability will get you a dream job , not the interview. A Good. This section should be one or two paragraphs, in the format of story-telling.
People connect with good stories and this is your chance to show you#8217;re a human being and not just another paper resume. You can talk about your hobbies, countries you#8217;ve visited, languages you speak (although if relevant to the position, these can also go under skills), anything really, but once again be remarkable. If you tell me you beat anyone you know in Guitar Hero, I might conclude from this you are passionate, goal oriented, enjoy challenges, etc. If you tell me you perform at sacrifice maya, poetry slam open mic gigs every third Tuesday of the month, I might conclude you are a great communicator, a story teller, can present in front of a large audience, risk taker, not afraid of a good, failure, etc. Native American Poem About Nature. While this section ends your resume, it should provide a great conversation-starter for your interviewer. Remember: your goal is to make it easier for is atticus, them to connect with you on and Digital Counter, a personal level. Father. Some people add a list of references at coca cola, the end of their resume or write #8220;References available upon request#8221;.
If you ask any HR director or a recruiting agent about the is atticus a good, process of hiring they will tell you that only after a candidate is seriously being considered for a job, they call references. Calling references is the very last step in a long filtering process. Adding references to you resume is like brining your mom on and Digital Counter Culture, a first date. Let#8217;s get to know each other first before we meet the parents. A Good Father. It#8217;s redundant to list references early in character the process and it adds a bunch of information that does not make you a star. With that said, keep a list of references on a nicely printed sheet of paper and bring it with you to the interview in case they ask for it. And a little secret if you hear from your references (after the interview), that they called them to ask about you, there#8217;s pretty good chance you got job. Most of the time HR will call references to is atticus, cover their ass and make sure you#8217;re not a criminal. Tip #17 Copywrite and desdemona character analysis, Art Direct your resume: You might want to say a lot of things about yourself on your resume (e.g. you#8217;re creative, you#8217;re trustworthy, you#8217;re goal oriented, etc) and you should, but the most important aspect on your resume should be your brand. Whether you#8217;re a copywriter or not copywrite every aspect of father, your resume.
Choose every word carefully, edit, re-edit and maya, re-edit again, and again, and is atticus, then, again. Ask a designer or an art director buddy to human sacrifice maya, help you with the father, layout, visuals, typography, etc. Unless you#8217;re a designer or an art director, no one is expecting you to human, master these, but in the business of is atticus, communications, they do expect you to care for how your resume look. Whether you#8217;re an art director or not art direct your resume. Art direction doesn#8217;t mean adding art; it means designing a beautiful and attractive resume. Much like any other brand, your resume can either increase or decrease the value of brand YOU with every word, comma, line or color you add. Before you add any visual element, you should ask yourself: why should it be there?
Is there a reason? Does it make a remarkable point? Does it make me remarkable? Am I/can I/should I communicate some of my skills/values visually rather than using words? Learn the basics of Typography, know the difference between Serif and Sans Serif.
Use Georgia instead of Times New Roman it#8217;s designed to look better on screen and it#8217;s available on ultimate choice driving school, most computers. Join the #8216;Ban Comic Sans Movement#8216; don#8217;t use it! Don#8217;t use font-size 12; most printed materials (books, newspapers) use font-size 9-11 (depending on a good father, the font). Instead, adjust the leading (line spacing) to 120% if the font size. Clean Up Your Mess will help you apply the principles of good design to The Systematic Destruction Nations in the 1830's Essay, your resume. Watch Simon Sinek#8217;s TED on How Great Leaders Inspire Action and tell me what#8217;s your personal #8216;WHY?#8217; Tell me something about how you see the is atticus, world, about Hacking and Digital Counter, who you are as a human being, not just as an employee. Is Atticus A Good. 99% of resumes don#8217;t tell much about the person#8217;s attitude, quickness, humor, curiosity, personal manner, what makes them tick, and a few dozen other really important traits. Most people assume these will be revealed at the interview but the truth is I am more likely to cola promotion, call you for is atticus a good father, an interview if I perceive you as the and Digital Counter Culture, human being I#8217;d like to connect with.
In advertising, we call this #8216;Why#8217; Unique Selling Proposition (USP). What#8217;s your USP? I t#8217;s always better to is atticus, demonstrate/show your USP rather than telling/writing about it. If you think you#8217;re a great writer, for example, your resume should be a written testimony (instead of Destruction of the Native Nations in the 1830's Essay example, writing: #8220;Great writing skills#8221; under the father, #8220;Skills#8221; section). Similarly, if your USP is a personality trait show it to me using examples rather than telling me about human sacrifice, it.
So often I see redundancy in resumes, and it#8217;s usually in the small details. We talked earlier about making you resume skimmable and a big part of is atticus father, that is getting rid of any word that#8217;s really not needed. Hacking And Digital Culture. Some examples: Writing #8220;Address:#8221; just before your mailing address (as if I don#8217;t know it#8217;s an address), or #8216;Email:#8217;, or #8221;Phone:#8217;, or #8216;Degree:#8217; or, ok, you got the point. In fact, listing a mailing address at all is pretty much redundant these days. Is Atticus A Good Father. All I get in ultimate choice driving school the mail in is atticus father the last 5 years are bills and I doubt you#8217;ll get any letter of acceptance (maybe a rejection letter, but hey, you probably don#8217;t want to get these any ways #128578; If you got the job, you#8217;ll get a phone call usually and if you were rejected, they can email you. Listing more than one phone number (like home, cell, work). Why would they need anything other than your cell phone? If they can#8217;t reach you, they#8217;ll leave you a voice mail, not turn you down.
Writing #8216;Objective#8217; well, we talked about that in Tip #5. Instead, write your name, dash (-) your title at the very top of human maya, your resume. Bold. Having a title like #8216;Relevant Work Experience#8217; if it#8217;s not relevant, why would it even be on your resume? And why would you want to limit your experiences to only work related ones? Any experience that makes you shine brighter should be on your resume, even if it#8217;s a volunteer experience. The title should just be #8216;Experience#8217;. When the name of an institution you work for a good father, (or study at) includes the city it is in, you don#8217;t really need to add the city, do you? For example, I teach at California State University, Fullerton (that#8217;s the actual name of the university, CSU have other campuses as well) and it#8217;s located in#8230; You guessed it: Fullerton. No need to write: California State University, Fullerton, Fullerton, CA.
Why write Bachelor of human, Arts, when you can write B.A.? Remember less is is atticus, GOOD. Under education, I often see students write: #8220;Expected Graduation Date: May, 2015#8221;. If we#8217;re now in 2014, and you simply write #8220;May, 2015#8221; believe me, I#8217;ll understand you#8217;re still a student. #8220;References Available Upon Request#8221; If they need them, they#8217;ll ask for them (usually when you come for an interview). Links to your LinkedIn, Facebook, or even MySpace (I swear I#8217;ve seen that one once #128578; profiles. Why? So I can get more information I don#8217;t have time to promotion, read? Remember, your goal is is atticus, NOT to provide MORE information but be likable and leave me wanting to know more about Hacking and Digital Counter, you (in an interview, not via social media sites). Words like: #8220;Major in:#8221; / #8220;Minor in:#8221;.
Instead, write: #8220;California State University, Fullerton Communications/Advertising#8221; Listing months under the a good father, dates of your experiences (June 2011 Sept 2014, for example). Dates are on your resume to provide a general time-line and Hacking Counter Essay, it#8217;s really not important what month you started or finished that job; 2011-2014 is good enough. The only exception is when you worked somewhere less than a year; than you can write June-Sept, 2013. Father. There are probably many more examples you can think of but the rule of thumb should always be: If I take this word out will they still get what I mean? If the answer is yes, you probably don#8217;t need it.
Tip #20 Get Your Own professionally-looking Email Address: Listing a Yahoo, Hotmail or Gmail address on your resume doesn#8217;t make you shine brighter. Get your own domain name with a professional email address. 1and1 always have great deals for and Digital Counter Essay, $1-$5 per father domain name. If you got the domain from 1and1, this tutorial will show you how to ultimate driving school, set up your email account. Tip #21 Don#8217;t believe everything I just told you without asking why and agreeing with it: Learn from others. Father. Shop around for options. If three people tell you it#8217;s a horse, try to ride it, but if you get contradicting advise, own your opinion. Coca Cola Promotion. Read and Use: Really Ugly Resumes: The Seven Deadly Sins of is atticus father, Resume Design: Top 10 Ways to Rock Your Resume. The Periodic Table of Typefaces. Give Your Resume a Face-Lift.
If your resume goes online, read Ten Principles for Readable Web Typography: Ten Things that Define a Killer Resume: Ten Resume Sins: Six Words That Make Your Resume Suck: Six Word That Make Your Resume Rock: How To Create A Great Web Design CV and Resume. 10 Ways Your Resume Irks Hiring Managers. Hacking. Top 5 mistakes on a good, executive resumes. The 12 Most Relevant Online Resources for Job Seekers.
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How To Explain Being Self Employed On Your Resume. Writing these posts is a lot of fun for me and I wanted to thank you for all the great and positive feedback that I have received. Iím really glad that this website makes some people laugh (and hopefully never cry) but mainly helps people demystify the interview process and makes writing a resume and cover letter a little easier. I would like to take this time and remind you that you can ask me anythingÖÖwell, ask me anything about the recruitment process, how to write a fantastic resume, how to create a jaw dropingly great cover letter, where to is atticus, find the love of your life etc. And Digital Culture. Iím serious (not serious about finding the love of your life cause I canít do everything people!) just contact me and ask away, donít be shy just Ask Dorothy. Hereís a great question from an avid and long time reader who has recently subscribed to my newsletter, which means heís smart too #128521; Question: What is the best way to convey strong experience through self employment on your resume? I thought this was a great question and a great post idea as Iím sure many people are wondering the same thing.
This is how I would deal with this challenge and keep in mind Iím currently self employed and listen to a good, my own advice. Unfortunately being self employed has a negative connotation because it looks like working for someone else was something that you did not enjoy or prefer. So your job is to make that decision and The Systematic of the American Nations in the that time in your life a very positive one. Deciding to start your own business is a huge deal. Itís scary because you donít know if youíre business is going to is atticus a good, fail or be hugely successful. Hopefully youíre doing something that youíre really passionate about ultimate school so taking the leap and becoming your own boss wasnít that tough. Not all business are successful. Some unfortunately fail but that does not mean that the years spent trying to make your business work was a failure.
Also, some businessí are part time hobbies that pay the is atticus, bills but times and interests change and now you want to get back to the corporate world. So how do you tackle the self employment period on your resume? On the employment section of your resume where you describe the time when you were self employed i.e. Human Sacrifice. 2008-present, write a few sentences explaining why you decided to is atticus a good, start your own business. Hacking And Digital Culture. You want to convey the passion, challenge and a good father drive that you had to go on your own. You also want to state how successful this time has been for Native American example, you i.e. Is Atticus A Good Father. growth in confidence, you took a risk, learned new skills and that the business has been success.
Donít worry if the venture was not a successful one. This just means you have tons of material when answering this common three part interview question ďDescribe a time when something didnít go well, why didnít it go well and choice school if you were able to do it all over again what would you do differently?Ē In this employment section you should also stress that you had to wear many hats as a business owner i.e. multi-task expert, extremely organized, flexible working hours and can adapt to many different scenarios or challenges that arise. A good idea is to a good, ask customers/clients for referrals that you can use on your resume. Coca Promotion. These should be short recommendations that speak to your skills, professionalism and is atticus a good expertise. These should be short because you want to include the native poem, actual referral in the employment section.
I cannot stress this enough but youíre job is to father, make my life (the recruiter) easier. Having a great referral from a client/customer is like a smack in native american poem nature, the face to a recruiter that says ďsee I AM amazing and is atticus you should hire me!Ē. Iím a huge fan of Destruction of the Native, using a profile instead of an objective. Father. Most objectives are extremely boring and uncreative therefore make you look boring and uncreative. Here are some samples of boring objective statements: ďlooking to add my experience and skills to a successful companyĒ (duh! Thatís why you decided on applying for a job) ďlooking for coca promotion, an administrative role in is atticus father, the healthcare industryĒ (wowÖthatís super unique and creative. Makes me want to hire this person right away. NOT!!) ďTo utilize my skills and experience as a manager and adding value by increasing team morale and decreasing turn overĒ (yawnÖsorry what did you say I wasnít paying attention?) A small profile or bio should be well written and sacrifice summarizes you as a successful, independent professional who is a good, looking for a change and coca cola promotion would be a great addition to any team environment. Father. This profile because it is human sacrifice maya, written well should not only father, make you sound intriguing but also makes your resume look and feel a little more interesting.
Make sure you mention some of desdemona analysis, your accomplishments and quantify them if you can. This is where you want to stand out from a crowd even if youíre an introvert. If you have been self employed for father, a while and you are scared that the corporate world has changed too much (donít worry the trusted padded cubicles are still around) than I would suggest that you create a profile on coca cola promotion LinkedIn. A Good Father. This site will also allow you to join groups and network, which is EXTREMELY important, especially to sacrifice maya, the self employed because as we all know networking can open doors to jobs, opportunities, clients etc. Its a good time to is atticus father, remind people to make sure to have a 100% completed profile. This allows more people to view and have access to you. Sacrifice Maya. More people = more contacts and potential open doors. When writing your cover letter remember to either highlight specific keywords or use bullet points.
I cannot stress enough that recruiters just want to know if you have the job qualifications that they are looking for. Again, the job description is loaded with words and phrases that you should be using. Using bullet points shows that you are confident and that you clearly have valuable skills that any company would love to work with. It all comes down to confidence. Confidence can be seen by having a great profile or brand, highlighting keywords or skills that you have that makes you a perfect candidate and describing every work experience as a positive valuable experience that has helped you grow into the expert you are today.
Being self employed is definitely not negative, unless you really canít stand working with people or enjoy punching bossí in the face. If thats the a good father, case then I wish the next recruiter that interviews you the best of Destruction of the Essay example, luck #128521; You may also want to check out: Have a question youíve been dying to askÖAsk Dorothy! Have you check out the is atticus, job board? 32 thoughts on The Systematic Native in the 1830's Essay example “ How To Explain Being Self Employed On Your Resume ”
Just wondering Ė in father, this case what shall i put in ďLast Drawn Basic SalaryĒ, should I put the salary of the job before I was self-employed, or the rate or even total income of my self-employed period? Iím not sure if youíre filling out a job application or updating your resume but either case you never want to driving school, put your current or past salary. Is Atticus A Good Father. Ideally you donít want to character analysis, discuss money until an offer is made so you know they (the company) wants you and therefore you have the upper hand during the negotiation. Hope that helps and thanks for the comment. I am filling a job application and there is a section asking for ďLast Drawn Basic SalaryĒ, and I am kinda confuse what to do. If you can I would leave that question blank on the application or insert ďself-employedĒ. Each new position should be looked at differently and not compared to the last job when it comes to salary. There are different circumstances for why someone works or decides to is atticus father, get paid the amount that they do. Comparing your last salary and future salary doesnít make sense to me.
Again, if you can I would not answer the The Systematic Destruction of the American in the 1830's example, question. Plus this question is particularly hard to answer when you were or are self-employed. Good Luck! First of all I really want to appreciate what you are doing. Its really very kind of is atticus a good, you to human, give such good advice to is atticus a good father, people like us seeking guidance. I have a question regarding this but a little more complicated! I have been working for a company on a Ďjobí and I have been self employed simultaneously. Coca Cola Promotion. I am an investor in a good father, an existing business owned by my friend and I also am responsible for business and of the American in the 1830's strategic decision making for the business. I donít have to take care of day to day operations as we have a team in place for is atticus father, that. I am also working at a job as an employee at the same time.
I would like to pursue higher studies(masters). I need to Hacking and Digital Culture, submit a resume to the university. Should I also mention the business along with my professional experience on is atticus a good father the. job or would that be a deterrent. Human. If my higher studies plans donít go thru Iím going to look for a job change. In that. case should I mention the business Iím involved in along with my work experience while looking for a job? Your advice will be greatly appreciated. I donít know of anyone who can guide me on this so I am really counting on is atticus father your reply. Honestly I would really like to mention it because I want them to know every side of me. I believe life is a learning process and human maya one should do whatever they can to is atticus a good father, make it a fulfilling experience and should not be tied down to human sacrifice, the usual constraints outlined by society and the job world that come in the way of growing as a person.
I have professional dreams as well as entrepreneural goals that I want to a good father, meet. The question is should I let recruiters and admissions officers know both these sides in order to native american about, stand a good chance of being selected. Thanks for your time in advance. Being self employed and working for a company at the same time is very admirable. Is Atticus A Good. You are obviously an Destruction of the in the 1830's Essay example, ambitious and driven individual and I donít see why you wouldnít add both experiences to is atticus father, your application. There is and Digital Essay, always someplace in the application where you get to talk about yourself and this is where you can briefly explain your two work ventures. Maybe both ventures provide you with different experiences that are invaluable to you as you are trying to is atticus, figure out what career path is best for you. Working on completing your Masters will be difficult and time consuming but it sounds like youíre already a person who likes to keep busy and knows what she wants.
The only thing left to do is to coca promotion, somehow tie the two work ventures together or explain why you do both on your application and show how they are helping you fulfill your professional dreams and entrepreneurial goals. Hope that helps and is atticus a good good luck in school #128578; Hi Dorothy, this is and Digital Culture Essay, my first time at your blog and a good father wow, this article is great! I will definitely be visiting again in the near future for further advice. I would like to human sacrifice, know more about the ďshort bio or profileĒ in is atticus, place of objective when writing a resume. Whatís an example of how to choice school, write this profile? You can check out the ďsummaryĒ portion and specifically ďspecialtiesĒ of my LinkedIn profile linkedin.com/in/dorothysliwicki for an example of a profile.
I have a question that maybe you can help me with. A Good Father. I am currently employed as an engineer and I have a business on and Digital the side. My side business is not in is atticus a good father, the same industry as my day job(tax preparation and Hacking Counter representation). Father. I had intended to stay at my job until I could build my business into a full-time venture and eventually be self-employed. I really had no intention of ever looking for choice driving school, another job. Well, my situation has now changed, and I am considering applying for an opportunity for which I would be a very good fit. A Good. My current employer is very unstable and my business is still in what I would consider the hobby stage. I am currently in a senior level engineering position and this position would be a management position with added responsibility. I am curious as to of the American Nations 1830's, how to is atticus a good father, broach the subject of my side business in an interview.
The reason I started the business is simply due to the economy and the fact that my current employer has laid off 40% of our workforce over a 2 year period (layoffs in 2009 and 2010). In my mind having a business shows so many good qualities that you would think a company would want in Destruction Native American Nations in the 1830's, a manager but I am curious as to how this will be viewed. I have experienced this before earlier in my career when I had been out of work for a while. I had left a job in order to start a business(also tax prep) that didnít quite work out so I was back looking for is atticus a good father, work. It seemed that when I had the entrepreneurial experience on my Resume, I either didnít get interviews, or when I did the interviewers seemed to get fixated on that particular experience and then I would not hear back from them. The way I addressed the situation then was I simply omitted my self-employed experience from the resume. Obviously that left a gap in the timeline of my employment which most well trained interviewers will always ask about. At that point I would explain what I had done and it would be over, and then we could move on and talk about other things. This time around I would rather not do that because I feel that I have so much to offer and promotion all of father, my experiences display that fact. I did see that you answered a similar question earlier in the blog, but anything additional you have to add would be a big help. Thanks in Advance,
I would definitely add your side business to your CV. Nations. I totally agree with you that having a business is definitely an is atticus a good father, advantage and should not be hidden on your CV or in an interview. In an interview you can bring up the fact that you have many other talents, one of which is working with numbers and you have been able to Nations in the 1830's example, turn that into is atticus father, a small business or side job. Destruction Native American Nations In The 1830's. I donít recommend having a gap in your resume especially when you donít have to. I think this is probably why your past interviews did not go well simply because you omitted the experience.
As a recruiter, I donít like learning something that new and important from a candidate. It would make me feel that there are other things that you may be hiding. In any case, I believe that when youíre honest and genuine about your experience and past that you will have a better chance of getting the job. Hope that helps and is atticus father thank you for leaving the The Systematic Destruction of the American Nations in the 1830's, comment. Thanks Dorothy for your guidance on father a resume for Ďself-employedí people. I would like to ask what happens to poem about nature, people who are Ďx factor peopleí wear many hats and done many things, jack of all trades and master of none.
Some of us just donít have a set career path, but have delved in a good many things. I have worked in IT companies such as IBM in father, an Administrative and technical job with customers including sales support, I have owned a clothing business in character, my youth including creative designing and actual sewing, been an sole accountant for 2 IT companies in the past 3 years, and a Dance Artist Entertainer and dance teacher off and on for the last 6 years with some of a good father, that time doing it full time. Currently I am the Sole Accountant in the day. If I was to write a resume would I show that I am an all rounder or is that not seen to be of use today,? Are employers looking for Ďspecialistsí with years of experience in one field of work? How can I show my skills and ability such as being a very fast learner at anything I am given, self motivated, able to driving, be a team player and is atticus a leader, and very responsible with what tasks I am given. I especially would like to go into poem, the field of say Event Management, but donít have any qualifications or experience with a Company, but have done most of the skills to is atticus a good father, do this.
I deal with people and their requests to make their shows or parties to what they want, including stage setups etc and problem solve and sort out native about nature disasters without losing composure, have been involved in the tourist industry and catering. I donít want to go back to a desk job at a computer and would like a change. I would appreciate any feed back you would have. thanks. I think if youíre looking for a good, work in the Event world than I would gear your resume to reflect your experiences and skills which that industry would consider to and Digital Essay, be an asset. When someone tries to father, show that they are all rounded or jack of all trades by listing all their experiences (like yourself) it usually appears that the person lacks focus and easily jumps from one career/job/industry to another.
You can use a functional style format so you can highlight the relevant skills the experience that you have and then follow up with a ďsummary of experienceĒ, which can then be a bullet point list of work experiences ranging from being an Accountant to The Systematic Destruction Native Nations 1830's Essay example, working in IT. Most desk job companyís and recruiters might think you unfocused but you shouldnít care since you donít want to work for/with them anyway. Is Atticus A Good Father. The Event world is much more flexible and generally employs independent/self-employed people who have gaps in their resumes and work various jobs until they get the school, next contract. I think again if you focus on the relevant skill set that you have you should be fine. If you need help creating a resume please check out my services page. It has been almost 3 years since I worked under a corporate banner. In the in between period, I had run a restaurant business after my last paid job, My businesss did well, however the past year has been a concern as I have had service issues due to a good father, labor problems.
Today I wish to human maya, get back into corporate work and am finding it very difficult to update my resume. I am not able to word my experiences of : setting up of the business, handling clients, liasoning with Govt officials, handling Lobor issues, handling the is atticus, entire gamut of the analysis, operations, not being able to continue etc.. through which I have learnt / had a first hand experience of the needs to succeed in an organization. Could you help me please with completing my resume. Updating a resume can be frustrating and difficult but updating your resume when you have been self employed and for is atticus, a period and ultimate driving now want to re-enter the is atticus father, corporate world can be more difficult. And Digital Counter Culture. I would love to help you create your resume. Please check out my services page for a good, more information on how I can help. Your article has been a great help as it highlights the coca cola, issues and dilemma I am currently facing. I quit my banking job back in is atticus a good father, August to help my dad set up his own small property agency firm (realtor) as he has just obtained his license from the authority so as to enable him to move into the role as the principal of human sacrifice, that firm when he retires as a college lecturer next year. the plan was (and still is) that by next September, my brother who is currently a law student should have completed his studies (or a month or two shy from graduation) and will be able to extend help to my dad if he needs any so that I will be able to commence my Masters degree with a prestigious university in the UK (I have already secured the offer and am on is atticus deferment). Given that I have 3.5 years experience in the finance industry prior to this and am planning to apply for a similar role in banks after I commence my course in the UK, I was wondering if the fact that I took a year plus out to help my dad set up his own (smallish but we believe will fetch steady income stream to the family) will reflect well with the recruiters in the finance industry since setting up a small business might exemplify certain motivations and skills but I wont be in a technical role for school, over a year? This is so as I was recently discussing this with a close friend of mine who works in father, the finance industry (but at a relatively junior level) who raised her concern and promotion has prompted me to is atticus a good father, get a job while working part time for my dad so as not to be out fo the industry for too long.
Yet, I wouldnt want to character analysis, just get a job for several months and then leave to is atticus father, commence my studies after a few monthsí time hence my dilemma. Thanks alot for reading my longish comment as Iím a little concern (though still believe that what Iím doing for my family is great LOL) after what my friend said and reading some of the articles online about maya employment gap and what notÖ. You have a very legitimate concern. Father. The fact is that recruiters donít like gaps in ultimate choice driving school, a persons resume. I think helping your dad start a business is a great venture but I agree with your friend and is atticus a good would suggest that you try to find either a part-time job or do some volunteer work. Desdemona Character Analysis. With your finance background Iím sure you could help many non-profit organizations with fund development for is atticus father, example. This is a great time for you to really think about the things that interest you. Get involved with cause that you love! Hope that helps and I wish you and your family all the best #128578; Thanks so much for your prompt reply!
Indeed, Iíve been thinking about ultimate choice driving school doing some volunteer work (as part time job is quite hard to is atticus father, find) whilst helping my dad out and whilst waiting to start my masters next septemberÖ..thanks for clarifying my doubts and poem Happy holidays #128512; Hi there iím new to your website and this is great. Is Atticus A Good Father. Iím quite young and had a review done on my CV and was poor. I owned a bar for a year until it had to be knocked down and iím not sure how i would write it and how it would come across to the employer? On the american poem nature, other hand i thought my CV was good as thats how i got my job now whether it was because i owned a bar before. I want to is atticus a good father, change my career and human sacrifice maya get into is atticus father, business and administration, i have recently applied for native american poem, a course for it. But at the moment its hard to find somewhere to work as they all want people with alot of experience?
I did my own paperwork etc but maybe thats not enough for is atticus a good father, them? Iím sorry but I canít really comment on how good or bad your resume is unless I see it. Ultimate Choice. If youíre interested in a good, getting real feedback check out my Resume Critique that I offer for only $20.00. Iím helping a friend with a self employed CV. My issue is the Hacking Counter Culture, employment history part. Aagghh. He has had his own business since 2000 but now with the way the world is he is unable to is atticus, continue. I would be very greatful for some help. I look forward to hearing from you. Very nice site, my situation is as follows I built a international company of 200 employees retired in 2006 at the age of 41 to desdemona character, see my daughter grow well, she is a teen now so its time to get back into the work force again. I have built all areas of a business, my question is at age 47 will potential employers hire me now?
Also could you give me a brief cover letter example to start me off. Very nice site, my question is do employers hire self employed people in is atticus a good, their late 40 s. Yes! Employers hire people in Hacking and Digital Counter Culture Essay, their late 40ís. Employers hire people who are confident and have the a good father, skill set and Hacking and Digital Culture experience they are looking for. What you need to do is refresh some of your skills and probably your resume and get out is atticus father there and start applying to jobs. You also need to be confident that the career/life path you chose was a good one.
Deciding to coca cola, retire at 41 and being self employed are somethings you donít regret so be confident about your choices and start preparing yourself for job interviews. In regards to sample cover letters, unfortunately I donít provide samples but you are more than welcome to take a look at a good my testimonials. Thanks and good luck! Thanks for this very useful article. Iím currently self-employed but, as Iím looking to move abroad, Iíll need a traditional job to support myself during the first times. What do you think is the best way to show your SE status on and Digital Counter Culture Essay resume? I mean, Iíve read that writing something like ďOwner at ABC CompanyĒ is not very well seen by HR .. is it true? I was thinking about is atticus stating ďManaging Director at ultimate ABC CompanyĒ and showing some clients and recent works in the position description, with bullet points. Is Atticus A Good. Do you think itís a good idea? Thanks, best regards, I think stating that youíre the Hacking and Digital, Managing Director/Owner at ABC Company and a good father showing a list of clients or referrals is a good idea.
Just remember to maya, adjust your resume and cover letter to focus on the skills and experience to each role/job description that youíre applying to. A Good. Good Luck! I am currently self-employed in ultimate driving, a very small construction company that my husband helps me to manage, however I am currently looking for is atticus a good, a full-time employment in coca cola promotion, a non-profit or government organization in the area of social justice and human rights, which I am very passionate about. A Good. My plan is to of the Native American in the, eventually get a law degree, but for now I just want to work and gain some experience. Once I secure the is atticus father, employment, I am planning to Destruction Nations in the 1830's Essay, shift most of my responsibilities to my husband and our secretary, however, I am still concerned about a possible conflict of interests that my even minimal sel-employment might create. How do you think I should handle this issue and what should I say during job interviews? Should I mention my self-employment at all? How long have you been self-employed? If itís for is atticus a good, a few years than you may have no choice but to keep it on your resume.
I actually donít see any problem with that but I would not indulge that you plan to transition out of your self-employment role once you have been offered a full-time role. Most companies donít like the character analysis, new hire to be juggling two roles. They like you to focus on their company. So itís up to you if you want to a good father, mention that you are self-employed or not. If you decide not to mention it on your resume than make sure that it does not create a huge gap in choice driving, your professional work history.
In regards to an interview I would focus on a good father your skills and how they meet the cola, criteria of the is atticus father, role and not mention your transition plans. Hope that helps and Good Luck! Thanks for the and desdemona analysis insightful article, I find your comments as helpful as the article itself. In my situation, it was getting close to graduation from father, a Software Engineering degree at coca cola the University in the UK. It was around the times when the a good father, recession was at its peak, people were being made redundant and native american poem the prospects of father, attaining a job as a fresh graduate was a slim as it was daunting. At the choice, time I had developed some interest and a good a bit of delving in to graphics designing, upon completing the honors degree, I became more committed. I assumed the role of an entrepreneur and started designing for clients, banners, posters, logos, flyers, business cards, etc. As I became more involved, I took on other aspects including Website Templates Developing, Web Services, IT Consultancy, Site (Website) Administration, SEO and SEM to mention a few, enough to to keep me busy full time. I have experienced long trips/journeys to and Digital Counter Essay, visit clients as well as arranging for them to visit for is atticus a good father, consultations, brief or extensive.
Worked with domestic clients as well as those from other continents and Destruction Native Essay worked/collaborated with other like minded professionals locally and internationally. In all it has been a great experience, but at a good father the moment I have plenty of reasons for wanting paid salary employment some which I will state in the last paragraph. My whole life experience prior to graduation has involved schooling so I did not get the chance to be extensively committed to a job but I had short term experiences, i.e. Did some sales personnel job, worked for Anglian Home Improvement for brief periods as a sales person (I left due to study demands), a two weeks spell as a student helper at the campus and two years consecutive role as a student representative, if they would count or anything (are the worth stating?). After three years of graduation and now at the age of 27, I wouldnít say I am very young but I feel that time is ticking and I need to start looking at the prospect of a masters degree in about a couple of years time from now but before that, I want to The Systematic Destruction of the Native American Nations in the 1830's, gain a corporate experience, a paid salary job to is atticus, finance my growing lifestyle, a degree and upon a successful completion and ultimate school hopefully debt free with added boost to future employability, I can then decide which path to return, self employed or more paid salary (corporate) employment. What are my prospect of being recruited if I explain this to a good father, potential employees? Thanks for desdemona character, leaving comment. A Good Father. I think you have some great experiences and success from freelance work. With the right resume you can slide easily to a full-time (corporate) job. What type of corporate job are you looking for? If itís around IT/Web services than I think youíre headed in sacrifice, the right direction.
Being self-employed especially pre or post graduation is a great thing. You are proving to is atticus a good, the world that you are an independent and confident person. You just need to lay out your resume and cover letter so it reflects your confidence and skill level. I think once you have a good resume you will see that explaining your professional background to a recruiter will be easier than you think. If youíre interested I can critique your resume for you. I used to run a dance class now Iím wanting to join corporate what do I write in experience as the fields donít link anywer my talent used for this venture can not come to any use while i join corporate how to deal with it ? I had been working as the head of accounts department in my fatherís garment factory who was the owner for almost 6 years. Last year, we had to close the operations and sold the business. Now I am looking to apply for a job with my final papers of ACCA remaining. I would request you to inform me if Ďself-employedí experience on cola the resume would be something not normally liked by is atticus, the employers. This is about nature, because few of is atticus a good, my friends told me not to character, mention this on your resume, and instead suggested me to mention yourself as an employee of another firm.
I would be greatly thankful for your kind reply. Dorothy , for past two years I worked as a taxi driver self employed but now I want to father, apply for coca, my professional job. struggling to a good father, put that experience in the CV while I am looking for a engineering sector.
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essays competition Excerpt from Christopher Bates Doob's Sociology an Introduction, 6e. Most athletes just get to collegeóthey're looking to have a chance to play pros . Is Atticus A Good Father? . . so they're gonna do whatever they're told by the coaches and Hacking and Digital Essay, administration, and is atticus, these are the ones who are really shaping the person's mind, more so than probably even their parents or anyone else. (Parker 1994, 296) It was a life Rick could not tolerate.
With one year of eligibility and the certainty of desdemona a professional career, he transferred to a small college where he felt playing would be fun again. While young athletes in a good father, the crucible of sports competition usually do not drop out, particularly if they are successful, an examination of evidence reveals significant difficulties. Coca? In this section we analyze competition as a value in American culture and is atticus a good father, then focus on of the Nations in the Essay, competition in a good, sports, considering how this value impacts in organizational activity and native nature, people's lives. We also consider future strategies. Competition in American Culture. We begin historically. This country started with unique economic and political conditions giving early business leaders a distinct advantage over their European counterpartsóthe opportunity to pursue money-making ventures without rivalry or opposition from an established nobility; location in the New World away from dangerous rivals, making it unnecessary to develop a strong military presence that could have rivaled the capitalists as leaders; no central church that could have created a set of beliefs that might have challenged capitalism for ideological dominance within American culture; a relatively weak central government originating from father, separate colonial territories and thus unable to rival the human maya strong, growing capitalist class (Domhoff 1990, 12Ė13; Mills 1956, 12Ė13). These four factors are negatives, focusing on qualities the American culture lacked compared to its European rivals. The absence of these factors cleared the path for what Robin Williams Jr. Is Atticus A Good? described as a culture where the values of the business man dominated national life (Williams 1970, 455).
In his famous book The Protestant Ethic and Hacking and Digital Counter, the Spirit of Capitalism, Max Weber (1958) provided a consistent argument, indicating that the Calvinist distinction between those individuals designated by God to is atticus be saved or damned in the afterlife served to desdemona character analysis encourage people to strive for economic success in is atticus a good, this world, thereby proving to themselves and others that they were destined for promotion salvation at the next level. Thus, Weber declared, the American work ethic was rooted in father, a religious fervor, which soon declined as Calvinism lost its hold in the new land. Hacking And Digital Counter Culture Essay? However, at least ideally, Americans were expected to approach work with a sense of is atticus father moral virtue: They might play tough, but they would play fairóby the rules, at least ideally. With this focus on Hacking, the importance of is atticus a good father work, individuals' worth lay in their accomplishments, not in their intrinsic qualities as people. Ultimate Choice School? By emphasizing results, American culture became more concerned with ends than means, for father instance lionizing big-business leaders who engaged in violent, illegal tactics (the Robber Barons) and organized-crime personnel (Williams 1970, 455). Many Americans, in fact, honor and enjoy competition, sometimes brutal competition, and sports seem to be widely considered a prime showcase for it. Sport stars often represent the epitome of success on the job, those who have used physical skill, discipline, and desdemona analysis, often intelligenceóin recent years we seem to hear more about the latter as a part of is atticus big-time sportsóto defeat others in direct individual or team competition. In a world where most of us lead fairly prosaic work lives, these top athletes represent a dramatic contrast.
Some of the year's highest television ratings come for such major sporting events as the Super Bowl and choice driving school, the World Series. The superstars in a good, the most popular American sportsóMichael Jordan, Shaquille O'Neal, Charles Barkley, Dan Marino, Deion Sanders, and Ken Griffey Jr.óare famous, wealthy, and widely marketed. The Systematic Of The American Nations In The Example? Some middle-class, primarily white mean spend four or five thousand dollars to attend week-long fantasy baseball or basketball camps where they can receive instruction from and associate with their childhood heroes. Let us move beyond a broad conceptualization, however, and analyze how competition actually unfolds in the sporting world. Competition in American Sport. In examining values, Robin Williams Jr. (1970, 453) observed that the is atticus a good father analyst establishes the poem about nature significance of a given value by assessing the impact it has on father, its society, both in a general sense and in terms of particular individuals or groups within the society. Alfie Kohn (1986, 84Ė86) has been more specific, indicating how the value of competition has affected American society through sport.
Kohn suggested that organized American sports have trained participants to accept a goal-oriented model focused on in the Essay example, winning through competition. Implementation of the is atticus model involves two steps: to establish the organizations that maximally prepare athletes for successful competition and to prepare the athletes to accept and implement this model. Let us consider social-scientific analysis and research on these two issues. The Goal-Oriented System. Whether college or professional, big-time sports emphasize highly organized, efficient systems. At the professional level, competitive success requires a high level of human maya funding and organization so the a good father team can sign and integrate top players. American Poem Nature? Yet while funding is important, sensitivity to organizational effectiveness is is atticus father critical.
For partially overlapping twenty-year spans, the New York Yankees and the New York Giants had well-financed teams but lacked the management personnel either to choose top-level performers or to pick those who would blend effectively into their current teams. As a result these wealthy organizations produced embarrassingly poor long-term records. In contrast, one might consider the dramatic case of the 1995 Houston Rockets, the defending champions of the National Basketball Association. American Poem? In the midst of the season, the a good father team was floundering, and top administration realized that if they did not make a trade, their season would be unsuccessful. Ultimately they gambled on an aging but talented guard named Clyde Drexler, whose contribution played a major role in the team's surprise repeat as champions. Ultimate Driving School? Of the trade the coach said, [I]f we didn't make it, I don't know if we would have even been in the playoffs (Wise 1995, 27). In big-time college sports, administrators and is atticus a good, coaches have often cheated to promote a successful program. In the and Digital Counter 1994 film Blue Chips, the basketball coach realized his only is atticus, hope to return his team quickly to national prominence was to Native American in the permit wealthy alumni to bribe top recruits into signing letters of intent committing to his team. At the end of the film, the coach, whose conscience in is atticus a good, true American fashion would not permit him to human sacrifice maya forsake the is atticus a good rules, confessed his recruiting sins at a press conference.
In reality, recruiting violations happen frequently. One study of professional football players, for instance, indicated that about a third admitted they had received illegal payments during their college careers (Sack 1991). Within teams the coaches are the human maya bosses. If we are going to win, we must all be following the same plan, the head coach explains. I construct the plan, and you guys carry it out. At both the professional and college levels, coaches vary widely in how much control they impose and how fiercely they impose it. Interestingly some of the most controlling, ferocious coaches are found working with juveniles. Is Atticus Father? Don Sabo, a former college player, indicated that as an 8 year old he went through the coca promotion initiation rites of having his flesh pricked with thorns until blood was drawn, had hot peppers rubbed into a good his eyes, and poem nature, was punched in the gut again and againóall to toughen him up and to maximize his development as an animal (Sabo 1995, 228). Sabo noted that in sport systems there prevails intermale dominance, in which a minority of men dominates the masses of men (Sabo 1995, 229). The acceptance of a good pain is a significant element in the brutalization process.
Athletes are often socialized to live with pain and american nature, the risk of injury, conceding that it is the only viable choice if they want to play (Nixon 1993). Their coaches encourage them to take the emotional arousalóthe insecurity, anger, and a good, even rage they often feel because of Counter Culture painóand direct it toward their opponents (Sabo 1995, 229). For many coaches, players' introspection is hardly a priority. They seem to is atticus father believe that insightful, balanced athletes are less productive than their animalistic counterparts. Closely related is the ever-present emphasis on violence in sports. To be violent is to be tough and manlyóthe epitome in many people's minds of the highly competitive athlete. The Systematic Native American Nations? Coaches often find it unseemly to suggest otherwise. Consider the following commentary from two prominent baseball managers, whose teams were engaged in a series of games eleven days after Jim Leyritz of the New York Yankees had been hit in the arm and face with a 96 miles-per-hour fastball thrown by Randy Johnson of the Seattle Mariners:
I don't tell my pitchers to throw at a hitter, Lou Piniella, the Mariners' manager said before yesterday's game. He smiled. But we don't want batters feeling at is atticus father home at the plate, either. Do we retaliate? asked Buck Showalter, the Yankee manager. We don't go out human with any preconceived ideas. We just respond to what the is atticus competition brings. Maya? In other words, batteróor pitcher, as the case may beóbeware. How, we need to father consider, do such systems affect individual athletes? Pawns in the System? Athletes play roles in their coaches' systems, which obviously vary in the demands they make. In systems requiring individuals to play with extensive pain, the impact can be numbing, stifling awareness of human sacrifice maya their bodies and stunting emotional expression (Sabo 1995, 228).
With increasing time in a brutalized system, athletes are likely to find that it becomes more and more difficult to is atticus father separate a fierce approach to the game from desdemona, their approach to the rest of life. Is Atticus? Playing in a big-time college football system, one athlete noted that. I split more and native american about nature, moreóthe guy off the field and the guy on the field. And the thing that was scaring me was that the guy that was on the field was becoming more and more the person that I was off the field, too. It started bleeding over. (Parker 1994, 296) Once the transformation process is initiated, Dr. Jekyll increasingly becomes Mr. Hyde.
In sociological terminology a brutally competitive team setting can brutalize athletes' sense of self. We might wonder whether athletes perform at a good father top levels without becoming brutalized. Certainly some affirmative indications exist. One study of native poem nature 678 collegiate athletes at three Division I schools found that most of the athletes were more focused on achieving their personal goals than on winning. One significant finding, which was consistent with other research, indicated that male athletes were more concerned with winning than their female counterparts, who seemed more concentrated on their personal standards of excellence (Weinberg et al. 1993).
Some top athletes set high standards in this regard. For over is atticus a good father a decade, Jackie Joyner-Kersee and Heike Drechsler were the two top women long jumpers in the world. In their many meetings, competition was tightóvictories measured in half inches and centimetersóand yet they never exchanged a cross word or made a negative comment about each other in the press, remaining friendly rivals who chatted and showed each other pictures of their children. Noting that some of the sprinters engage in cola promotion, trash talk, Joyner-Kersee commented, It's a comedy act sometimes. It is entertaining. Is Atticus? But I try to be for real. You can't talk up a gold medal, although some people think you can (Vecsey 1995, B13). The idea is to and Digital Counter Culture focus on one's own performance, recognizing that competitive jabs at one's opponent are not an effective way to enhance it. As we move toward some action proposals, let us quickly review the substance of this section.
Historically American culture has strongly emphasized the father significance of work, with competition toward achievement and success integral to that emphasis. Character? In modern times major college and professional sports have been arenas in is atticus, which the development and glorification of and Digital Counter Essay competition have occurred. We examined the organizational context of is atticus a good father sport competition along with the individual athlete's role in such a setting. There appear to be two broad courses of action: I will just mention the first and then develop the second at length. First, either because of what they consider the contribution competition makes to participants' growth and/or because the analysis value appears so prominent in our cultural tradition, some observers will conclude it would be unwise, impractical, or some combination of both to de-emphasize athletic competition. Others who enjoy and value American sports feel that college and professional systems are often destructive for participants and are a negative representation to the society at large. Father? So what can individuals do? We consider several options. The militant opponents of competition might consider widespread replacementóthe development of games that stress cooperation and not competition.
For instance, instead of seeking to move one's marbles faster than the opponent, cooperative Chinese checkers involves a coordinated movement of marbles so that both players reach their home sections simultaneously. Cooperative bowling involves the challenging task of knocking down all ten pins, with each participant taking a turn and contributing at least one pin to the total (Kohn 1986, 94). The problem with the coca purely cooperative approach is that it represents a clear case of throwing out the baby with the is atticus father bath water: To escape competition, opponents discard a lengthy tradition of Western sport. A more practical course of action for initiating reform seems to be a focus on ultimate, one's individual performance. Let us consider some of the actions sport practitioners and athletes themselves might pursue. At the organizational level, it would be interesting to examine the role of cooperation in current competitive sport. A Good Father? Generally American athletes are socialized to consider their opponents as enemies, and desdemona analysis, from the high-school to the professional levels, newspaper articles that can fuel a heated rivalry are tacked up on team bulletin boards. However, what about exploring cooperative activity between or among teams?
The most institutionalized example appears to be team cycling. In the course of such international events as the Tour de France and the Tour of Italy, the members of father different teams engage in temporary alliances to break away from the cola promotion pack or to catch up with the race leaders. American athletes might find it revealing to analyze what literally is a foreign way of relating to is atticus father opponents during sport contests. The Systematic Destruction Example? Another organizational issue worth studying involves the orientation and style of women's teams. As we noted earlier, female athletes tend to is atticus a good father be more focused on personal performances than males. It is likely that women's teams are often less brutally competitive and perhaps more cooperative with both their own team members and their opponents than men's teams.
Finally consider the coca cola promotion individual athlete's focus on performance. Is Atticus? Speaking from several years of personal experience as a race walker who sometimes enters competitions, I can say that it is a revealing journey in self-discovery to set athletic goals. Why, athletes need to ask themselves, do I want to pursue this sport? What will I get out of it? What, if anything, will I lose by character analysis, doing it? Friends and perhaps professionals, such as therapists or sport psychologists, can be helpful sounding boards for goal setting. Then there is implementation. Athletes must come to grips with the realities of their livesóthe demands on their time and energy as well as their capacity both in training and in public performance to is atticus a good father approximate their goals. How, they can wonder and human sacrifice, assess, will they respond to both self-motivated and others' pressure to perform?
The discussion of competition in sport raises many important, stimulating issues. The functions and dysfunctions of competitive sport at both the professional and amateur levels. Specific topics involving competition in is atticus a good, sport where sociologists could provide constructive investigation and useful recommendations. Prospects for significant changes within sport systems, ranging from those in maya, primary schools through those at the professional level. Sources: Ira Berkow. Take Me Out to is atticus a good father the Beanball Game, New York Times. (June 11, 1995), sec. The Systematic Destruction Of The Example? 8, p. 7; William G. Domhoff.
The Power Elite and is atticus a good father, the State: How Policy Is Made in America. New York: Aldine de Gruyter, 1990; Alfie Kohn. No Contest: The Case Against Competition. Human Sacrifice Maya? Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1986; C. Wright Mills. The Power Elite. New York: Oxford University Press, 1956; Howard L. Nixon II.
Accepting the Risks of Pain and Injury in Sport: Mediated Cultural Influences on Playing Hurt, Sociology of Sport Journal. 10 (June 1993), pp. Is Atticus? 183Ė96; Kathy B. Parker, 'Has-Beens' and 'Wanna-Bes': Transition Experiences of Former Major College Football Players, Sport Psychologist. 8 (September 1994), pp. 287Ė304; Don Sabo. Pigskin, Patriarchy, and Pain. In Paula S. Rothenberg (ed.), Race, Class, and cola, Gender in the United States: An Integrated Study, 3rd ed. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1995, pp.
227Ė30; Allen L. Sack. The Underground Economy of College Football, Sociology in is atticus, Sport Journal. 8 (March 1991), pp. Ultimate Driving School? 1Ė15; George Vecsey. Great Rivals Don't Need Trash Talks, New York Times. (February 3, 1995), p. Is Atticus A Good? B13; Max Weber. The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. Trans. Analysis? Talcott Parsons (1930). New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1958; Robert Weinberg et al. Goal Setting in Competitive Sport: An Exploratory Investigation of Practices of Collegiate Athletes, Sport Psychologist.
7 (September 1993), pp. 275Ė89; Robin M. Williams Jr. American Society, 3rd ed. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1970; Mike Wise. The Addition of Drexler Pays Dividends for Rockets, New York Times. (June 10, 1995), pp.