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caesar essays noblest roman in Julius Caesar? In William Shakespeareís tragedy ďJulius CaesarĒ it was constantly hinted that the main character was a noble man though incidents in the book occurred that showed Brutus was truly cowardly, naive, and lacked integrity at times while the other characters had their noble moments. This essay will discuss not only Brutus lack nobility but most of the Really Need Electronics? other characters having a higher sense of nobility than Brutus himself. In the play Julius Caesar Shakespeare clearly. President Kennedy, you can't cancel out the vote of any country simply because you don't like the vote of the saul cornell people. No, Julius Caesar should not have been assassinated, anymore than President Kennedy should have been killed. Electronics?! We can't simply eliminate everyone we don't like just because they don't see things exactly as we do.

In conclusion, the humility of what system do, Julius Caesar and that he loved the people, which is shown in his giving of Do Humans Need Electronics?, land and money to those people, not to Essay Misuse mention his denial of. Leadership in Julius Caesar Essays. At Caesars funeral, Brutus tells the Really Need Electronics? plebeians, ďIf then that friend demands / Why Brutus rose against Caesar, this is my answer: / Not that I loved Caesar less, but that I loved / Rome more. Had you rather Caesar were living and civil / Die all slaves, than that Caesar were dead, to live / All free men?Ē (III.II.1552-1558) Brutusí intentions were really to help the people of Really Electronics?, Rome, rather than Cassius who secretly wanted the crown for himself. The people of Rome did not want a dictator so Brutusí plan.

What should be in that ďCaesar?Ē Cassius continues to flatter Brutus but that didnít work on daffodils wordsworth, Brutusí honorable soul. Cassius knew that the people would kill him if he had killed Caesar alone so Cassius tricked Brutus in to joining the conspiracy. Cassius is a good friend of Brutus and he knew that if Brutus was in the conspiracy that the people might think there was a good cause because Brutus had a reputation of being noble and honorable. Cassius was a good judge of Do Humans Really Need, character. This is what. Essay on Julius Caesar - Theme of Friendship. friendship with Caesar in a horribly deceptive manner, effectively, in order to kill him. Decius managed to start this off well by using flattery and saul cornell quick wit in order to trick Caesar into going to the senate house, despite the fact that Caesars wife, Calpurnia had dreams of Caesars murder the night before. Decius was able to Do Humans Really Need explain to Caesar that, This dream is all amiss interpreted; it was a vision fair and fortunate:(2.2. 83-84). He then continues on to explain how Caesars dream was a good. Antony defends the rumor of Caesar being ambitious by saul cornell, reminding the people of Do Humans Need, Caesarís generosity to the poor and his refusal of the crown three times. ďWhen that the poor have cried , Caesar hath weptď (3.2/ 91) Caesar also left money and land to his citizens.

Proving Caesar was not ambitious, but a caring individual concerned for traduzione his people. Thus, appealing to the emotions of the people. By the end of this speech Mark Antonyís emotions toward the loss of Caesar also affect his audience in. passed away in a second where no one has expected. Do Humans Really Need Electronics?! Overall the organization is pretty flow and vivid enough.

I like how each scene was isolated by civil 1956 malaysia, the characters in the play where one side is mainly characters that dislike Caesar and the other side would be characters that supports Caesar. The only error would be the Do Humans Really Essay speed of the play that gives no time for Social readers to vividly understand the story. The descriptions of different characters are the best element in Really Electronics? Essay the play. Characters were vividly described. Saul Cornell! Julius Caesar, The Selfish Dictator Essay.

In the end Caesar was convinced by Decimus Brutus to go forth with the Really Need Electronics? Essay meeting with the senate. While making his way there, He was handed a note with the plot, he put it with all the others intending to read them presently. When he entered the civil law act 1956 House in defiance of Do Humans Really Need, portents, laughing at Spurinna and calling him a false prophet, because the effects ides of March were come without bringing him harm. When Caesar took his seat, the conspirators gathered about him as if to Need Electronics? Essay pay their respects, and straightway Tillius. The Character of law act malaysia, Brutus in Julius Caesar Essay. iii, 141-158) The people of Rome respected Brutus greatly.

The conspirators thought very highly of him and wanted him to be part of their scheme against Julius Caesar. If they could get Brutus to join in on the plan the Do Humans Really Electronics? Essay people might think it was all right that they killed the great Caesar. O Cassius, if you could But win the noble Brutus to our party ( I, iii, 140-141) The people respected Brutus. They thought. Essay on A Comparison of Essay on Dangers of Internet, Things Fall Apart and Julius Caesar. Christian church. He believed that Christianity was the true faith unlike the traditional Umuofian religion where people were killed no practical reasons and punishments were given unjustly. Brutus betrays Caesar, his friend and superior in rank, by assassinating him. Brutus felt that Caesar was a man that could change into a tyrannical ruler. Do Humans Need Essay! To kill him would be for the greater good of Rome.

However, their actions were not completely the same. Nwoye did not kill anyone as Brutus had done. Nwoye. Essay Love is saul cornell, Beautiful in Julius Caesar. you do love me, I am nothing jealous; what you would work me to, I have some aimĒ (Brutus, Act I, Line 162, Scene II). What Brutus is Really Electronics?, pretty much saying here is that these people do love me and they want me to rule. Cassuis bring up the plot to kill Caesar and what does then mentions a famous ancestor of Brutus to win him over.

Brutus sees that these people do not ďloveĒ him as well a lover. Do Humans Need! They love him as a would-be ruler. They want him to live up to his famous ancestry and once again defeat an ďevilĒ ďBy. Julius Caesar Cause and Effect Essay. Dramatic Irony is Social Institutions Essay, when the readers know what something that the character does not know. Dramatic Irony applies to Do Humans Really Need Essay this because readers know that the saul cornell conspirators are plotting to Electronics? kill Caesar while he is not aware that they are. Another warning sign that he should not go to the Senate meeting occurs on March 15 (Ides of March) right before the meeting. Essay On Dangers! Calphurnia describes how she has had strange and Really Electronics? frightful dreams of Caesar's stature pouring our blood while happy citizens of Rome bathe their.

William Shakespeare#x27;s Julius Caesar Essay. He is a noble roman, and well given.Ē By Anthony defending Cassius character, it shows that they considered Cassius to does the integumentary do be their close friend, and Caesar trusted Anthony a lot, to take his advice. It shows their extremely strong friendship. Shakespeare makes sure we see glimpses of courage in Really Need Essay all the main characters and many of the minor ones. This is emphasized in Act 1, Scene 3, lines 57-9. ďYou are dull, Casca, and system do those sparks of Need Electronics?, life that should be in a. William Shakespeare#x27;s Julius Caesar Essay. In saying this, Antony gets to the emotional side of the crowd. He is of Internet Misuse, trying to make the crowd feel sorry for wanting Caesar dead, and is successful at doing so. Antony uses pathos in a number of Electronics?, different ways throughout his speech.

Antony informs the plebeians that bloody treason flourish[es] over [them]. (3.2.193) This connotation along with the tone in which it is told creates a feeling of sadness, and gave the audience a vision of the event. This growing emotion in the commoners (affected. The Assassination of Julius Caesar by Marcus Brutus Essay examples. Immediate Effects Of Marijuana! Brutus and held unwaveringly to Caesars rule (Plutarch, 2004), Brutus writes, ďCaesar does not hinder me, nor will he hinder me, from doing according to the laws(Plutarch, 2004). Do Humans Really Need Electronics?! Brutus and the other conspirators compelled in their beliefs that Caesar was unworthy of rule and did not hold the commonwealthís interests and concerns (Plutarch, 2004). In the account, ďThe Assassination of Julius CaesarĒ (44 BC) by Nicolaus of Damascus, The author portrays Caesar as a ďselfish dictatorĒ. Essay On Dangers Of Internet! Although. Essay on Character Motives in William Shakespeareís Julius Caesar. exposes some of the jealousy he has toward Caesar and his power. Cassius hopes that by killing Caesar, he will rise to Really Electronics? Essay power.

In the end, readers see how his motivation to kill Caesar leads to his death. Though it may not seem like it at times, Brutus is the only conspirator with completely noble intentions and motives. Although he considers himself to be a good friend of what does system do, Caesar, his love for Do Humans Really Electronics? Rome turns out to be greater than his loyalty to Caesar. In his monologue to immediate effects the Roman people following. Julius Caesar the True Tragic Hero Essay. As the ides of March came along, Caesar marched toward the senate and was confident that all of the predictions were false and Need Electronics? Essay that he truly was an traduzione immortal being, even going to the extent of Really Need Electronics?, mocking the soothsayer by saying: ďThe ides of March are come.Ē(Act 3, scene 1, line 1). He then approached the senate meeting his good friend and on Dangers of Internet loyal companion Brutus and at that moment Julius Caesarís Paripateia occurred when his ďloyal followersĒ began stabbing Caesar to Do Humans Really Essay the death. Despite the agony and. The Republic in Shakespeare?s Julius Caesar Essay. ideal that finds extensive portrayal in Shakespeareís play Julius Caesar. Julius Caesar is immortal in the field of literature, with Shakespeare often hailed as the greatest playwright to have ever lived.

The play, though it has many facets, can also be viewed through the lens of the socio-political concept of classical republicanism, with the events portraying its actual position and the ramifications for civic life in general. Julius Caesar is a valiant warrior who holds the position of daffodils wordsworth traduzione, dictator in. Do Humans Really Need Electronics?! Cassius and Brutus die with their last words being concerned with Caesar ďCaesar, thou art revengedĒ. In turn, this further illustrates that the composers biased attitude is wordsworth traduzione, evident in the play ďJulius CaesarĒ as we are given multiple perceptions on Do Humans Really Need Electronics?, the one personality. Therefore it is evident that even though different perspectives towards the personality are manifested, Shakespeareís bias is immediate effects of marijuana, still evident. In the play ďJulius CaesarĒ individuals are driven by Do Humans Really Electronics?, different ambitions and motivations.

Essay on daffodils wordsworth traduzione, Brutusí Love for Really Need Rome in Shakespeareís Julius Caesar. care for what does the integumentary do Caesar as well. Do Humans Essay! Brutus believed that Caesar being king would cause more problems for the country. Brutus wanted the best for his country so he decided to eliminate the problem which was King Julius Caesar. Brutus explains to Lucius saying, ďThat at saul cornell his will he may do danger with the abuse of greatnessÖď (Act 1, Scene 3) Brutus felt as if Caesar would take the power of being king to his head which would cause issues for the people of Electronics? Essay, Rome. In scene three of act one of ďJulius Caesar, Brutus. Comparing Leadership In Shakespeareís Julius Caesar and does the integumentary system do Machiavelliís The Prince.

For example, Brutus expressed that he loves Caesar, but he will work hard for the general good (Shakespeare I Ėii 94-95). His reasoning comes from his sincerity for the people, as well as his noble title. By helping more people than himself, the actions of a leader will greatly benefit the outcome in almost any situation. Accountability is Do Humans Really Electronics?, very important when it comes to a higher-level position because it shows others that a person is willing to admit his mistakes. When a leader does present something. Julius Caesar Essay: Flawed Models of Leadership. moving oration at law act malaysia Caesar's funeral- Had you rather Caesar were living and die all slaves, than that Caesar were dead, to live all freemen? and Who is here so rude that would not be a Roman? If any speak; for him have I offended. Who is here so vile that will not love his country? If any, speak; for him have I offended, reinforces this aspect of his leadership It is ironic, that towards the end, the absolutes that killed Caesar (absolute self-confidence and absolute power), are encompassed.

Superstition In Shakespeares The Tragedy of Do Humans Electronics? Essay, Julius Caesar Essay. language of the supernatural prophesy running through the play, the characters either ignore it, or they construe the meanings Ďafter their [own] fashioníĒ (Farrow). This is exactly what Caesar does, because he really does want to go to the Senate that day. On Dangers! Another major event that is foreshadowed in Julius Caesar is Brutusís death at Phillipi. Caesarís ghost pays a visit to Brutus in Need Electronics? Essay order to tell him ď. thou shalt see me at and Manipulation PhillipiĒ (382; act4, sc3). The reader knows Caesarís ghost came for. Need! Julius Caesar by the Orlando Shakespeare Theater Production Essay. having Ancient Romans speak of hats and doublets, or telling one another to count the chiming of the clock. The inclusion of these anachronistic elements was hardly accidental, however.

Theatre reflects the society in which it is crafted, and Julius Caesar, a play about the chaotic power vacuum left behind by the sudden death of a leader, was penned during the period just before the daffodils traduzione death of Elizabeth I, who had not yet named an heir. This style of social commentary is present in all of Shakespeareís. The Assassination of Juilius Caesar . Electronics?! In William Shakespeareís The Tragedy of Julius Caesar. Marcus Antonius, a loyal supporter of Caesar, reminds the people, ďWhen that the poor have cried, Caesar hath wept; Ambition should be made sterner stuffĒ (III. Essay On Dangers Misuse! ii. 92-93). Antony wins back the peopleís favor for Caesar after his death and tells the Do Humans Need Electronics? Essay people that they should not be praising Brutus because Caesar was a great man.

Even when he is dead, Caesar helps the people through his will, that Antony presents, ďHere is the will and under Caesarís seal. To every Roman citizen he gives, To several. Brutus is not all Nobility and Caesar is not all Ambition in Shakespeare#x27;s Julius Caesar. Social Institutions And Manipulation! Caesarism and the idea of absolute rule by a single king. Caesar may have been a potential ďsnake in Do Humans Need Electronics? a shellĒ, but this claim was based upon what he assumed people ďas his kindĒ would grow to become when they were climbing up the ladder of success. Brutus had no evidence of Caesar becoming a tyrant and Brutusí decisions were made with no real evidence. Also, it is clear that Brutus is a poor judge of character, and that his assumption of Caesar may have been inaccurate. Brutusí character is synonymous. What Does! Marcus Brutus as the Protagonist of William Shakespeare#x27;s Julius Caesar. likeness of Caesar in a dream, Caesar gives an ominous message implying to Brutus not to go to Philipi. . . Do Humans Really Electronics? Essay! . thou shalt see me at Philipi. The ghost of Caesar, unimportant and unbelieved is perceived as a day dream.

Brutus, not paying any attention to the dead and gone Caesar, does not listen. In this sense, Caesar does not make a strong enough impression upon other characters in the play to be taken seriously. Institutions Essay! In the battles between Antony and Brutus, Caesar is often. Prophecy in Elizabethan Era and in Electronics? Julius Caesar by William Shakespeare. lines, Casca proves himself to be an exemplary foil to Caesar. He is cowardly where Caesarís bravery is Social and Manipulation Essay, undying; he is Really Essay, cruel and selfish where Caesar is for the good of the people. He is saul cornell, also, conveniently, the first of the conspirators to stab Caesar. Shakespeare, in this event, creates a greater degree of sympathy for Caesar in his audience. A third character developed and utilized well as a result of prophecy would be Cassius. Unlike Caesar and Casca, Cassius undergoes change that reveals itself. Essay The Common Man#x27;s Role In Shakespeare#x27;s Julius Caesar.

Similarly, Caesar makes very few appearances even though his name is the title of the play. Really Need Electronics?! This shows that the play isn't really about him, but the events and people that surround him. The public are stupid, poor and ignorant. This is blatantly illustrated by Shakespeare in a few scenes, most memorably the funeral speech scene, Act 3 Scene 2 when they completely misunderstand Brutus' message of how totalitarianism is the wrong way to go. Let him be Caesar. Caesar's. The Character of Marcus Brutus in what does the integumentary system do The Tragedy of Do Humans Really Electronics?, Julius Caesar. 68-75). He said all the conspirators except Brutus killed Caesar out of envy. Daffodils! Even when committing a crime so severe as murder, Brutus suggested to Do Humans Really Electronics? Essay the conspirators that they should carve him (Caesar) as a dish for the gods (II. i. 172-173). Brutus' loyalty for what does Rome is demonstrated when he says about Caeasr, I know no personal cause to spurn at him, but for the general (II. Need Electronics? Essay! i. 21-22).

He was willing to kill Caesar, his friend, even though Caesar hadn't done anything wrong yet. Saul Cornell! Finally, Brutus was honorable. Many Tragic Heroes and Societal Issues Found in Julius Caesar. Do Humans Really Electronics? Essay! This `role-playing' can be seen in Lines 199 through 208, where Caesar refers to Cassius in conversation with Marcus Antonius: Quite through the Deeds of Men. He loves no Plays, / As thou dost, Antony; he hears no music/ Seldom he smiles, and effects smiles in Really such a sort/ As if he mock'd himself, and on Dangers of Internet scorn'd his Spirit/ That could be mov'd to smile at any thing. / Such men as he be never at Heart's Ease/ Whiles they behold a Greater than themselves, / And therefore are they very Dangerous. Act 2 Scene 1 Extended Response Julius Caesar. Essay. Brutus thinks that as a monarch, Caesar may run to extremities and become excessive in Do Humans Really Need Electronics? his tyrannical rule. Brutus also thinks about the Social Essay fact that when one climbs the ďyoung ambitionís ladder. the climber up turns his face; Öonce he attains the uppermost round, the then unto the ladder turns his back Ö scorning the base degrees by which he did ascend.Ē On the basis of this possibility, which would ruin the Republic, he must be killed. Brutus, and of course Shakespeare, uses the metaphor of a. Caesar was on the list of people to be exiled. Sulla probably went after Caesar because of his relation to Marius and Sulla, two of his enemies.

Any offspring of Do Humans, that marriage would be considered a threat to Institutions and Manipulation him. His family pleaded for Really his life and he was spared, but stripped of his inheritance. In order to pacify the situation, Caesar left Rome and joined the army. There he proved to be a courageous soldier and gained leadership skills and popularity. Before returning to civil Rome he went to Rhodes. Caesar was one with his men, and even stood on the front line next to them as he distributed orders. Caesar shared his victories with his troops and in return he received excessive amounts of loyalty. Following his role as governor in Spain, Caesar formed a deal to Really Electronics? rule with Pompey and Crassus; they then formed the First Triumvirate.

The trio presented many laws to the public and most of them were passed. After the Essay First Triumvirate ended, Gaul was the next stop for Caesar. He was going to begin. In Act 3 Scene 2 of Essay, Shakespeare#x27;s Play Julius Caesar, Why Does Antony Succeed and Brutus Fail to Persuade the Crowd. works as a list to make it seem like there were many reasons for the assassination and what does do he keeps reinforcing his opinions with repetition. Brutus also explained that he didn't hate Caesar, but that he loved Rome more. He says Not that I loved Caesar less, but I loved Rome more this shows it would have been hard to kill Caesar, as he loved him, but he is so sure it is Electronics?, right he had to killed him. At one point, they wanted to daffodils wordsworth traduzione crown Brutus, who intended for Really Need everyone to be free. Brutus didn't use any emotion. To think that Caesar bears such rebel blood That will be thaw'd from the wordsworth traduzione true quality 9. Really Electronics?! In his address to the mob in the forum (Act III Scene 2, lines 12-44), Brutus speaks in prose, not blank verse. Daffodils Traduzione! His words have been described as ďa lectureĒ. a. Show from the speech that Brutus knows he enjoys the Really Need Electronics? respect of Roman citizens.

Then none have I offended. I have done no more to Caesar than you shall do to Brutus. you rather Caesar were living, and die all slaves, than Caesar were dead, to live all freemen?Ē With the immediate effects use of a rhetorical question and repetition in his words, such as ďvaliantĒ, ďhonourĒ and ďCaesar the ambitiousĒ, Brutus is able to influence and manipulate the plebeians to Need Electronics? Essay what he considers the saul cornell correct viewpoint; ďlet Brutus be Caesar!Ē In sheer contrast, Antony uses sarcastic, derogatory terms against Brutus to Need Electronics? Essay allow the crowd to truly question Brutusí Ďhonourí and Ďnobility.í ďCaesar was my friend. The Assassination of Julius Caesar Essay. Ďcommon people of Rome from as Ö Ďrabbleí Ē (Parenti 3). Parenti believes that historian writers in civil the upper, educated, aristocratic class are the reasons why many pieces of Do Humans Really Need Essay, literature portray Caesar as a power mad demagogue or as a person who never wanted power Historian either view the death of Caesar as justified, because he was a dictator and it would benefit the people of Rome, or unjustified, because conspirators were trying to retain power These perspectives are from modern historians not. Julius Caesar - Manipulation Essay. which actually for a short time made him more powerful because now that Caesar is dead, the people see Brutus as the primary murderer. The plebeians are the number one target of manipulation in this play and for good reason, they are easy to sway. Saul Cornell! Mark Antony notices this and Do Humans Really Electronics? Essay during his speech at Caesarís funeral where he manipulates them to the point that they turn on the conspirators. He says ďIn every wound of Caesar that should move the stones of immediate of marijuana, Rome to rise and mutiny,Ē (Act III Scene II.

Robbed of their individuality and denied a place within the social hierarchy. (Cor. Do Humans! 1.1.62). Portrayed like a common herd (1.2.264), plebeians are moved to patience at the behest of Brutus as easily as they are moved to Mischief by the words of civil law act malaysia, Antony (3.2.264, 253).In contrast to the noble Brutus (1.2.308), whose reasoned decision to join the conspirators is detailed in his soliloquies and his conversations with Cassius, the rabblement is shown to Need Essay be incapable of individual thought. A Comparison of the Women in Julius Caesar Essay. of by her husband, does not know of her husbandís plan to kill Caesar. Brutusís hesitation to confide in Portia proves that he still has doubts about the Social conspiracy. Still, he ignores those doubts though he ends up not telling Portia about the conspiracy. As Portia is kept in the dark, Brutus also keeps his private life in the dark. Similarly, Calpurnia is shunned by her husband when he decides to Need Electronics? Essay go to saul cornell Senate against Need Essay her wishes. Caesar does give in for a while, but ultimately he chooses politics over. Julius Caesar - Analyses of Characters Essay. He despised Caesar and daffodils people like him.

He believes in a truly democratic government for Rome whereas Caesar wanted one leader ? him. Do Humans Need Essay! Cassius saw that Caesar was hungry for power and would not stop until he got it and Cassius refused to let that happen. He is very loyal to daffodils wordsworth traduzione Rome and very determined. He saw that Caesar had his weaknesses and he took advantage of them and Really Need Essay he will probably do the same with Mark Antony. He can see that Mark Antony is not being sincere when talking to daffodils Brutus and he can.

Essay Julius Caesar (Superstisions Analysis) ego hides any pessimistic predictions for his future, and he pays little attention to Need Essay the warning. There were many more signs, all pointing to the same fate, and Caesar did not listen, Alas, my dear, your wisdom is immediate effects of marijuana, consumed in confidence. Do not go forth today, (Shakespeare, pgs. 77-78) warns his wife on the day he was murdered. Caesar does not listen to Do Humans Really Essay her in the end.

His murder was executed as forecasted, and if he had listened to all the warnings, he may have saved his own life. Caesar's stubbornness. A Multiple Choice Test on Julius Caesar Essay. reinterprets Calpurnia's dream to entice Caesar to traduzione go to the meeting. 13. What is Do Humans Need, ironic about the timing of Caesar's murder (in relation to the preceding events)? a. He is murdered just as he is reading the warning from Portia. b. He is saul cornell, destroyed just after proclaiming his magnificence and Really Need Electronics? indestructibility. c. It occurs just after a great storm and earthquake. d. Brutus has changed his mind, but is not able to stop the others. 14. According to daffodils the play, Caesar was stabbed _______ times: a. 300 c. 13. Essay about A Rhetorical Analysis of Julius Caesar. Brutus employs questions asked for effect, and Need Electronics? consequently convinces the crowd that Caesar had potential for tyranny. Brutus effectively persuades the on Dangers of Internet crowd because he provokes emotion by using commanding diction that plants images of persecution in the thoughts of the Roman citizens. Brutus effectively persuades the crowd to Do Humans Really Need Electronics? Essay support his cause, but fails to civil reach the crowd as personally as Antony because he speaks superiorly to the crowd rather than a peer, as Antony does.

Near the end of his speech. Essay about Psychology in Julius Caesar. Brutus and Cassius have a very complicated relationship. ď[Cassius] loves Brutus, but he also manipulates Brutus. Nonetheless, Brutus's friendship is more important to him than anything else. Ultimately, it [becomes] even more important than victory and the republican causeÖ Cassius sacrificed the fate of Rome three times for his friendship with BrutusĒ (Heller).

Cassiusís willingness to Essay manipulate Brutus makes Brutus seem like a weak character, but when he takes charge of the conspiracy and Social Institutions and Manipulation convinces. Do Humans Really Essay! Fate vs. Free Will in Julius Caesar Essay. And Manipulation! standing in life. This diligent effort to better himself led Caesar to comment such men as he are very dangerous (I. ii. 209-210). Cassius' role in the play was using his free will to Do Humans overcome the fate that would come true, the fate that Caesar was one day going to become emperor.

Because he was so driven by the desire to overcome this fate, he was able to conquer all obstacles that came his way, and accomplished his goal in killing Caesar. Towards the end of the play, however, Cassius states that. Significant Political Relationships of Julius Caesar Essay examples. Pompeyís standing lent Caesar considerable prestige, Crassus served to Social Essay substitute for Caesarís financial vulnerability. Another crucial element to building Caesarís standing was forming a military repute. Really! Goldworthy notes that Caesar ďneeded military glory to daffodils rival Crassus, and especially PompeyĒ. In influencing Caesarís pro-consulship in 58BC, the Triumvirate effectively granted Caesar command of an army and enabled him to establish a successful military career. Really Essay! However, as Caesar became increasingly. Essay about Julius Caesar: Speech Comparisson. right in front of them. Thirdly, Antony uses dramatics to further his point.

On page 133 lines 117 to 118 a citizen remarks ďPoor soul! his eyes are red as fire with weeping.Ē. Essay On Dangers! By crying in front of the crowd Antony is showing how much he cared for Caesar and how he was treated unjustly. He earns sympathy from the crowd, messing with their emotions to sway their opinion. Antony also uses false modesty in Need Electronics? his speech. On page 139 lines 216 to 217 Antony says ďI come not, friends, to what does do steal away your. The Tragic Hero of Julius Caes Essay. that definitely must show something. Brutus killed Caesar for the people of Rome#8217;s sake, not for his own.

A true hero would think of other people before thinking of himself. In the play, we see Brutus feelings and actions, more than Caesar#8217;s. Caesar dies halfway through the play, so he can not be the tragic hero if his character has not been developed yet. Another point is that if Brutus was not part Julius Caesar, the killing of Caesar most likely would never had happened, therefore.

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Research in Programming Languages. Is there still research to be done in Programming Languages? This essay touches both on Do Humans Really Essay, the topic of programming languages and on the nature of on Dangers Misuse research work. I am mostly concerned in analyzing this question in the context of Do Humans Need Electronics? Essay Academia, i.e. within the expectations of academic programs and research funding agencies that support research work in the STEM disciplines ( Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics ). This is not the only possible perspective, but it is the one I am taking here. PLs are dear to on Dangers of Internet Misuse my heart, and Really Electronics?, a considerable chunk of my career was made in that area. As a designer, there is something fundamentally interesting in designing a language of any kind.

Itís even more interesting and gratifying when people actually start exercising those languages to create non-trivial software systems. Wordsworth Traduzione! As a user, I love to use programming languages that I havenít used before, even when the Really Electronics? Essay languages in question make me curse every other line. But the truth of the matter is that ever since I finished my Ph.D. in does system do, the late 90s, and Really Need, especially since I joined the saul cornell ranks of Academia, I have been having a hard time convincing myself that research in PLs is a worthy endeavor. I feel really bad about my rational arguments against it, though. Hence this essay.

Perhaps by the time I am done with it I will have come to Need Electronics? Essay terms with this dilemma. Back in the 50s, 60s and 70s, programming languages were a BigDeal, with large investments, upfront planning, and what do, big drama on standardization committees (Ada was the Do Humans Really Electronics? epitome of that model). Things have changed dramatically during the 80s. Civil 1956 Malaysia! Since the 90s, a considerable percentage of new languages that ended up being very popular were designed by lone programmers, some of them kids with no research inclination, some as a side hobby, and without any grand goal other than either making some routine activities easier or for plain hacking fun. Examples: PHP, by Rasmus Lerdorf circa 1994, ďoriginally used for tracking visits to Do Humans Essay his online resume, he named the suite of scripts ĎPersonal Home Page Tools,í more frequently referenced as ĎPHP Tools.í Ē [1] PHP is a marvel of effects of marijuana how a horrible language can become the foundation of large numbers of applicationsÖ for a second time! Worse is Better redux.

According one informal but interesting survey, PHP is Really Need Essay now the 4th most popular programming language out there, losing only to C, Java and C++. JavaScript, by Brendan Eich circa 1995, ďPlus, I had to be done in ten days or something worse than JS would have happened.Ē [2] According to that same survey, JavaScript is the saul cornell 5th most popular language, and I suspect it is Do Humans Really Essay climbing up that rank really fast. It may be #1 by now. Python, by immediate effects, Guido van Rossum circa 1990, ďI was looking for a Ďhobbyí programming project that would keep me occupied during the week around Christmas.Ē [3] Python comes at #6, and its strong adoption by scientific computing communities is Do Humans Really Need Electronics? well know. Ruby, by Yukihiro ďMatzĒ Matsumoto circa 1994, ďI wanted a scripting language that was more powerful than Perl, and more object-oriented than Python. Thatís why I decided to design my own language.Ē [4] At #10 in that survey. Compare this mindset with the context in which the the older well-known programming languages emerged: Fortran, 50s, originally developed by what system, IBM as part of their core business in computing machines. Cobol, late 50s, designed by Essay, a large committee from the onset, sponsored by civil 1956 malaysia, the DoD. Lisp, late 50s, main project occupying 2 professors at MIT and their students, with the Really grand goal of producing an algebraic list processing language for artificial intelligence work, also funded by the DoD. C, early 70s, part of the law act 1956 malaysia large investment that Bell Labs was doing in the development of Unix.

Smalltalk, early 70s, part of a large investment that Xerox did in ďinventing the futureĒ of computers. Back then, developing a language processor was, indeed, a very big deal. Computers were slow, didnít have a lot of memory, the language processors had to be written in low-level assembly languagesÖ it wasnít something someone would do in their rooms as a hobby, to put it mildly. Essay! Since the 90s, however, with the emergence of PCs and of decent low-level languages like C, developing a language processor is no longer a BigDeal. Hence, languages like PHP and JavaScript. There is a lot of immediate effects fun in designing new languages, but this fun is Do Humans Electronics? not an exclusive right of researchers with, or working towards, Ph.Ds. Given all the knowledge about programming languages these days, anyone can do it. And many do.

And hereís the first itchy point: there appears to be no correlation between the success of immediate of marijuana a programming language and Really, its emergence in the form of someoneís doctoral or post-doctoral work. This bothers me a lot, as an academic. It appears that deep thoughts, consistency, rigor and Essay of Internet, all other things we value as scientists arenít that important for mass adoption of programming languages. But then again, Iím not the first to say it. Do Humans Essay! Itís just that this phenomenon is hard to digest, and if you really grasp it, it has tremendous consequences. And Manipulation! If people (the potential users) donít care about Really Need Essay conceptual consistency, why do we keep on malaysia, trying to achieve that? To be fair, some of Electronics? Essay those languages designed in the 90s as side projects, as they became important, eventually became more rigorous and consistent, and attracted a fair amount of academic attention and industry investment. Civil Law Act Malaysia! For example, the Netscape JavaScript hacks quickly fell on Need Electronics? Essay, Guy Steeleís lap resulting in the ECMAScript specification. Python was never a hack even if it started as a Christmas hobby. Ruby is a fun language and quite elegant from the beginning. PHPÖ wellÖ itís fun for possibly the wrong reasons.

But the saul cornell core of the matter is that ďthe right thingĒ was not the goal. It seems that a reliable implementation of a language that addresses an important practical need is the key for the popularity of Do Humans Need a programming language. But being opportunistic isnít what research is supposed to be aboutÖ (or is it?) Also to be fair, not all languages designed in the 90s and daffodils wordsworth traduzione, later started as side projects. For example, Java was a relatively large investment by Sun Microsystems. So was .NET later by Microsoft. And, finally, all of these new languages, even when created over a week as someoneís pet project, sit on Need, the shoulders of all things that existed before. This leads me to the second itch: one striking commonality in all modern programming languages, especially the popular ones, is how little innovation there is in saul cornell, them ! Without exception, including the Really Essay languages developed in research groups, they all feel like mashups of concepts that already existed in saul cornell, programming languages in 1979, wrapped up in their own idiosyncratic syntax. (I lied: exceptions go to Do Humans Need aspects and monads both of which came in effects of marijuana, the 90s)

So one pertinent question is: given that not much seems to have emerged since 1979 (thatís 30+ years!), is there still anything to innovate in programming languages? Or have we reached the Really asymptotic plateau of innovation in does the integumentary, this area? I need to make an important detour here on the nature of research. Perhaps Iím completely off; perhaps producing innovative new software is not a goal of [STEM] research . Under this approach, any software work is dismissed from STEM pursuits, unless it is necessary for some specific goal ó like if you want to Do Humans Need Essay study some far-off galaxy and you need an daffodils, IT infrastructure to collect the data and make simulations (S for Science); or if you need some glue code for piecing existing systems together (T for Technology); or if you need to Do Humans Essay improve the and Manipulation performance of something that already exists (E for Do Humans Really Need Electronics?, Engineering); or if you are a working on some Mathematical model of computation and immediate, want to make your ideas come to life in the form of a language (M for Mathematics). This is an extreme submissive view of software systems, one that places software in the back sit of STEM and that denies the Do Humans Really Electronics? Essay existence of value in what does the integumentary, research in/by software itself.

If we want to lead something on our own, letís justÖ do empirical studies of technology or become biologists/physicists/chemists/mathematicians or make existing things perform better or do theoretical/statistical models of universes that already exist or that are created by others. Right? I confess I have a dysfunctional relationship with this idea. Personally, I canít be happy without creating software things, but I have been able to make my scientist-self function both as a cold-minded analyst and, at times, as an Do Humans Really, expert passenger in someone elseís research project. The design work, for me, has moved to sabbatical time, evenings and weekends; I donít publish it [much] other than the code itself and some informal descriptions. And yet, I loathe this situation. I loathe it because itís is clear to me that software systems are something very, very special. Software revolutionized everything in unexpected ways, including the methods and practices that our esteemed colleagues in the ďhardĒ sciences hold near and dear for a very long time. The evolution of information technology in the past 60 years has been _way_ off from what our colleagues thought they needed. Over and over again, software systems have been created that werenít part of any scientific project, as such, and saul cornell, that ended up playing a central role in Science. Instead of trying to mimic our colleaguesí traditional practices, ďcomputer scientistsĒ ought to be showing the way to a new kind of science ó maybe that new kind of science or that one or maybe something else.

I dare to suggest that the Do Humans Need Electronics? something else is saul cornell related to the design of things that have software in them. It should not be called Science. It is a bit like Engineering, but itís not it either because weíre not dealing [just] with physical things. Technology doesnít cut it either. It needs a new name, something that denotes ďthe design of things with software in them.Ē I will call it Design for short, even though that word is so abused that it has lost its meaning.

Letís assume, then, that itís acceptable to create/design new things ó innovate ó in the context of doctoral work. Do Humans Need Electronics? Essay! Now comes the real hard question. If anyone ó researchers, engineers, talented kids, summer interns ó can design and implement programming languages, what are the actual hard goals that doctoral research work in saul cornell, programming languages seeks that distinguishes it from Do Humans Really Need Essay what anyone can do? Let me attempt to answer these questions, first, with some well-known goals of language design: Performance ó one can always have more of this; certain application domains need it more than others. This usually involves having to come up with interesting data structures and algorithms for the implementation of Social Institutions PLs that werenít easy to devise. Human Productivity ó one can always want more of this. There is no ending to trying to Do Humans Need Electronics? Essay make development activities easier/faster. Verifiability ó in on Dangers of Internet Misuse, some domains this is important.

There are other goals, but they are second-order. For example, languages may also need to catch up with innovations in hardware design ó multi-core comes to mind. Do Humans Essay! This is a second-order goal, the on Dangers of Internet Misuse real goal behind it is to Need Electronics? Essay increase performance by taking advantage of potentially higher-performing hardware architectures. In other words, someone wanting to do doctoral research work in programming languages ought to have one or more of these goals in law act 1956, mind, and ó very important ó ought to Do Humans Electronics? be ready to demonstrate how his/her ideas meet those goals . If you tell me that your language makes something run faster, consume less energy, makes some task easier or results in programs with less bugs, the scientist in Social Essay, me demands that you show me the Need Essay data that supports such claims. A lot of wordsworth traduzione research activity in programming languages falls under the Really Electronics? performance goal, the Engineering side of things. I think everyone in our field understands what this entails, and is able to differentiate good work from bad work under that goal. But a considerable amount of research activities in programming languages invoke the human productivity argument; entire sub-fields have emerged focusing on the engineering of languages that are believed to increase human productivity. So Iím going to focus on the human productivity goal.

The human productivity argument touches on the core of what attracts most of us to creating things: having a direct positive effect on other people. It has been carelessly invoked since the beginning of Computer Science. What System Do! (I highly recommend this excellent essay by Do Humans Really Need, Stefan Hanenberg published at Onward! 2010 with a critique of software scienceís neglect of human factors) Unfortunately, this argument is the hardest to defend. In fact, I am yet to see the of marijuana first study that convincingly demonstrates that a programming language, or a certain feature of programming languages, makes software development a more productive process. If you know of such study, please point me to Need Electronics? Essay it. I have seen many observational studies and controlled experiments that try to do it [5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, among many]. I think those studies are really important, there ought to be more of them, but they are always very difficult to do [well]. Unfortunately, they always fall short of giving us any definite conclusions because, even when they are done right, correlation does not imply causation. Hence the never-ending ping-pong between studies that focus on the same thing and and Manipulation, seem to reach opposite conclusions, best known in the health sciences. Essay! We are starting to what the integumentary see that ping-pong in software science too, for example 7 vs 9. But at least these studies show some correlations, or lack thereof, given specific experimental conditions, and they open the healthy discussion about what conditions should be used in order to Really Electronics? get meaningful results.

I have seen even more research and informal articles about programming languages that claim benefits to human productivity without providing any evidence for it whatsoever, other than the authorsí or the communityís intuition, at best based on saul cornell, rational deductions from abstract beliefs that have never been empirically verified. Here is one that surprised me because I have the highest respect for the academic soundness of Haskell. Statements like this ď Haskell programs have fewer bugs because Haskell is: pure [Ö], strongly typed [Ö], high-level [Ö], memory managed [Ö], modular [Ö] [Ö] There just isnít any room for bugs! Ē are nothing but wishful thinking. Without the data to support this claim, this statement is deceptive; while it can be made informally in Do Humans Really Need Electronics? Essay, a blog post designed to evangelize the crowd, it definitely should not be made in the context of doctoral work unless that work provides solid evidence for such a strong statement. That article is Social Institutions Essay not an Electronics? Essay, outlier. The Internets are full of Essay on Dangers articles claiming improved software development productivity for just about every other language. No evidence is ever provided, the Do Humans argumentation is always either (a) deducted from of marijuana principles that are supposed to be true but that have never been verified, or (b) extrapolated from ad-hoc, highly biased, severely skewed personal experiences. This is the main reason why I stopped doing research in Really Electronics? Essay, Programming Languages in does the integumentary do, any official capacity.

Back when I was one of the main evangelists for AOP I realized at Do Humans Really Electronics? Essay some point that I had crossed the line to saying things for which I had very little evidence. I was simplyÖ evangelizing, i.e. convincing others of an idea that I believed strongly. At some point I felt I needed empirical evidence for daffodils, what I was saying. But providing evidence for the human productivity argument is damn hard! My scientist self cannot lead doctoral students into that trap, a trap that I know too well. Moreover, designing and Do Humans Really Electronics?, executing the experiments that lead to uncovering such evidence requires a lot of time and a whole other set of skills that have absolutely nothing to do with the and Manipulation time and skills for actually designing programming languages.

We need to learn the Do Humans Need Electronics? Essay methods that experimental psychologists use. And, in does system, the end of all that work, we will be lucky if we unveil correlations but we will not be able to draw any definite conclusions, which isÖ depressing. But without empirical evidence of Need Electronics? any kind, and from a scientific perspective, unsubstantiated claims pertaining to, say, Haskell or AspectJ (which are mostly developed and used by academics and have been the and Manipulation Essay topic of many PhD dissertations) are as good as unsubstantiated claims pertaining to, say, PHP (which is Really Electronics? Essay mostly developed and used by non-academics). The PHP community is actually very honest when it comes to stating the of marijuana benefits of using the language. For example, here is an honest-to-god set of reasons for using PHP.

Notice that there are no claims whatsoever about Really Need Essay PHP leading to less bugs or higher programmer productivity (as if anyone would dare to state that!); theyíre just pragmatic reasons. (Note also: Iím not implying that Haskell/AspectJ/PHP are ďcomparables;Ē they have quite different target domains. Iím just comparing the daffodils narratives surrounding those languages, the ďstoriesĒ that the Do Humans Really Need communities tell within themselves and to others) OK, now that I made 823 enemies by what does system, pointing out Really Need Electronics? Essay that the claims about human productivity surrounding languages that have emerged in saul cornell, academic communities ó and therefore ought to know better ó are unsubstantiated, PLUS 865 enemies by saying that empirical user studies are inconclusive and depressingÖ let me try to turn my argument around. Is the Do Humans Electronics? high bar of scientific evidence killing innovation in programming languages? Is this whatís causing the asymptotic behavior? It certainly is whatís keeping me away from daffodils wordsworth that topic, but Iím just a grain of sand. What about the work of many who propose intriguing new design ideas that are then shot down in peer-review committees because of the lack of evidence?

This ties back to Do Humans Really Electronics? my detour on wordsworth, the nature of research. Join Detour Design experimentation vs. Scientific evidence. So, weíre back to whether design innovation per se is an admissible first-order goal of doctoral work or not. Do Humans Need Electronics?! And now that question is joined by a counterpart: is the provision of Essay on Dangers Misuse scientific evidence really required for doctoral work in programming languages? If what we have in hand is not Science, we need to be careful not to blindly adopt methods that work well for Science, because that may kill the essence of our discipline. Need Essay! In my view, that essence has been the and Manipulation Essay radical, fast-paced, off the mark design experimentation enabled by software. This rush is fairly incompatible with the need to provide scientific evidence for Do Humans Really Need Essay, the design ďhopes.Ē Iíll try a parallel: drug design, the modern-day equivalent of alchemy. Civil 1956! In terms of research it is similar to software: partly based on rigor, partly on intuitions, and now also on automated tools that simply perform an enormous amount of logical combinations of Do Humans Really Electronics? Essay molecules and determine some objective function. When it comes to deployment, whoever is immediate of marijuana driving that work better put in Do Humans Really Electronics?, place a plan for saul cornell, actually testing the theoretical expectations in the context of actual people.

Does the drug really do what it is supposed to Do Humans Really do without any harmful side effects? We require scientific evidence for the claimed value of experimental drugs. Should we require scientific evidence for the value of experimental software? The parallel diverges significantly with respect to effects of marijuana the consequences of failure. Do Humans Really Need! A failure in drug design experimentation may lead to people dying or getting even more sick. A failure in law act 1956, software design experimentation is only a big deal if the experiment had a huge investment from the beginning and/or pertains to safety-critical systems. Need! There are still some projects like that, and for those, seeking solid evidence of Misuse their benefits before deploying the production version of the experiment is a good thing. But not all software systems are like that.

Therefore the burden of scientific evidence may be too much to bear. It is also often the case that over time, the enormous amount of testing by real use is enough to provide assurances of all kinds. One good example of design experimentation being at odds with scientific evidence is the proposal that Tim Berners-Lee made to CERN regarding the implementation of the hypertext system that became the Web. Really! Nowhere in that proposal do we find a plan for immediate of marijuana, verification of Really Electronics? Essay claims. Thatís just a solid good proposal for and Manipulation, an intriguing ďlinked information system.Ē I can imagine TB-Lís manager thinking: ďhmm, ok, this is intriguing, heís a smart guy, heís not asking that many resources, letís have him do it and see what comes of Do Humans Really Electronics? Essay it.

If nothing comes of it, no big deal.Ē Had TB-L have to devise a scientific or engineering assessment plan for that system beyond ďin the second phase, weíll install it on many machinesĒ maybe the world would be very different today, because he might have gotten caught in the black hole of Social Institutions and Manipulation Essay trying to find quantifiable evidence for something that didnít need that kind of validation. Granted, this was not a doctoral topic proposal; it was a proposal for the design and Need Essay, implementation of a very concrete system with software in it, one that (1) clearly identified the problem, (2) built on previous ideas, including the saul cornell authorís own experience, (3) had some intriguing insights in it, (4) stated expected benefits and potential applications ó down to the prediction of search engines and graph-based data analysis. Should a proposal like TB-Lís be rejected if it were to be a doctoral topic proposal? When is an unproven design idea doctoral material and other isnít? If we are to accept design ideas without validation plans as doctoral material, how do we assess them?

In order to do experimental design research AND be scientifically honest at the same time, one needs to let go of Do Humans Really Need Essay claims altogether. In that dreadful part of civil law act 1956 malaysia a topic proposal where the committee asks the student ďwhat are your claims?Ē the student should probably answer ďnone of interest.Ē In experimental design research, one can have hopes or expectations about the Do Humans Electronics? Essay effects of the system, and Social, those must be clearly articulated, but very few certainties will likely come out of such type of work. And thatís ok! Itís very important to be honest. Do Humans! For example, itís not ok to claim ďmy language produces bug-free programsĒ and then defend this with a deductive argument based on unproven assumptions; but itís ok to state ďI expect that my language produces programs with fewer bugs [but I donít have data to civil law act prove it].Ē TB-Lís proposal was really good at Do Humans Really Electronics? being honest. Finally, here is an attempt at establishing a rigorous criteria for design assessment in the context of what the integumentary system doctoral and post-doctoral research: Problem : how important and surprising is the problem and how good is its description? The problem space is, perhaps, the Do Humans Really most important component for a piece of design research work.

If the design is what does system not well grounded in an interesting and important problem, then perhaps itís not worth pursuing as research work. If itís a old hard problem, it should be formulated in a surprising manner. Very often, the Do Humans Really Need novelty of a design lies not in does system, the design itself but in its designer seeing the problem differently. So ó surprise me with the problem. Do Humans Need! Show me insights on the nature of the problem that we donít already know. Potential : what intriguing possibilities are unveiled by the design? Good design research work should open up doors for new avenues of exploration. Saul Cornell! Feasibility : good design research work should be grounded on Essay, what is Essay on Dangers of Internet possible to do. The ideas should be demonstrated in the form of a working system. Additionally, design research work, like any other research work, needs to be placed in a solid context of Really what already exists. This criteria has two consequences that I really like: first, it substantiates our intuitions about proposals such as TB-Lís ďlinked information systemĒ being a fine piece of [design] research work; second, it substantiates our intuitions on on Dangers, the difference of languages like Haskell vs. languages like PHP.

I leave that as an exercise to the reader! I would love to bring design back to my daytime activities. I would love to let my students engage in designing new things such as new programming languages and Electronics?, environments ó I have lots of ideas for what I would like to do in what system do, that area! I believe there is Need Electronics? a path to establishing a set of rigorous criteria regarding the assessment of design that is different from scientific/quantitative validation. Essay Of Internet! All this, however, doesnít depend on me alone. Do Humans! If my studentsí papers are going to be shot down in civil 1956, program committees because of the lack of Really Need Essay validation, then my wish is a curse for them. If my grant proposals are going to be rejected because they have no validation plan other than ďand then we install it in many machinesĒ or ďand then we make the software open source and free of chargeĒ then my wish is a curse for me. We need buy-in from and Manipulation a much larger community ó in Really, a way, reverse the trend of placing software research under the auspices of science and engineering [alone] . This, however, should only be done after the daffodils wordsworth traduzione community understands what science and scientific methods are all about Do Humans Essay (the engineering ones ó everyone knows about Social Institutions Essay them). At this point there is still a severe lack of understanding of science within the CS community. Our graduate programs need to cover empirical (and other scientific) methods much better than they currently do.

If we simply continue to Do Humans Electronics? ignore the workings of science and the burden of scientific proof, we end up continuing to make careless religious statements about our programming languages and systems that simply will lead nowhere, under the misguided impression that we are scientists because the name says so. Copyright © Crista Videira Lopes. All rights reserved. Note: this is a work-in-progress essay. Law Act 1956 Malaysia! I may update it from time to time.

Feedback welcome. 104 Responses to Research in Programming Languages. Thanks for the interesting article! I entirely agree with you when you say: ďwe need to Really Electronics? be careful not to blindly adopt methods that. work well for saul cornell, Science, because that may kill the essence. of our disciplineĒ Indeed!

One of my favorite quotes is Einsteinís. ďNot everything that can be counted counts, and not everything that counts can be countedĒ I think this is especially important to bear in Do Humans Really Electronics?, mind when considering PL/Design. (And yes, program committees are terrible at Essay of Internet evaluating language designs ó partly. because they are very difficult to evaluate! ó I have many anecdotes about this, all. quite objective IMO as none of them are about Really Need Electronics? Essay my own papers, but thats another storyÖ) That said, I believe the situation is Institutions and Manipulation not as dire as you indicate. Do Humans Really Electronics? Essay! As you point out: 1. ďÖone striking commonality in all modern programming languages, especially the. popular ones, is how little innovation there is in them!Ē

2. ďÖthere appears to be no correlation between the success of a programming language. and its emergence in the form of someoneís doctoral or post-doctoral work.Ē The explanation for this is *not* that all the interesting/innovative PL work was done. in the 70s, and the integumentary do, that the work now is simply too technical etc. Instead, the explanation is. that it *takes decades* to really figure out what the truly useful, valuable and. implementable designs/features are, and the best way to integrate them with. ďmainstreamĒ languages. In other words, the ďtech transferĒ process for language. design has proven to be decades longÖ

So yes, there is little correlation with programming *languages*, but I think the. picture is Really Need Electronics? quite different if you look at *features* not entire languages. Recall that it took GC nearly 50 years to go mainstream! As you point out, there are. few definitive ďscientificĒ studies about why even GC is better. Once you move to. things like static typing, I think it becomes an impossible endeavor, for the reasons. Einstein pithily describes. Thus, instead of saul cornell nifty scientific charts, what we have are. series of anecdotes and narratives built up over a long span (maybe decades), at.

which point the features inch into Do Humans Need Electronics? Essay the mainstream. Every time someone says ďthere has been no new innovative work in languagesĒ since. so-and-soís (Turing award) winning work in wordsworth, the 60s, 70s, one simply has to point. to the explosion of cleverness in Haskell, much of which has already. ďgone mainstreamĒ. Really Electronics?! The single most astonishing and daffodils traduzione, influential feature is. probably Typeclasses ó see Simon Peyton-Jonesí graph. which enabled a slew of other things (monads, FRP, generic programming, quickcheck etc.) I doubt any of Really Need Essay this could be anticipated when typeclasses came out, and indeed there are, to the integumentary system do my amazement, those who still question the value of this.

feature. Nevertheless, two-and-a-half decades on, these are all features. (local type inference, lambdas, LINQ,Ö) seeping into mainstream languages. C# has been particularly progressive in this regard. Other recent examples. that pop to mind are the early academic work on Do Humans Really Electronics?, SELF/OO (designs + optimizations) which are now the basis for many of the performance improvements for JS. And of wordsworth course, there are the many innovations around Scala and F# which.

are greatly informed by deep technical ideas that came out of the Need Electronics? Essay academic. So, the upshot is that yes, a lot of work in PL (and SE) is daffodils traduzione indeed design, which. is difficult if not impossible to evaluate using the usual scientific method. We should be looking for better ways to evaluate them, and not nipping ideas. in the Do Humans Really Need Electronics? Essay bud before there is bullet proof ďevidenceĒ of merit. Nevertheless, all is not lost. There does appear to be a (rather lengthy) social process, where thanks to.

anecdotal narratives there is immediate of marijuana a steady stream of Do Humans Essay academic ideas that eventually. seriously influencing mainstream languages. We should be thinking of daffodils wordsworth ways to. shorten this process, and in the meantime, be patient. If nothing else, Iíd argue that the most important contribution of PL research is the introduction of concepts that are later assimilated into more popular languages, even if the Electronics? research languages themselves never see wide acceptance. Python owes its list comprehensions to Haskell (similarly with Rustís typeclasses), and Iíd like to think that AspectJ had a non-negligible influence on Pythonís decorators. For a more extreme example, consider the fact (the fact! ) that we will never again see a new programming language that does not feature first-class functions. I like to think that there are countless novel, pragmatic concepts hiding away in obscure programming languages that are merely waiting for their day in the sun.

This is really spot on. On Dangers Of Internet! I would like to refer you to a couple of things that come to mind that you might find useful for advancing this line of Need thinking. First, I saw a talk by Jonathan Edwards that was very much along the what does system do lines of Do Humans Really Electronics? Essay what you wrote here: http://alarmingdevelopment.org/?p=5. Second, Christopher Alexanderís early work on patterns in effects of marijuana, architecture and Do Humans, urban design have been referenced quite a bit in computer science, but seldom is his Ďmagnum opusí, a four-book series on the Ďnature of orderí, referenced. These texts move far beyond the does the integumentary system do early work. You would do well to have a look at the first book, which tries to establish an objective theory of design not based on scientific principles: http://www.amazon.com/s/ref=nb_sb_noss_1?url=search-alias%3Daps#038;field-keywords=the+nature+of+order#038;x=0#038;y=0. Third, you might be interested to read some discussion on the history of music programming languages. Max/MSP and Pd, both dataflow-oriented, offer what I would estimate to Do Humans Electronics? be an order of magnitude of productivity gain for traduzione, certain tasks in building one-off multi-media systems. Theyíre a bit like a UNIX for Need Electronics?, real-time multi-media + control signals. This essay reminded me a bit of the anti-academic and organic approach that Miller Puckette took in building them despite being trained as a mathematician and developing them in an academic setting. This serves as a good lesson that successful software isnít necessarily designed by having good principles, but rather the proper environment , namely, one with energy and a need.

Check out two papers in the Computer Music Journal where this is on Dangers Misuse discussed: 2002. Miller Puckette, ďMax at SeventeenĒ. Do Humans Really Need! Computer Music Journal, 26(4) 2002. Eric Lyon, ďDartmouth Symposium on the Future of Computer Music Software: A Panel DiscussionĒ. Computer Music Journal, 26(4) Generally, computer music is one of the more interesting fields to look at if youíre interested in ascertaining the future of HCI, computer science and psychological research since from the saul cornell beginning they have not been accorded the luxury of forgoing certain constraints, such as that everything must happen in real-time, data must be of a certain resolution (in time and Ďspaceí) and that non-tech-savvy practitioners from other fields (musicians) must be able to use the tools as experts. Oh, and I would add that if you are not familiar with Bill Buxtonís career, it may prove interesting reading for you. He began in computer music and is now a strong advocate for Design in technology. Essay! One insight that he often emphasizes, which I donít claim is his originally, is that new technologies take 20-30 years to saul cornell be adopted.

According to this view, new ideas in Need Electronics? Essay, software design should expect to lie dormant for at least 20 years, echoing what @Ben wrote above. I fully agree with your viewpoint re. On Dangers Misuse! human productivity. I watch commercial Java progamming taking place and I see productivity no better than COBOL and probably a lot worse given how much more is expected of software now. I suspect most step change improvements in Do Humans Need Electronics? Essay, productivity have to come from better adaption to the task, i.e. from languages that are to a greater or lesser degree domain-specific. There is an saul cornell, old but fairly well-known and scientific paper by Do Humans Really, Verner Tate on comparison between COBOL and a 4GL. What Does The Integumentary System! The 4GL was. 5x more productive. Of course most of the 4GLs were arguably domain-specific languages for database-centric enterprise software. The paper is available via IEEE but I donít find any public copy. The title is ďestimating size and effort in fourth-generation developmentĒ.

If you have Bob Glassís book Software Conflict itís highlighted on p.98, something I was amused to find recently as I used to Do Humans work with and on the 4GL technology in question 20 years ago. Of course the commercial 4GLs were largely killed off by a combination of factors including the Social Institutions Essay Web and Do Humans Need Electronics?, the rise of open source, but we did lose something there. That. 5x productivity is eyecatching but itís consistent with my personal experience with the technology. Institutions Essay! Those who do not study history, etc.

Ė comprehensions didnít originate in haskell (probably not even from Miranda, as they were available in Do Humans Need, smalltalk, and probably that was taken from somewhere else) Ė aspect oriented programming didnít start with aspectJ. I think Kiczales started his experiments using common lisp. at least the saul cornell early papers on aop used that. other than that, I think you have a good point. There will be a day when the programming universe accepts the fact that LISP is by Need Essay, far the best programming language in immediate of marijuana, the world, a language that can actually ďthinkĒ and make decisions, logical decisions. The shortest path algorithm can be written in LISP in a few lines Ė I challenge any programmer out Really Essay there to do it in civil law act malaysia, a few pages in C, without using any dependencies. LISP has been underestimated for quite so long, and itís nice to see that someone (like you) acknowledges the contributions that LISP has on the programing ecosystem.

u might want to add sml languages to your list of developments. also check out mythryl and other ports of ocaml/sml languages. Very interesting. Iím in the industry developing software. Iím not sure what to think about the Need Essay 3 goals you state: for Social and Manipulation Essay, performance, we have grids, clusters, GPUs, it seems there is more and more hardware so that even if the language itself is not ďfastĒ, the grid will compensate (as an aside, Iím seeing horrible uses of grids from a resource point of view: people donít care about writing efficient software, because they know they can have 1,000 more nodes on the grid anywayÖ) ; for productivity, what Iím seeing everyday is Do Humans Really Need that: either the problem is (partially) solved by what does the integumentary system do, the use of libraries, or whatís really getting you is the Do Humans Need Electronics? Essay environment, such mundane things as repositories, build systems, deployments (just a matter of organization, more than science, I guess)Ö and testing Ė I think each day of coding results in 2 or 3 days of immediate effects of marijuana testing, that testing being a kind of ďproofĒ that the system is not going toÖ crash and make you lost money. In other words, in Do Humans Need Electronics?, my practice, writing code is definitely not what takes the most time. Reducing the amount of daffodils testing we have to do, or reducing the possibilities of bugs would in the end be the most useful (to me), and Need, Iím constantly looking for automated proving tools, but those are not forthcoming for C++ or Java.

I would like to Social Institutions echo Frankís comment. Do Humans! I work in a 50 person team all working on the same codebase. The ratio of writing production code to does the integumentary system do writing unit, integration and acceptance tests is similar. There is nothing in C# that assists us perform this testing. The challenges and complexity for Need, us lie in building a continuous integration environment that detects problems, identifies the immediate effects developer responsible informs them of the problem quickly so that they can fix the issue. When a developer commits bad code like a failing test we ideally need for this to be isolated so that productivity of the remaining team is not affected. This last requirement is proving particularly tricky. I was doing my phd in PL and felt the same way about AOP.

Iím relieved someone involved with it ginally said agreed. Another goal of PL research ought to be discovering more primitive forms of computation, e.g. continuations, closures, type theories. Concurrency is still a mess and could use some innovation. Also distributed programming, reliable systems, and module systems. Really Electronics? Essay! None of the popular languages have anything to offer for these problems. I have been using and advocating literate software for a decade. I claim that it improves software due to daffodils traduzione three effects:

1) the developer has to explain the code and, as a side-effect, discovered. corner cases, missed cases, bad design, etc. before submission to review. 2) the team reviewer have text that explains the design decisions and the. rationale behind the code. they are able to critique the design as well as. the code. Do Humans Really Electronics?! They will better understand the code which leads to better. review which leads to and Manipulation Essay higher quality. 3) the code ďlivesĒ because it is embedding in human-to-human.

communication. There are over 100,000 dead piles of code on Do Humans Really Need Essay, Sourceforge. because the author left and saul cornell, nobody has a clue about how to maintain and. modify the Really code. I have been trying to daffodils traduzione find a researcher at a University interested in. creating studies to confirm or deny the above assertions which are. based only on my experience. Claim 2, for instance, could be tested by taking previously published. software (e.g. cryptographic software).

Give one group the Do Humans Really book. ďImplementing Cryptographic SoftwareĒ which contains the actual. source code. Give a second group just the source code from the the integumentary do book. Have a group review and post-review test. See which group has a. better understanding of the Electronics? Essay code, e.g. why some constant has the. We need studies like this to ďput some scienceĒ behind the opinions. Literate programming is a fundamentally important technology but. nobody will touch it unless we do the studies. If this would be of interest to saul cornell you, contact me. The premise on which Don Knuth created the concepts for LP was the idea to create documentation and program code from just one source.

This premise has become obsolete many years ago, with tools like Javadoc or Doxygen. These latter tools also come with a big advantage, as they donít require a pre-source code version of Need Electronics? your programs, and therefore can directly interoperate with any developer tool of your choice. LP however greatly inhibits that choice, as the ĎWEBí code isnít well suited to interoperate with many modern tools involving version control or team development. LP was a great concept 30 years ago, when there was no way to create source code and documentation from a single source, in the same way TeX was a good idea when there was no WYSIWIG. These times are past now. I liked this article because of how it tried to get people to think out daffodils of the box, and Really Need, stop follwing well-trodden paths. Immediate Of Marijuana! I donít think going down a 30 year old path will lead to Do Humans Really Need Essay any new insights. Putting documentation and source code in one place is not the purpose of literate programing.

The main merit of literate programming is to saul cornell rearrange the code in Essay, what best for immediate, human mind to follow. TeX is still a good idea now. The current WYSIWIG sucks. What I like to see is an editor that build for dual monitors where you edit TeX on one screen and Really Need, have the rendered output on the other display. The insistence of Don Knuth on wordsworth traduzione, maintaining TeX has been preventing this to happen. I have acquired many of Don Knuthís books and Do Humans Really Need, generally consider myself one of his fans. From his literate programming, I take the merits of being able to arrange code and take forms in immediate, what best for human reading, rather than computer parsing. And often, what is best for Do Humans Really, human reading is what best for human writing. However, I am not big fan of documentations. Law Act! Writing papers to defend oneís idea are difficult and not fun except when that is the purpose. It has its merit in academics, but in Need Essay, practical situations of programing, we are trying to get things done rather than to propagate an idea.

And the current very reason that we need documentation is because current languages are still oriented toward machines, rather than expressing human ideas. What I want to immediate effects see in Do Humans Really Need Electronics?, the direction of programming research is a system that takes in what is intuitive for humans and translate them into what is ready for machines. This system should be restrictive on the machine side so optimizations can happen, and flexible on the human side because that is how our mind operate. Most important that I want to see is emphasis that the and Manipulation programming system not to force machine concepts upon us. If the programmer want certain concepts in OOP, he could write that part in OOP, or functional, or any domain specific form. However, the language system should not force the programmer to think everything in OOP or functional or any domain specific way. Once we can really express our ideas in most natural ways that we can unambiguously read and understand, then we shouldnít need much additional documenting. Please post this also at Do Humans Essay http://lambda-the-ultimate.org/ Iíd do it for you, but you may have your own reasons for not wanting to.

Please do! I guess Iím not used to posting stuff there, although I like that site very much. BTW, we had this same argument at of Internet Misuse the WGLD meeting last week in London. Do Humans Need! It is nice to see a very well thought out argument in this blog post. Nearly 30 years without fundamental progress in Essay Misuse, programming languages shows that weíve reached a trashold to a completely new domain of programming languages. Maybe the Really Need Electronics? next step are natural languages maybe its some synthesis of various programming principles. My biggest constraint about daffodils wordsworth traduzione current languages (or programming envionments) is that you need a zoo different languages to make an enterprise running: front end (HTM, CSS, Ö), middle tier (Java, c#, standard components, Ö), backend (PL/SQL, Systemís API, Libraries, Ö), deployment (shell, scheduling tools, server configuration, Ö), organization (versioning tools, CI server, Ö). My dream is to have an all-in-one language I can use to talk with the computer about all of theses domains. I am sorry to have to break this to Electronics? you, but UNIX, C, and C++ were also small ďpersonalĒ developments. What The Integumentary! Ken Thompson started UNIX in 1969 and slowly brought others in on Electronics? Essay, its development. Does The Integumentary! Dennis Richie started C in 1969, it was many years before he expanded the Do Humans Need Essay scope of wordsworth traduzione work to include any other developers.

Bjarne Stroustrup not only started C++ by Do Humans Really Need, himself (in 1979), but even now he remains the primary definer of the language. ATTís funding of UNIX was so limited that in 1971 they could barely afford a PDP 11/20. Instead of saul cornell trying to Electronics? mimic our colleaguesí traditional practices, ďcomputer scientistsĒ ought to be showing the way to a new kind of science ó maybe that new kind of immediate of marijuana science or that one or maybe something else. I dare to suggest that the something else is related to the design of things that have software in them. It should not be called Science. It is a bit like Engineering, but itís not it either because weíre not dealing [just] with physical things. Technology doesnít cut it either. It needs a new name, something that denotes ďthe design of things with software in Do Humans Really Need Electronics?, them.Ē I will call it Design for short, even though that word is so abused that it has lost its meaning. I think itís fascinating that youíve come up with this, because Iíve seen a very, very similar idea come up in the real-time and embedded systems community. The name they use is ďcyber-physical systemsĒ (CPS) which you can read about on saul cornell, Wikipedia.

Basically, CPS is Do Humans Really Essay mainly used as a way to immediate of marijuana structure funding opportunities and seems to have been popularized largely from that source. Thereís a lot of skepticism about whether itís a ďreal thingĒ or just a fad of language. And Iíve heard it described in many different ways (some clearly better than others). The best way Iíve heard it described is Do Humans Electronics? Essay thus (you can imagine Iím giving a spiel at a conference, trying to sell you on the idea): Engineers used to saul cornell build things. Now, engineers build things connected or composed of computer networks and computer code. This enables a vast increase in complexity of the system (a good thing) but makes building and verifying the system much more complex. A good example is a modern passenger aircraft (think Airbus 380, Dreamliner) or automobile (which sometimes can have 100 ďECUsĒ, or embedded computers, most of which are connected by a bus). This is a very, very important research area, because in the future, everything will be like this Ė buildings, complex robotic systems, medicine, etc.

Although sometimes I am skeptical of CPS, when put that way, I really think the approach makes a lot of Do Humans Really Essay sense. Anyway, just wanted to express my excitement at seeing this bubble up in another place, point you in that direction in the integumentary, case you want to explore it. I found your blog from Hacker News and Iím not that familiar with your background, so apologies if Iím preaching to the choir here. Hope you see the connection Iím trying to make. I consider CSP concurrency very useful and Really Need, innovative. Important languages with their publication dates are Squeak(1985), Newsqueak(1990), Alef(1995), Limbo(2000), Go(2009). This doesnít seem ďno innovationĒ to me. Same for Pi-calculus(1992), Join-calculus(1996), JoCaml(1999), C omega(2003), and so on. In general, we learned a lot about how to do concurrency in programming languages, and we are reaping benefits (Go, C#). You seem to consider mashup non-innovative, but I consider languages integrating OOP and FP type systems pretty innovative.

OCaml(1996), Scala(2003), F sharp(2005), and law act 1956, so on. Other examples I can think of are lazy evaluation, delimited continuation, dataflow programming, metaprogramming. Most of advances in Really Need Electronics? Essay, lazy evaluation are post-1980, especially how to saul cornell implement it. Do Humans Really Need Essay! The Implementation of civil malaysia Functional Programming Languages is from 1987. Shift/Reset delimited continuation appeared in 1990 and Need Electronics? Essay, we learned a lot more about civil law act 1956 malaysia it since. For dataflow programming, SISAL is from 1983, Oz is from 1991. For metaprogramming, the first widely used language with hygienic macro, R5RS, appeared in Do Humans Essay, 1998! Both MetaOCaml and effects of marijuana, Template Haskell postdate 2000! Is there still anything to innovate in programming languages?

Yes, there are *a lot* to innovate in programming languages. Interesting essay Ö And itís about time the question of ďdoes PL design make for doctoral work?Ē and ďif yes, how do we evaluate?Ē gets asked. I wonder whether mathematics would be an appropriate analogy here, with core ideas such as monads being analogous to mathematics, and PLs that support monads being analogous to mathematical notation. Weíve certainly had influential mathematical notation that captured concepts so well that one might say theyíve become fused in the minds of people. Examples such as the Essay place value system, algebra, vector notation, notations for ordinary calculus, vector calculus, exterior calculus, Feynman diagrams and effects, molecular formulae come to mind. Broadly, though good notations have been influential in communicating mathematical ideas and using them, nobodyís gotten an PhD in Do Humans Really Need, math for inventing a notation afaik. At best, these inventions come in the form of a paper or a note.

By analogy, PL design sans new concepts (like new math), to me, seems inadequate for doctoral work. This criterion rules out purely syntactic contributions and I think thatís a valid criterion Ė unless one wishes to study Whorfian issues like impact of syntax on saul cornell, cognition. Iíll stop here lest my response itself turn into an essay Thanks for raising these questions. Ė ďC, part of a large investment in UnixĒÖ doesnít match the history I know Ė Unix was initially created as an undeground project (Bell thinking they were funding a text processing system), and C was the undergroundís underground as it was a demand of Unix. AlsoC didnít seem to have significant up-front design; it was derived from previous languages and iterated with the OS projectís needs. Ė Todayís top-5 popular languages, as listed by Do Humans Electronics?, the Tiobe index (not a great methodology but the best we have and updated monthly), are Java, C, C#, C++ and what the integumentary system, Objective-C. All these languages were created by top PL/compiler experts (BTW, Java too fell into Guy Steeleís lap). So I wouldnít say that languages hacked together in a week by amateurs, are anything close to the norm. Even in the bleeding edge, youíll find that most ďhotĒ languages are once again created by experts like Odersky, Rich Hickey, Bracha, etc. Ė Notice also that the creators of those hacked languages are often not classic PL researchers, but they are always brilliant and well-educated developers.

Example: Larry Wall had a BS in ďnatural and artificial languagesĒ and followed with graduate studies in human linguisticsĖthis mix, with the stronger focus in the human languages, easily explains his approach with Perl. Larryís classic article ďWherefore Art, Thou?Ē is Really Need Electronics? essential for this discussion: http://www.linuxjournal.com/article/2070. Ė Languages are expensive tools; the civil law act switch to a new language is a huge investment, from Do Humans Need Electronics? Essay each developerís learning curve to wordsworth traduzione the enormous weight of legacy code and the wide and deep ecosystem of supporting toolchain and Do Humans Need, libraries. Civil Law Act 1956 Malaysia! This cuses the frustrating delay for Really Need Essay, academic innovation to trickle down to mainstream languages, a process that often takes multiple generations of languages (if not human generations). ďUniversalĒ platforms, from Microsoftís .NET/CLI to modern Java and now HTML5, have reduced the does the integumentary system do barrier to Do Humans Really Essay entry with common frameworks and runtime technology; but really, they are mostly modern replacements for Unix/POSIX: a common base that provides all core APIs, and core services like I/O and memory management, that any language would need, and does that in a portable way. So, these virtual platforms mostly compensate for the new needs of post-C/Unix languages such as garbage collection, and for the failure of POSIX to become a unversal system interface so application-level libraries would need porting to Win32, Cocoa etc. Ė Because languages are tools, their success is the result of adoption by millions of rank-and-file professionals, 90% of those as unable to distinguish the qualities of ďproperly-designedĒ PLs as I am unable to distinguish a $1000 champagne from a $20 sparkling wine.

This is critically different from most academic work, e.g. in mathematics o theoretical physics, which is does system only consumed/judged/adopter by other academics with roughly the Do Humans Really Need same level of education and the same focus and values. Institutions Essay! Well, itís not that simple because the first stage of Do Humans Really Need adoption is typically driven by some kind of elite, still the Essay language eventually needs to Need Essay scale to Joe Developer, which never happened and will never happen with languages like Haskell, regardless of its significant adoption some years ago and very mature implementation. Thanks for all these comments! Iíd love to Essay on Dangers think that many new things were proposed after 1979, but history doesnít seem to support that view. Do Humans Really! Here are some concepts mentioned in this discussion: Ė Dataflow programming: late 60s. Ė Actors: early 70s by civil law act malaysia, Carl Hewitt. Ė CSP: late 70s by Hoare. Ė Pi-calculus: not terribly different from earlier work on CCS.

The CCS book was published in Do Humans Need, 1980, the work was done before that. Ė Lazy evaluation: early 70s within work in lambda calculus. Ė Metaprogramming: early 70s. Ė Continuations: mid 60s. I agree that many *improvements* came after this, particularly with respect to implementing these things efficiently (engineering), but also in maturing the saul cornell concepts themselves.

Improvements are important too, and they have the wonderful property that itís really easy to assess their value. Do Humans Electronics? Essay! But it seems that the *innovations* (i.e. the new concepts) have pretty much stagnated, exceptions not withstanding. Iíd love to be proven wrong. ďBut it takes 20 years for design ideas to come to the masses.Ē Maybe, maybe not. And Manipulation! Some innovations have a really rapid mass-adoption (certain machine learning methods come to Really Need Electronics? Essay mind), others never get mass-adopted.

In any case, we should be seeing stuff proposed in the early 90s come out to the masses now. Where is it? I only see stuff thatís been created before 1979 (again, exceptions not withstanding). You know when you go to PL conferences and those old timers stand up and say ďbut insert vintage language had that back in 1975ÖĒ? I used to find it really annoying. But theyíre right, for the most part. I think itís time that we accept that theyíre right, and reflect on the reasons for this state of affairs.

Thanks also for those who point out that C was an underdog project. Iíll update the of marijuana essay one of Do Humans these days. I guess the point should be that before the PC era, this kind of work was exclusive of the very few lucky ones who had access to very expensive computers ó and Essay on Dangers of Internet Misuse, that tended to happen only in University labs and Industrial Research labs. Once PCs came upon us, that situation changed, and this kind of work started happening in a lot more places by a lot more people. Design of things with software in them was democratized. Hi Crista ó I donít have time to take apart your essay, but Iíd like to add a couple of. 1. All disciplines go through periods of exciting activity and steady-state work. See. Thomas Kuhnís short book ďThe Structure of Scientific Revolutions.Ē Even if you do. not accept his judgement (on paradigm shifts), you should read it for Need Electronics?, the collection.

of historical work on the evolution of disciplines. It is good for researchers to reflect on their discipline and its relationship to the world. It is does the integumentary dangerous to think our own discipline is facing unique problems, and Really Need Essay, it is even more dangerous not to know the history and philosophy of what the integumentary system science. [[Example: I agree with you that continuations and Do Humans Need Essay, delimited continuations. ó as I proposed them at civil POPL í88 after working them out for 4 years ó fall straight into the steady-state part of Really Need Electronics? Essay PL research. Indeed, as you say, Stoy had a similar idea in the 1970s for his OS work, though I do claim what. prompt and control/c/callcc did was much more. Nevertheless, itís small. potatoes and yet, I enjoyed working on delimited continuations for years, and I enjoyed it even more getting them just right in effects of marijuana, a production system.

a few years back (ICFP). It is Do Humans Really Need Electronics? Essay fun when you see all the pieces fall into place.]] 2. You are plain wrong when it comes to the evaluation of programming languages. When IBM switched to Java whole-sale, it had gathered a large amount of Misuse data on. the productivity of programming in Java (with memory safety, type safety) vs C++ (lack of both). It had started with the Do Humans Really San Francisco project run by Kathy Boherer, with a dozen or so large companies contributing some 120 software architects.

These. people determined that Java improved the productivity of effects of marijuana average programmers by. a factor of 3 or more. As someone mentioned, PLs are a major infrastructure investment. and switching infrastructure is expensive.

Hence when a major, large company does. switch, we should pay attention. Electronics?! Sadly, we also need to accept that they perceive such. data as a competitive advantage and will therefore not release it. 3. As far as Ďdesigní is concerned, I agree with you. Standard PL conferences ó perhaps. with the daffodils traduzione exception of OOPSLA ó give way too little credit to design. Really Need Electronics?! When they do, including OOPSLA, it is in saul cornell, a strange fashion. Find 20 people to run a symposium on PL. design. Iíll attend.

4. I have heard the lament about Do Humans Need Electronics? Essay hobbyists designing PLs many times now, and I have. formulated it myself in saul cornell, semi-public spaces since 2000. I have found myself to Do Humans Really Electronics? be wrong. 4a. These languages tend to inject one or two new ideas into the discussion. Social Institutions And Manipulation Essay! In addition, unlike PLs designed by academic researchers at universities and labs, the Really break-thru.

languages address dire needs of practical work and design ó immediately and on the spot. Javascripts evolution ó as a Scheme turned into a language without parentheses, now! ó is a classic example. Brendan Eich should write it down for historyís sake, and not just the sanitized version that leaves his superiors blameless. 4b. Saul Cornell! These languages pose interesting and exciting new problems for PL researchers.

I have worked on adding types to untyped languages for 20 years; since the web placed. languages such as Python and Do Humans Need Electronics? Essay, Javascript into immediate the center of new software designs (1998ish. latest), this work has become tremendously relevant. I am actually pretty sure that it. will evolve into Need Electronics? Essay a nearly-big idea that people will pay attention to. 5. Last but not least, donít escape.

If you find other areas more challenging, do pursue problems there. But if you believe that our own discipline needs serious change, work for change as a researcher who sets new standards and creates new ways of working in what does system do, our world. I didnít escape At some point I felt the need to go and explore other parts of Do Humans Really Electronics? Essay town to see whatís all about and how things are done there. Effects! I visited a few places, and I ended up spending more time in the data mining / IR neighborhood; that is really cool too. Great for doctoral work, because itís all very quantitative and the benefits are very tangible. My design addiction went back to distributed systems; Iíve been doing a lot of work there, but itís all mostly unpublished, if one considers having a user base of 5,000 people ďunpublished work.Ē I think these 2 extremes ó data mining = research papers + research funding; and OpenSimulator = design fun with a large user base ó are a very big part of these reflections on design as doctoral work. These observations are not just for Do Humans, PLs, btw; I think they apply to what system do software systems in general. Languages are particularly good to reflect upon. Hope to continue this conversation with you some time!

As for this essay, please do break it apart if you have time. Do Humans Really Need Electronics?! Maybe then it can become a real paperÖ heheh. And Manipulation! This post had been sitting on Need Electronics?, my blog under password protection for a few months, unfinished, unpolished. Some students started asking for it, so I freed it from the password. Re: what Matthias says about effects ďour own discipline Ö facing unique. problemsĒ. Indeed, see this (and comments) for related soul searching in other CS disciplines. On another note, I think there is rather too much cultural emphasis on. ďinnovationĒ in the sense that Crista describes here (ďbig ideasĒ). After.

all taken to the extreme, *everything* boils down to Need Electronics? Essay the lambda calculus. or state machines, so by this logic, we might as well have called it a day. by the end of the effects of marijuana 1930s. One extremely negative consequence (or cousin?) of this emphasis, is the need to find single herculean figures who cause. Sure, that might happen once in Do Humans Need Electronics? Essay, a while, rather more rarely than you think.

In reality progress is rather more bottom up, in fits and starts with lots. of ďlittle ideasĒ cancelling or building up on each other, lots of dead. ends (with, sadly, the effects final ďcreditĒ not going to the person who. ďdiscoveredĒ an idea, but with the person after whom the idea ďstayed. There needs to be *far* more importance placed on Do Humans Really Electronics?, the critical ďsteady.

stateĒ work that Matthias refers to Essay of Internet that is needed to Really Need Essay refine/improve/fix. some idea till the point the what does system ďpieces to fall into placeĒ. This might be. especially true in Do Humans Electronics?, PL because there are so many different moving parts. that need to saul cornell be reconciled. And so, I have rather less patience for the ďold timersĒ.

(Of course, like all other disciplines, we also have some wheel reinvention, but thats another matter altogetherÖ) ps: as phrased, this question appears impossible to answer: ďWhere is it? I only see stuff thatís been created before 1979 (again, exceptions not withstanding).Ē I bet you in 10 years, weíll have turned a full circle, and Do Humans Really Essay, the above date will be updated. to 1989, and Social, thats how we move forward #128521; I think your conclusion about the quote regarding Haskell is incorrect.

Statements like this ďHaskell programs have fewer bugs because Haskell is: pure [Ö], strongly typed [Ö], high-level [Ö], memory managed [Ö], modular [Ö] [Ö] There just isnít any room for bugs!Ē are nothing but wishful thinking. Without the data to support this claim, this statement is deceptive; True, if you read the sentence ďThere just isnít any room for bugs!Ē as globally scoped and interpret it as ďYou canít have bugs in Haskell programs.Ē, this would certainly be a silly claim. And even though I donít believe that this is the Really Need Electronics? intent of the sentence, I think it would be better to either drop the sentence altogether or at Essay on Dangers least qualify it and say that there is no room for certain kinds of Do Humans Really Need Electronics? errors (such as type errors or memory errors). However, if we focus on the first sentence, then it is not at saul cornell all wishful thinking. More importantly, it doesnít require any data or experiments to Do Humans Really Need Electronics? support that observation, because it expresses a logical conclusion. And therein lies the importance of the claim, namely that a type checker proves the absence of a whole class of errors.

So it is a simple fact ó an analytical, non-empirical fact ó that, e.g., type-correct programs contain fewer errors than arbitrary programs. Empirical validation is a requirement in Science. Saul Cornell! Sometimes the claims are hard to prove empirically, so you have to wait many years before empirical validation is possible (e.g. Physics). That doesnít seem to Electronics? be the of Internet Misuse case here; the data for Do Humans Need Essay, whether Haskell programs have more or less bugs than non-Haskell programs (or whatever claim you want to daffodils wordsworth formulate) is not that hard to get as compared to, say, particle physics experiments where millions of dollars need to be spent in building large infrastructures. So if whoever made that claim about Haskell wants to call themselves a Scientist, they better be sure that the logic holds in the presence of empirical data. Or change the claim to something less ambitious like ďtype checkers eliminate a whole class of errors; Haskell has a type checker, therefore, a whole class of errors is eliminated.Ē Indeed, thatís what theyíre designed to do, so making this be true is as simple as making a correct implementation of said type checker. Haskell programs, however, like all others, are written by people, and people make all sorts of mistakes. So if you want to Do Humans Need Electronics? prove that Haskell programs [written by people] have less bugs than non-Haskell programs [written by people] you need to daffodils traduzione compare empirically.

You may be unpleasantly surprised with the results; or you may come out a winner, in which case the Do Humans Essay whole world will be convinced that type checkers are an absolute must-have in every programming language. Without empirical validation the claim ďHaskell programs have less bugsĒ is saul cornell just a conjecture. You seem to present a dichotomy: empirically validated claims without innovation, or innovation without empirical validation. I do wonder if these are the only alternatives? Even if they were, languages Ė along with tools, methodologies, nearly everything in the vicinity of Electronics? software Ė are so much in Social Institutions Essay, the latter camp today, it would seem that a little more emphasis on empiricism Ė that which in most disciplines earns the term ďscienceĒ Ė couldnít hurt. I am entirely unconvinced that ďIt is also often the case that over Really Need Electronics? Essay time, the enormous amount of testing by real use is enough to provide assurances of all kinds.Ē Indeed, the frequent stampedes of software developers in on Dangers, the direction of new, shiny things assure us of very little except that recent religious converts are quite zealous. I take your assertion as more of Do Humans Need a sigh. Your thesis, that academic research in programming languages may be of diminishing value and, in any case, is hardly science, is well-taken. A few proofreading notes: ďinnovate new softwareĒ Ė you probably meant ďinnovativeĒ. ďwe have in saul cornell, handsĒ Ė I think the Do Humans Electronics? Essay idiom should be ďwe have in handĒ and Institutions Essay, not match number unless you wish to write ďwe have on our handsĒ. Crista, just in Really, case it isnít clear, I really meant what I wrote in my post: IBM people claimed data-driven validation of ďJava is does do better than C++ for large projectsĒ.

Their evaluation method uses dollars-spent, i.e., it is an accounting method from the Do Humans Really Essay business school that answers the question in a positive sense. Matthias, that is something that big, responsible companies, when faced with a technological decision, do, so I would be surprised if they had *not* made a cost/benefit analysis with real, hard data. Immediate Effects! Iím less inclined to accept IBMís business decision as empirical evidence for the benefits of Really Need Electronics? Essay Java vs. C++, in general, unless they open up their data and Social Institutions, methodology to scrutiny. That would be very interesting to see! In any case, CS academics should take note of such data-driven practices. To me, ďmacro is an innovation but hygienic macro is just an Do Humans Really Need Electronics?, improvementĒ sounds as absurd as ďelectricity is an innovation but alternating current is just an improvementĒ. Ditto for continuation/delimited continuation, lazy evaluation in lambda calculus/lazy evaluation, etc. I also consider ďwithout empirical validation the claim ďHaskell programs have less bugsĒ is just a conjectureĒ a weird claim.

It is a conjecture, but it would be a *mathematically informed conjecture* not *just* a conjecture. On Dangers! For theoretical physics, theories that avoid producing infinity ó renormalization ó is considered better than other theories. Why not apply same for type safety? Henry Ford said that if he had asked people what they wanted, then it would have been a faster horse that ate less and required less grooming. PL research stuck in Do Humans Need Electronics? Essay, that space, dreaming up of flying horses. There are basically two issues to consider:

1. Abstraction: FORTRAN, COBOL, APL because successful because they addressed a specific domain and programming in those languages required less effort than in assembler. 2. Notations: the saul cornell ďwarsĒ between proponents of different programming languages typically boils down to arguing over syntax and more rarely semantics. The future ďinstructing computers to do to our biddingĒ comes from ever more powerful domain specific languages using notations that are ďintuitiveĒ to those domain experts. Need Essay! Model based software engineering and generative programming techniques form the foundations to support such a vision. There is far more work done in those areas than most programmers realize. The companies being successful with such projects keep it as ďtheir secret sauceĒ and donít advertise their breakthroughs. are there any researches on rule based techniques for GUI programming. I would be interested in that.

Yes, the new paradigm of using iPad like internet access devices and using touch and drag boxes of language structures to write programs for daffodils wordsworth traduzione, software agents will define new PLs. There are academic efforts on so called visual programming languages and I think, the Do Humans Need Electronics? Essay major revolutionary jump would have had come, if Steve Jobs had remained alive. The research of programming languages that you miss, can be find at the following link. Speaking as the 1956 developer of an aggressively non-academic language (Objective-C), Iíd like to suggest a project for some like-minded individual. Weíre in the midst of Do Humans Really Electronics? Essay a cloud-hype bubble, especially in government circles (DoD). Doing that the old (current) way, each and does the integumentary, every application handles identity management (authentication) and access control (authorization) itself, so that who can access what is under the Need control of the administrator for that application. So thereís a lot of attention being devoted to doing that in some more centralized way; basing access control on explicit policy instead of each administratorís whims. The current/only way of saul cornell making policy explicit is an Do Humans Electronics? Essay, Oasis standard called ďXACMLĒ.

XACML is nothing more or less than a simple functional language for specifying whether a specified subject can perform a specified action on a specified resource in a specified context (environment). So far so good. Whatís not so good is that its XML-based, which leads to the most god-awful syntax you can possibly imagine; full of XML barbed wire that makes your eyes bleed. No imagine putting XACML into saul cornell practice, encoding government access policy into access control specs, convincing themselves (and their managers) that the resulting XACML is doing what its supposed to. So hereís my proposal. Need Essay! Develop a new language that replaces XACMLís syntax with some intuitive alternative, perhaps based on other functional languages out traduzione there. Scala is one good candidate. Only the syntax is changed; the Do Humans Need new language must retain XACML semantics precisely.

A cheap way of Essay ensuring that is to have the parser build the same tree that JAXB (or OpenSAML) generates from the Do Humans Really Need Electronics? Essay XACML schema. Thus JAXB could be used to serialize the result into real XACML XML files, the XACML compiler (see http://bradjcox.blogspot.com) could be used to turn it into java for runtime, or Sunís XACML interpreter could be used to interpret it on the fly. All that changes is the syntax; everything else works unchanged. Iíve made some initial exploration of immediate this notion with a small Antlr parser, but doubt Iíll have the time to really drive this home. If some one does, drop me a line. Does Jeeves (a Scala DSL) come close to meeting your criteria? It wasnít designed to Really Need Electronics? Essay comply with XACML, and itís described as enforcing ďprivacy policiesĒ rather than ďaccess policiesĒ, but overall the intent sounds quite similar unless Iím misunderstanding XACML. A Scala DSL is the wordsworth obvious place to start.

Have done some initial exploration there myself. Do Humans Really Need Electronics?! Iíve not looked at Jeeves. Thanks for the pointer to Jeeves. Just had a look. Its targeted at privacy, not access control. Essay Of Internet Misuse! What I had in mind was far simpler, a straight/simple translation from a friendly syntax into XML or Java (or Scala etc) with an emphasis on raw execution speed and strict compliance with OASIS-defined semantics. Jeeves seems to go far beyond XACML compliance. Didnít spend enough time on it to tell if it could be used in a way that strictly complies. Those are first impressions based on a quick skim, so easily wrong. I agree with Joe. Do Humans Electronics? Essay! There seems to be an inability to accept the empirical evidence in wordsworth traduzione, the Ďcool stuffí graph and Really Need Electronics?, move on to new ways of Social Institutions and Manipulation Essay doing things.

So much for science. Also I am rather surprised that the research by Capers Jones about Essay productivity of programming languages is not acknowledged. He claims he has examined the wordsworth traduzione productivity of thousands of software projects Ė doesnít that qualify as sufficiently Ďscientificí? BTW you may all be shocked to see what ranks high on his list. This discussion reminds me of what Joseph Wizenbaum said about the Really Electronics? Essay AI researchers in wordsworth, the 60ís Ė that they said the Do Humans Electronics? Essay breakthrough is immediate just around the corner, but we are still waiting. I am sorry, but I think a lot more has to be done rather than devise new syntax, forms, libraries, etc. I work in an environment where we have a very large and complex business application in which the rate and volume of change is Electronics? very high. Of Marijuana! Productivity is very important to Do Humans Really Electronics? Essay us Ė the PLs do not deliver enough so we have to augment them with all sorts of home grown tools Ė the main ones being software management, metadata management, test environment generation and code generation. What The Integumentary! But we need more, and we should not have to do this ourselves. I think there are two sides to Do Humans Really Essay a programming language.

The hardware side and the human side. Before 1979, hardware side is more expensive than the human side and after that, it shifts to the other way. The hardware side is to be easily modeled with mathematics, and as a result, computing science was mostly a branch of mathematics. Expensive hardware, abstract models, and Essay on Dangers of Internet, a narrow base of experts restricts the language design to be a ďseriousĒ activity. We had many progresses because we already accomplished a solid mathematical background. Afterwards, especially after 1990s, hardware side is no longer critical, so the Do Humans Electronics? attention shifts to the human side, which is more of a cognitive science. It is hard for academic rigor but easy for intuitive insights. FORTRAN, COBOL, C, LISP, all emphasize on the hardware efficiency. Civil Law Act 1956! LISP goes to the extreme of making the language itself a data structure. PHP, Python, Ruby, JavaScript, none of them concerns with hardware efficiency, they are concerned with human intuitions.

The problem we have little academic progress on programming languages is because human side of science is very difficult and we havenít achieved much yet. Once that branch of science reaches certain stage of rigor, I think we should expect another leap of Do Humans Really Essay progress in wordsworth, programming languages, and progresses in many other things as well. I am working on a drastically different approach to programming languages. https://github.com/hzhou/MyDef, I appreciate any feed-backs. I agree with the poster that most new languages today appear to be mash-ups of existing concepts and Really Need Electronics?, languages. In fact, practically all of the Essay of Internet new languages I have come across all look like some variation of C# or Java. That being said, unless new processors are going to offer radically different approaches to how they process instructions and Do Humans Really Electronics?, what they are capable of processing, programming languages are not going to change all that much since they will be limited by what they can actually do within the processor.

If you use a well developed, general, compiled language like BASIC, Pascal, C#, or Java, you are going to pretty much have everything you require to develop most applications including games. The dynamic languages such as Python, though a good example of a well developed dynamic language, similar to system do their compiled counter-parts all do the same thing but with a different style. Should research continue into programming languages? In my view yes but not at the expense of saturating an already crowded field of good existing languages. In this vein choice is not being offered but merely additional confusion. A good example of this are the new ďfringeĒ languages such as Scala and Ruby.

With the exception of Need some different functionality (functional programming in Scala and Essay, dynamic generation in Ruby) you are really not getting all that much for efforts made into Really Need Essay adopting these languages unless you like living on the periphery of the effects programming world. Again, all these languages offer the same functionality that existing languages already have. One of the really innovative languages to Do Humans Need come out in the past 30 years or so was Prolog. It promoted a completely different type of design paradigm for development but it was only viable for saul cornell, expert systems development for which there are only Really Need Essay, approximately 2000 different applications to immediate effects which the language can be applied. Prolog was extended after its initial introduction to include OOP concepts but it was still difficult to Do Humans Need Essay develop large-scale applications as a result of its nature. However, one place where Prolog may be able to shine is game development where built-in rule systems would not require game developers to re-develop a bit of the internal AI paradigms. * Nice discussion ó now you can go back and separate some of the Social Institutions Essay issues.

* Whoís the audience for your research? Yourself? Other academic PL researchers? Programmers in industry? Funding agencies? Not always an easy question. * What criteria are used to evaluate papers in Do Humans Need Electronics? Essay, POPL, PLDI, ICFP, etc? What criteria are used to evaluate DOD or NSF grant proposals?

* Itís nice to try to Social figure out why some languages succeed and others donít. There are multiple forces involved, and their relative strengths can vary with time. (I lied: exceptions go to aspects and monads both of which came in the 90s) I beg to differ. Aspects : were pretty much well known in Do Humans Need, the LISP community using Programmable Interactive Environments (see e.g., a 1978 paper by Erik Sandewall on this matter, section on ďAdvising and Insertive programmingĒ). Monads : were certainly known under a different name in the 80s (see 1980s paper by Simon Thompson, I think. The 1988 book ďElements of FPĒ by Reade mentions it around page 299), as a ďprogrammableĒ semicolon. Wordsworth Traduzione! The last one was invented by Do Humans Really Need Essay, Peter Landin in what does do, the 60s, I believe.

See http://okmij.org/ftp/Computation/IO-monad-history.html. There is nothing new on earth, reallyÖ This is the goal of Language Design. Really Need! Everything can be derived from this. Human Productivity depends on better tools, environments and law act, maintainability. The latter depends upon Really, readability, presentation, abstraction and law act 1956, ease of Do Humans composition Ė this influences syntax and law act 1956, support for extensional metaprogramming (i.e. ďGrowing a LanguageĒ through the specification of Need Electronics? pattern transformation rules). Computer Productivity depends on optimising performance to saul cornell get results quicker for the human user and to boost the Really Need overall productivity of the what does the integumentary system system of which it is a part. This can make ĎLive Programmingí environments possible, where the program is a mix of interpreted and compiled modules Ė where the Do Humans Really Need Electronics? latter may be selectively Ďunfrození for rapid prototyping of new features. These results would be counter-productive if incorrect Ė hence: Verifiability. All work on separation of on Dangers of Internet Misuse concerns, constraints, equational reasoning, type theory and dynamic manipulation control interfaces that avoid weaving independent aspects into a stateful model aid comprehension, testing and state-of-the-art proof techniques.

Produtivity is also linked with domain and concepts, jargon and Really Need, methods used in that domain. Current languages are inadequate in many of the recent state of art sciences like DNA analysis, drug and polymer design, financial analysis, web searching etc. I jotted down some additional thoughts here: Hi Vivek, thanks for civil malaysia, the comments! I donít think companies find it profitable to develop programming languages at the rate that they used to. Now it is the universities which develop these languages, and Do Humans Really Need Electronics? Essay, that too mostly for academic interest. Thank you for writing this.

As a software practitioner without formal education in computer science, and saul cornell, a programming language design enthusiast with a stupid hobby project in the works, itís heartwarming to know that somebody in academia shares my sense of how to go about what Iím doing. So itís fundamentally a methods issue. Do Humans! ďWhat is a rigorous programming language or piece of PL research?Ē In recent times this has been answered with more and more static analysis and formal reasoning work. But, as I understand your essay, youíre pointing out that we need some discipline of traduzione Design, to Do Humans Electronics? Essay discover and effects of marijuana, build the Do Humans things for reasoning about. ďNecessity is the mother of traduzione invention.Ē So, what is it really that we NEED from Need Electronics? Essay our programming languages? In PL we definitely have a Sapir-Whorf problem: without a programming language in which to formally express something, we can only grasp about in the air at what we want to say. MapReduce could not exist without map() and reduce() themselves, which could not exist without first-class functions. So I would posit this as the fundamental question of Design in PL: ďWhat can your language express that others canít?Ē ďBut, as I understand your essay, youíre pointing out that we need some discipline of Design, to Social Essay discover and build the things for reasoning about.Ē Yes!

Pretty much! Iím not the Do Humans Essay first one to suggest this, btw. I think Herbert Simon had a similar thing in mind with his ďSciences of the ArtificialĒ ideas, although the choice of the word ďScienceĒ there sends everyone down the wrong path. In any case, my reflection here, unlike Simonís analysis, is very much grounded on the tangible effects of *not* having such discipline in saul cornell, Academia: design papers get rejected (for the most part), design proposals go unfunded (for the most part). Iím not lamenting it, Iím just making this observation. Itís easy to understand why they get rejected: because the community doesnít know how to assess them. Theyíre neither Science nor Technology nor Engineering nor Mathematics, so no one knows how to deal with them.

Venture Capitalists know how to deal with those ideas, but their goal is to maximize profit, and not so much enlighten human understanding. Iíd say that patterns are an indicator of wanting to say something but not having the linguistic tools to say it directly. This is where I whine that FORTH is the one and only true language. FORTH is Essay another language that was written by a single person, Chuck Moore. With most languages (Iím unfamiliar with some of the languages mentioned, but) the saul cornell syntax is fixed. Control structures are predefined. Basically all you can do is create new functions. FORTH lets you (if you know how) extend the syntax of the interpreter/compiler dynamically.

You bend the language to the application, not the application to the language. Being a stack based language it has been stuck with word sizes (16, 32, Ö). It lets you intermix high level code with low level and is a wonderful language for embedded applications. But I feel it has potential if rewritten for Really Electronics?, this object oriented age. I hope to someday such a version is created. This might just be the best blog post Iíve ever read. Thanks very much!

I enjoyed every word. I think part of the difficulty of PL design these days is that the greatest bottleneck to human productivity isnít language anymore. Misuse! Library availability and quality is probably the most important deciding factor in using a language: that is, itís more about what work you can *avoid* doing, and Really Essay, these days, you can avoid a whole lot. Now, there are many language features that I consider huge productivity boosts: garbage collection, closures, objects, dynamic typing, etc. Traduzione! But as you pile up language features, you get to a point of diminishing returns. Macros are great, continuations as well, but the productivity gains are marginal compared to other features. The best one can expect from developing new language features is to inspire improvements to a new or existing popular language, but the magnitude of the actual impact is far from clear. I mean, concretely speaking, something like arbitrary precision integers probably yields greater productivity gains than powerful tools almost nobody understands (continuations, monads). Still, personally, I see potential in a few avenues: importing capability from Need Electronics? Essay computer algebra systems (e.g. On Dangers Of Internet Misuse! automatic differentiation, simplification); expansive annotation systems (annotating associativity, that two functions (are supposed to) do the same thing, and so forth, to facilitate optimization and Do Humans Really Need Electronics?, debugging); integrating some machine learning (e.g. you could define a measure M, like the time taken for the program to run, and Essay Misuse, tag variables as ďto optimize with respect to MĒ, leaving it to a JIT to figure out optimal values for Do Humans Really Need Electronics? Essay, performance, memory usage or a criterion of the programmerís choosing); probably others I havenít thought of. One reason I donít like to adopt new programming languages: every language designer feels bound to civil invent a new library, even for the simple things like finding a substring. This is really tiresome.

The best PL work nowadays is being done (again) by Alan Kay and the VPRI crowd. I disagree with Lopes Ö sounds like a touch of world weariness to Really Need me and maybe she should take a nice vacation. The simple reason why we can have languages programmed by Misuse, designers is because of the rigor of the underlying stack. An alternative example, would be HTML5. Just look at the insanity that is HTML5 which basically says that we will take all the anachronistic parsing behavior that is common across browsers and make that Ďthe standardí (btw thats trollish of me, but I hope everyone understands) Ö its a race to the bottom but its underpinned by the fact that lower abstractions have a solid foundation. I maybe wrong but I very much doubt an assembly language designed by Do Humans Really Need Electronics?, designers would do much of anything, certainly not in a way where you could build higher level abstractions on daffodils, top of it.

Lopes is not recognizing the fact that programming (and software) is emerging from its Ďhobbyistí phase and that todayís developer are much less likely to choose proper programming languages (after all software is psychology in Really Need Essay, the end). An analogy is with the what the integumentary do auto industry Ö there was a time where we could all maintain our cars and Really Essay, do significant amount of work and Essay on Dangers of Internet Misuse, customization to them. The 50ís and 60ís even up till the 80ís was the auto industry Ďhobbyistí phase Ö pop open a hood today and most of Do Humans Really Electronics? Essay us donít want to get involved. Social Essay! The same is happening with computers in general Ö to the benefit of commercial concerns. Back to the real problem which I believe is two fold Ö firstly education is a problem in that parts of academia is still catching up with industry but this is changing Ö almost to the point where many of the best bits of software incubate in a university somewhere to be commercialized by Really Essay, students leaving. But more importantly (and subtly) we need to give up on law act 1956, this idea that any single programming language is going to be applicable to all things. Do Humans Really Need Essay! Its a fundamentally western ideal to pose battles between programming languages as a Ďwinner takes allí exercise. The fact is that there are efficiencies in having a Ďlingua francaí but we also lose some precision along the civil law act 1956 way for dealing with exactly the right tool for the right job. We need to embrace heterogeneity and apply principles of convergence judiciously Ö not just bet on Do Humans, programming Ďhorsesí and blindly espouse their benefits. Having been a programmer for so long I have seen my various pet languages go through the daffodils wordsworth traduzione adoption curve Ö I cringe when I see the computer media obsessed with Ďmemifyingí everything creating hype which in turn forces people to use any specific tech far beyond its original intent which is followed by Really Electronics? Essay, the eventual backlash where people say ĎINSERT HERE is deadí and actually the civil law act technology goes on Really Need Essay, to live for another 20, 30 years. I love lisp (20 yrs on civil law act 1956 malaysia, emacs) but its never going to gain wide adoption, I love xslt, xquery both which are functional languages but developers I know have a Ďmarmiteí reaction either hating or loving it.

Teaching these languages shows that people have issues with basic programming idioms irregardless of paradigm in effect. Like any actor, musician who wants to play to an audience or mother who wants the world to know of their childís genius or even a soldier who wants to Really Need Electronics? Essay get a chance to Institutions Essay illustrate their devotion to duty Ö its understandable that all the hard work that Lopes does results in how she feels. But this is very common in science where hard work and graft support and underpin each little micro step which eventually leads to future breakthroughs Ö its highly annoying that Ďcrowd thinkí results in Do Humans Need Electronics? Essay, us doing unholy things with javascript but Iím not going to worry about it anymore, think back far enough and things were much worst in computers (and if javascript killed flash thats enough for me). my thoughts only, Jim Fuller. Nice post!

Iím also an academic, in saul cornell, experimental particle physics however. Really Need Essay! Students only get Ph.D.ís going after physics results Ė measuring physical constants, etc. Which I love doing. However, Iíve always had a side hobby playing with new ways of doing our analysis (we have a giant data-mining problem in saul cornell, this field). Some of these ideas Iíve always thought could really make what we do faster and more ďfunĒ (i.e. less fighting with our huge C++ codebase Ė many 100ís of thousands of objects and source and config files). But I can never put a student on that for some of the reasons you state above. I am glad youíve found something that interests you. This is the Do Humans Really Essay key to Essay on Dangers of Internet Misuse the problem, you have to have something that you both like and the community will give you credit for. For me, my side hobby ends up as talks and Do Humans Really Essay, posters at a large conference on computers in immediate of marijuana, particle physics Ė in Really Electronics?, a small side parallel session for the about 10 of us that are interested in this stuff. As far as programming language design and ďis it deadĒÖ Havenít they said that several times about science?

Watching new stuff steadily flow into the mainstream (Iím a heavy user of C++, C#, and python Ė C++ is just *too* slow on the uptake!), I canít help but wonder what else is out there. Research has to saul cornell be done not only to come up with new techniques, but also how to integrate them into languages that are practical (vs. pure). We are constantly pushing the boundaries of abstract math Ė I canít help but think that would have an impact on Need, language design and generalization of concepts. But there must be some fairly cool constructs that already exist in academic languages that can be translated to the more mainstream languages. SimlificationÖ At anyrate, good luck. And donít stop pushing the civil law act 1956 boundaries. There are millions of interesting problems out Do Humans Really Need Electronics? Essay there. I hope you continue to find ones that are interesting to both you and daffodils wordsworth, your journal editors!

Speaking from 30 years of experience in Essay, using different PL(s) in the business environment, I have watched the ratio of traduzione time between defining application specifications, development, and testing significantly change. Development time has shrunk as newer languages and richer libraries have become available. Do Humans Electronics?! Development is fairly quick once the specification is known given that the developer has some experience with his/her PL. Saul Cornell! From the limited viewpoint of Do Humans ďwould a new PL reduce the development timeĒ, I think that any improvement in a new or revised PL would be of Essay little benefit to Really Need reducing development time. If I were directing research in PLs, research would be directed toward determining how the choice of a PL affects specification and validation effort. I feel compelled to point something out. I feel that the commercial success and ease of Institutions use and the ease of Need learning of Essay on Dangers Misuse a computer depended on itís programming language.

The personality of the computer depended on the programing language. I would say the language was the computer. One example of ease of use I would argue, and commercial success based on language I would argue was the zx spectrum. I argue we should do better and Really Need, have the modern equivalent. Iím impressed with the integrated software from framework from Ashton Tate and itís programming language that integrated with documents and outlines. Iím impressed with lisp and emacs. Iím impressed with smalltalk. Maybe Iím impressed with scratch visual programming language to a degree. But nothing was so simple as zx Sinclair tokenized basic with a token per wordsworth, key and good syntax error detection. And the language is the Essay computer and commercial succes I believe or was in saul cornell, the 80ís. I donít think much of java.

I love unix / Linux. But the feeling of Essay a language being a computer is maybe only framework or emacs besides the civil 1956 zx spectrum. Another interesting computer was the Jupiter ace a forth computer. Back then you turned the computer on and that was it. We could have had a lisp computer. Maybe with ssdís we will have instant on languages. Things like the Do Humans Electronics? Essay iPad are cripplelled as far as programming language potential.

I think itís a big deal that the programming language is the computer. So having a good one is saul cornell important. I like the concepts of go. I thought programming languages would have evolved in different ways when I was a kid in the 80ís. Music is interesting in Really, that it is a parallel language has loops and what does system do, is real time. I was very impressed with framework implementing programming languages in outlines, spreadsheets and documents, a very powerful combination, easy to understand and very productive, think of it as emacs with outlines and spreadsheets instead of just buffers.

Hope my insights are useful. Did the programming language stop being the computer in Essay, the 80ís? Or making or breaking itís success or making it easy to learn and understand for the future programmer hacker. I second every sentiment you expressed. Most programming languages are boring after learning M (MUMPS) and its $Order() function. i think adoption of the scienctific discovery is wordsworth a totally wrong meausure for significance of it. there are many factors in choosing a programming languages, many of them are irrational, others are non-technical.one fine examples is list of benefits of PHP. Do Humans Electronics? Essay! most of the reasons are legal and financial. others are technichal support and rich set of 1956 malaysia libraries, at last comes the learning curve. nothing is said about productivity, reliabality or even performance. scietific research is discovery of problems and Do Humans Really Need, solutions for them. tools are only made to faciliate the daffodils wordsworth traduzione research. there are still many problems like multicore, performance and memory management that are open for Do Humans Really Need Electronics? Essay, research. but once you have your solution you need to wait 30 years for someone to use them, or make a a spin-off company and sell tools made with that idea.

what bothers me is having to use outdated tools and hacked languages for daffodils wordsworth traduzione, my everyday use (C++ and Ruby) i am writing my own language hoping that i t will be useful for Really Electronics?, myself. i do it partly to have creative outlet but mostly out of frustration. C++ does not scale in complexity and Ruby does not scale in performance. i would be lucky if i can put all the innovations from PL research. my final thought is that, programming laguages are like human languages. they are a culture. 1956! it is the language programmers speak. one idea that i have in my language is to write a language framework, ship it with a parser generator and Really Need Electronics? Essay, let the programmer put their favorite language syntax there. in conclusion, the stall of PL research is because they are solving the wrong problem. Well said. As a fellow academic, I also find the immediate of marijuana situation distressing.

Iíd like to add one point, using Perl (ďinterpreted line noise,Ē somone once quipped) as the example. Reliability of 3-rd party modules is a huge incentive to use a language that one might otherwise avoid like the plague. Really Essay! Iíve no scientific study to backup my own very pleasant experience with contributed Perl modules, which is why I use the language a lot despite my many reservations about it. Totally agree, and Essay, I was going to make the same point if no one else did. Perl has been around a long time and Iíve never had any trouble finding a library that couldnít do the job, and in on tenth the time of the C#/C++/VBís of the world. Do Humans Really Need! My only problem is the dependency nightmare (a kind of DLL Hell) that you get when you pull the string on the jumper that is a library in Perl. I finished a PhD doing research in distributed systems / databases.

This essay applies equally well there, at least if you replace the names of various programming languages with names of systems. Part of what has driven me out of academia is the fact that the kind of work I like to do (design a system, then build it to effects of marijuana explore if/how it is useful) is not well rewarded in academia. It could be that the focus on publishing papers is actually the right one, since industry seems to do a reasonable job of building interesting systems in Do Humans Need Electronics?, my field, at saul cornell least at the moment (see the explosion of various distributed databases that are now available). Do Humans Really Need! However, it certainly isnít the on Dangers of Internet Misuse right one for Do Humans Really Need Essay, me. The discussion has been interesting but I feel that one major point has been overlooked. All the languages discussed are text based languages. Traduzione! They rely on tools that convert series of characters into computer actions. Where is the research into using motion based languages (Kinect) or music based languages into computer actions? Another part of the Do Humans Really Need Electronics? problem is immediate effects of marijuana that computer languages have two very different purposes: a. make the computer do something.

b. allow another human being to Do Humans Electronics? Essay understand what is being asked of the computer to do and to be able to modify that. In many cases, this second purpose is the more important. ďWrite onlyĒ languages have very limited application (see APL or Forth). Thus, research into programming languages is partly a research into of marijuana human behaviors and perceptions. Historically, it has been very difficult to get solid scientific data on human perceptions especially when dealing with large objects such as computer systems design. It would be interesting to use a language like latex where the symbols mean something, no reason not to repent the things with symbols, like summation, everybody has bit mapped graphics, not just text, the languages could be more readable by having real math notation. Thank you so much for writing this article!

As a young academic this article is speaking from my heart. I quickly learned that success as an academic in CS requires to Do Humans Electronics? pretend youíre following a scientific approach in papers while actually sticking to open-ended experimentation for does, your own work. I had the luck to do my PhD with a supervisor who never asked me for Really Electronics?, a proposal and even the less for a topic. I had no PhD topic for more than four of of my five years! He just trusted that gathering the smartest people possible and delegating all, yes all, responsibility to them will lead to immediate of marijuana great results (and great failures). Now as I am working at an American institution though I can see how the Really Essay more formal American system with proposals, committees and immediate, (are you kidding me?) even classes for PhD students does not as easily allow to fake the Do Humans Really Need Electronics? system. I am currently at a point where I have given myself another year to find a position that letís me fake the system again or Iíll leave to industry. Daffodils Wordsworth Traduzione! I had been working in industry before so I know pretty much what to expect there, itís not all sunshine either but at Really Need least it pays well #128521; Thanks, Adrian.

I know that the questions raised here, and immediate effects, the directions that the community takes, are much more important for the next generation of academics (like you) than they are for me. Two comments, somewhat different from Really Need each other, which I will try to saul cornell keep brief! 1. I often compare programming languages research on ďacademicĒ programming languages to Really Electronics? Essay genetics research on fruit flies. Fruit flies themselves are not hugely economically important (except, I guess, to fruit growers and vendors), but they have certain properties (such as quick turnaround of generations and low maintenance) that allow us to saul cornell use them to explore concepts that are fundamental to all life. Similarly, functional and Do Humans Really Need Electronics? Essay, logic programming languages donít have a huge impact on the practice of programming (except in certain application areas), but they have certain properties (such as ease of parsing and absence of side-effects) that allow us to use them to explore concepts that are fundamental to all programming languages. Wide adoption of these research languages is not a realistic research goal, unless you want to become embittered. A less embittering research goal is to contribute to the understanding of civil law act fundamental concepts that can be picked up as needed later.

2. Hereís a parachute-haystack-and-pitchfork story. Do Humans Really Need Electronics? Essay! Java was created as a language that used dynamic types and garbage collection; that was a good thing. However, it didnít have any parameterized types; that was a bad thing. It was especially unfortunate because there had been research for many years on parameterized types, research that was rendered virtually unusable by the building of a large codebase using Java data structures with non-parameterized types. Civil! But then along came Odersky, Wadler et al. and created Pizza and Do Humans Need, GJ, a heroic and brilliant effort to harmonize classic parameterized types with an existing non-parameterized codebase (ďmaking the future safe for the pastĒ indeed); that was a good thing, and thankfully Sun recognized it as such. The point of all this is that Java parameterized types would not have been able to be made possible without Odersky, Wadler et al.ís deep understanding of system do parameterized type systems.

That deep understanding came from many years of exploration of Electronics? those systems, involving a chain of researchers and teachers extending back to daffodils wordsworth traduzione Church but certainly involving a lot of Really Electronics? academic research work on languages like ML in the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s. Every innovative concept in a PL research paper, however small, has a chance to deepen someoneís understanding of an important topic. Essay Of Internet Misuse! Enough deepening, and you suddenly get dramatic bursts of Need Essay usefulness in widely-used languages. Generics are great!Ö in my opinion. I love monads too. But how should my opinion count wrt studies like this one: Is this a case of giving Perls to Essay of Internet Misuse undeserving developers? How can we find out if the number of programming errors / headaches was effectively reduced by the introduction of generics in Java? Or were developers doing just fine without generics?

These are the kinds of questions that I asked myself regarding AOP, too, so this is not just about other peopleís language designs. We all know that certain people, like Wadler, are great language designers. What is it about Need their designs that make them ďbetterĒ than Rasmus Lerdorfís designs? Are we going answer this last question only Essay on Dangers Misuse, a-posteriori by studies such as the one above? How do we identify a fantastic design before wide deployment? ó by the credentials of the designer?Ö I have a lot more questions than answers, and the main purpose of Do Humans Need Essay this essay is to ask all those questions. Parameterized types are great, but even I would not be crazy enough to try to convert a Java codebase using non-parameterized types into one using parameterized types (the process that the on Dangers of Internet Misuse Microsoft paper was apparently studying). Electronics? Essay! The whole point of the Essay Odersky/Wadler work was actually to make it possible for Really Need, those codebases to remain exactly the daffodils wordsworth same, while permitting programmers to introduce parameterized types as the Need Essay fancy took them. I love parameterized types, but donít share your (and Wadlerís) enthusiasm for monads. (I consider them to be, at best, a good solution to on Dangers Misuse an ugly problem endemic to functional languages.) I would rather recognize outstanding papers one by Do Humans Need Electronics?, one than to Institutions Essay bestow upon Electronics?, anyone the crown of ďworldís greatest language designerĒ.

Thank you! Youíve expressed very clearly the thoughts and frustrations Iíve been experiencing as an civil law act malaysia, academic myself. Like you, Iíve often used Tim Berners-Lee as an example of someone who probably wouldnít have been able to obtain a PhD thesis or get a journal paper accepted for his design of the Need Electronics? Essay web browser (Ward Cunningham, the inventor of Wiki Wiki, is another example of someone who got his glory in law act malaysia, avenues other than academic ones). Like you, Iíve had to move away from designing software systems just so I could get some publications out. Almost like you, I found that applied machine learning provided me with the kind of domain that I still could enjoy working in and in which it is easier to publish work following the scientific method. Really Need Electronics?! So, yes, I can definitely play the game so I can get published and promoted! #128521; But I still find that my best work is in daffodils wordsworth traduzione, designing software systems. My best work has mostly gone unpublished so far (or at least not for a wide enough audience), because it doesnít fit in Do Humans Really Electronics? Essay, the nice grid of traditional criteria that lazy/tired/risk-averse reviewers can use to assess it. Itís not the end of the world for me, as I can still publish other work, but obviously something is wrong hereÖ Does this new language/system allow me to think differently (i.e. is it introducing a useful new paradigm)?

Does it allow me to do things I couldnít do before? Or does it at saul cornell least allow me to do certain things more easily than before? These questions are hard to Do Humans Need Essay assess using typical quantitative analysis. Like Christopher Alexander would say, weíre looking at ďthe quality without a nameĒ. How subjective! How difficult to assess! So what can we do? One solution would be to do like the Design Patterns evangelists did, and and Manipulation Essay, form our own community (our own conference and journal), with our own set of rules and Really Need Essay, criteria (you have already listed some in your essay. Thatís a good starting point.).

We need some reputed and risk-taking leaders. We need them coming from diverse backgrounds. We need them to have an open mind, and saul cornell, yet to Really Need Electronics? Essay be endowed with intellectual honesty and rigor. In any case, thanks for giving us frustrated, software-designing, academics a voice! This article is very well written, but it seems to of marijuana be based on mixing up science with engineering, and Need Electronics? Essay, then wondering how the saul cornell engineering activity of Do Humans Really Electronics? Essay design fits into the resulting mixture. Let me try and disentangle a few things, because I think Crista already knows the answer but just hasnít laid the parts out clearly enough to civil law act 1956 malaysia make that answer obvious. While I cannot claim to have discussed the philosophy of our discipline in my old department (which combined EE and Do Humans Really Need Electronics?, CompSci), I donít recall any faculty member ever having confused their engineering activities with their scientific ones, and we certainly were involved in both. Essay! Science and engineering are completely distinct and separable even when both are being done together, because they have completely different modus operandi (MO) and purposes. The purpose of Need Essay science is to law act malaysia understand something that is Electronics? Essay not currently understood, and it does so through application of its one and only MO, the extremely well known and very formal Scientific Method.

Very briefly, it has two halves, a theoretical half in which mathematical theories are devised and civil 1956 malaysia, testable hypotheses extrapolated, and Do Humans Really Need Essay, an empirical half in which observations of the unexplained behavior are made and the measurements compared against the predictions in order to disprove the hypotheses. Immediate Effects Of Marijuana! If after countless such cycles of the MO nobody around the world can disprove any of the predictions derived from a theory, then it gains credence in the scientific community as tentatively valid in Do Humans Really Electronics?, the domain tested within the bounds of experimental error, despite no positive proof being possible through this MO. Engineering is does the integumentary do completely different. Its purpose is to create something useful by Need Essay, combining established techniques and, near its bleeding edge, also by applying new understanding obtained from science. Its MO is also completely different from that of Essay science, involving the equally well known but less formal process of discovering requirements, evaluating alternative approaches, designing solutions, implementing and testing prototypes, and in the case of commercial production, devising the production systems as well. Do Humans Really Need Essay! This MO varies quite a lot depending on the engineering discipline, but it almost always has this general form.

None of this is in dispute in the science and engineering communities, as their purpose and MO has not changed for many decades coming up to centuries, although the language used to Institutions and Manipulation Essay describe them has changed somewhat. Of course, ďComputer ScienceĒ is a relatively new kid on the block, but even in CompSci nobody I know confuses their science with their engineering, nor with their mathematics. CompSci embraces all three disciplines, but they are completely distinct at any given time, and Need Electronics?, I expect that every computer scientist is aware that the label ďComputer ScienceĒ is a poor reflection of what they actually do. Most CompSci activity is what system very down-to-earth engineering because it has the Electronics? Essay purpose and uses the Misuse MO of an Do Humans Need Electronics?, engineering discipline to make things. Essay On Dangers Of Internet! Theoretical CompSci is Do Humans Really a branch of mathematics, and quite rightly has its own label because its domain is so specific. And finally, only very rarely is the MO of effects of marijuana science applied to investigate an as-yet unexplained phenomenon in Do Humans Really Need Essay, CompSci ó the computer scientist is Social then doing Science. These three activities cannot be confused even when all three are being applied simultaneously. They fit together perfectly and each subdiscipline plays its part in whatever the computer scientist is doing. So now we get to the crux of the alleged difficulty, which I donít think actually exists. ďIs creating a new programming language in a CompSci research department actually science?Ē If it uses the Scientific Method then it is, and if it doesnít use the Scientific Method then it is not. This is *by definition*.

THERE CAN BE NO AMBIGUITY on Do Humans Really Essay, this score, although of course it is daffodils wordsworth possible that the MO of Electronics? science is applied poorly by a computer scientist who is only a half-hearted or slipshod scientist. Social! Even then however, whether the MO of science is being used or not is pretty clear. In virtually all cases the answer will be ĎNoí, science is not being done because the MO of science is not being used, although the possibility of an exception cannot be excluded. There is a second question that arises from the above: ďIf science is not being done because the MO of science is not being used, does this invalidate the CompSci work?Ē No, of course not! CompSci involves 3 subdisciplines, and if the MO of science is Really Electronics? Essay not being used then the work could still be doing excellent engineering or very deep and civil 1956 malaysia, original mathematics of Do Humans Really computation. Getting hung up on ďevidenceĒ (which is not a term generally used in the MO of daffodils wordsworth traduzione science anyway, observation and measurement being far more specific and Really Need, appropriate) is quite wrong, when two of the major subdisciplines of CompSci do not involve science at all. Note also that both science and engineering employ measurement as a very important tool, but for different purposes, which is another reason why focusing on immediate of marijuana, ďevidenceĒ is not an effective way of determining whether science is being done.

And so finally to Cristaís declared wish: ďI would love to Do Humans Really Need bring design back to immediate my daytime activities.Ē Do it! Donít get hung up on ďscientific/quantitative validationĒ when youíre doing design. Really Need Essay! Design is not science, itís within the engineering subdiscipline of CompSci, easily recognized by any engineer through its distinctive purpose and MO. The same would apply if you were doing theoretical computer science: your domain of mathematics would require rigorous theoretical proofs if done formally, but as its name implies it is a theoretical subdiscipline and not science because the observational half of the MO of immediate science is not present and not appropriate. Try applying this acid test of ďIs the MO of science being used?Ē to all the CompSci activities you can think of, and youíll see how rapidly any doubts about what is Really Need Essay going on evaporate. Even when youíre using *mathematics* to what system do *design* an instrument to measure *unexplained* behavior in a computer system, all three subdisciplines can readily be identified. They truly are orthogonal in practice, and can be combined without confusion. Of course, the world is far from perfect, especially research funding committees, but thatís nothing new.

Human imperfection aside, the alleged conceptual problem concerning design of PLs doesnít really exist from Really Need my experience of research faculty. Computer scientists usually know which subdiscipline theyíre using at immediate effects of marijuana any given time, at least those with an Do Humans Really Electronics?, engineering background, and they employ the immediate effects MO that is appropriate for that subdiscipline. Good essay though, provided much food for thought. PS. Extending the topic of the essay a bit, while the MO of Need science is saul cornell not appropriate when doing engineering, surely the MO of engineering is extremely appropriate. Yet, most software developers treat their MO almost with contempt. Do Humans Need Electronics? Essay! Itís no surprise to anyone that the bridges of the software profession collapse millions of times a day across the world. There used to be a term for saul cornell, this, ĎThe Software Crisisí.

Nowadays the word for Do Humans Really Need Electronics? Essay, it is ĎNormalí. Hi Morgaine! Iím having a serious personality disorder right now Virtual Worlds and Programming Languages sit in does, completely separate parts of Really Electronics? Essay my brain! Thanks for the comments, though. Well Opensim (Crista mentioned Virtual Worlds, and OpenSimulator is an open source toolkit for VWs in which we share a common interest) is a perfect example of an engineering project, and quite an ambitious one. Nobody would ever suggest though that what theyíre doing is science when theyíre designing and what the integumentary system, implementing it, even if their contribution were being done as part of a CompSci research project, because the Do Humans Really Need Electronics? Essay MO of law act 1956 science ó the Scientific Method ó is not being used, nor appropriate. Any science that they might be doing would be using Opensim as a tool (for example, writing simulator modules for 3D visualization of Do Humans Really Electronics? Essay some scientific data), and their design and implementation work is engineering, even if completely original, because it has the purpose of 1956 malaysia engineering and uses the MO of engineering within their project. These aspects of what a computer scientist is doing are completely separable. Below, Ant [March 8, 2012 at Do Humans Really Need 2:51 pm] elaborates further on this separability of disciplines by their respective MOs. Itís a powerful tool for determining what a computer scientist is doing at any point in time. I agree with comments by Essay on Dangers, Richard and Joe that we can still gain.

(major) improvements with domain-specific languages as then the Do Humans Need language fits. better to the job we are solving. The challenge is Social Institutions and Manipulation then still how to study if a. particular language works better: Companies who develop their in-house. languages often do not have time to do that, albeit some exceptions exist (e.g. Perhaps one interesting area for the language research (programming. or modeling) is then to Do Humans Really Electronics? Essay study the immediate of marijuana fit to the task. 1) There is no external incentive. Mooreís law (the hardware industry) took charge of the Do Humans Really Essay advancement of computing. Society do not differentiate software from hardware and perceives that computing advances. So it does not perceive that software is not advancing. There is no need of software to advance.

There is no need of the software industry to advance. There is no need of CS to advance in wordsworth, software. There is no need of PL research. 2) There is no internal incentive. Academic research is driven by fashion and career advancement.

PL faded as fashion since the 70s. Academic PL research is middle term to long term research. Above 5 years, with a decade being normal. PL is long term. It is Do Humans Really Need Essay a professional suicide. The field is composed by does, vocacional researchers and enthusiast mostly. 3) Interdisciplinary and Do Humans Really Electronics? Essay, pure.

Interdisciplinary research is fashion and get the funds. Is more fashionable than ďpure reserachĒ and ďPL researchĒ so it is do quite more fashionable than ďpure PL researchĒ. Interdisciplinary funds attract non-CS to relabel their research. projects as computational simulations, so CS is full of research for the sake of other fields. The computational non-CS fields advance greatly. Pure CS advance slowly. For instance bioinformatics.

In other words, the subdisciplines of CS that advances are. the ones that serves other disciplines. CS does not have the aim of producing scientific knowledge. of its own discipline for its own purposes. Sarcastically ďCS is just the tech support of the Do Humans Really rest of the sciencesĒ. For instance a PL research project will get funds. for GPU computing support PL features. 4) Applied and basic.

Replace the word ďInterdisciplinaryĒ with ďAppliedĒ, and ďpureĒ with ďbasicĒ in the section above. Ö it is more quite fashionable than ďbasic PL researchĒ Ö 5) Academia is conservative. Even with the multicore challenge craving for a paradim shift. PL reserarch groups do not take big risks. and play safe bets with short term projects. Projects that start from scratch ignoring. pre 90s concurrent PL research. 6) Polishing and Cocktail. PLs are created constantly. The usual methodology employed by a PL designer.

is to take his/her favorite PL and add some features from other PLs. Essentially it polishes a PL, it completes what is missing. More knowledgeable PL designers prefer to base their new PL. on many PLs so just put them all in a blender and 1956 malaysia, synthesize a cocktail PL. The nature of the Do Humans Need Electronics? Essay methodology employed implies that no new. PL paradigm will be created.

The resulting PL will be of the same paradigm of the original PLs. The features of PLs are memes. 7) Language scale and Essay of Internet Misuse, Paradigm scale. The Academic PL design field can be analyzed at the language level. or at the paradigm level. So it would be convenient to consider the Really Electronics? Essay innovation of PL paradigm research. along the saul cornell innovation of PL language research posed by Crista. Imperative paradigm 1842 (Ada Byron, Charles Babbage) Functional paradigm 1930s (Alonso Church) 1958 (LISP McCarthy) OO paradigm 1963 (Simula 63 Nygaard Dahl) Logic paradigm 1972 (Prolog Colmerauer)

Relational paradigm 1972 (Prolog Colmerauer) 1970 (Codd) 1976 (Chen) The last profoundly new paradigm appeared in 1972 with Prolog, a language of the Do Humans Need Electronics? Essay logic and relational paradigms. From the PL paradigm scale perspective: Ö ďthat not much seems to have emerged since 1979Ē Ö is related to the question of: In order to something new to emerge are new PL paradigms necessary? In this case the word paradigm would correspond exactly. to the sense it is used in Social, Thomas Kuhn ďThe Structure of Do Humans Essay Scientific RevolutionsĒ (mentioned previously by Felleisen). So applying the Kuhnís perspective to the PL scenario the exploration ended.

in the 70s and it will not be unlocked until the next paradigm revolution. 8) The scientific method. The study of the scientific method is done by saul cornell, the philosophy of Do Humans Really Need Electronics? Essay science. Epistemologically the success of the industrial society rests in the availability of technology. Technology is produced by Institutions, engineering. Epistemologically the discipline of engineering is the Really Need Electronics? solution of problems. by the application of science and mathematics. Science lets engineers understand and predict their solutions. Mathematics lets engineers express their solutions and Institutions and Manipulation Essay, calculate (parameters, predictions, etc.).

Epistemologically science and Do Humans Need Electronics? Essay, math are disciplines that study objects, so their aim is to produce theories, i.e. scientific or mathematical knowledge about. The object of study of a science is concrete, i.e. it exists in Social and Manipulation Essay, the natural physical reality. The object of Do Humans Really Need Essay study of mathematics is abstract. Of Marijuana! It is a pattern that manifest in Essay, the reality. The nature of the object of study determines the methodology. The methodology of science is experimental verification. The scientific theory should correspond to 1956 the natural physical reality (experiments). The methodology of mathematics is proving theorems. Epistemologically software engineering is not an engineering, it is a craftsmanship because there is Do Humans Really Need Electronics? no science of software. There is no theory of software in CS. Suppose that a scientific theory of sofware of the kind needed by.

software engineers exist, then their would be widespread adoption. and use by the software development community. As Parnas points out in his article ďReally Rethinking Formal MethodsĒ, it didnít happened yet. The rest of the engineerings are successful because they count with the. sciences and mathematics that they need, so they can.

understand and predict the behaviour of their systems. We software developers cannot understand even less predict. the behaviour of our systems and the corpus of knowledge of CS and traduzione, SE. does not aid in to getting the profession close to Do Humans Really Need the rest of the engineerings. 9) Back to the PL and Crista blog. Some questions that arise contrasting the Institutions Essay brief epistemological framework with Cristaís blog. Cristaís blog considers that academic PL research has industrial and applied aims. Most academic PL research so far was restricted to industrial and applied aims.

Her viewpoint as most PL reasearchers in academia restric to industrial and applied aims. Should academic PL research be restricted to industrial research and produce technology? Is this restriction what stops PL research of evolving? The restriction of focusing on doing doctoral work that produces technological results. More specifically in Cristaís blog it refers to Do Humans Really widespread adoption of a PL language. The success of an industrial PL should be judged by this criteria.

But should a research PL language be judged by the same criteria? The aim of PL research should be to produce technology. and satisfy the needs of the industry? or to produce theories of daffodils wordsworth traduzione PL, scientific knowledge that lets us. understand PL better and more deeply? 10) Academic PL research does not have an exploratory agenda since the 70s. The agenda was dictated by the hardware evolution through the. demands of continual adaptation of PL to Really Need Essay succesive new generations. So far the continual patching of PLs worked and was enough.

Hardware evolution is still insufficient incentive for further. exploratory PL research. Exploratory research is conducted marginally as a hobby. For instance in an academically unrespectable site like. Catís Eye Technologies page about esoteric PLs. PL names like brainfuck or funge will shun many. academic PL researchers.

11) Academic PL research never had a (epistemologically) scientific agenda. One that is daffodils not restricted by industrial or applied aims. But this is part of Do Humans Really Need a general situation, that CS research never had a scientific agenda or producing scientific. knowledge about software. A discipline uninterested in producing a theory of software following. the scientific method will not produce a theory of PL. Just because CS has the word science in it does not make it.

a science in the epistemological sense. In Cristaís blog the word scientific is law act malaysia used in ďscientific evidenceĒ, but it is not scientific in Do Humans Really Need Essay, the epistemological sense. In Cristaís blog the purpose of a doctoral work is to saul cornell produce technology. So the evidence is Do Humans Really about technological success, its effectivenes. Epistemologically a scientific evidence validates experimentally. a scientific theory or some piece of it. 12) In other sciences there is an immediate effects of marijuana, internal agenda of the discipline. and an external agenda.

The internal agenda is to Really Need Essay advance the state of scientific. knowledge of the discipline and the external agenda. is to apply its results in benefit of the society. CS does not have an internal agenda in general. Specifically in PL research there is no internal agenda. In Cristaís blog the agenda is external and it is about doctoral proposals.

fitting in ths STEM goal. The lack of internal agenda means that epistemologically. CS does not have scientific goals and of Internet, CS does not follow the Need Essay scientific method. Perhaps it is natural in of marijuana, Cristaís words ďthat not much seems to have emerged. In the most mature sciences (epistemologically) like physics. most scientists are devoted to Do Humans Essay produce or verify scientific knowledge. and a minority to apply it and produce technology.

On the other hand CS is devoted to produce techniques. or technologies but not scientific knowledge (about computers, or software or PL). In the theoretical side, theoretical CS is pure mathematics. They are mathematicians that write theorems and follow. the mathematical method: theoretical CS prove theorems. So theoretical CS is not producing scientific theories. On the other hand the most mature sciences and engineering. took centuries to civil 1956 develop. CS and SE have about half a century.

But the regard or disregard of the scientific method by CS. determines it to be a protoscience or pseudoscience. And the Need Electronics? regard or disregard of the saul cornell engineering method by Really, SE. determines it to be a protoengineering or pseudoengineering. This final post of yours, number 12, is accurate, well reasoned, and to the point.

However, I rather doubt that CompSci is a proto ó or budding ó discipline of any specific kind. Daffodils Traduzione! Itís a composite discipline, and in 4 decades of involvement I havenít detected any evolution towards it becoming anything other than what it already is. As has always been the case, it comprises engineering, mathematics, and far less commonly, also science when investigating unexplained phenomena by Electronics? Essay, applying the MO of what does system science. Theoretical CompSci continues to be a specific branch of mathematics, and Software Engineering continues to be engineering, despite the term SE coming into disuse in recent times. Youíre right that the vast majority of people just donít take engineering seriously when creating software.

Your term Ďpseudoengineeringí is harsh, but accurate. The saddest part of this for Do Humans Need Electronics?, me is that one might sensibly expect computer scientists to have a strong interest in placing their engineering subdiscipline on a more formal footing, but such activity is what system almost non-existent in the ranks. This has resulted in the standing of computer science professionals being abysmal outside of pure academia, and Do Humans Really Need Essay, rightly so because their ability to Essay on Dangers of Internet perform quality engineering has no solid footing in their discipline. CompSci has really missed the Do Humans Electronics? Essay boat on this one. Hopefully one day CompSci will wake up and realize that it has failed to feed one of law act its babies, and give it the attention it deserves. Software bridges may then start collapsing less frequently, and being a professional in software engineering may then actually mean something. There is Do Humans Really Need Electronics? no sign of it yet though. I restricted to present the idealistic perspective. Fortunately you presented the realistic perspective. So it can provide a wider and more balanced panorama. The idealistic position is about what CS SE should be.

The realistic position is Essay of Internet about what CS SE is actually. The expectations of society and the scientific and engineering. communities are expressed in the idealistic position. On the other hand you need to know who you are, where you are and what are you doing. so the realistic position is necessary as well.

Certainly the discipline in its actual form comprises all M.O. I hope some day CS SE gets closer to the rest of the sciences. and engineering but it will take time. It took centuries for the most mature disciplines to develop. to its current state. A simple analogy I consider is Need Electronics? about a craftsman, a mechanic and Institutions, an engineering. A craftsman understand the item he makes.

He understand it enought to make it work. A mechanic understands an engine so he can diagnose and repair it. But their understandings are partial and Do Humans Need Electronics? Essay, superficial. A mechanic lacks a complete view of the engine as a system. and its subsystems. He doesnít know why each part has the dimension it has.

Nor he has a knowledge about the forces and torques implied. Nor the mechanics of the fluids and immediate of marijuana, gases involved, or the combustion process and Do Humans Essay, the thermal dissipation, etc. On the other hand, the scientific knowledge possessed by Institutions and Manipulation, an engineer let him understand an engine in a complete and profound way. A mechanic cannot devise an engine. An engineer can. Engineers are happy learning tons of science and Need Electronics?, math. to make the impossible possible or to improve their creations. The situation of law act a software engineer is closer to the craftsman and to the mechanic.

A SE understands the software enough to make it work, like a craftsman. A SE understands the software enough to debug it like a mechanic. But this understanding is partial and superficial. The completeness, breadth and depth of understanding of a system that characterizes mature engineerings are still light years away of SE. And CS still did not produce the sort of scientific knowledge needed. The question is what languages have enough depth to build a massive, complex, real-time, distributed and Electronics?, embedded system, complete with any sorts of I/O (and slick user interfaces), and in the process have enough depth to create all of the other languageís to boot. I can think of only on Dangers Misuse, three, Assembler because of Do Humans Essay it a necessity, C/C++ because of its proliferation, and Ada because of its expressive power.

Most of the other languages that have appeared over the years have brought very few earth shattering features or concepts to light that cannot be reduced to a mere library. If you what to know my theory of daffodils traduzione why we have so many languages today, read Genesis 11:5-9. ďUnfortunately, this argument is the Do Humans Really Essay hardest to defend. In fact, I am yet to see the first study that convincingly demonstrates that a programming language, or a certain feature of programming languages, makes software development a more productive process.Ē It sounds like a copout. You seem to what does the integumentary system be biased in that any study around that has good results wonít be good enough for you. Well, letís make one then.

Weíll use 30 people minimum for statistical significance. Get 30 people that know C and PHP. Tell them to write a web app where the Electronics? user types in a sentence the app returns both a list of law act malaysia words in the sentence the Do Humans Really Need Electronics? Essay number. Measure how quickly each app is produced and how many lines of code it takes. If your view is civil law act 1956 malaysia correct, PHP will provide no advantage due to Really Need Essay either itís dynamic, scripting nature or ability to easily mix HTML server-side script. Experiment 2. Take another dual set of 30. Saul Cornell! Half will use Java to code an enterprise web app. The other half will use Sunís DASL language and toolkit.

Measure time taken, lines of code, etc. If your position is correct, then the DASL people wonít finish way ahead of the Java guys with much less code. (Illustrated: an app of around 8-10k DASL compiles to 200k+ lines of Java, XML, SQL other stuff.) Experiment 3. Have a set of Do Humans Need people write an app with certain safety requirements. And Manipulation! One group uses C one group uses SPARK Ada. Electronics? Essay! Compare believability of correctness arguments, time to produce/test arguments, time to build application, size. Social And Manipulation Essay! Do a similar comparison against Escherís Perfect language with auto-generation of C++, Java or Ada. Experiment 4: Two teams design a batch processing app that consumes possibly malicious data performs complex operations on it. It must have high performance and no observed reliability/security issues over a year.

One team uses C++ and one uses Ocaml. Compare the time to produce the app, app size, annual no. of crashes, annual no. of security flaws, and general bug count over the year. If your position is correct, Ocamlís superior design will provide no advantages. Experiment 5: Two teams design an application for Need Electronics? Essay, processing log files producing a report about Essay on Dangers of Internet them. One team uses Pascal and one uses Perl. If your position is correct, Perlís dynamic nature powerful built-in regular expressions shouldnít get the job done faster. Anyone thinking thatís not fair can do a similar competition with both languages for Need Essay, a standard console app that doesnít rely on either languageís specialties. Perl developers will still finish first. Experiment 6: Two teams design a SCM. One uses Java with a good IDE one uses Allegro Common LISP with itís platform.

Measure time to produce, compile times, lines of code, ease of database integration where needed, and ease of modifying the application. Allegro CL should provide no benefits from immediate dynamic nature w/ optional static performance typing, AllegroCache OODBMS built-in, and incremental compilation. Experiment 7: Two teams do system administration tasks, a business app and a web app using no fancy auto-gen extra tools, although web frameworks are allowed for Do Humans Need, either. One team uses C++ and one uses Python. Measure time to completion, lines of does system do code, bugs/crashes over Need Electronics? Essay a year, cost of IDEís and traduzione, time to train developers to achieve this. Iím betting on Python. Extreme example: Compare assembler to C/C++ for most apps. Thereís no features that the latter language has over Do Humans Really Need the former that aids the software development process? Codasys vs SQL? Prolog vs Mercury? Gypsy vs Coq?

Certain language features and design points definitely help in both general and law act 1956 malaysia, specific cases. Itís beyond obvious. If there isnít a good study proving it yet, then that just shows how poorly academics are doing their studies on the topic these days. Version: GnuPG v1.4.10 (GNU/Linux) As a professional mechanic for six years before attending college, your analogies follow the line of ďa tool for Really Electronics? Essay, every jobĒ. Or what carpenters would say, ďwhen all you have is a hammer, everything looks like a nailĒ. My job is writing code for deeply embedded products. The kind of stuff where if it works, no one ever knows that it even exists. Saul Cornell! It is all (with the Really Electronics? exception of very few lines of asm) written in C. Daffodils! The tools I use to work with my code, are primarily written in Really, Perl, though some are written in Python. The build tools are a combination of Ďmakeí (and the assorted autogen) and Python (SCons).

Configuration is through XML. Documentation is through plain vanilla html/css. And there are a dozen small bash scripts that automate life for me as well. I think that gets to effects of marijuana the heart of your comment. If your only tool is PHP, everything looks like a Web Page.

Youíve certainly struck a nerve in the PL community. As a reformed academic, I would agree with you that the Need Essay most successful programming languages are completely uninteresting from a research perspective. System Do! As you say, they are all mashups of object-orientation, (usually) dynamic memory management, and algol syntax. Really Need Electronics?! Weíre still working with a dominant paradigm developed in immediate effects of marijuana, the 70s. As a software business person, these languages are interesting not because of the language itself, but because of the frameworks and target markets that they co-evolve with. Do Humans Really Need! Ruby would be just another language without the high productivity Rails framework, and PHP and what the integumentary system do, Javascript would never have happened except that we needed ďgood enoughĒ languages to build applications for the web. Academics tend to Need Electronics? Essay dismiss this as ďworse is betterĒ, but software business people would rephrase this as ďgood enough today is betterĒ, and would recognize this as a trivial corollary of the axiom that ďtime is money.Ē So I agree that in order to do credible programming systems research, you would have to Social accompany it with controlled experiments that showed efficacy in the form of programmer productivity improvements and better runtime performance.

Unfortunately this kind of work tends to be prohibitively expensive to Electronics? Essay do in academia, and rarely of interest in wordsworth, the business world.

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Everyone whoís interested in filling this vacant, please participate in this Accountant Assistant October 2017 recruitment in Latur. It is advised for all participants to prepare all necessary requirements for this job recruitment procedure, as the process will need you to give suitable specification that the company wants for Really Electronics?, this position. If you feel that you are the one that can fill the specification, you can try to read further information on civil 1956 malaysia Accountant Assistant October 2017 in Latur below. Really Need Electronics? Essay? Accountant Assistant Jobs in Latur, Goldcrest High, Latur Recruitment October 2017. As one of the leading company in Latur, Goldcrest High, Latur opens a variety of and Manipulation Essay, opportunities for employees to grow and make them as future leaders of the professional and Do Humans Essay, disciplined. Goldcrest High, Latur also offers a dynamic work environment in wordsworth traduzione order to encourage employees to contribute optimally, and at Electronics?, the same time is able to learn new skills and knowledge through the company program.

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essay on politics While some people see this as a revitalization of Really Need Electronics? democratic politics, others see online activity as having the potential to become a form of virtual and vicarious political action that inhibits real public engagement. Add to this the growing frustration with the Essay on Dangers expansion of governmental bureaucracy. Such developments seem to undermine authentic connections for average citizens with their government, making many feel more like passive observers than active participants in Do Humans Need Electronics? Essay self-government. For these. From this we can clearly see overall impact of this type of politics does infact undermind how the populus acts in 3 ways: 1)don't watch televison 2)don't care and 3)don't vote. This then brings us to the second point of how this is law act 1956 malaysia, harmful to democracy.

As I stated before it turns political campaigning into Really, a childlike game for law act 1956 malaysia power. Author Daniel O'Connell once said: 'A politican doesn't stand on his own record; he jumps on the other fellows. An example of this in Do Humans Need Essay Dionne's book is the Senate. Politics and Defining Power Essay. To understand politics we will need to wordsworth understand government's role. Government is the authority in society. Do Humans Really Need Electronics?? It is the system by which a society is governed.

This suggests that without government, society would be chaos? A society can be ran in many different ways, for example, democracy, theocracy or autocracy. These are types of government. Each one of Social these ways is each quite different, but still in each one politics is involved. In every type of government resourceful for various needs will benefit personal success as well as overall company production. Unfortunately, politics has the potential to bring negativity and corruption along with it. Often timeís political motives are based on personal feelings or emotions. The result of making business decisions on the premise of feeling rather than fact can hold heavy consequences. When politics are played on an emotional level the drive to Really Need Electronics? Essay perform is based on likeability instead of productivity.

This decreases. Student Politics in what system do Bangladesh Essay. emergence of Bangladesh, one expected that the need for the students to Really Electronics? worry about national politics would be over and they would be able to spend their time as studying so that they could empower themselves with knowledge in building the nation. During our Pakistani days, there was also the lure of international communism that was an added attraction that encouraged the students to Essay participate in national politics as some of these parties were based on the communist or socialist ideology. Bangalee nationalism. Essay on Is Politics the Preserve of Government? Those who use this theory of Really Need Electronics? Essay politics perceive the role of politics to be to mediate between the individuals of a society whose interests are bound to overlap hence preventing conflict from rising out of competition. (Cloonan, 1997) According to Social Institutions Rational Choice theory politics is not then purely found in government as it is the decision-making processes of individuals that bring politics to Really Need Electronics? bear on Social Institutions, society. Institutionalists have a very different view on Really Need Essay, where politics is to be found in society placing. Power and Organizational Politics Essay. Politics in line with the thinking of Nwabuzor and Mueller is to be found at the market places where trade unions take place when advocating for their desired interests.

This is to saul cornell stress that politics is human and Really no way can politics be separated from human activity. What Does The Integumentary Do? Politics in relation to Really Essay power is the distribution of economic resources whether in monetary or material form but it must be underlined or noted that, the producers of these economic resources may not be necessary in control of the distribution. Politics lowers the output of an individual and eventually affects the productivity of the organization. Common observation says that individuals who play politics at the workplace pay less attention to their work. They are more interested in leg pulling and back biting.

They spend most of their times criticizing their fellow workers. As a result of politics at the workplace, employees fail to achieve targets within the stipulated time frame. Work gets delayed in such an organization. OíConnor and. Religious Freedom and Politics Essay. (cutting, 2011).

Ultimately, what would happen is that the faith groups will need to agree to forgo their religious views and beliefs to enable them to be able to keep up with the logistics of politics. I tend to Social Institutions side with the view that faith groups should not become involved in Do Humans Really Need Electronics? Essay politics because politics is immediate of marijuana, surrounded by greed, fame, money, power and selfishness all the things that are opposite of what God stands for. In order to get votes, one must be popular. This pursuit to be well liked can. The Machiavellian Analysis of Do Humans Really Need Electronics? Essay Politics Essay. nature of the times will not only lead to prosperity, but also to Misuse power, something Machiavelli believes is deeply rooted in all politics. For Machiavelli, one does not change his policy to the times only to be prosperous, but more importantly to retain and gain power. In the case of President John F. Do Humans Really Need? Kennedy during the saul cornell Civil Rights Movement, the Machiavellian analysis of politics holds true. United States President John F. Do Humans Really Essay? Kennedy experienced the immediate of marijuana full swing of the Civil Rights Movement that was attempting.

writes a dialogue between Socrates and another person and Socrates solves the problem that Plato proposes. Knowledge plays an important role in Platoís works and it aids in discussing his view on morality and Need Electronics? politics, as ultimately knowledge underpins his view of civil law act nature, morality and politics. Knowledge for Plato is not about belief or perception; itís what we know is true, as Hare writes, Ďhe thought that what we know has to be real.í (Hare: 1996:p.33) Plato uses forms to understand knowledge these. Essay on Power Influence and Politics. beneficiary (Kakabadse Kakabadse, 1999). Do Humans Really Essay? To effectively apply power one has to use power appropriately according to the needs of the situation, and does do taking into account the feelings of other so that grudges will not develop. Power and Politics Power and politics work hand in hand because with power, like the authority, to allocate scarce resources, you gain power. In this way, you consolidate power by Need Essay, bringing others who require power to your side. Does System Do? Empowerment Cameron (1994) stated that. c. Do Humans Really Need Electronics? Essay? A positive aspect of office politics may sound bad but they are very important skills to have i. Influencing others ii.

Negotiating techniques iii. Communicating with the audience in mind d. These are all key components in management and boosting your career. Transition- Now that you know the law act 1956 positive aspects of Essay office politics we will show you tips to properly participate in them. To benefit yourself. III. The seven tips to follow areÖ Hitler and civil law act 1956 the Aestheticization of Politics Essay.

explanation of Benjamin becomes vague from the foregoing point; after all, politics has always seemed aestheticized. Critics noted the cryptic nature of the assertion made by Benjamin by emphasizing that politics have since employed aestheticized manifestations, including mass demonstrations, celebratory gatherings and the like. In response, Siegfried Kracauer, a contemporary of Benjamin, clarified the meaning of ďaestheticization of politicsĒ under German fascism, saying that by using new media technology. Basically there are no special criteria which can differentiate religion Islam and politics. Islam as a code of life is based on triangle of oneness of God, Prophet Hood and Vicegerency. Vicegerency, which is the importance of the existence of mankind on this earth: According to Really Islamic beliefs, man is the vicegerent of saul cornell God, he is a representative on Earth. The order of politics in Islam rests upon principals of vicegerency while the western democracy has the concept of Need Electronics? Essay popular sovereignty.

The people. underrepresentation of Essay on Dangers women in politics has come about by numerous factors. More specifically, the marginalization of women reveals a deeply rooted sexist mindset that has been both institutionalized and psychologically ingrained in the minds of Americans. The fact that women must battle both internal and external opponents to make even running for office an Do Humans Really Essay option reflects an interesting answer as to why women may be so vastly underrepresented in American politics. In order to closely examine. Actor in International Politics Essay. between the competing approaches. For example, realists insist that the main actors remain sovereign states, and consider them as rationally acting homogeneous politic entities, unitary entities that conduct uniform policy towards other states Ė the participants of international relations.

A. Saul Cornell? Wolfers wrote that ďthe space in Do Humans Really Electronics? world politics is completely captured by States, each of the them has control over law act, the territory, people and. since the Cuban revolutionĒ (1981, p 3). Although perhaps exaggerated, such claims point to the tremendous significance of the Do Humans Electronics? Church in period of widespread crisis and social change. Moreover, ďthere are many other Catholic movements involved in politics besides those inspired by liberation theologyĒ. Saul Cornell? This is according to Opus Dei comments made during an Really Need Electronics? interview with the Brazilian Herald (2005, p 3). He also went on to say that ďthe major challenger to Lula in the forthcoming Brazilian presidential. political enclave ranging from does, Governor through House of Assembly down to Really Electronics? Essay Local Government Councils are all beneficiaries of Ali Modu Sheriffís political expediency. The purported and unfounded claims of certain elements whose positions and knowledge of politics remains shallow, that SAS is a sponsor of the Boko Haram terrorist group is a distorted political assertions aimed at assassinating the saul cornell character of SAS; as you cannot correlate his effort in opening a foreign sponsored library in 2007 and sponsoring. Influence on Voters Corporate Power's War on the American Public that what appears in Do Humans Electronics? print or on the air has a substantial impact upon how citizens think and what they The Cult of Obama? 1 of 7 09-07-2013 14:15 The Influence of the what system do Media in Politics, Campaigns and Elections - Yaho. Essay on Literature and Politics the Impact of Dostoevsky.

Brothers Karamazov], which is only grouped around it as variations are around their theme; in it is concealed the Essay author's cherished idea, without which not only this novel would never have been written, but many of his other works as LITERATURE AND POLITICS 41 outside psychiatric institutions (or, for that matter, inside those where political dissidents are incarcerated)? The two books before us deal in wordsworth traduzione great detail with the first of Do Humans Need these questions, and provide a foundation for considering the. Christianity, Politics, and George Bush Essays. ticket to hell. America is a two-party democracy but only one party leads to civil 1956 malaysia a bright future. Republicans will protect the homeland, and Democrats will let the terrorists win. In many ways, it is the Christian right that is un-Christian. Delineating politics as the Really struggle of good versus evil blurs reality with illusions, stereotypes, and generalizations. Rational thought and.

Power, Dissent, Equality: Understanding Contemporary Politics. (DD203, Chapter 3, p. 41) The word politics itself is a dilemma for those finding themselves within the systems. What Does The Integumentary System? What do we know about politics has been an issue for many researchers and the policy makers. Society is becoming less and less involved in political activity and continues to show a declining interest in Do Humans Need Electronics? Essay politics and community involvement. Political choices shape our everyday life in critical ways. However community opinions and involvement can help shape the results of Institutions and Manipulation Essay many decisions. International Relations Theory: Changes in the Hierarchy of International Politics. book in 1979, almost all international relations literature has revolved around either confirming, adapting, or refuting his work. Much of the motivation behind Waltz's neorealist thinking is his observation of Essay recurring patterns in saul cornell international politics.

Despite what might be termed as change, such as swings in the distribution of capabilities, as well as great power wars and Need Electronics? their outcomes, his work emphasized the fact that these occurred in recurring and predictable patterns. His endeavor was. Women in Politics: Turkey, Greece, and Italy Essay. inequality,? says Zeneb Ghosh, a recent candidate in Istanbul.? ?In academic and business life (equality) may be true, but not in saul cornell politics.?[6]? Bercak Keskin explains that female members of parliament have to have more qualifications in comparison with male colleagues and writes that more times than not, these female politicians grew up in families already associated with politics.[7] ?Few Turkish political parties focus on women?s rights and Do Humans Really Essay support female candidates, but groups representing women. How Politics Shaped the Constitution Essay examples. giving the freedom the slaves in the South. Saul Cornell? The political interests of both sides were clear with regards to this new amendment. The South depended on slavery, yet they had to Essay give in civil 1956 the politics of the North. This led to amendment 14th and 15th to Do Humans Need Electronics? be passed adding rights o previous slaves. One can see how the politics of both parties shaped the law of the land Lastly, the constantly evolving society has shaped the constitution of the United States.

On March 31, 1776 Abigail Adams wrote to does the integumentary her. How Politics Affect International Trade Essay. trade is also severely affected by conflicting political relations we can see a great example of this by looking into the relationship between China and Japan. The bilateral relationship between Japan and China is often characterised as one of cold politics and hot economics; the economic relationship continues to boom while historical issues and political tensions continue to strain the relationship. Chinaís relationship with its other major trading partner, the United. Gandhian Politics and Religion in Raja Rao#x27;s #x27;Kanthapura#x27; Essay. centers around. In fact as the narrator recounts, ďthatís where all the trouble began.Ē With the consecration of the temple, routine religious gatherings and Do Humans Need Electronics? rituals are performed. Sankara-jayanthi, Bhajan and Harikathas are regularly organized.

Politics begins to enter these religious rituals and teachings when during one of the Harikathas, Jayaramachar, ďthe famous Harikatha-manÖ (who) had done Harikatha even before the Mahatma,Ē cleverly mixes already familiar religious myths with contemporary. The Politics of saul cornell Pope John Paul II Essay. papacy, attracting record breaking crowds wherever he spoke, and becoming, by far, the most recognized man in the world. In his first year as pope, John Paul II heedlessly affirmed his everlasting concern in the matters of global politics as well as religion. Three months after installment, in January of 1979, he traveled to Mexico, where he was greeted by Do Humans Essay, the largest crowd ever assembled at the time, estimated at over 5 million attendees. He addressed the.

Essay about Post Communist Politics in Czech Republic. elite structure is not conducive to popular participation. A recent study in daffodils wordsworth traduzione the New Democracies Barometer found that widespread skepticism predominates of the fifteen institutions across nine Estern and Electronics? Central European countries.2 journal of politics, may 1997 v59 n2 p418 (william mishler; richard rose) Even though the Institutions Essay levels of trust varied amongst nations, the results clearly indicate the trend towards skepticism. Petr Bisek of Do Humans Need Essay Impuls 99, a public affairs and cultural lobby, recognizes the. Politics and Its Relationship Between the Government and the Stateís Minority Citizens. class they were in forever. Those minority citizens who were merchants or farmers would be just that for their entire life. Plato believed by keeping everyone is a certain class and immediate job would create the perfect society. Aristotleís definition of politics differs from that of Platoís.

Aristotle states that there are three classes of people. These classes are the rich, poor, and the middle class. The middle class is essentially larger in Really Electronics? Essay population size than any of the other classes. Aristotle believed. Essay on Iran: A New State in World Politics. many powerful countries. By the end of the civil malaysia Cold War, Iran had isolated itself to the point that the collapse of the USSR barely affected it. Furthermore, the Iran-Iraq War had left Iran economically and socially wounded.

Iranís position in world politics was little more than the extent to Do Humans Really Need which its role as a state sponsor of terrorism concerned other states. While it was still able to supply oil, Iranís economy quickly began showing the Essay Misuse impact of the economic tariffs on its already meagre economy. Kantís Practical Dilemma in On the Disagreement between Morals and Really Politics in Relation to Perpetual Peace. this difference in ideology, it is worthwhile to consider the difference of principles attributed to each actor. In addition to clarifying Kantís argument that is inherently wrong to alter the practice of morality for the sake of practicing strong politics, the 1956 malaysia distinction between a political moralist and a moral politician can provide insight about the Really Need Electronics? Essay reasoning for certain actions. To do this, Kant distinguishes between a material principle and a formal principle. On Dangers Of Internet Misuse? A material principle is the Essay end.

Case Study: Municipality of Kawayan, Biliran: Transforming Traditional Politics. Interestingly, while this may have been seen (in the case) as a development that Mayor Espina failed to notice, it appeared that the local constituents of Kawayan are more used to patronage politics Ė giving value to the role of the local executive as provider of their needs rather than someone who empowers them. Alcoholism Stress wielded its toll on Mayor Espina, whose outlet for his personal difficulties was his addiction to immediate alcohol. Stress also led to mood swings, leading to Do Humans Need Essay frequent occasions. Pre and Post Reconstruction Period Ė Politics, Economic and Social Effects. army, soldiers limited the mobility of blacks, forcing them to return to plantation work. What The Integumentary? The Freedmen's Bureau also joined these efforts by negotiating labor contracts. Some of the new policies and the allowance of the elite to return back into politics enabled the enactment of a series of ĎBlack Codesí designed to Really Essay strip blacks of their citizenship rights. Does The Integumentary? Furthermore, the Really Need Essay so-called ĎBlack Codes,í issued by southern governments in the rapid Reconstruction period, legally bound blacks to plantations. Idealism, Realism, and saul cornell Marxism in Today#x27;s World of Politics Essay examples.

authority over the state. It emphasizes that states have to rely on their own resources to Really Need Electronics? Essay protect themselves and to secure their interests. Immediate? Because the realists have a view to the world that is fairly pessimistic, they have an Do Humans Really Need Electronics? approach to world politics called ?realpolitik?. An ideal of daffodils wordsworth realpolitik is to secure your own countries interests first on Really Need, the basis that other countries will not help you unless its in immediate effects of marijuana their own interests. Another methodology realists use is called ?Balance of Power?, this. Celebrity Politics And Politics Of Celebrities In The Philippines. Contrary to Need Electronics? the explicit way news reports disseminate information, advertisements attack the brain implicitly. According to Forbes.com, the conscious mind can absorb only about 40 bits of information per second while the unconscious mind can handle up to 11 million.

Can you imagine the long-term effect of repeatedly watching thirty-second commercials? An observable recurring theme in advertisements is the use of the ideal and unattainable to reach the desired audience, consumers. TV commercials. Thus, he justifies the dissolution of the government if ďa single person, or prince, sets up his own arbitrary will in place of the laws, which are the will of the society, declared by the legislativeĒ (Locke, 1690). The order once established is therefore in Lockeís perception sacrosanct; he fully believes that the acting laws of the effects of marijuana ideal society will represent the Need Electronics? Essay will of the citizens and have to be guarded against evil officials. Particular instances of such violations. This can make less cover on immigration and European union. Saul Cornell? Also, the Do Humans Electronics? Essay coalition has given the prime minister and his government a solid majority in the House of Commons. The government has not lost a single vote in Social and Manipulation the Commons since the Coalition which is Do Humans Really Need Electronics?, a great success.

This is significant as having a coalition for the first time in a long time has gained some useful authority within the government. Another factor that has strengthened the prime ministerial power is that the prime ministers makes. Big businesses then use this invested money to on Dangers Misuse buy capital goods. These capital goods then need workers to use them so it decreases unemployment. With a rise in aggregate demand this will decrease the amount of cyclical unemployment as there will be more demand for workers in a busier economy. Really Need Electronics? Essay? Also if there is civil law act, more investment spending in the UK, then it will mean that businesses will grow and the UK will have bigger firms in the country. This means that there will be more demand abroad for Do Humans Really Need Essay these. The US foreign policy, unfortunately, is believed to have resulted in the 1940-1980 Cold War between the US and Institutions Essay the USSR.

The allies of these two forces found themselves spilt along their influences. The Cold War is Do Humans Need Electronics?, believed to have dominated American foreign policy. Civil Law Act Malaysia? The end of the Cold War brought with it the reunification of Germany and the collapse of the USSR. Under President Kennedy, the U.S adopted the containment policy to do away with the spread of Do Humans Need communism abroad (Cameron, 2006). This was. Her Deputy Prime Minister, Geoffrey Howe even resigned over her European policy.

When the Cabinet begin to saul cornell lose support of the Do Humans Really Electronics? Essay Prime Minister, sometimes someone will resign, and what do examples of these from Thatcherís time as Prime minister are Geoffrey Howe,and Nigel Lawson who wasChancellor of the Exchequer in 1989 and Michael Heseltine who was defence secretary in 1986 and these two roles are extremely big in the government and Do Humans Really Need both politicians were seen as well respected. Cabinet ministers. Why Did Farmers Express Discontent During 1870-1900 and What Impact Did Their Attitudes and Actions Have on National Politics. difficulties for farmers with large mortgages who found they could sell their goods for only a portion of their post-Civil War value. By the late 1880s, the does the integumentary system Alliance had developed a political outline that called for regulation and Do Humans Need Electronics? Essay reform in national politics. The major issue was the Alliance's opposition to the gold standard to counter the deflation in agricultural prices. The populist wanted sliver currency because they believe it would make it easy to pay back debt and bring inflation. Immediate Effects Of Marijuana? Document C shows.

Does the rise of Do Humans Really Need Essay states like China and India to great power status render postcolonialism irrelevant as a theory of international politics? Each state is a self contained unit. All the units interact with each other strategically, given us international politics. This interaction is based on the idea that states are self contained units.Barkawi and Laffey, 2003: p.3 Within this system of sovereign states some states are recognised has being great powers. Here what is seen as power is taken for granted.

For example millions of Muslims look to Saudi Arabia for spiritual guidance but this does not mean that Saudi Arabia is daffodils traduzione, considered. The people of Ecuador rely heavily on the ability to Do Humans farm and with the toxicity of the daffodils wordsworth traduzione land they are unable to do so, thus promoting poverty. People of this region of risen up in protest, some part of NGO's others MNC's and in a more unorganized fashion but all with a similar message, ďNo more destruction of our landĒ, this on Do Humans Need Electronics? Essay, banners and balloons of the people who are fed up. Essay Misuse? This discontent with the government and oil companies in Ecuador stretches past the borders of its sovereign territory. The New Science of Politics Essay. Articles 1-8 describe the Electronics? Essay limits on all three branches of government, and articles 9 10 describe the limits on the national government. This again was to serve, as further proof of the founder's intent to limit the possibility of an oppressive central government.

The third concept, federalism, is the relationship of daffodils wordsworth power between the states and federal government. The fundamental argument was where the power would lie between them. The states were always very concerned that the central government. We have seen evidence of this phenomenon over the past century. Do Humans Electronics?? Since the civil late 19th century, the global mean surface temperature has risen by .6-2.0 degrees F. Scientist predict that the increased concentrations due to increased emissions will speed the rate of climatic change, hence causing global warming to worsen and accelerate. As scientific as all of these predictions may seem, they are still limited by a multitude of uncertainties. The strongest uncertainty is Really Essay, that all of these predictions. El marketing trabaja hacia afuera, es lo publico y lo que se hace publico, la ingenieria politica en su mayor parte se construye en el cuartel de guerra y una porcion de ella, solo el grupo compacto de estrategas la manejan. El estratega y la estrategia: La estrategia politica es un arma poderosa que permite conocer al adversario, a los publicos, al contexto y, desde luego, nos puede proporcionar opciones sobre como conquistar la victoria. Es al estratega politico a quien le toca posicionar a.

James had enormous ties to the community, he had grown up in Newark, and after he served in the army he came back to teach gym at a local high school, then in daffodils wordsworth 1970 at 34 years old was elected to city council after serving 16 years, in 1986, he then ran for mayor as the ďReformer CandidateĒ. Although Jamesí staff had been plagued by ethical and criminal issues he strived to help the city undergo a sort of renaissance and believed he was the better candidate. (Curry, 2005) Last Man Standing showed. Power issues in organizations often focus on interpersonal relationships between managers and subordinates, or leaders and followers. French and Raven identified five interpersonal sources of power: reward power, coercive power, legitimate power, expert power, and referent power.6 A .Interpersonal poweróFrench and Raven's five power bases: 1. REWARD POWER Reward power is an individualís ability to influence othersí behaviors by rewarding their desirable behaviors. For example, to Really Need Essay the.

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essay stage 2017 Steve Campsall. write about a play. - Also read the accompanying English biz guide to essay writing - Whether for controlled assesment or exam, writing about Do Humans Electronics? Essay a play needs extra care. You will perhaps only have read the play in class so take care to keep in mind that plays are written for the stage, not the page. What the audience sees as well as hears - stage action and setting - must be at the heart of your analysis and discussion. Only if you analyse from the perspective of the play's audience , will you be able to recognise the effect the play is having on them and understand the purposes intended by the playwright - always a two-fold purpose, for plot and theme . Be sure you understand the full implications of this - read on!

STAY FOCUSED ON THE PLAY'S DRAMATIC ASPECTS. Be sure to Social Institutions and Manipulation, consider the methods used , the effects created and the purposes intended of the following dramatic aspects: structure, thatis, the effects of Essay, sequences of action, a key plot device. the creation of intrigue, tension and suspense - the key elements of an on Dangers, effective plot. Another pitfall to avoid. Not knowing the Do Humans Electronics? play well enough is the Essay on Dangers Misuse single biggest cause of a low grade.

Fortunately, it's easily resolved. so focus on Really Need Electronics? the higher grade that'll be in store for you and spend some extra time re-reading and reflecting on the play itself. A good essay can never be written without a good knowledge of the daffodils wordsworth text - don't kid yourself otherwise, please. What will also help is to get hold of a good study guide . Click on one of the Need Electronics? Essay links below to find one free online. Pre-1914 plays pose special difficulties as they are often written using complex and formal language. A study guide will be particularly useful if you are studying an saul cornell, older play. You're never going to know all there is to know about the play you're studying so, if you've read and Do Humans Really Need discussed it in class and then re-read it at home along with a good study guide, you have done all that can be expected. Of course, this guide will help, too! If you're revising for an exam, ask your teacher to let you have a few past exam questions to does the integumentary, practise on. This will boost your confidence and you'll be better prepared.

What is it that gains most marks? It is the quality of your interpretation of the play's words and Do Humans Really Need Electronics? action that will largely determine the grade your work receives. When you interpret the action and dialogue of a play, you are finding, explaining and immediate effects discussing the methods , effects and purposes of the layers of meaning that exist beyond the surface meaning . Literature - whether a poem, play or novel - is about feeling perhaps more than meaning : this is Do Humans Really Need Essay, why interpretation is the key skill. Plays always contain layers of effects, meaning ; these are created by the playwright to help develop important aspects of the play, most especially its themes . To uncover these different layers of meaning, you will need to Do Humans Need, consider the what , how and why of such things as the immediate mood being created, the way a character is being portrayed through dialogue and action, etc., how the Do Humans Really Electronics? stage setting (i.e. the time, place and does the integumentary do context) adds to the play in subtle but important ways, and how the Do Humans Really Need Electronics? events ( plot ), stage action and dialogue all work to help develop and explore the play's themes . All of Social Institutions Essay, these are covered in detail later. It's important to realise that interpretation is not about facts . An interpretation is, by its very nature, an opinion - a point of Do Humans Really Need Electronics? Essay, view . This is why examiners are not keen to read the opinions of others - those of your teacher or those taken from a study guides, for example; examiners like to effects of marijuana, read about individual ideas - your ideas . These are always rewarded more highly. That said, it can be far easier to uncover these layers of meaning if you work with a friend on the play - other viewpoints can often help you to Really Essay, develop a deeper understanding of it. This does not mean you should ever copy from on Dangers of Internet a friend - or rely on a study guide - but it does mean that reading and discussing the play with others can be very helpful indeed.

Because interpretations are opinions not facts, they will need supporting by Do Humans Electronics? Essay, referring to the aspect of the text that caused them to arise. For more on this, see the English biz guide to essay writing by clicking here . You should also consider evaluating how successful or otherwise you believe the playwright is being. You might consider this in the light of the play's likely effect on different kinds of audience - a modern audience and the original audience for the play. Below is an example of saul cornell, interpretation based on Do Humans Really Need Essay Priestley's play An Inspector Calls. Don't worry if you don't know this play - you will still get a good idea of what is being done. The purpose of the interpretation is not to show what you should be able to achieve but merely to show what can be achieved - and Social and Manipulation Essay just how much can be said from so little! BIRLING : Well, it's my duty to keep labour costs down, and if I'd agreed to this demand for Do Humans Really Essay a new rate we'd have added about twelve per cent to our labour costs.

Does that satisfy you? So I refused. Said I couldn't consider it. We were paying the usual rates and if they didn't like those rates, they could go and work somewhere else. It's a free country, I told them. What kind of exam questions can be expected? 1. Questions based upon an extract from the Essay Misuse play. Usually the exam paper contains three questions on the play you have studied, the first of which is compulsory followed by a choice of answering one other question from two alternatives given.

The first question will usually be based upon a short extract printed out in the exam paper. This will usually concern a character in the play or the relationship between characters; it might also ask how an Really Need Essay, effect is created, such as tension. 2. Questions based upon a character, theme or an what does system do, important aspect of the Do Humans Need Essay play. In this part of the exam paper you are given a choice of two questions from which to and Manipulation Essay, answer one. WAYS TO BOOST YOUR GRADE. Analysing and writing about a play means writing from the perspective of the play's audience . This is very important . Doing this will transform your essay if you keep it in mind. Your aim should be to analyse BOTH the language and the stage action as if you were sitting in the theatre watching the action unfold before your eyes . Of course, you are more aware than the audience. You know, for Do Humans Need example, what is to wordsworth, come at any point. Electronics?? You will, therefore, be able to write a fuller account than a member of the on Dangers Misuse audience could at any point - but discussing what the audience are feeling and thinking will mean you will write about the structure of the play, which is such an important aspect as it reveals important aspects such as the effect of entrances and exits, of costume , setting , dramatic irony and tension . You will need to select appropriate quotations and Do Humans Need descriptions of stage action from civil law act 1956 malaysia your play to support the points you are making that will be developing your argument which forms the answer to the essay question ( find out more here ). When you do this, be sure to explain and comment on the effects on the audience both of the language used and on aspects of stagecraft and dramatic devices . You need to take account of what has already occurred in the play , and Do Humans show how this develops the audience's sense of what might happen next . You need to look for and explain the dramatic techniques used in the play, as suggested above, for example, the use of dramatic irony . These methods - some linked to the language of the play, some linked to the action on stage will put there by the dramatist to create specific and useful effects on saul cornell the audience and each of Do Humans Electronics?, these will have a purpose attached to it, perhaps to develop a character, create a mood or tension , develop the plot or explore a theme . Always remember that the purpose attached to a specific effect of saul cornell, language, interaction or stage action will be for a local effect at this point in Do Humans Essay the play, and will in saul cornell some small way be contributing to the play's overall effects or theme. Be sure to Do Humans Essay, discuss BOTH of these purposes to gain most marks and impress the civil examiner (see the box below for more on this).

Remember, too, that as audiences change over time it will be necessary to discuss how the play's original audience as well as a modern audience might react to the play, and how relevant the plays action and themes are to both kinds of audience. EFFECTS, METHODS AND PURPOSES. Whatever your essay question, you will be expected to Do Humans Really Need Electronics? Essay, look for and explain the effects the play is having on its audience, the methods being used to effects, create these effects and Really Electronics? Essay the possible purposes behind them. Remember - there will always be two levels of wordsworth, purpose to discuss: first, there will always be what you might call a 'local' purpose - something to do with the point in the play it occurs and quoting from; this will always be linked to some local aspect such as development of a character , creation of mood or tension , development of the plot , helping the audience relate to or engage with the action and so on. But - as no part of a play is there for no reason - there is very likely to be a secondary overall purpose that you can discuss - and this will be linked to the themes of the play. If your essay question involves discussing an extract from the play, the key thing to Really, remember is that the audience cannot know what follows the on Dangers of Internet extract (even though you do!) - so part of your answer needs to discuss just this point and explain what effect the Do Humans Essay extract will have on changing what the audience knows up to this point : has it created dramatic irony, has it changed the Essay on Dangers of Internet Misuse mood, is it developing characters, tension, etc. Why is this done? How does it prepare the audience for Do Humans what is to follow?

You will often also be expected to consider the effects of context - especially with regard to the different kinds of audience and how its members might interpret the play. Never forget, too, that no fixed interpretation is likely to civil malaysia, be satisfactory - always try to consider other ways the action and language of a play might be understood. In a drama essay, your purpose is always to explore, explain and discuss the various significant ways by which the tools of Really Need Electronics?, drama have been used to immediate, entertain and engage the audience, persuading them to think about the world in a certain way - the dramatist's! The ideas explored by are called the Really Need Electronics? play's themes and themes are always made clear through the play's characters and action. All essay questions will concern some aspect of theme and character. Drama is entertaining and a night out at saul cornell, the theatre is something many people look forward. Today, not realising what an interesting experience they are missing, of Really Need Essay, course, most people's experience of saul cornell, plays is not that of live acting at a theatre but the recorded and edited action of Need Electronics?, TV. Plays are a unique and very special form of literature because they are based on a combination of language and wordsworth action and Need Essay are the vision of Essay on Dangers of Internet, two important people: the playwright and the play's director this vision is coupled with the Do Humans Electronics? Essay enormous hard work of a company of actors and back stage personnel. Social Institutions? Plays are designed both to entertain by capturing the imagination and to Need Electronics? Essay, persuade by capturing the mind.

Playwrights are often very political creatures who are particularly sensitive to what they perceive to be the wrongs of society . Their plays are often a vehicle not just for entertainment but for the expression of the playwright's ideas and immediate effects of marijuana concerns. These are called the play's themes . Do Humans Really? A modern televised play can stir the imaginations and consciences of millions of people and change minds in a way little else can. It is because of this that drama has always had the potential to daffodils traduzione, be a radical form of literature indeed, in Do Humans Really Need Essay Shakespeare's day, many plays were banned or had to be performed secretly or outside of the city's legal limits to immediate effects, avoid censorship or worse: more than one playwright was imprisoned and worse for their work. Whatever your essay question, you cannot tackle it well unless you understand the themes of your play and often, to understand the themes of a play fully, you need to have some idea of the playwright's context , i.e. the time, place and situation in which he or she lived and wrote: the aspects of their time and society that motivated and inspired them to write about what they have, in the way they have. For help with particular plays click here or here for free study guides that will help you understand your particular play's themes and characters as well as the Do Humans Really Need relevance or not of the playwright's context. Saul Cornell? Themes, of Do Humans Really, course, are just ideas and ideas cannot be put on a stage except through a play's characters . So, the study of a play always involves the study of who its characters are, what they do, how they do it, who they do it to, as well as what they say, how they say it and effects who to. that is, the action and language of the play!

CHARACTERS AND ACTION. A vital aspect of a play is its characters, what they do and what the Really Essay audience come to Essay on Dangers of Internet, think about Do Humans Essay them (are they sympathetic or antagonistic, for example?). Most essay questions concern either the themes or the characters of a play. Wordsworth? But a question concerning a character is often just a hidden question about themes - so it is probably true to say that most questions about plays involve themes in one way or another. Who a character is, what they say, how they say it, what other characters say about them, how other characters act around them and so forth all help to build up a character in the audience's mind. Do you like a particular character? Why? Do you empathise with him or her or even sympathise with their plight? If so, think about what it is that makes you feel this way perhaps some aspect of the Electronics? Essay way they are being treated by their society?

This is a theme of the play. Your sympathy and engagement with this character is persuading you to does the integumentary system do, accepting the playwright's ideas or themes. Do Humans Electronics?? And just because their society is, for saul cornell example, Italy in the olden days, does not mean that the ideas are old hat. Do Humans Essay? Society may have evolved technologically, but not always in other ways. Shakespeare's views on saul cornell human relationships, and Arthur Miller's views on Do Humans Really Need Essay society are, in many ways, still very valid today. Do you dislike a particular character? Again, why? What are they doing to be disliked? How are they being presented?

Are they created as a stereotype - a kind of stock character ? What ideas occur to you when you watch them? Again, these ideas are linked to the themes of the Misuse play. The effects and purposes behind the playwright's use of stagecraft are as important in your analysis and Need Essay essay as the choices and immediate effects uses of language. Always consider how what is said in a play fits in with the following aspects of stagecraft: Where and when the action occurs.

How a character is dressed. What a character does. The division of action into Do Humans Electronics?, scenes and acts. the passing of time the introduction of a conflict the build up to a climax of action the resolution of problems the use of disguise the use of coincidence the use of dance, music and song. This is the wordsworth commonest and often most important dramatic device used by a playwright to engage and involve the audience in their play. Dramatic irony occurs in all kinds of drama (look out for it on TV next time you watch a soap or drama).

It occurs when you, as a member of the audience, are allowed to know more than a particular character knows on stage. This creates a very effective level of engagement between the audience and the characters. Members of the Do Humans Need Essay audience become involved in the action because they feel they ought to 'step in' and help the character - but obviously they cannot. This creates tension and involvement - and even sympathy . Do you remember the use of dramatic irony in childhood pantomimes when you actually could shout out to daffodils traduzione, a character in a play, 'Watch out - he's behind you!' ?