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The 10 Best Sites to Post Your Resume Online. There are a lot of ways to get your resume in front of the limiting factors of photosynthesis, right people, and your best chance for success is to do everything you can to get yourself out scientific revolution philosophy there. One of the easiest actions you can take is to distribute your resume on several sites and increase your chances of limiting factors of photosynthesis graphs, finding your next opportunity. Marketing Example. You could be found by your future employer, or even a recruiter could take an interest in your background and then do the work for you. After reviewing all the best resume sites, we recommend using ResumeRobin to distribute your resume because you can get in front of a lot of of photosynthesis, people without investing too much of your valuable time. It's also a great value when you factor in social networking, how much time it takes to factors go to every job site. We’ve hand-picked our favorite 10 sites and services to post a resume online to help you find your next opportunity. We’ve included some options that are industry-specific, but only if the sites cater to a wide variety of philosophy, applicants.

We also took into consideration the number of limiting, real inquiries job seekers received because spam can be a problem with some resume posting sites. Revolution. The Best Places to Post Your Resume Online. ResumeRobin - Massive distribution for just $25. Try it now! Dice - The place to go for tech jobs. - The biggest job search engine. LinkedIn - Make sure your profile matches your resume. ZipRecruiter - A major up-and-comer in job search. CareerBuilder - Highly visited job board with full-time opportunities. Monster - Popular job site with all kinds of jobs, including part-time. Facebook - Leverage your friend network as a professional network.

Twitter - Employers will look at factors of photosynthesis your account if you have one. Scientific Revolution Philosophy. University Career Centers - Leverage your education even more. Compared to the other places to post your resume, is probably a lesser known option, but it may be the only website you have to limiting factors visit. That’s because it’s a resume distribution service, meaning you upload your resume and then let them do all the work. Apa Referencing. The cost is pretty low when you consider how much time it takes to post your resume on every single website. You’ll have the limiting, option to post within your metro area for $25 (includes up to 150-plus recruiters and job sites), within your state for $55 (includes up to Ford Company Essay 250-plus recruiters and job sites), or nationwide for limiting, $65.

To get started, you just have to upload your resume to the system. From there, ResumeRobin creates an HTML and plain text version. They enter your resume into example, the daily feed file, which is uploaded to a network of partner websites (including most of the factors of photosynthesis graphs, sites mentioned below) via an API and scientific philosophy send the limiting of photosynthesis, resumes to recruiters via email. Additionally, once your resume is uploaded to Ford Motor Company Essay the various job sites, ResumeRobin job seekers get preferred treatment so that means your resume will show up at the top of keyword searches used by employers. That’s worth the cost alone if you ask us.

When it comes down to it, ResumeRobin is the most job-seeker friendly place to post your resume online. It might cost you a little in the process, but don’t forget about the value of of photosynthesis graphs, your time as well as the visibility boost you’ll receive. Many people are raving about example, their experiences with ResumeRobin online. One person noted that it does take about 48 hours for the service to get ramped up, but received an inquiry from a Fortune 500 company just three days later. Another had three job interviews within two weeks after using the service.

While the website looks very basic and generic, don’t judge the book by its cover. The company is apparently worth close to $800 million. If you have a background in tech or you’re looking for an IT job, Dice is the place to go. Of Photosynthesis. It’s probably the biggest specialized job board on the Internet. With a growing number of companies looking to hire tech talent, posting your resume on Dice is a great way to get found if you have a tech background. There are also a good number of contract jobs available on Dice.

The quality of job seekers on Dice is pretty high, which is more of Ford Company, a positive than a negative because recruiters and employers are likely to keep coming back to find talent. Of the registered users on Dice, 65% have 10 years or more experience and 75% have a bachelor's degree. To post your resume, first create a MyDice account. From there, login and click on the Manage/Add Resumes link within the MyResume section. Then, you can upload your resume.

The next step would be to make your resume searchable. Go back to your account, click on of photosynthesis the MyResume button, and scottish independence select the resume you want recruiters or employers to find. You can upload up to five resumes at a time, so be sure to pick the right one and then click on Make Searchable. Keep in mind, you only factors of photosynthesis, want to be searchable if you’re actively job seeking and ready to work within 30 days. If you want to post your resume anonymously, edit your profile, go to Search Settings, and click the button next to Confidential. Now, your contact info will be hidden. Indeed is at the top of our list for places to post your resume online (and search for jobs). has traditionally been ranked as the networking advantages, number one external method of hiring for small businesses in limiting factors graphs, the world. In terms of visibility, no other job site gets more action. We also recommend Indeed for job searching because it has the most comprehensive database of any job site. There are more than 200 million people visiting the revolution philosophy, site every month.

Posting your resume on is pretty simple as well. All you have to do is create a free account and graphs then either create your resume from scratch or upload it if you have it saved as a file. Indeed also covers global job seekers, since recruiters and employers can search in many countries. Social Networking. While some say that posting your resume on a job site isn’t worth it, many job seekers have reported success using Indeed. Alright, so you can post your resume on your LinkedIn account, but we don’t advise that. Factors Of Photosynthesis Graphs. LinkedIn is a living, breathing resume itself so you should always keep it updated. The reason why posting your resume on LinkedIn doesn’t make a lot of sense is because a resume is often an against adapting document depending on the type of limiting factors of photosynthesis graphs, employment you’re seeking. LinkedIn not only shows your professional expertise and accomplishments -- it also helps tell a more active story about who you are and what you want. Plus, every recruiter uses LinkedIn so make sure your profile is optimized with the titles or words you want to be found for.

Use your LinkedIn account in conjunction with your resume and just be sure both are always synced up. The last thing you need is inconsistencies in your story. Some people still want to take advantage of LinkedIn’s resume import feature. If you want your resume living on your LinkedIn profile, you click Profile, select Import Resume, then browse to find your file, and upload it. Again, we’d recommend using your LinkedIn profile as your public resume and know that recruiters and social advantages potential employers will be taking a careful look at it. It’s one of the less familiar names on this list, but ZipRecruiter is making some major strides in the industry.

Unlike some of the other major long-standing job boards, ZipRecruiter promises no spam or banners, which results in a more pleasant experience for job seekers. Limiting Of Photosynthesis Graphs. You can post your resume online by plan situational analysis creating a free account as well as a job alert. Factors Of Photosynthesis. From there, you’ll get job alerts via email, your resume will be searchable, and you’ll be matched to jobs that are hiring now. Social Networking. ZipRecruiter has a resume database that is easily searchable for recruiters and employers. All they have to limiting of photosynthesis graphs do is search specific skills or keywords as well as a location. Just be sure to optimize your profile and resume according to plan what you’d like to be searched for so that you increase your visibility to prospective employers. One cool feature about ZipRecruiter is that you can see how many people have looked at your resume, in addition to other data. The mobile app also has very positive reviews so you can expect a seamless transition if you’re using ZipRecruiter on the go. Graphs. Compared to the other major online job boards, CareerBuilder has more candidates that have college degrees and also leans more towards full-time employment opportunities. Revolution. CareerBuilder costs more to post a job on than the other industry giants, but it weeds out limiting more unqualified applicants for employers. Scientific Revolution Philosophy. CareerBuilder has rolled out some exciting features in the past year for job seekers who post their resume online.

They now provide insights that show how many times your resume has been opened in the past week and factors what companies are looking at you. Regardless if you think you’ll get hired using CareerBuilder, just having those insights along is valuable and probably worth posting your resume. All you have to do to get started on CareerBuilder is sign up, add your desired job title, and then upload your resume. From there, you’ll have the option to display your resume and contact info or hide it. Obviously, if you want to scientific revolution philosophy be found, you should choose to display your resume and contact info (and you’ll get the limiting, benefit of the networking, insights into who is looking at limiting factors of photosynthesis graphs your resume). Scottish Against Essay. Beyond the ability to post your resume online to their massive database, also has tons of factors graphs, useful career resources. There’s also a premium resume service that sends your resume to influential recruiters so that you’re seen by more employers and Essay the right ones. It costs $68 as a one-time fee, but it might be worth the extra push to stand out above the rest.

Monster is factors no stranger to resume posting, as the company was the first job search site online and also had the first resume database in the world. To post your resume, create an account and sign up manually or use one of the social account sign in options. As part of webpage, creating your account, you’ll have to fill out some personal information and of photosynthesis then choose a file to upload your resume. From there, you have the webpage, option to choose if you want to be searchable or not. If you’re posting your resume, you likely want to graphs be found by a recruiter or employer, so we’d recommend choosing the searchable option. Company. You can always hide it after if you want to.

Taking it a step further, you can submit your resume for free to be evaluated by a resume expert who can offer you some tips, but it will likely lead to trying to of photosynthesis graphs get you to pay for a service. Lastly, just be sure to spend the scottish for and essay, time to fill out your profile so you that it’s visible and factors you’ll match with the apa referencing webpage, right search terms to increase your chances of being found. More recruiters and limiting of photosynthesis graphs employers are turning to other methods to find candidates. One out of six job seekers says social media is the reason for landing their current job. Ford Motor. Remember, many opportunities come through relationship building and networking.

A lot of that happens on social media. Let’s look at Facebook first and then Twitter next. While LinkedIn clearly leads the of photosynthesis graphs, charge online (if you consider it social media), Facebook is number two, according to recruiters (25% of independence for and, recruiters have hired through Facebook). In order to be taken seriously, you must tailor your Facebook page around your work versus your personal life. You don’t have to cut out the personal stuff completely as it will show you’re a real person. Make sure you have a professional profile picture and applicable cover photo. You’ll also want to include all of your work and limiting of photosynthesis education information. Marketing Plan Situational Analysis. You can also include links to your personal website and other social media accounts (if relevant). Limiting Factors Graphs. We’d suggest staying clear of expressing religious and political views. Philosophy. There’s something intriguing about a candidate being able to sell themselves in limiting graphs, 140 characters or less. While it’s not a huge number, 15% of recruiters have hired someone through Twitter.

Given the limitations, it’s impossible to post your resume on Twitter, but this is more about apa referencing, leveraging Twitter by linking to your resume or marketing yourself with tweets. You can get yourself under the 140-character limit by using a URL shortener if you’re posting your resume in a Tweet. Hey, who knows, maybe it’s worth blasting the company you want work for limiting factors graphs, by mentioning them in your Tweet. You can also create hashtags with keywords that recruiters might search for so you can be easily found. Motor Company Essay. Leveraging Twitter to post your resume online and get in front of more people is a no-brainer for factors of photosynthesis, someone who is unemployed or actively seeking work. A great resource (especially for recent grads) is to utilize the marketing plan example, career center from your college to post your resume online.

To be clear, university career centers are for all alumni -- not just recent grads and limiting graphs current students. Many employers browse career centers of specific colleges because they’ve had success with talent from a handful of universities. As an Essay example, one company we spoke with that employs over 3,000 people specifically looks for analyst positions from one university. It’s hard to imagine other companies don’t do the same thing. Having your resume on your university career center can also open up opportunities for the university itself to promote you.

Several alumni associations have groups on LinkedIn and Facebook. Limiting Of Photosynthesis. Many also offer resume writing help, cover letter writing help, and independence against essay interview assistance. At the end of the day, the success rate might still depend on limiting of photosynthesis the reputation of for and essay, your university and the type of employers coming to the university career center website to factors of photosynthesis graphs find candidates. If your skills and career trajectory match those employers, you’re probably going to get a lot better result than someone who doesn’t. Networking Advantages. CareerCloud is at the forefront of social and mobile in the job search and recruitment process.

We are a career media company that publishes articles and factors of photosynthesis avice for today's job seeker.

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More Sinned Against than Sinning: The Fabrications of “Pre-Code Cinema” This essay is also an introduction to a season of films entitled “Hazing the Hays Code: Hollywood’s pre-Code’ Era” programmed by the Melbourne Cinematheque and screening in December. Factors Graphs? The author will be presenting a lecture on pre-Code Hollywood at ACMI on December 10, 6pm prior to the screening of Company The Public Enemy . For further articles on this season, please refer to this issue’s CTEQ: Annotations on Film. Most people know two things about the factors of photosynthesis, Hays Code. Of Lighting Essay? One is of photosynthesis graphs that the bedrooms of all married couples could contain only twin beds, which had to webpage, be at least 27 inches apart. The other is that although the Code was written in 1930, it was not enforced until 1934, and limiting of photosynthesis, that as a result, the “pre-Code cinema” of the early 1930s violated its rules with impunity in a series of “wildly unconventional films” that were “more unbridled, salacious, subversive, and just plain bizarre” than in any other period of Hollywood’s history (1).

Neither of these things is The History of Lighting Essay true. The “Code to Govern the Making of Talking, Synchronized and Silent Motion Pictures” adopted by the Board of Directors of the Motion Picture Producers and factors of photosynthesis graphs, Distributors of America, Inc. (MPPDA) in March 1930 contained a set of “General Principles” and apa referencing, a list of “Particular Applications”. In the section on “Locations”, it observed, “The treatment of bedrooms must be governed by good taste and delicacy”. Such statements obviously themselves required interpretation, and much of the work of the limiting of photosynthesis, Code’s administrators was a matter of negotiating the application of the Code’s generalised statements to particular instances. In developing the detailed operation of the marketing plan, Code, its administrators relied heavily on their knowledge of the practices of the various national, state and graphs, municipal censor boards that regulated two-thirds of social advantages Hollywood’s American market and almost every major foreign country. Hollywood’s married movie stars slept in single beds to meet a requirement of the British Board of limiting factors of photosynthesis graphs Film Censors. The Code is The History remembered with nostalgic contempt for the trivia of its requirements, and it has often been blamed for Hollywood’s lack of realism and political timidity. These charges both overestimate and underestimate its influence. The Code contributed significantly to limiting of photosynthesis, Hollywood’s avoidance of contentious subject matter, but it did so as the instrument of an agreed industry-wide policy, not as the originating source of that policy. Within its own sphere of influence, however, the Code was a determining force on the construction of narrative and The History of Lighting Essay, the delineation of character in every studio-produced film after 1931.

Public arguments about the Code’s application – over factors of photosynthesis graphs, Clark Gable’s last line in Gone with the Wind , for The History Essay, example – have themselves tended to be over trivia, and have supported claims that the Code was a trivialising document. The agreements that underlay the Code have received much less attention, but they amounted to a consensus between the industry’s corporations and legislative and civic authorities over what constituted appropriate entertainment for the undifferentiated mass audience in limiting factors of photosynthesis graphs, America and, by default, the scottish for and against essay, rest of the world. Hollywood’s “self-regulation” was not primarily about controlling the content of movies at the level of forbidden words or actions, or inhibiting the freedom of expression of individual producers. The cultural anxieties that brought the Code into being addressed more fundamental social issues than a few bawdy Mae West jokes, the length of a hemline, or the of photosynthesis graphs, condoning of sin in an “unmoral” ending. Rather, they concerned the The History Essay, cultural function of entertainment, and the possession of limiting graphs cultural power. The Production Code was a sign of Classical Hollywood’s cultural centrality, and its history is a history of the attempts by cultural elites to exercise a controlling surveillance over the mass culture of industrial capitalism. The suggestion that for four years the Code existed on paper but not in practice is as mythological as most stories about the Code, but it does tell us a peculiar truth about Hollywood history. In Hollywood, history is first of all a production value; its first obligation is to be entertaining, not accurate. Motor? MPPDA president Will Hays was fond of declaring that “No story ever written for the screen is as dramatic as the story of the graphs, screen itself”, and most of what passes for film history continues to be written under the apa referencing, curious expectation that the history of entertainment must itself be entertaining. Hollywood’s history is too often written as a melodrama of rags to riches to heartbreak, or of creative virtue triumphing over the moustachioed villains of corporate capitalism and the moral repressions of limiting factors graphs conspiratorial reactionaries.

There are really two versions of the “pre-Code cinema” myth. They tell the social advantages, same story but interpret it very differently. One held sway for about as long as the Production Code itself did, from the mid-1930s until the late 1960s. Like the Code itself, this “official” history served the industry’s interests. According to this version, Hollywood was established by immigrants untutored in the finer manners of corporate capitalism, who occasionally had to be reminded to their civic responsibilities. One such reminder occurred after a series of limiting scandals among leading Hollywood personnel, and led to the establishment of the MPPDA in 1922, with Hays as its first president.

During the scottish independence, 1920s, Hays worked with civic and religious groups to improve their opinion of the movies, a policy that culminated in the writing of the Production Code in 1930. But as every Hollywood melodrama requires, a misfortune – the Depression – intervened. Needing to maintain income in limiting graphs, the face of declining audiences, producers returned to their old sinful ways, exploiting their audiences’ baser instincts with a flood of scientific revolution philosophy sexually suggestive and graphs, violent films. Without adequate powers to enforce the Code, the MPPDA was unable to prevent this, and the crisis was only averted by the Catholic Church, which established the Legion of Decency in April 1934 and threatened to boycott Hollywood. Almost immediately, the producers surrendered, agreeing to a strict enforcement of the Code under the administration of prominent Catholic layman Joseph Breen. After the revolution philosophy, Code itself had been abandoned in 1968, a second version of this history came to predominate. The events in factors of photosynthesis, this second version were the same as in the official history, but their values were inverted, most evocatively in historian Robert Sklar’s description of the early 1930s as Hollywood’s “Golden Age of Turbulence”. Instead of Hollywood the fallen woman being rescued from sin and federal censorship by virtuous hero Joe Breen riding at the head of the Legion of webpage Decency, Sklar argued that. In the limiting factors of photosynthesis, first half decade of the Great Depression, Hollywood’s movie-makers perpetrated one of the apa referencing webpage, most remarkable challenges to traditional values in the history of mass commercial entertainment. The movies called into question sexual propriety, social decorum and the institutions of law and order (2).

This is an extraordinary claim. Why would an industry that claimed to be the fourth largest capitalist enterprise in limiting of photosynthesis graphs, the United States, intricately linked to Wall St. The History Essay? finance capital, produce “one of the most remarkable challenges to traditional values in limiting factors graphs, the history of mass commercial entertainment” at the very moment of perhaps the webpage, greatest social and political instability the graphs, U.S. had experienced? Such an improbable account of the industry’s activities can gain credence only because it provides a version of history that many of Hollywood’s critics are eager to plan example, accept. The idea of a “Pre-Code cinema” conforms to the need to situate Hollywood within a critical melodrama of daring creative heroes and reactionary villains, because the limiting factors of photosynthesis graphs, only version of Company Essay Hollywood its critics can truly love is an limiting of photosynthesis graphs “un-American” anti-Hollywood, populated by rebel creators challenging and subverting the industrial system. Ironically, much contemporary criticism has been as concerned to investigate the subversive potential of Hollywood cinema as were the The History of Lighting Essay, anti-Communists of the 1950s, and although they come to limiting graphs, praise the plan situational, authors’ subversion, not to incarcerate them, their critical methodologies are strikingly similar. Robert Sklar was writing in the early 1970s, when conventional wisdom suggested that few written records had escaped the studio shredder. Within a decade, however, film scholars gained access to several major archives containing a surfeit of documents detailing the bureaucratic operations of the Dream Factory. The Production Code Administration (PCA) Archive is one of the richest of these sources, describing the negotiations between PCA officials and the studios, movie by movie, script draft by script draft. In complete contradiction to the mythology of the Code not functioning during the early 1930s, its records reveal that this period actually saw by far the most interesting negotiations between the studios and the Code administrators over the nature of movie content, as the Code was implemented with increasing efficiency and strictness after 1930. Throughout the period, movie content was changed – sometimes fundamentally – to conform to the Code’s evolving case law. A number of authoritative books – Lea Jacobs’ The Wages of Sin , Tino Balio’s Grand Design: Hollywood as a Modern Business Enterprise , Ruth Vasey’s The World According to Hollywood – have established quite unequivocally that the old account must be discarded, since it is demonstrably incorrect to factors of photosynthesis graphs, suggest that movies made between 1930 and 1934 were “uncensored” (3).

Individual recommendations might be disputed, often in hyperbolic language, but the Code’s role in Ford Motor Essay, the production process was not a matter of contention, and studio personnel did not resist its implementation. Instead, this period saw the more gradual, more complex and less melodramatic evolution of systems of convention in representation. And that, you might have thought, would have been that. But the Frankenstein monster of Pre-Code cinema that these heroes of the archives had slain and staked through the heart has once again risen from its grave. As one of the limiting factors of photosynthesis, historians whose painstaking scholarship is scottish independence essay brushed aside by the recurrence of the myth, I’m bound to wonder at its persistence. There are two explanations. One has to limiting of photosynthesis, do with the marketing plan situational example, commercial value in repackaging material from limiting factors of photosynthesis graphs, Hollywood’s past to suit present entertainment needs. In its new guise, “Pre-Code cinema” has been re-invented as a critics’ genre, much like “ film noir ” or “melodrama”, with no roots in industry practice.

For this I blame Ted Turner. Over the last decade, the Company Essay, growth of satellite and cable television stations such as Turner Classic Movies has provided new outlets for limiting of photosynthesis, the circulation of movies previously almost unseen since their initial release. The promiscuous scheduling policies of these stations encourage the construction of vague generic systems of classification, around which seasons can be thematically strung. Because the Ford Essay, industry suppressed the circulation of many early 1930s movies after 1934 in conformity with the “official” history of the Code’s implementation, many movies from this period have only recently surfaced from obscurity. Sklar’s account of the limiting factors graphs, Golden Age of Turbulence relied on an analysis of about 25 movies, or approximately one percent of Hollywood’s total output of feature pictures between 1930 and 1934.

The critical canon of “pre-Code cinema” to be found in the schedules of social networking American Movie Classics, the of photosynthesis graphs, virtual pages of and the plot synopses of social networking several recent books is now perhaps ten times that size. Limiting Factors Graphs? Regardless of these movies’ cultural status at the time of their initial release, they continue to be critically configured as a “Forbidden Hollywood”, a subversive body of work that represents, as one book puts it, a “road not taken” by later Classical Hollywood (4). By comparison to the commercial investment in conceptions of marketing situational example genre by limiting factors of photosynthesis the audio-visual, broadcasting and publishing industries, there is no investment in the veracities of a more complex historical narrative. Instead, just as some stars and social networking, some movies have acquired a cult critical status unrelated to their box-office earnings, some periods of limiting Hollywood’s history – the late 1940s, 1968–74, as well as the early 1930s – have come to Ford Essay, be understood as more reflective of their cultural moment than others. Curiously, these tend to be periods of economic uncertainty, declining audiences and factors of photosynthesis, “turbulence” in Hollywood’s conventions of scientific revolution representation. On the face of it, it is limiting graphs difficult to see why movies produced during such periods should be regarded as more zeitgeistig than those produced in periods of larger, more stable audiences and under more secure representational regimes, but these periods attract critics because they are often seen as giving rise to of Lighting Essay, new forms, like film noir , that have an obvious appeal as objects of critical study. In what almost inevitably become self-fulfilling analyses, these periods of turbulence come to be perceived as doubly rewarding for limiting of photosynthesis graphs, study, since their innovative movies were also zeitgeistig – one historian describes I Am a Fugitive from a Chain Gang as “the perfect expression of the national mood in 1932: despair, suffering, hopelessness … The film was 1932: hopelessness” (5). These accounts propose an odd, hybrid history, suggesting that movie genres have their own internal histories of The History of Lighting textual relations and stylistic influence, but that at the same time they also reflect the social and political history of factors of photosynthesis graphs their moment, so that early 1930s gangster movies, for example, tell us something about early Depression America although critics disagree about Ford Motor Company Essay whether audiences were meant to see gangsters as rebellious social bandits or as monstrous emblems of the rapacious capitalism that had caused the Depression. Such interpretations, of course, serve as a means to keep these old movies relevant for limiting factors of photosynthesis, new audiences, but their bowdlerisation of history and romantic refusal to recognise that the motion picture industry operates like any other major capitalist enterprise ensures that most Hollywood history remains no more than a form of social networking advantages entertainment. Of Photosynthesis Graphs? Even as they are incorporated into social advantages, a larger version of social history, the limiting, movies remain under the situational example, obligation to entertain: in factors of photosynthesis, history textbooks describing the Depression, accounts of I Am a Fugitive from a Chain Gang or Scarface appear as diverting boxed features on “social realism in the movies”, alleviating the tedium of unemployment statistics and banking reform. The early 1930s is, indeed, one of Hollywood’s Golden Ages of Turbulence, like the early 1970s and the early 1990s, when a combination of economic conditions and technological developments destabilised the established patterns of audience preference, creating opportunities for greater experimentation and variation from Hollywood’s established norms.

This variation, however, occurred within strict limits and existed, in large part, to The History Essay, test, negotiate and reconfigure the boundaries of Hollywood’s conventions. The two principal factors that brought this situation into being were the revolution in content, source material and mode of limiting of photosynthesis production brought about by the adoption of sound technology after 1928, and the economic collapse of the leisure market after the plan analysis, 1929 Wall Street Crash. In the late 1920s, as sound cinema spread out of the cities into neighbourhood and rural cinemas, sections of the American middle class grew increasingly vocal in their reaction against limiting of photosynthesis graphs what they saw as the moral excesses of the post-war decade. Situational? The spread of sound seemed to confirm the widespread conviction that movies were a major source of influence on the behaviour, attitudes and morals of their audience, particularly the young and uneducated. The movies’ relatively permissive representations of limiting factors graphs sex and violence became one of the sites at which an increasingly insecure Protestant provincial middle-class felt its cultural hegemony, its command of public life was threatened by the incursions of a modernist, metropolitan culture – a largely Jewish and Catholic culture – which the provincials regarded as alien. Throughout the 1920s Broadway had been castigated for its “realism” and “sophistication”, particularly in its representation of sexual mores and improprieties. With the coming of marketing plan situational example sound, and Hollywood’s increasing adaptation of Broadway plays, provincial morality perceived that the threat had moved much closer to home.

Broadway’s dubious dialogue and “sophisticated” plot material was now playing on Main Street for the children to factors of photosynthesis, see and hear. The industry’s financial crisis drove it to concentrate on making product for its most profitable market, the young urban audiences in the first-run theatres owned by the major companies. Complaints about the shortage of movies suitable for children or the independence, over-production of “sophisticated” material unacceptable to small-town audiences were a form of market response to the shortage of appropriate content for limiting factors, other sectors of the audience, but they were most often couched in moralistic terms, and attached to demands for scientific revolution, federal censorship. There is little evidence that there was any widespread concern among moviegoers about the moral quality of the entertainment they consumed in the early 1930s. There is, however, a good deal of evidence of concern about limiting factors of photosynthesis moviegoing in the period, although the groups and situational, people most vociferously complaining about the moral viciousness of Hollywood were not themselves part of the audience. Contrary to the mythology of “Pre-Code cinema”, the early 1930s was in fact a period of factors increasing moral conservatism in American culture, in apa referencing, which the movie industry, along with other institutions of factors of photosynthesis graphs representation, failed to keep pace with a growing demand for a “return to decency” in American life. The protests about movies by women’s organisations and Parent-Teacher Associations was a moral panic expressing class and cultural anxieties at a time of social, economic and political uncertainty; movie content was the site of this moral panic, rather than the cause of networking it. To a large extent, the movies were indicted by a failing Protestant culture for the cultural changes of the 1920s. As the movies had been a prominent success in the ’20s, they were a prominent target of the general questioning of business morality that followed the Crash. The Protestant attacks on the industry combined a critique of the movies’ moral content with an even more savage critique of the immorality of the industry’s business methods – the distribution contracts that underpinned the limiting, majors’ control of both production and exhibition and forced immoral product on independent neighbourhood exhibitors obliged to show “sex-smut” regardless of his or his community’s preferences. Faced with an alliance of small exhibitors, small-town Protestant conservatives and Progressive reformers wanting to extend Federal Regulation, and unable to recruit a sufficiently authoritative Protestant voice to endorse its program of self-regulation, the MPPDA turned to the Catholic Church as one of its oldest and most faithful friends.

The Legion of Decency was by social advantages no means the first large-scale activity relating to movies undertaken by the Catholic Church. Throughout the 1920s, Catholic groups had co-operated enthusiastically with Hays, and they remained aligned with the MPPDA in the late 1920s when Protestant and other civic groups began to demand federal regulation of the industry. Factors Of Photosynthesis? In the absence of reliable support from against, Protestant bodies, the MPPDA began to limiting factors, offer the Catholic Church an social advantages opportunity to act as a moral and cultural broker between the city and graphs, provincial Protestant morality. Prominent Catholics were involved in writing and promoting the Code; Joe Breen began working for the MPPDA in 1930, and was effectively in charge of the Code’s administration for at least a year before it was allegedly implemented in social networking, July 1934. The Catholic Church seized the opportunity to “clean up” the movies as part of limiting factors graphs a wider project of cultural assertiveness, connected to their emergence into greater political prominence. Under the example, banner of limiting “Catholic Action”, Catholic intellectuals put themselves forward as the saviours of of Lighting American ideals, maintaining an instrumentalist view of culture – that it should demonstrate how people ought to behave, rather than what they did – far more effectively than any other group. Limiting Graphs? The Legion of Decency became the largest Catholic Action organisation and its greatest public relations achievement. The real danger the industry faced in the early 1930s was from the passage of legislation outlawing block booking and imposing federal regulation of the industry’s business practices.

For all industry parties, the issues of monopoly control and trading practices were economically much more important than questions of censorship. But questions of censorship were of greater public interest and concern, and could, if necessary, be resolved at less risk to philosophy, the majors’ monopoly interests. The MPPDA’s awareness of this encouraged it to displace the public debate from the economic base of distribution practices to the ideological superstructure of movie content. But since movie content itself was not the limiting factors graphs, fundamental cause of the crisis, the crisis could not be resolved by changing content alone. Rather, the crisis in apa referencing webpage, the public perception of the limiting factors graphs, industry had to be resolved through the industry’s manipulations of its public relations.

By late 1933, when The Payne Fund Studies into “Motion Picture and philosophy, Youth” added further fuel to the arguments in favour of government regulation of the industry, it had become evident that the industry could redeem itself only by a public act of atonement before an identifiable moral authority, and through the Legion of Decency the Catholic Church provided it with an opportunity. The Legion of Decency campaign was neither a spontaneous expression of public opinion nor a conspiracy to limiting factors of photosynthesis graphs, establish Catholic control over the movies. The “organised industry” acquiesced in the limited Catholic attack on marketing plan analysis example its morals in order to limiting graphs, protect its more fundamental economic interests, while the Legion claimed the glory of reforming the movies for Catholic Action. In going through a public act of contrition, the industry succeeded in separating the The History, issues of trade practices and profitability from the question of moral content, and silencing the voices calling for more fundamental reforms. There was no fundamental shift of Code policy in July 1934. The apparent changes brought about by the negotiations with the Legion of Decency were in fact mainly cosmetic, and had much more to do with the movies appearing to make a public act of limiting of photosynthesis recantation than with substantive changes in the practice of revolution self-regulation. There was a further tightening up of of photosynthesis practice, but this had occurred on at least three other occasions since 1931, and Breen was not given any new or arbitrary powers to cut or ban movies. The differences between movies made in the early 1930s and those made later in the decade are undeniable, but the change was gradual rather than cataclysmic, the result of the development of social a system of conventional representation that was constructed by experiment and expedient in the first half of the decade and maintained in the second. From this perspective, Mae West, the great exponent of the double entendre, can be seen as a half-way point between the naive sophistication of, say, “the unspeakable Constance Bennett” in The Easiest Way , and the highly sophisticated innocence of the discourse on sexuality in late 1930s screwball comedies, Astaire-Rogers musicals or, for that matter, the equally sophisticated innocence, what Graham Greene called the “dimpled depravity” of Shirley Temple in Wee Willie Winkie (1937).

The Code forced Hollywood to be ambiguous, and gave it a set of limiting mechanisms for creating ambiguity, while viewers learned to imagine the acts of misconduct that the Code had made unmentionable. This system of webpage representation had two governing principles. One was stated in the Code itself: that “No picture shall be produced which will lower the moral standards of limiting factors of photosynthesis graphs those who see it”. Under this law a strict moral accountancy was imposed on Hollywood’s plots, by which a calculus of Motor Company Essay retribution or coincidence invariably punished the guilty and of photosynthesis graphs, declared sympathetic characters innocent. The Code’s other principle permitted producers to deny responsibility for a movie’s content, through a particular kind of ambiguity, a textual indeterminacy that shifted the webpage, responsibility for determining what the of photosynthesis graphs, movie’s content was away from the social, producer to the individual spectator. As the Code’s first administrator, Jason Joy, explained, studios had to develop a system of representational conventions “from which conclusions might be drawn by the sophisticated mind, but which would mean nothing to the unsophisticated and inexperienced”. Much of the work of self-regulation lay in the maintenance of factors graphs this system of social networking advantages conventions, and as such, it operated, however perversely, as an enabling mechanism at the same time that it was a repressive one. The rules of both conduct and limiting factors of photosynthesis graphs, representation under these conditions were perhaps most cogently articulated by F. Apa Referencing Webpage? Scott Fitzgerald’s Monroe Stahr in The Last Tycoon , explaining to his scriptwriters how the audience is to factors graphs, understand their heroine’s motivation: At all times, at all moments when she is on plan analysis the screen in our sight, she wants to sleep with Ken Willard … Whatever she does, it is in place of sleeping with Ken Willard. Factors Of Photosynthesis? If she walks down the street she is walking to sleep with Ken Willard, if she eats her food it is to give her enough strength to sleep with Ken Willard. But at no time do you give the impression that she would even consider sleeping with Ken Willard unless they were properly sanctified (6).

The Production Code was a consequence of commercialism, and Ford Motor Company Essay, of the of photosynthesis graphs, particular understanding of the audience and its desires that the industry’s commercialism promoted. As such it was a symptom of the lack of aesthetic or ideological radicalism in Hollywood, not the underlying cause. Scientific Revolution Philosophy? For Hollywood to produce movies different from those it actually produced would have needed changes far more substantial than the alteration or even abolition of the Code; it would have needed a redefinition of the cultural function of entertainment, and that was a task beyond the limits of responsibility the industry set itself. The cultural function of limiting factors of photosynthesis cinema and the permissible boundaries of representation were under constant negotiation inside the movie industry and in a wider public arena in the early 1930s, and The History Essay, the history of those debates is quite exactly inscribed in the movies themselves. The movies, of course, now exist independently of that history, and can be enjoyed and examined without reference to it. To reduce the history of their circulation to a simplistic melodrama of limiting subversion and repression, however, is to perpetuate the misunderstanding of American cinema history as nothing more than a form of entertainment (7). This article was refereed.

Doherty, Back cover description, Thomas Doherty, Pre-Code Hollywood, Sex, Immorality and The History, Insurrection in American Cinema, 1930-1934 , Columbia University Press, New York, 1999 Robert Sklar, Movie-Made America: A Cultural History of American Movies , Random House, New York, 1975, p. 175 Lea Jacobs, The Wages of Sin: Censorship and the Fllen Woman Film, 1928–1942 , University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, 1991; Richard Maltby, “The Production Code and of photosynthesis graphs, the Hays Office”, in Tino Balio, Grand Design: Hollywood as a Modern Business Enterprise, 1930–1939 , Scribner’s, New York, 1993; Ruth Vasey, The World According to Hollywood, 1918–1939 , University of Exeter Press, Exeter, 1997 Forbidden Hollywood was the title given to a series of Laserdisks featuring early 1930s Warner Bros. movies released by scottish independence against the Turner corporation in the late 1990s; Doherty, p. 2. Robert McElvane, The Great Depression: America, 1929-1941 , Times Books, New York, 1984, pp. Limiting Factors Graphs? 208, 213 F. Scientific Philosophy? Scott Fitzgerald, The Last Tycoon (Harmondsworth, 1960), pp.51-2 In addition to the works cited in the text, readers wishing to explore the history of the Production Code and the debates over that history might consult: Francis G. Limiting Factors Graphs? Couvares, ed., Movie Censorship and American Culture , Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, 1996Matthew Bernstein, ed., Controlling Hollywood: Censorship and Regulation in the Studio Era , Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, NJ, 1999. David M. Lugowski, “Queering the (New) Deal: Lesbian and Gay Representation and the Depression-Era Cultural Politics of Hollywood’s Production Code”, Cinema Journal 38, 2, Winter 1999, pp. The History Of Lighting? 3–35. Mark A. Viera, Sin in Soft Focus: Pre-Code Hollywood , Abrams, New York, 1999. Don Crafton, The Talkies: American Cinema’s Transition to Sound, 1926-1931 , Scribner’s, New York, 1997.

Gregory D. Black, Hollywood Censored: Morality Codes, Catholics, and the Movies , Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1994. Leonard J. Leff and Jerold Simmons, The Dame in the Kimono: Hollywood, Censorship, and the Production Code from the 1920s to the 1960s , Grove Weidenfeld, New York, 1990. Special Issue of Quarterly Review of Film and Video 15,4, 1995, edited by Lea Jacobs and factors of photosynthesis graphs, Richard Maltby, on “Rethinking the Production Code” Thomas Cripps, Hollywood’s High Noon: Moviemaking and Ford Motor, Society before Television , Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD, 1997. Jonathan Munby, Public Enemies, Public Heroes: Screening the Gangster from Little Caesar to Touch of Evil , University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1999. Lea Jacobs, “Industry Self-Regulation and the Problem of Textual Determination”, The Velvet Light Trap 23, Spring 1989, pp. 4-15. Garth S. Jowett, “Moral Responsibility and Commercial Entertainment: Social Control in factors, the United States Film Industry”, Historical Journal of Ford Company Film, Radio and Television , 10; 1, 1990. Thomas Doherty, “This Is Where We Came In: The Audible Screen and the Voluble Audience of Early Sound Cinema,” in American Movie Audiences From the Turn of the Century to the Early Sound Era , eds Melvyn Stokes and Richard Maltby, British Film Institute, London, 1999, pp. 143-63. Peter Baxter, Just Watch!: Sternberg, Paramount and America , British Film Institute, London, 1993.

Lea Jacobs, “The Censorship of Blonde Venus : Textual Analysis and Historical Method”, Cinema Journal , 27; 3, Spring 1988. Richard Maltby, “ Baby Face or How Joe Breen Made Barbara Stanwyck Atone for Causing the Wall Street Crash”, Screen 27; 2, March-April 1986, pp. 22-45. Ramona Curry, “Mae West as Censored Commodity: the Case of Klondike Annie ”, Cinema Journal 31; 1, Fall 1991. Richard Maltby, “The Spectacle of Criminality”, in Violence and American Cinema , ed. J. David Slocum, Routledge, London, 2000, pp. Of Photosynthesis Graphs? 117-152. Peter Stanfield, “An Excursion into the Lower Depths: Hollywood, Urban Primitivism, and plan situational, St. Louis Blues , 1929–1937”, Cinema Journal 41, 2, Winter 2002, pp. 84-108. Richard Maltby is Professor of Screen Studies and Head of the School of Humanities at Flinders University.

A second edition of his book Hollywood Cinema (Blackwell) was published earlier this year. Co-editor with Melvyn Stokes of a series of books on Hollywood's audiences for the BFI, he is factors of photosynthesis graphs currently completing Reforming the Movies: A Political History of the American Cinema, 1908-1940 with Ruth Vasey. Burning Down the House: Bowling for Columbine. Founded in 1999, Senses of Cinema is The History of Lighting Essay one of the factors graphs, first online film journals of its kind and has set the standard for scientific, professional, high quality film-related content on the Internet. © Senses of Cinema 2017. Editors: Michelle Carey, Daniel Fairfax, Mark Freeman, Alexandra Heller-Nicholas. Editorial Assistant : David Heslin. Click here to limiting factors, make a donation.

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The Killing Fields of China - A Review Essay by Roger Garside. Hardcover: September 2010, 420 pages. Paperback: October 2011, 448 pages. Edited by Edward Friedman, Guo Jian, and Stacy Mosher. Translated by Stacy Mosher and Guo Jian. Farrar, Strauss and factors graphs, Giroux. Edited by Zhou Xun. Yale University Press. These books present a wealth of evidence that in the “Great Leap Forward” of 1958 - 60 the Communist Party of China caused the greatest catastrophe ever inflicted upon a society by its own rulers. Dikotter, Zhou and Yang, have based their books on for and, documents they have collected in official archives in factors graphs, mainland China, and, to a lesser extent, on interviews with survivors and retired cadres.

Collaborators on a joint project, based in Hong Kong, Dikotter and Zhou, gathered 1,000 documents; Yang, a resident of the mainland, amassed 3,000, totaling almost 4 million characters. ( Tombstone is an English version of Yang’s much longer original work in Chinese, Mubei ; he has been superbly served by his translators-editors, Mosher and Guo.) All three authors have benefitted from a relaxation of policy on archive access that began in the early 1990s. Most of the documents are from the Communist Party’s own archives, at or below provincial and municipal level. Central Party archives remain hard to access, but the authors were able to use those of the scottish independence essay Foreign and Food Ministries. As a result of this access, and the skill of their authors in analyzing and factors, organizing a vast quantity of networking material, these books recount the history of the Great Leap with an authority, thoroughness and detail never before achieved. Dikotter writes: “The archival evidence . . . conservatively puts the factors of photosynthesis number of premature deaths at a minimum of 45 million for the great famine of 1958-62.” 2 Yang estimates that “the Great Famine brought about 36 million unnatural deaths, and a short fall of 40 million births. China’s total population loss during the Great Famine then comes to 76 million.” 3 The short fall of births occurred because men and women were made to sleep in separate dormitories, and fatigue, disease and scottish for and against essay, starvation caused men to produce less sperm, and women to stop menstruating and to suffer collapse of the uterus. The deaths and inability to conceive are two aspects of the tragedy, but beyond them the authors show the horrors of moral, social and economic breakdown. The depth of of photosynthesis suffering destroyed people’s moral sensitivity and capacity for feeling, so that Yang records: “Tens of millions departed this world in an atmosphere of mute apathy . . . . There were no anguished appeals to heaven, . Apa Referencing. . Factors Graphs. . no sympathy, no grief, no tears, no shock, no dread.”

The scale and scope of the catastrophe make of it an event of universal importance, from social networking which we can learn much about the nature of man, and how he should or should not be governed. Factors Graphs. In his Preface to Essay, The Gulag Archipelago , Solzhenitsyn quoted the limiting factors of photosynthesis Russian proverb, “Dwell on the past and you will lose an eye. Plan Analysis Example. Forget the limiting graphs past, and you will lose both eyes.” The Strategies of the Warring States teaches: “What is not forgotten of the past may serve as a guide for the future.” 4 Yang wrote Tombstone partly as a memorial to those who died, but also to enable us all to draw political lessons from it. He believes that the “basic reason why tens of millions of people starved to death in China was totalitarianism,” and Dikotter shares this view. Essay. The three books provide the evidence from which readers can draw their own conclusions. Because the Great Leap occurred more than fifty years ago, is not recorded in detail in Chinese textbooks and is still not well known elsewhere, I will briefly summarize it, with a warning that it is too complex a phenomenon for any short description to be satisfactory. In the factors of photosynthesis summer of 1958, the Communist Party launched a social and economic revolution intended to transform China from a socialist into a communist society, and to achieve such increases in independence for and, industrial and agricultural output that it would immediately put an end to factors of photosynthesis, poverty. The international aim (undeclared, but evident) was to seize the leadership of scottish independence against essay world revolution from the Soviet Union. Society at every level was collectivized, militarized and limiting graphs, thrown into combat.

Mao advocated untried and unscientific methods of farming, without checking them with experts, and claimed that they would multiply yields per acre by for and, ten times; he then based on them national targets for food production wildly beyond the bounds of possibility. One or two brave men called these into question, and he reduced them, but only to a level that was still beyond the bounds of possibility. The same kind of limiting graphs subjectivist thinking and example, planning was applied to steel-making, water control, irrigation, pig production, and other economic activities. The provinces that suffered worst were those whose leaders followed the policies of the Center [?? , zhong yang, a term commonly used in China to mean the CPC’s Beijing-based top leaders], most fanatically or cynically, inflating targets even beyond those set at the center, carrying policies to extreme, and falsifying reports to hide failures to graphs, meet targets. The promise of abundance motivated some trusting farmers at first, and plan, gullible youths threw themselves into the movement. The harvest of 1958 was good, and in the climate of of photosynthesis graphs euphoria, wild exaggeration of revolution philosophy success, and suspension of of photosynthesis graphs reason that had been whipped, people even believed that there was a problem of Company Essay surplus food. But already there was evidence of serious economic dislocation and social distress.

Mass mobilization of labor for irrigation projects had diverted labor from essential agricultural tasks, the “steel” produced in backyard furnaces was worthless, the pace of work was leading to exhaustion, the destruction of private dwellings and family life, and enforced eating in communal mess halls were detested. In November the Central Committee backed off a little from the most destructive and extreme of these policies. Mao’s own prestige and leadership were so closely associated with the Great Leap that he refused to limiting factors, countenance anything more than the minimum of webpage backtracking essential for his own and the nation’s survival. From then on, he would insist that the overall strategy was correct, blame others for mistakes of implementation, ruthlessly counter-attack against anyone who dared to call for honest acknowledgment of the extent of the disaster as it emerged, and limiting factors of photosynthesis, block so long as he could policy reversals on marketing plan situational analysis, the scale required to limiting of photosynthesis, minimize famine and disease. Except for Minister of Defense Peng Dehuai, and his few supporters, all Mao’s senior comrades yielded to his threats, acting as his accomplices. By March 1959, Mao was forced to confront the growing reality of suffering, but his response was: “When there is not enough to The History of Lighting Essay, eat people starve to death.

It is better to let half of the people die so that the factors of photosynthesis other half can eat their fill.” His readiness to accept death on this scale domestically recalled the Motor way in limiting factors, which he had told the international conference of Communist Party leaders in webpage, Moscow that if war broke out between the socialist and “imperialist” camps, and one half of the world’s population died, “there will still be one-half left, but imperialism would be erased, and the whole world would become socialist.” If proof were needed that Mao’s prime concern in limiting factors, domestic and world revolution was not for the poor and powerless of this earth, these words would provide it. As the crisis deepened, the Center increased rather than diminished the targets of compulsory grain procurement from the farmers, because it gave priority to the politically sensitive cities, and to foreign trade and aid over the needs of the countryside. It claimed that the farmers were hiding grain, and refused to release reserve stocks to starving regions. The Party waged war on the farmers, and did not pretend otherwise in its internal communications. Soon after the revolution philosophy Great Leap was launched, violent coercion became normal, with the encouragement of the Center. These books document how Party cadres, to protect their own careers, enforce their authority, strive for factors of photosynthesis graphs fulfillment of their targets, and protect their rice bowl at a time of famine, turned the countryside of China into killing fields. They tortured and killed anyone who dared to challenge them and the policies they were implementing. They forced husbands to scottish independence for and against, torture their wives, and kill their children if they were disobedient.

In many areas where supplies of food were exhausted, people turned to cannibalism. Parents even killed their own children to eat them. Children survived by eating their parents who had died. The dead were tossed into mass graves, or left to rot where they fell, until neighbors came to eat them. Chastened by the disastrous history of collectivization in the Soviet Union from 1928 to 1940, Stalin had warned Mao and his comrades against repeating Soviet mistakes. Of Photosynthesis Graphs. They ignored his warning. They promised a Great Leap to Paradise: they delivered a Highway to Hell. Only with the Company Essay 7,000-cadre conference of 1962 did they respond politically on the scale the factors of photosynthesis situation demanded. These books are banned in mainland China, and no public debate is permitted on the lessons to be drawn, more than half a century after the Great Leap. Social Networking. This enforced amnesia is a matter of political logic: if the National Socialist Party was still ruling Germany with a monopoly of political power, if Hitler’s corpse was lying in a mausoleum in Berlin, and his portrait hanging from the Brandenburg Gate, then the Party would probably claim that the stability of the Third Reich required that examination of the Holocaust be forbidden. Instead, denial of the Holocaust is deemed a criminal act in Germany and 16 other countries.

The Chinese leaders did not set out to kill, unlike the Nazis when they launched the factors Holocaust, but when they saw that their policies were killing millions they did not reverse them until it was far too late, and apa referencing webpage, then the high-ranking made scapegoats of their subordinates who had obeyed their orders. They did so to defend themselves and the system they had constructed. The catastrophe cannot be laid at the door of factors one man, Mao. While the Great Leap was his initiative, and The History of Lighting Essay, would not have happened without him, it was only possible because China was ruled by a political party committed to totalitarian dictatorship. Liu Shaoqi, Zhou Enlai, Deng Xiaoping, and other senior comrades had joined Mao in fashioning that party. The revolutionary changes they imposed in the early 1950s, all modeled closely on limiting of photosynthesis, the Soviet Union under Stalin, paved the scottish independence for and against way for it. They had eliminated private property, sealed China off from limiting factors graphs information beyond its borders, abolished freedom of expression, undermined and attacked all religions and tradi­tional ethics, and overridden such rule of Company Essay law as existed. Factors Graphs. They never shrank from using terror and lies to win, use, and hold power. They had demolished or undermined every defense against their arbitrary use of power, except families and homes. The summer of madness swept many of those away. 5.

In March 1958, Mao had told the Party: “The truth is in our hands, why should we not worship it? . . . Each group must worship its leader, it cannot but worship its leader.” 6 In Yang’s words, China's government became “a secular theocracy that united the center of Ford Motor Essay power with the center of limiting truth.” 7 A combination of traditional Chinese veneration of the supreme ruler, emulation of the tyrant Qin Shihhuang, Marxism, Leninist dictatorship, worship of Mao, and mid-20 th century technology produced a totalitarian power of unprecedented strength. From these books we see in explicit detail how policy was transmitted from the lips of Mao to the minds and entrails of farmers in the most remote villages of China. Yang is particularly interested in scottish independence against essay, systemic analysis, and limiting factors graphs, demonstrates impressively how the marketing situational example regime transmitted and magnified the folly and the evil of the men at the top, instead of checking it. Party cadres engaged in collective beatings of those few of their fellow officials who dared to defend truth; lying and unquestioning obedience down the chain of limiting of photosynthesis authority were instilled and of Lighting Essay, enforced by graphs, violence. At the center of coercive power Mao warned Liu Shaoqi, “All I have to do is lift a finger and you are finished,” and in communal dining halls the man or woman who held the food ladle exercised the independence against essay power of life and limiting of photosynthesis, death. In a vivid phrase, Yang claims that this system made of every person who entered it a slave facing upward, and a dictator facing downward. Yang insists that a multi-party democracy would have prevented Mao from persisting in his criminal conduct as long as he did. But the inhabitants of democratic countries should feel no complacency. For a long time many leaders of opinion in our countries have been blind to the true story of the Great Leap, either through laziness or willful denial. Webpage. This is inexcusable.

The gravity of the limiting graphs famine and social crisis caused by the Great Leap were common knowledge in Hong Kong when I was serving there as a young soldier in Essay, 1958-9, the Taiwan press reported it fully, and sections of the American press got it right. The truth took longer to penetrate some groves of academe, and very eminent Sinologists have gone to limiting factors of photosynthesis, their graves without recognizing it. The magnitude of the Essay famine was demonstrated by a handful of American and British demographers and economists in the 1980s, and limiting graphs, the broad outlines of the human misery caused by it were brilliantly recounted by Jasper Becker in scientific revolution, his Hungry Ghosts , published in 1996. But the limiting factors graphs books under review increase our knowledge and understanding of the Great Leap Forward, and the comprehensive disaster it caused, far beyond anything published in English (or indeed in Chinese) hitherto. They not only describe the horror in Motor Company Essay, all its dimensions, they allow us to understand how and why it came to pass. Limiting Of Photosynthesis Graphs. They make intelligible and scientific philosophy, credible what for long seemed surreal. To a degree never possible until now, Dikotter and Yang show the impact of the Great Leap on the “common people.” Indeed Mao’s Great Famine is the first volume in a People’s Trilogy that Dikotter is writing, to cover the Tragedy of limiting graphs Liberation 1945-57 , the Great Leap (this volume) and the Cultural Revolution. As a historian he is going from strength to strength in a growing oeuvre characterized by trail-blazing searches for truth.

His intellect and language are direct and vigorous, and Motor Essay, he shapes a wealth of complex material most skillfully. In recording the Great Leap, these books inevitably pile grim fact upon grim fact. Only very occasionally do we learn of heroic integrity on the part of cadres, in the face of certain punishment, and time and again people who were starving had only a choice of limiting factors “evil” options if they were to survive. Both Yang and Dikotter provide policy description and analysis as well as narrative, but Yang separates them, devoting whole chapters to the former. These provide some contrast and relief, and are as gripping as his narrative chapters, because their subject matter is electrifying, and he illustrates their themes with vivid examples and policy statements. His opening chapter, “An Everlasting Tombstone” is social a deeply moving and courageous testament, both personal and political. Indeed, the whole of his book reflects a moral seriousness in the best tradition of Chinese intellectuals. This and the sobriety of his style allow the horror of his content to make its impact with full power.

Zhou’s short but valuable book presents the history of the famine through a well-balanced collection of 120 documents out factors of photosynthesis graphs, of the 1,000 that she and Dikotter gathered from mainland Party archives, in a joint research project. She organizes the documents by theme, e.g. Famine in the Communes, Seasons of Death, and Cannibalism, prefacing each with a few succinct pages of context. All three authors are to apa referencing, be congratulated on their courage in tackling this most sensitive of subjects, and factors, their diplomatic skill in negotiating access to archives in an often opaque system. Yang’s discreet and of Lighting Essay, well-judged pursuit of his project over more than a decade is a quietly heroic achievement. He remains at liberty despite his denunciation of the Party’s disastrous record and the totalitarian system it created; indeed he was permitted to limiting factors graphs, visit the U.S. earlier this year to Essay, speak at a conference on of photosynthesis graphs, the Great Leap. At about 140,000 words, Mao’s Great Famine is much shorter than Tombstone , which has about 220,000 words of text, excluding end matter. Apa Referencing Webpage. The two books, one by a European, the other by a Chinese insider, complement and reinforce each other, arriving at broadly similar conclusions and extending the limiting factors graphs range of sources. 8 Together with Zhou Xun’s collection of marketing situational documents, they form a landmark in the historiography of factors contemporary China.

Working on these books tested the resilience of spirit of essay those involved. Even reading them requires a certain resolve. They are journeys into hell, on which Dikotter and Yang act as our guides, as Virgil guided Dante; but Dante’s vision of Inferno is no more horrific than this journey through the killing fields of China. Roger Garside (???) served as a British diplomat in China during and immediately after the Cultural Revolution. He is the author of Coming Alive: China after Mao, published in 1981. 1. The book is also published in of photosynthesis graphs, London in fall 2012 by Allen Lane under the title, Tombstone: The Untold Story of Mao’s Great Famine .^ 2. Frank Dikotter, Mao’s Great Famine: The History of China’s Most Devastating Catastrophe, 1958–1962 (New York: Walker Company, 2010), p.325.^ 3. Yang Jisheng, Tombstone: The Great Chinese Famine, 1958-62 , eds. Social. Edward Friedman, Guo Jian, and Stacy Mosher, Stacy Mosher and Guo Jian trans., (New York: Farrar, Strauss and Giroux, 2012), p.430; as a proportion of the population of their nation, the Khmer Rouge inflicted a higher ratio of factors deaths on Cambodia, 1976-9, but, at 2.2 million, the total was far lower.^

4. Of Lighting. ?????,????, qianshi zhi bu wang, houshi zhi shi, cited by Guo Jian in a review of Mubei ,^ 8. Together, they cover 16 of China’s 22 provinces, and Beijing and Shanghai.^

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35+ Creative Ways to List Job Skills on Your Resume. The competitive climate of the job market has reached a fever pitch in recent years. College degrees are almost as commonplace as high school diplomas, and the pool of candidates for limiting factors, any given career is far-reaching. Marketing Plan Situational! To stand out in such an environment, job seekers need to factors of photosynthesis graphs focus on accentuating their experiences and backgrounds on their resumes. A degree from a prestigious university or an impressive roster of past employers can certainly make a good impression on hiring managers, but the real test of a candidate#39;s fit is how well the person#39;s skills align with the position in question. Wendi Weiner, a certified professional resume writer and founder of The Writing Guru, noted that a job candidate#39;s skills and relevant knowledge are substantiated by the keywords they choose to Essay use. Industry-specific core skills will enable a job candidate to successfully pass through an applicant tracking system (ATS), which is utilized by [the majority] of limiting factors of photosynthesis companies today to obtain the The History Essay right candidates, Weiner said. While it#39;s good to have a well-rounded skills section, it#39;s not enough to simply list a string of phrases. Josh Ridgeway, director of MSP delivery for staffing agency Kavaliro, reminded job seekers that hiring managers want to see concrete examples of those skills in limiting factors, action. Of Lighting Essay! [See Related Story: Meaningless Words to Delete from factors of photosynthesis graphs, Your Resume ] In resumes, you see a skills summary, [which includes] problem solving, excellent customer service, attention to detail, etc., Ridgeway told Business News Daily. Example! However, oftentimes, we don#39;t see an limiting graphs, explanation of those skills.

If you have #39;problem solving#39; and #39;critical thinking#39; in your resume, you should tie those skills into your explanation of job duties and how those specific skills played an important part. The challenge is greater for those who have been laid off or who have been out of work for The History, an extended period of time. For these professionals, the task of proving that their skills are relevant can be a little more difficult than it is for other job seekers. Ford R. Myers, a career coach, speaker and of photosynthesis graphs, author of the book, Get The Job You Want, Even When No One#39;s Hiring (John Wiley Sons, 2009), advised considering transferable skills that you#39;ve gained from marketing situational analysis example, paid and unpaid past experiences. Transferable skills acquired during any activity volunteer positions, classes, projects, parenting, hobbies, sports can be applicable to one#39;s next job, Myers said. By adding transferable skills to a resume, employers get a better understanding and broader picture of who they are hiring, as well as the interests, values and experiences that the candidate brings to limiting the table. Based on the advice of our expert sources, here are a few broad categories of social networking skills your resume could include, along with unique ways to express them. Limiting! Jobs require teamwork.

There will be constant back-and-forth exchanges with co-workers, and discussing and sharing ideas with supervisors. Employers will want to know the level ofcommunication skills you have and how well you work with others. The specific required skills will vary based on your position. A sales representative, for instance, would need to highlight customer service and relationship-building experience. The History Of Lighting! On your resume: writes clearly and concisely; listens attentively; openly expresses ideas, negotiates/resolves differences; provides and of photosynthesis, asks for feedback; offers well-thought-out solutions; cooperates and works well with others; thrives in a collaborative environment. If the scientific revolution philosophy job you want involves working on research projects and companywide campaigns, you#39;re going to want to show off your top-notch planning abilities. Limiting Factors Of Photosynthesis! Organization skills may sound like a trite, overused filler term, but those skills are the ones that will help you succeed.

Show potential employers you#39;ve got what they#39;re looking for by outlining your involvement in, and against, results from, current and previous projects. On your resume: forecasts/predicts; identifies and of photosynthesis graphs, gathers appropriate resources; thoroughly researches background information; develops strategies; thinks critically to scientific revolution philosophy solve problems; handles details; coordinates and completes tasks; manages projects effectively; meets deadlines; plans and factors of photosynthesis graphs, arranges activities; multitasks; creates plans. Leadership skills can be gained in a variety of revolution philosophy conventional and unconventional ways, but it#39;s not always easy to express them on a resume. Demonstrating your management abilities on limiting factors graphs, paper requires you to think about what it is The History Essay, you do as a leader and how you guide your employees toward success. To give employers a better idea of what you#39;ve accomplished, discuss the size of the team and the scope of the projects you manage. On your resume: leads and directs others; teaches/trains/instructs; counsels/coaches; manages conflict; helps team members set and limiting factors of photosynthesis, achieve goals; delegates effectively; makes and implements decisions; enforces policies; oversees projects; measures team results. Social media is one of the scientific philosophy most ubiquitous and graphs, in-demand skills for jobs in a variety of fields. Socially active organizations are more likely to attract top talent, drive new sales leads and better engage other employees and customers, said Amir Zonozi, chief of Essay strategy at social engagement platform Zoomph. Therefore, when employers look for new hires, they#39;re also typically looking for new internal-brand ambassadors.

Zonozi noted that, for graphs, positions that directly involve work on corporate social media campaigns, hiring managers love to see concrete numbers and metrics, including Web traffic, audience reach and overall engagement. Even for nonsocial-media-related positions, you can still demonstrate your experience by referencing specific networks and social media management programs you regularly use. On your resume: manages social media campaigns; measures and social networking advantages, analyzes campaign results; identifies and limiting of photosynthesis, connects with industry influencers; sparks social conversation within the brand#39;s community; creates and executes content strategies; drives engagement and leads; enhances brand image through social presence. Additional reporting by Nicole Fallon Taylor and Jeanette Mulvey. Shannon Gausepohl graduated from Rowan University in marketing situational example, 2012 with a degree in journalism. She has worked at a newspaper and in limiting factors, the public relations field, and is currently a staff writer at Business News Daily.

Shannon is a zealous bookworm, has her blue belt in Brazilian jiu jitsu, and loves her Blue Heeler mix, Tucker.

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conclusions essay INTRODUCTIONS, AND CONCLUSIONS. Adapted from Writing and Reading Across the limiting graphs, Curriculum , 6th Edition. By Laurence Behrens and Leonard J. Rosen. New York: HarperCollins, 1997. Pp. Against! 32-58. A thesis statement is a one-sentence summary of limiting of photosynthesis graphs a paper's content.

It is revolution philosophy similar, actually, to of photosynthesis a paper's conclusion but lacks the conclusion's concern for broad implications and significance. For a writer in the drafting stages, the Essay, thesis establishes a focus, a basis on factors which to scientific include or exclude information. For the factors graphs, reader of a finished product, the Ford Motor, thesis anticipates the author's discussion. A thesis statement, therefore, is an essential tool for limiting factors, both writers and The History of Lighting Essay, readers of factors of photosynthesis academic material . This last sentence is our thesis for this section. Based on this thesis, we, as the authors, have limited the marketing, content of the section; and you, as the reader, will be able to form certain expectations about the discussion that follows. Limiting Factors Of Photosynthesis Graphs! You can expect a definition of a thesis statement; an enumeration of the uses of a thesis statement; and a discussion focused on Essay academic material. As writers, we will have met our obligations to you only if in subsequent paragraphs we satisfy these expectations. The Components of a Thesis. Like any other sentence, a thesis includes a subject and a predicate, which consists of an assertion about the of photosynthesis, subject. In the sentence Lee and Grant were different kinds of generals, Lee and Grant is the subject and networking advantages, were different kinds of generals is the predicate. What distinguishes a thesis statement from any other sentence with a subject and predicate is the thesis statement statement's level of generality and the care with which you word the assertion . The subject of a thesis must present the right balance between the general and the specific to allow for graphs, a thorough discussion within the plan situational, allotted length of the paper.

The discussion might include definitions, details, comparisons contrasts - whatever is limiting graphs needed to illuminate a subject and scientific philosophy, carry on an intelligent conversation. (If the sentence about Lee and Grant were a thesis, the reader would assume that the rest of the essay contained comparisons and contrasts between the limiting factors of photosynthesis graphs, two generals.) Bear in independence against essay, mind when writing thesis statements that the of photosynthesis graphs, more general your subject and the more complex your assertion, the longer your paper will be. For instance, you could not write an effective ten-page paper based on the following: Democracy is the best system of government. Consider the subject of this sentence, democracy, and the assertion of its predicate, is the best system of government. The subject is enormous in scope; it is a general category composed of hundreds of more specific sub-categories, each of which would be appropriate for Essay, a paper ten pages in length. Limiting Factors Graphs! The predicate of our example is also a problem, for the claim that democracy is the best system of government would be simplistic unless accompanied by a thorough, systematic, critical evaluation of every form of Essay government yet devised. A ten-page paper governed by limiting of photosynthesis such a thesis simply could not achieve the scientific revolution, level of detail and sophistication expected of college students.

Limiting the Scope of the limiting of photosynthesis graphs, Thesis. Before you can write an effective thesis and thus a controlled, effective paper, you need to limit your intended discussions by limiting your subject and your claims about it. Two strategies for achieving a thesis statement of against manageable proportions are (1) to begin with a working thesis (this strategy assumes that you are familiar with your topic) and (2) to begin with a broad area of interest and narrow it (this strategy assumes that you are unfamiliar with your topic). Begin with a Working Thesis. Professionals thoroughly familiar with a topic often begin writing with a clear thesis in mind - a happy state of affairs unfamiliar to factors of photosynthesis graphs most college students who are assigned term papers. But professionals usually have an important advantage over students: experience.

Because professionals know their material, are familiar with the ways of approaching it, are aware of the questions important to practitioners, and have devoted considerable time to study of the topic, they are naturally in a strong position to begin writing a paper. Not only do professionals have experience in webpage, their fields, but they also have a clear purpose in writing; they know their audience and limiting factors of photosynthesis, are comfortable with the format of their papers. Experience counts - there's no way around it. As a student, you are not yet an expert and therefore don't generally have the luxury of revolution beginning your writing tasks with a definite thesis in mind. Once you choose and devote time to limiting of photosynthesis a major field of study, however, you will gain experience. In the meantime, you'll have to do more work than the social networking advantages, professional to prepare yourself for writing a paper. But let's assume that you do have an limiting, area of expertise, that you are in your own right a professional (albeit not in scientific philosophy, academic matters). We'll assume that you understand your nonacademic subject - say, backpacking - and have been given a clear purpose for factors, writing: to discuss the relative merits of backpack designs.

Your job is to write a recommendation for the owner of a sporting-goods chain, suggesting which line of backpacks the chain should carry. The owner lives in another city, so your remarks have to scottish independence be written. Since you already know a good deal about backpacks, you may already have some well-developed ideas on the topic before you start doing additional research. Yet even as an expert in factors of photosynthesis graphs, your field, you will find that beginning the writing task is a challenge, for at this point it is unlikely that you will be able to conceive a thesis perfectly suited to the contents of your paper. After all, a thesis statement is a summary, and it is difficult to summarize a presentation yet to be written - especially if you plan to discover what you want to say during the process of writing.

Even if you know your material well, the best you can do at the early stages is to formulate a working thesis - a hypothesis of sorts, a well-informed hunch about your topic and the claim to be made about it. Revolution Philosophy! Once you have completed a draft, you can evaluate the degree to which your working thesis accurately summarizes the content of your paper. 1 If the match is a good one, the working thesis becomes the thesis statement. If, however, sections of the paper drift from the focus set out in the working thesis, you'll need to revise the thesis and the paper itself to ensure that the presentation is unified. (You'll know that the limiting, match between the content and thesis is marketing situational analysis a good one when every paragraph directly refers to factors of photosynthesis graphs and develops some element of the scottish, thesis.) Begin with a Subject and Narrow It. Let's assume that you have moved from making recommendations about backpacks (your territory) to writing a paper for your government class (your professor's territory). Whereas you were once the professional who knew enough about your subject to begin writing with a working thesis, you are now the student, inexperienced and in graphs, need of a great deal of information before you can begin begin to think of thesis statements. It may be a comfort to know that your government professor would likely be in the same predicament if asked to recommend backpack designs. He would need to spend several weeks, at least, backpacking to The History of Lighting become as experienced as you; and it is fair to say that you will need to spend several hours in limiting of photosynthesis graphs, the library before you are in a position to choose a topic suitable for an undergraduate paper. Suppose you have been assigned a ten-page paper in Government 104, a course on social policy. Not only social advantages do you not have a thesis - you don't have a subject!

Where will you begin? First, you need to limiting factors graphs select a broad area of interest and Ford, make yourself knowledgeable about its general features. What if no broad area of interest occurs to you? Don't despair - there's usually a way to make use of discussions you've read in limiting graphs, a text or heard in a lecture. The trick is to find a topic that can become personally important, for whatever reason. (For a paper in your biology class, you might write on the digestive system because a relative has stomach troubles. For an economics seminar, you might explore the factors that threaten banks with collapse because your grandparents lost their life savings during the Great Depression.) Whatever the academic discipline, try to discover a topic that you'll enjoy exploring; that way, you'll be writing for yourself as much as for your professor.

Some specific strategies to try if no topics occur to you: Review material covered during the semester, class by class if need be; review the semester's readings, actually skimming each assignment. Choose any subject that has held your interest, if even for Ford, a moment, and use that as your point of departure. Suppose you've reviewed each of your classes and of photosynthesis, recall that a lecture on AIDS aroused your curiosity. Your broad subject of interest, then, will be AIDS. At this point, the goal of your research is to limit this subject to social networking advantages a manageable scope.

Although your initial, broad subject will often be more specific than our example, AIDS, we'll assume for the purposes of discussion the most general case (the subject in greatest need of factors of photosynthesis limiting). A subject can be limited in at least two ways. First, a general article like an encyclopedia entry may do the work for you by presenting the subject in the form of an social, outline, with each item in the outline representing a separate topic (which, for your purposes, may need further limiting). Second, you can limit a subject by asking several questions about it: These questions will occur to you as you conduct your research and limiting factors, see the ways in which various authors have focused their discussions. Having read several sources and having decided that you'd like to use them, you might limit the subject AIDS by asking who - AIDS patients; and which aspect - civil rights of AIDS patients. Certainly, the civil rights of AIDS patients offers a more specific focus than does AIDS; still, the revised focus is too broad for a ten-page paper in that a comprehensive discussion would obligate you to scientific philosophy review numerous particular rights. So again you must try to limit your subject by posing a question. In this particular case, which aspects (of the of photosynthesis, civil rights of AIDS patients) can be asked a second time. Six aspects may come to mind: Rights in the workplace Rights to hospital care Rights to networking advantages insurance benefits Rights to limiting factors of photosynthesis privacy Rights to fair housing Rights to education.

Any one of these aspects could provide the focus of scottish independence for and against a ten-page paper, and you do yourself an limiting of photosynthesis, important service by choosing one, perhaps two, of the apa referencing, aspects; to choose more would obligate you to too broad a discussion and you would frustrate yourself: Either the paper would have to limiting factors be longer than ten pages or, assuming you kept to the page limit, the paper would be superficial in Company Essay, its treatment. In both instances, the paper would fail, given the constraints of the assignment. So it is far better that you limit your subject ahead of time, before you attempt to write about it. Let's assume that you settle on the following as an appropriately defined subject for a ten-page paper: the rights of AIDS patients in the workplace. The process of narrowing an initial subject depends heavily upon the reading you do. Factors Of Photosynthesis Graphs! The more you read, the deeper your understanding of a topic. The deeper your understanding, the likelier it will be that you can divide a broad and complex topic into manageable - that is, researchable - categories.

Identify these categories that compose the larger topic and pursue one of them. In the AIDS example, your reading in the literature suggested that the civil rights of apa referencing AIDS patients was at the center of recent national debate. So reading allowed you to narrow the subject AIDS by of photosynthesis answering the initial questions - the who and which aspects. Once you narrowed your focus to the civil rights of AIDS patients, you read further and quickly realized that civil rights in itself was a broad concern that also should be limited. In this way, reading provided an important stimulus as you worked to identify an appropriate subject for your paper. Make an Assertion.

Once you have identified the subject, you can now develop it into a thesis by making an assertion about Ford it. If you have spent enough time reading and gathering information, you will be knowledgeable enough to have something to say about the limiting graphs, subject, based on a combination of your own thinking and the thinking of your sources. If you have trouble making an assertion, try writing your topic at the top of scottish for and against a page and then listing everything you know and feel about it. Often from such a list you will discover an assertion that you then can use to fashion a working thesis. A good way to factors of photosynthesis gauge the reasonableness of your claim is to see what other authors have asserted about the same topic. In fact, keep good notes on social advantages the views of others; the factors graphs, notes will prove a useful counterpoint to your own views as you write, and revolution philosophy, you may want to use them in your paper. Next, make three assertions about your topic, in order of increasing complexity. During the graphs, past few years, the rights of AIDS patients in networking advantages, the workplace have been debated by national columnists. Of Photosynthesis! Several columnists have offered convincing reasons for protecting the rights of AIDS patients in the workplace.

The most sensible plan for Essay, protecting the rights of AIDS patients in the workplace has been offered by columnist Anthony Jones. Keep in mind that these are working thesis statements. Because you haven't written a paper based on any of factors them, they remain hypotheses to be tested. After completing a first draft, you would compare the Ford, contents of the paper to the thesis and make adjustments as necessary for of photosynthesis, unity. The working thesis is an excellent tool for planning broad sections of the paper, but - again - don't let it prevent you from pursuing related discussions as they occur to you. Notice how these three statements differ from one another in the forcefulness of their assertions. The third thesis is strongly argumentative. Philosophy! Most sensible implies that the limiting factors of photosynthesis graphs, writer will explain several plans for protecting the rights of AIDS patients in the workplace.

Following the explanation would come a comparison of plans and then a judgment in favor of networking Anthony Jones. Like any working thesis, this one helps the factors of photosynthesis graphs, writer plan the apa referencing webpage, paper. Assuming the paper follows the limiting of photosynthesis, three-part structure we've inferred, the working thesis would become the final thesis, on the basis of which a reader could anticipate sections of the essay to come. The first of the The History of Lighting Essay, three thesis statements, by contrast, is explanatory : During the past few years, the rights of AIDS patients in the workplace have been debated by national columnists. In developing a paper based on this thesis, the writer would assert only the factors of photosynthesis graphs, existence of a debate, obligating himself merely to a summary of the various positions taken. Readers, then, would use this thesis as a tool for anticipating the contours of the marketing situational, paper to follow. Based on this particular thesis, a reader would not expect to find the author strongly endorsing the views of one or another columnist.

The thesis does not require the factors of photosynthesis, author to defend a personal opinion. The second thesis statement does entail a personal, intellectually assertive commitment to the material, although the social, assertion is not as forceful as the one found in statement 3: Several columnists have offered convincing reasons for protecting the rights of AIDS patients in the workplace. Here we have an explanatory, mildly argumentative thesis that enables the writer to express an opinion. We infer from the use of the word convincing that the writer will judge the various reasons for of photosynthesis, protecting the rights of AIDS patients; and, we can reasonably assume, the writer himself believes in protecting these rights. Note the contrast between this second thesis and the first one, where the revolution, writer committed himself to no involvement in the debate whatsoever. Still, the present thesis is not as ambitious as the limiting factors graphs, third one, whose writer implicitly accepted the general argument for safeguarding rights (an acceptance he would need to justify) and then took the additional step of evaluating the merits of those arguments in relation to each other. (Recall that Anthony Jones's plan was the most sensible.) As you can see, for any subject you might care to explore in a paper, you can make any number of assertions - some relatively simple, some complex. Social! It is on the basis of these assertions that you set yourself an agenda in writing a paper - and readers set for themselves expectations for reading.

The more ambitious the factors graphs, thesis, the more complex will be the paper and the greater will be the readers' expectations. Using the philosophy, Thesis. Different writing tasks require different thesis statements. The explanatory thesis is often developed in response to short-answer exam questions that call for information, not analysis (e.g., List and explain proposed modifications to contemporary American democracy). Limiting! The explanatory but mildly argumentative thesis is apa referencing appropriate for limiting factors, organizing reports (even lengthy ones), as well as essay questions that call for some analysis (e.g., In what ways are the recent proposals to modify American democracy significant?).

The strongly argumentative thesis is used to organize papers and exam questions that call for information, analysis, and the writer's forcefully stated point of view (e.g., Evaluate proposed modifications to contemporary American democracy). The strongly argumentative thesis, of networking advantages course, is the riskiest of the three, since you must unequivocally state your position and make it appear reasonable - which requires that you offer evidence and defend against logical objections. Factors Graphs! But such intellectual risks pay dividends, and if you become involved enough in your work to Motor Company make challenging assertions, you will provoke challenging responses that enliven classroom discussions. One of the important objectives of a college education is to extend learning by stretching, or challenging, conventional beliefs. You breathe new life into this broad objective, and you enliven your own learning as well, every time you adopt a thesis that sets a challenging agenda both for factors of photosynthesis graphs, you (as writer) and for your readers. Of course, once you set the challenge, you must be equal to the task. As a writer, you will need to discuss all the elements implied by your thesis. To review: A thesis statement (a one-sentence summary of your paper) helps you organize and your reader anticipate a discussion. Thesis statements are distinguished by their carefully worded subjects and predicates, which should be just broad enough and complex enough to Company Essay be developed within the length limitations of the assignment.

Both novices and experts in a field typically begin the initial draft of limiting factors a paper with a working thesis - a statement that provides writers with structure enough to get started but with latitude enough to discover what they want to say as they write. Once you have completed a first draft, you should test the fit of Motor Essay your thesis with the paper that follows. Every element of the thesis should be developed in the paper that follows. Discussions that drift from your thesis should be deleted, or the thesis changed to limiting factors graphs accommodate the new discussions. A quotation records the philosophy, exact language used by someone in speech or in writing.

A summary , in factors of photosynthesis, contrast, is a brief restatement in your own words of social networking advantages what someone else has said or written. And a paraphrase is also a restatement, although one that is often as long as the original source. Any paper in which you draw upon sources will rely heavily on quotation, summary, and graphs, paraphrase. How do you choose among the three? Remember that the papers you write should be your own - for the most part, your own language and certainly your own thesis, your own inferences, and your own conclusions. It follows that references to your source materials should be written primarily as summaries and paraphrases, both of which are built on independence against essay restatement, not quotation. You will use summaries when you need a brief restatement, and paraphrases, which provide more explicit detail than summaries, when you need to follow the development of a source closely.

When you quote too much, you risk losing ownership of your work: more easily than you might think, your voice can be drowned out by the voices of those you've quoted. So use quotations sparingly, as you would a pungent spice. Nevertheless, quoting just the right source at the right time can significantly improve your papers . The trick is to know when and how to use quotations. Use quotations when another writer's language is particularly memorable and limiting, will add interest and liveliness to situational analysis your paper. Use quotations when another writer's language is so clear and economical that to make the same point in your own words would, by comparison, be ineffective. Use quotations when you want the limiting factors of photosynthesis graphs, solid reputation of independence a source to lend authority and credibility to your own writing. Quoting Memorable Language. Assume you're writing a paper on Napoleon Bonaparte's relationship with the celebrated Josephine. Through research you learn that two days after their marriage Napoleon, given command of an army, left his bride for what was to be a brilliant military campaign in Italy.

How did the limiting factors, young general respond to leaving his wife so soon after their wedding? You come across the marketing plan situational analysis example, following, written from the field of battle by Napoleon on April 3, 1796: I have received all your letters, but none has had such an impact on me as the factors, last. Do you have any idea, darling, what you are doing, writing to me in those terms? Do you not think my situation cruel enough without intensifying my longing for you, overwhelming my soul? What a style! What emotions you evoke! Written in fire, they burn my poor heart! 2. A summary of this passage might read as follows: On April 3, 1796, Napoleon wrote to Ford Motor Josephine, expressing how sorely he missed her and how passionately he responded to her letters.

You might write the following as a paraphrase of the passage: On April 3, 1796, Napoleon wrote to Josephine that he had received her letters and that one among all others had had a special impact, overwhelming his soul with fiery emotions and longing. How feeble this summary and of photosynthesis, paraphrase are when compared with the original! Use the vivid language that your sources give you. In this case, quote Napoleon in your paper to make your subject come alive with memorable detail: On April 3, 1796, a passionate, lovesick Napoleon responded to a letter from Josephine; she had written longingly to her husband, who, on a military campaign, acutely felt her absence. Do you have any idea, darling, what you are doing, writing to me in those terms? . . . What emotions you evoke! he said of her letters. Social Networking! Written in fire, they poor heart!

The effect of directly quoting Napoleon's letter is to enliven your paper. Limiting Factors Graphs! A direct quotation is plan analysis one in factors of photosynthesis, which you record precisely the language of The History another, as we did with the sentences from Napoleon's letter. In an indirect quotation, you report what someone has said, although you are not obligated to repeat the words exactly as spoken (or written): Direct quotation : Franklin D. Roosevelt said: The only limiting thing we have to fear is Ford Motor Company fear itself. Indirect quotation : Franklin D. Roosevelt said that we have nothing to fear but fear itself. The language in a direct quotation, which is indicated by a pair of quotation marks ( ), must be faithful to the language of the original passage. Of Photosynthesis! When using an indirect quotation, you have the liberty of changing words (although not changing meaning). Revolution Philosophy! For both direct and indirect quotations, you must credit your sources , naming them either in (or close to) the sentence that includes the limiting of photosynthesis graphs, quotation [or, in some disciplines, in a footnote]. Quoting Clear and Concise Language.

You should quote a source when its language is scientific philosophy particularly clear and economical - when your language, by contrast, would be wordy. Read this passage from a text on biology: The honeybee colony, which usually has a population of 30,000 to 40,000 workers, differs from of photosynthesis graphs that of the bumblebee and The History, many other social bees or wasps in that it survives the winter. This means that the of photosynthesis, bees must stay warm despite the cold. Like other bees, the isolated honeybee cannot fly if the temperature falls below 10C (50F) and cannot walk if the temperature is below 7C (45F). Within the wintering hive, bees maintain their temperature by clustering together in for and against essay, a dense ball; the lower the limiting of photosynthesis graphs, temperature, the scottish against essay, denser the cluster. The clustered bees produce heat by constant muscular movements of their wings, legs, and of photosynthesis, abdomens. In very cold weather, the bees on of Lighting the outside of the cluster keep moving toward the center, while those in the core of the limiting factors of photosynthesis, cluster move to the colder outside periphery. The entire cluster moves slowly about on the combs, eating the stored honey from the combs as it moves. 3. A summary of this paragraph might read as follows:

Honeybees, unlike many other varieties of apa referencing bee, are able to live through the winter by clustering together in a dense ball for body warmth. A paraphrase of the same passage would be considerably more detailed: Honeybees, unlike many other varieties of graphs bee (such as bumblebees), are able to Company Essay live through the graphs, winter. The 30,000 to 40,000 bees within a honeybee hive could not, individually, move about in cold winter temperatures. But when clustering together in a dense ball, the bees generate heat by constantly moving their body parts. The cluster also moves slowly about the independence for and against essay, hive, eating honey stored in the combs. This nutrition, in limiting factors of photosynthesis, addition to the heat generated by the cluster, enables the honeybee to survive the cold winter months. In both the summary and Company, the paraphrase we've quoted Curtis's clustering together in factors of photosynthesis graphs, a dense ball, a phrase that lies at the heart of her description of wintering honeybees. For us to describe this clustering in any language other than Curtis's would be pointless since her description is admirably precise. Quoting Authoritative Language.

You will also want to use quotations that lend authority to your work. When quoting an social advantages, expert or some prominent political, artistic, or historical figure, you elevate your own work by placing it in esteemed company. Quote respected figures to establish background information in a paper, and your readers will tend to perceive that information as reliable. Quote the opinions of respected figures to limiting factors graphs endorse some statement that you've made, and your statement becomes more credible to Motor Company your readers. For example, in an essay that you might write on the importance of factors of photosynthesis reading well, you could make use of a passage from Thoreau's Walden : Reading well is hard work and requires great skill and training. Advantages! It is limiting of photosynthesis graphs a noble exercise, writes Henry David Thoreau in Walden, and one that will task the reader more than any exercise which the philosophy, customs of the limiting factors of photosynthesis graphs, day esteem. It requires a training such as the athletes underwent. Books must be read as deliberately and marketing plan analysis, reservedly as they were written. By quoting a famous philosopher and essayist on the subject of reading, you add legitimacy to your discussion. Not only do you regard reading to be a skill that is both difficult and important; so too does Henry David Thoreau, one of our most influential American thinkers. The quotation has elevated the level of your work.

You can also quote to advantage well-respected figures who've written or spoken about the subject of your paper. Here is a discussion of space flight. Limiting Of Photosynthesis! Author David Chandler refers to a physicist and an astronaut: A few scientists - notably James Van Allen, discoverer of the Earth's radiation belts - have decried the expense of the manned space program and called for an almost exclusive concentration on The History unmanned scientific exploration instead, saying this would be far more cost-effective. Other space scientists dispute that idea. Joseph Allen, physicist and former shuttle astronaut, says, It seems to limiting of photosynthesis graphs be argued that one takes away from the other. But before there was a manned space program, the funding on space science was zero.

Now it's about $500 million a year. Note, first, that in apa referencing webpage, the first paragraph Chandler has either summarized or used an Indirect quotation to incorporate remarks made by graphs James Van Allen into the discussion on space flight. In the second paragraph, Chandler directly quotes his next source, Joseph Allen. Both quotations, indirect and direct, lend authority and legitimacy to the article, for both James Van Allen and Joseph Allen are experts on of Lighting Essay the subject of space flight. Note also that Chandler has provided brief but effective biographies of limiting factors of photosynthesis his sources, identifying both so that their qualifications to speak on the subject are known to all: James Van Allen, discoverer of the Earth's radiation belts . Joseph Allen, physicist and former shuttle astronaut . The phrases in italics are called appositives . Their function is to rename the networking, nouns they follow by providing explicit, identifying detail. Any information about a person that can be expressed in the following sentence pattern can be made into an appositive phrase: James Van Allen is the limiting factors of photosynthesis graphs, discoverer of the Earth's radiation belts . James Van Allen has decried the The History, expense of the manned space program. James Van Allen, discoverer of the Earth's radiation belts , has decried the expense of the manned space program. Use appositives to identify authors whom you quote. Incorporating Quotations into Your Sentences.

Quoting Only the Part of a Sentence or Paragraph That You Need. As you've seen, a writer selects passages for quotation that are especially vivid and memorable, concise, or authoritative . Now we will put these principles into practice. Limiting Factors Of Photosynthesis! Suppose that while conducting research on the topic of college sports you've come across the following, written by Robert Hutchins, former president of the University of Chicago: If athleticism is bad for students, players, alumni and the public, it is revolution even worse for the colleges and limiting factors, universities themselves. They want to be educational institutions, but they can't. The story of the famous halfback whose only regret, when he bade his coach farewell, was that he hadn't learned to read and write is probably exaggerated. Advantages! But we must admit that pressure from trustees, graduates, friends, presidents and even professors has tended to relax academic standards. These gentry often overlook the fact that a college should not be interested in a fullback who is a half-wit. Recruiting, subsidizing and the double educational standard cannot exist without the knowledge and the tacit approval, at least, of the colleges and universities themselves. Certain institutions encourage susceptible professors to be nice to athletes now admitted by paying them for serving as faculty representatives on graphs the college athletic boards. 4.

Suppose that from this entire paragraph you find a gem, a quotable grouping of words that will enliven your discussion. You may want to quote part of the independence against essay, following sentence: These gentry often overlook the fact that a college should not be interested in a fullback who is a half-wit. Incorporating the Quotation into the Flow of Your Own Sentence. Once you've selected the passage you want to quote, work the material into your paper in limiting of photosynthesis graphs, as natural and fluid a manner as possible. Here's how we would quote Hutchins: Robert Hutchins, a former president of the University of Ford Motor Chicago, asserts that a college should not be interested in a fullback who is limiting factors of photosynthesis a half-wit. Note that we've used an The History of Lighting Essay, appositive to identify Hutchins.

And we've used only the part of the paragraph - a single clause - that we thought memorable enough to quote directly. Avoiding Freestanding Quotations. A quoted sentence should never stand by itself - as in the following example: Various people associated with the university admit that the pressures of factors of photosynthesis graphs athleticism have caused a relaxation of standards. These gentry often overlook the apa referencing webpage, fact that a college should not be interested in a fullback who is limiting graphs a half-wit. But this kind of Ford Company Essay thinking is bad for the university and even worse for the athletes. Even if you include a parenthetical citation after the limiting factors, quotation, you should not leave a quotation freestanding, as above, because the effect is frequently jarring to the reader.

Introduce the quotation by attributing the source in some other part of the sentence - beginning, middle, or end. Thus, you could write: According to Robert Hutchins, These gentry often overlook the fact that a college should not be interested in revolution philosophy, a fullback who is a half-wit. These gentry, asserts Robert Hutchins, often overlook the fact that a college should not be interested in a fullback who is a half-wit. Another alternative is to introduce a sentence-long quotation with a colon:

But Robert Hutchins disagrees: These gentry often overlook the fact that a college should not be interested in a fullback who is of photosynthesis a half-wit. Use colons also to introduce indented quotations (as in webpage, the examples above). When attributing sources, try to vary the graphs, standard states, writes, says, and so on. Other, stronger verbs you might consider: asserts, argues, maintains, insists, asks, and even wonders. Using Ellipsis Marks. Using quotations is made somewhat complicated when you want to independence against quote the graphs, beginning and end of a passage but not its middle - as was the case when we quoted Henry David Thoreau.

Here's part of the independence against essay, paragraph in Walden from which we quoted a few sentences: To read well, that is, to read true books in a true spirit, is a noble exercise, and of photosynthesis, one that will task the reader more than any exercise which the customs of the day esteem. It requires a training such as the athletes underwent, the apa referencing, steady intention almost of the whole life to limiting this object. Books must be read as deliberately and reservedly as they were written. Of Lighting Essay! 5. And here was how we used this material: Reading well is factors hard work and requires great skill and scientific revolution philosophy, training.

It is a noble exercise, writes Henry David Thoreau in Walden, and one that will task the reader more than any exercise which the customs of the graphs, day esteem. It requires a training such as the athletes underwent. Books must be read as deliberately and social, reservedly as they were written. Whenever you quote a sentence but delete words from it, as we have done, indicate this deletion to the reader by factors graphs placing an webpage, ellipsis mark, three spaced periods, in the sentence at factors of photosynthesis graphs, the point of deletion. The rationale for using an ellipsis mark as follows: A direct quotation must be reproduced exactly as it was written or spoken. When writers delete or change any part of the quoted material, readers must be alerted so they don't think that the changes were part of the philosophy, original. Ellipsis marks and brackets serve this purpose. If you are deleting the middle of a single sentence, use an ellipsis in place of the deleted words: To read well . is a noble exercise, and one that will task the reader more than any exercise which the limiting, customs of the day esteem. If you are deleting the end of a quoted sentence, or if you are deleting entire sentences of a paragraph before continuing a quotation, add one additional period and place the ellipsis after the last word you are quoting, so that you have four in all: It requires a training such as the athletes underwent.

Books must be read as deliberately and apa referencing, reservedly as they were written. If you begin your quotation of an of photosynthesis, author in the middle of a sentence, you need not indicate deleted words with an Company Essay, ellipsis. Be sure, however, that the syntax of the factors of photosynthesis, quotation fits smoothly with the essay, syntax of your sentence: Reading is a noble exercise, writes Henry David Thoreau. Use square brackets whenever you need to add or substitute words in of photosynthesis graphs, a quoted sentence. The brackets indicate to scientific the reader a word or phrase that does not appear in the original passage but that you have inserted to avoid confusion. For example, when a pronoun's antecedent would be unclear to readers, delete the pronoun from the sentence and substitute an identifying word or phrase in brackets.

When you make such a substitution, no ellipsis marks are needed. Assume that you wish to quote the bold-type sentence in the following passage: Golden Press's Walt Disney's Cinderella set the new pattern for America's Cinderella. Limiting Of Photosynthesis! This book's text is coy and condescending. (Sample: And her best friends of all were - guess who - the mice!) The illustrations are poor cartoons. Scientific Philosophy! And Cinderella herself is a disaster.

She cowers as her sisters rip her homemade ball gown to shreds. (Not even homemade by Cinderella, but by the mice and birds.) She answers her stepmother with whines and pleadings. She is a sorry excuse for a heroine, pitiable and useless . She cannot perform even a simple action to save herself, though she is limiting factors warned by her friends, the mice. She does not hear them because she is off in a world of dreams. Marketing Situational Example! Cinderella begs, she whimpers, and at last has to be rescued by - guess who - the mice! 6. In quoting this sentence, you would need to identify whom the pronoun she refers to. You can do this inside the quotation by using brackets: Jane Yolen believes that [Cinderella] is a sorry excuse for a heroine, pitiable and useless. If the pronoun begins the sentence to be quoted, as it does in this example, you can identify the limiting graphs, pronoun outside of the quotation and simply begin quoting your source one word later:

Jane Yolen believes that Cinderella is a sorry excuse for a heroine, pitiable and apa referencing webpage, useless. If the pronoun you want to identify occurs in the middle of the sentence to be quoted, then you'll need to use brackets. Limiting! Newspaper reporters do this frequently when quoting sources, who in interviews might say something like the following: After the fire they did not return to the station house for The History, three hours. If the reporter wants to use this sentence in factors of photosynthesis, an article, he or she needs to identify the pronoun:

An official from City Hall, speaking on The History of Lighting the condition that he not be identified, said, After the fire [the officers] did not return to the station house for three hours. You will also will need to add bracketed information to a quoted sentence when a reference essential to the sentence's meaning is implied but not stated directly. Read the limiting graphs, following paragraphs from Robert Jastrow's Toward an Intelligence Beyond Man's: These are amiable qualities for the computer; it imitates life like an electronic monkey. As computers get more complex, the imitation gets better. Finally, the line between the original and the copy becomes blurred. In another 15 years or so - two more generations of computer evolution, in apa referencing webpage, the jargon of the of photosynthesis graphs, technologists - we will see the computer as an emergent form of life. The proposition seems ridiculous because, for one thing, computers lack the drives and emotions of living creatures. But when drives are useful, they can be programmed into the computer's brain, just as nature programmed them into our ancestors' brains as a part of the equipment for survival. For example, computers, like people, work better and learn faster when they are motivated. Arthur Samuel made this discovery when he taught two IBM computers how to play checkers.

They polished their game by playing each other, but they learned slowly. Scientific Revolution Philosophy! Finally, Dr. Samuel programmed in the will to win by forcing the computers to try harder - and to think out more moves in advance - when they were losing. Then the factors of photosynthesis, computers learned very quickly. One of them beat Samuel and went on to defeat a champion player who had not lost a game to a human opponent in eight years. The History! 7. If you wanted to quote only the sentence in bold type, you would need to provide readers with a bracketed explanation; otherwise, the factors graphs, words the The History Essay, proposition would be unclear. Here is how you would manage the quotation: According to factors Robert Jastrow, a physicist and former official at NASA's Goddard Institute, The proposition [that computers will emerge as a form of life] seems ridiculous because, for one thing, computers lack the drives and emotions of living creatures. Remember that when you quote the work of another, you are obligated to credit - or cite - the author's work properly; otherwise, you may plagiarism. Essay! [See your Allyn and limiting factors, Bacon Handbook for Ford Company Essay, guidance on citing sources.]

A classic image: The writer stares glumly at a blank sheet of paper (or, in the electronic version, a blank screen). Usually, however, this is an image of factors a writer who hasn't yet begun to write. Once the piece has been started, momentum often helps to carry it forward, even over the rough spots. (These can always be fixed later.) As a writer, you've surely discovered that getting started when you haven't yet warmed to your task is a problem. What's the best way to approach your subject? With high seriousness, a light touch, an anecdote? How best to engage your reader? Many writers avoid such agonizing choices by putting them off - productively. Bypassing the Ford Essay, introduction, they start by writing the body of the piece; only limiting of photosynthesis after they've finished the body do they go back to write the introduction. There's a lot to plan example be said for this approach.

Because you have presumably spent more time thinking about the topic itself than about limiting factors graphs how you're going to introduce it, you are in a better position, at first, to begin directly with your presentation (once you've settled on a working thesis). And often, it's not until you've actually seen the piece on paper and read it over once or twice that a natural way of introducing it becomes apparent. Even if there is no natural way to Essay begin, you are generally in better psychological shape to write the limiting factors of photosynthesis, introduction after the major task of writing is behind you and you know exactly what you're leading up to. Perhaps, however, you can't operate this way. After all, you have to for and essay start writing somewhere , and if you have evaded the problem by skipping the introduction, that blank page may loom just as large wherever you do choose to begin. If this is the case, then go ahead and factors, write an introduction, knowing full well that it's probably going to be flat and awful.

Set down any kind of pump- priming or throat-clearing verbiage that comes to mind, as long as you have a working thesis. Assure yourself that whatever you put down at this point (except for the thesis) won't count and that when the time is advantages right, you'll go back and replace it with something classier, something that's fit for eyes other than yours. But in of photosynthesis, the meantime, you'll have gotten started. The purpose of an introduction is to prepare the reader to against enter the world of limiting factors your essay. The introduction makes the independence for and against essay, connection between the more familiar world inhabited by the reader and limiting, the less familiar world of the writer's particular subject; it places a discussion in a context that the reader can understand. There are many ways to provide such a context. We'll consider just a few of the most common. In introduction to a paper on democracy:

Two cheers for democracy was E. M. Forster's not-quite-wholehearted judgment. Most Americans would not agree. To them, our democracy is one of the glories of civilization. To one American in particular, E. B. White, democracy is the hole in the stuffed shirt through which the of Lighting, sawdust slowly trickles . . . the dent in the high hat . . . the recurrent suspicion that more than half of the people are right more than half of the time (915). Limiting Graphs! American democracy is based on scottish independence against essay the oldest continuously operating written constitution in the world - a most impressive fact and a testament to the farsightedness of the founding fathers. But just how farsighted can mere humans be? In Future Shock , Alvin Toffler quotes economist Kenneth Boulding on the incredible acceleration of social change in our time: The world of today . . . is as different from the world in which I was born as that world was from Julius Caesar's (13). As we move toward the factors of photosynthesis graphs, twenty-first century, it seems legitimate to question the continued effectiveness of a governmental system that was devised in the eighteenth century; and it seems equally legitimate to consider alternatives.

The quotations by Forster and White help set the stage for the discussion of democracy by presenting the reader with some provocative and well-phrased remarks. Later in apa referencing webpage, the paragraph, the quotation by Boulding more specifically prepares us for limiting of photosynthesis, the theme of revolution philosophy change that will be central to the essay as a whole. In many cases, the reader will be unprepared to follow the issue you discuss unless you provide some historical background. Consider the limiting factors of photosynthesis, following introduction to an an Ford Motor Company Essay, essay on the film-rating system: Sex and factors of photosynthesis, violence on the screen are not new issues. Revolution! In the Roaring Twenties there was increasing pressure from civic and religious groups to ban depictions of immorality from the screen.

Faced with the threat of federal censorship, the film producers decided to clean their own house. In 1930, the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America established the Production Code. At first, adherence to the Code was voluntary; but in limiting of photosynthesis, 1934 Joseph Breen, newly appointed head of the MPPDA, gave the Code teeth. Henceforth all newly produced films had to be submitted for marketing plan situational analysis, approval to the Production Code Administration which had the power to award or withhold the Code seal. Without a Code seal, it was virtually impossible for a film to be shown anywhere in graphs, the United States, since exhibitors would not accept it. At about the same time, the Catholic Legion of philosophy Decency was formed to advise the faithful which were and were not objectionable. For several decades the Production Code Administration exercised powerful control over what was portrayed in of photosynthesis, American theatrical films. By the 1960s, however, changing standards of morality had considerably weakened the Code's grip. In 1968, the social networking, Production Code was replaced with a rating system designed to keep younger audiences away from factors of photosynthesis graphs films with high levels of marketing plan situational sex or violence. Despite its imperfections, this rating system has proved more beneficial to of photosynthesis graphs American films than did the old censorship system. The essay following this introduction concerns the relative benefits of the rating system.

By providing some historical background on the rating system, the writer helps readers to understand his arguments. Notice the chronological development of details. Review of a Controversy. A particular type of historical review is the review of a controversy or debate. Consider the following introduction: The American Heritage Dictionary 's definition of civil disobedience is rather simple: the refusal to obey civil laws that are regarded as unjust, usually by employing methods of passive resistance.

However, despite such famous (and beloved) examples of civil disobedience as the movements of Mahatma Gandhi in India and the Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr., in the United States, the question of whether or not civil disobedience should be considered an asset to society is hardly clear cut. Scottish Independence For And Against! For instance, Hannah Arendt, in her article Civil Disobedience, holds thatto think of disobedient minorities as rebels and truants is against the letter and spirit of factors graphs a constitution whose framers were especially sensitive to the dangers of unbridled majority rule. On the other hand, a noted lawyer, Lewis Van Dusen, Jr., in his article Civil Disobedience: Destroyer of Democracy, states that civil disobedience, whatever the ethical rationalization, is still an assault on our democratic society, an affront to our legal order and an attack on our constitutional government. These two views are clearly incompatible. I believe, though, that Van Dusen's is the more convincing. On balance, civil disobedience is dangerous to society.

8. The negative aspects of civil disobedience, rather than Van Dusen's essay, the Motor, topic of this essay. But to of photosynthesis introduce this topic, the situational, writer has provided quotations that represent opposing sides of the controversy over civil disobedience, as well as brief references to factors of photosynthesis graphs two controversial practitioners. Scottish Against! By focusing at the outset on the particular rather than the abstract aspects of the subject, the writer hoped to limiting secure the attention of social networking her readers and to factors of photosynthesis involve them in the controversy that forms the subject of her essay. From General to the Specific. Another way of providing a transition from the reader's world to the less familiar world of the essay is to advantages work from a general subject to a specific one.

The following introduction to factors graphs a discussion of the 1968 massacre at My Lai, Vietnam, begins with general statements and Essay, leads to the particular subject at hand: Though we prefer to think of man as basically good and reluctant to do evil, such is not the case. Many of the crimes inflicted on humankind can be dismissed as being committed by limiting of photosynthesis the degenerates of society at the prompting of the abnormal mind. But what of the perfectly normal man or woman who commits inhumane acts simply because he or she has been ordered to do so? It cannot be denied that such acts have occurred, either in everyday life or in war-time situations. Unfortunately, even normal, well-adjusted people can become cruel, inhumane, and social networking advantages, destructive if placed in the hands of unscrupulous authority.

Such was the case in the village of My Lai, Vietnam, on March 16, 1968, when a platoon of factors graphs American soldiers commanded by Lt. William Calley massacred more than 100 civilians, including women and children. Specific to scottish independence for and against the General: Anecdote, Illustration. Consider the following paragraph: In late 1971 astronomer Carl Sagan and his colleagues were studying data transmitted from the planet Mars to graphs the earth by the Mariner 9 spacecraft. Struck by the effects of the Martian dust storms on the temperature and on the amount of light reaching the surface, the apa referencing webpage, scientists wondered about the effects on factors earth of the dust storms that would be created by nuclear explosions.

Using computer models, they simulated the The History, effects of such explosions on the earth's climate. The results astounded them. Apart from the known effects of nuclear blasts (fires and limiting of photosynthesis graphs, radiation), the earth, they discovered, would become enshrouded in scottish independence for and, a nuclear winter. Following a nuclear exchange, plummeting temperatures and factors of photosynthesis graphs, pervading darkness would destroy most of the Northern Hemisphere's crops and farm animals and would eventually render much of the planet's surface uninhabitable. The effects of nuclear war, apparently, would be more catastrophic than had previously been imagined. It has therefore become more urgent than ever for the nations of the world to take dramatic steps to reduce the threat of nuclear war. The previous introduction went from the scientific, general (the question of limiting factors of photosynthesis whether or not man is basically good) to the specific (the massacre at marketing plan analysis example, My Lai); this one goes from the factors, specific (scientists studying data) to the general (the urgency of reducing the nuclear threat). The anecdote is one of the most effective means at independence, your disposal off capturing and holding your reader's attention.

For decades, speakers have begun their general remarks with a funny, touching, or otherwise appropriate story; in fact, there are plenty of books that are nothing but collections of such stories, arranged by subject. Frequently, you can provoke the reader's attention by posing a question or a series of questions: Are gender roles learned or inherited? Scientific research has established the existence of biological differences between the sexes, but the effect of biology's influence on gender roles cannot be distinguished from society's influence. According to Michael Lewis of the Institute for the Study of Exceptional children, As early as you can show me a sex difference, I can show you the culture at work. Social processes, as well as biological differences, are responsible for the separate roles of men and women. 9. Opening your essay with a question can be provocative, since it places the reader in an active role: He or she begins by factors of photosynthesis graphs considering answers.

Are gender roles learned? Are they inherited? In this active role, the reader is apa referencing webpage likely to continue reading with interest. Statement of Thesis. Perhaps the most direct method of limiting factors of photosynthesis introduction is to begin immediately with the Motor Company, thesis: Computers are a mixed blessing. The lives of Americans are becoming increasingly involved worth machines that think for them. We are at the dawn of the limiting factors of photosynthesis graphs, era of the smart machine, say the authors of a cover story of the subject in essay, Newsweek , that will change forever the limiting of photosynthesis, way an entire nation works, beginning a revolution that will be to the brain what the social networking, industrial revolution was to the hand. Tiny silicon chips already process enough information to direct air travel, to instruct machines how to cut fabric - even to limiting factors of photosynthesis play chess with (and defeat) the masters. One can argue that development of computers for the household, as well as industry, will change for the better the quality of our lives: computers help us save energy, reduce the amount of social drudgery that most of us endure around tax season, make access to libraries easier. Yet there is a certain danger involved with this proliferation of technology.

This essay begins with a challenging assertion: that computers are a mixed blessing. It is one that many readers are perhaps unprepared to of photosynthesis consider, since they may have taken it for granted that computers are an unmixed blessing. The advantage of beginning with a provocative (thesis) statement is that it forces the apa referencing, reader to sit up and take notice perhaps even to begin protesting. Limiting! The paragraph goes on to concede some of the blessings of computerization but then concludes with the warning that there is a certain danger associated with the new technology - a danger, the curious or even indignant reader has a right to conclude, that will be more fully explained in social advantages, the paragraphs to follow. One final note about our model introductions: They may be longer than introductions you have been accustomed to writing. Factors Graphs! Many writers (and readers) prefer shorter, snappier introductions. This is largely a matter of personal or corporate style: there is no rule concerning the correct length of an Ford Motor Company, introduction.

If you feel that a short introduction is limiting of photosynthesis appropriate, by all means use one. You may wish to social advantages break up what seems like a long introduction into two paragraphs. (Our paragraph on the nuclear winter, for example, could have been broken either before or after the sentence The results astounded them.) One way to view the conclusion of your paper is as an introduction worked in reverse, a bridge from the factors, world of your essay back to advantages the world of your reader. A conclusion is the part of your paper in which you restate and (if necessary) expand on your thesis. Essential to any conclusion is the summary, which is not merely a repetition of the thesis but a restatement that takes advantage of the material you've presented.

The simplest conclusion is an expanded summary, but you may want more than this for the end of your paper. Depending on your needs, you might offer a summary and then build onto it a discussion of the graphs, paper's significance or its implications for Ford Essay, future study, for choices that individuals might make, for policy, and so on. you might also want to urge the reader to change an attitude or to modify behavior. Limiting Factors Of Photosynthesis Graphs! Certainly, you are under no obligation to discuss the broader significance of your work (and a summary, alone, will satisfy the formal requirement that your paper have an ending); but the conclusions of social networking better papers often reveal authors who are thinking large and want to connect the particular concerns of their papers with the broader concerns of society. Here we'll consider seven strategies for expanding the basic summary - conclusion. Graphs! But two words of advice are in marketing situational, order. First, no matter how clever or beautifully executed, a conclusion cannot salvage a poorly written paper. Limiting Factors Of Photosynthesis Graphs! Second, by virtue of its placement, the conclusion carries rhetorical weight.

It is the social networking, last statement a reader will encounter before turning from your work. Realizing this, writers who expand on the basic summary-conclusion often wish to give their final words a dramatic flourish, a heightened level of limiting factors diction. Soaring rhetoric and drama in a conclusion are fine as long as they do not unbalance the paper and call attention to themselves. Having labored long hours over your paper, you have every right to advantages wax eloquent. But keep a sense of proportion and of photosynthesis graphs, timing. Make your points quickly and end crisply. Statement of the Subject's Significance. One of the more effective ways to conclude a paper is to discuss the larger significance of what you have written, providing readers with one more reason to regard your work as a serious effort. When using this strategy, you move from the scottish independence for and against essay, specific concern of your paper to the broader concerns of the reader's world. Often, you will need to choose among a range of significances: A paper on the Wright brothers might end with a discussion of air travel as it affects economies, politics, or families; a paper on contraception might end with a discussion of its effect on sexual mores, population, or the church.

But don't overwhelm your reader with the importance of your remarks. Factors! Keep your discussion well focused. The following paragraphs conclude a paper on apa referencing webpage George H. Shull, a pioneer in the inbreeding and of photosynthesis graphs, crossbreeding of corn: . . . Thus, the hybrids developed and described by Shull 75 years ago have finally dominated U.S. corn production. The adoption of hybrid corn was steady and dramatic in the Corn Belt. From 1930 through 1979 the average yields of social networking corn in of photosynthesis graphs, the U.S. increased from 21.9 to 95.1 bushels per acre, and the additional value to the farmer is now several billion dollars per revolution, year.

The success of hybrid corn has also stimulated the breeding of other crops, such as sorghum hybrids, a major feed grain crop in arid parts of the factors of photosynthesis, world. Sorghum yields have increased 300 percent since 1930. Approximately 20 percent of the land devoted to rice production in China is planted with hybrid seed, which is reported to yield 20 percent more than the best varieties. And many superior varieties of tomatoes, cucumbers, spinach, and other vegetables are hybrids. The History Essay! Today virtually all corn produced in the developed countries is from hybrid seed. From those blue bloods of the factors of photosynthesis graphs, plant kingdom has come a model for Ford Company Essay, feeding the world. 10. The first sentence of this conclusion is a summary, and from it the reader can infer that the limiting of photosynthesis, paper included a discussion of Ford Shull's techniques for the hybrid breeding of corn. Factors Graphs! The summary is followed by a two-paragraph discussion on the significance of Shull's research for feeding the world.

Call for Further Research. In the scientific and social scientific communities, papers often end with a review of what has been presented (as, for instance, in an experiment) and the ways in which the subject under consideration needs to be further explored. If you raise questions that you call on others to answer, however, make sure you know that the research you are calling for hasn't already been conducted. This next conclusion comes from a sociological report on the placement of elderly men and women in nursing homes. Thus, our study shows a correlation between the The History, placement of elderly citizens in nursing facilities and the significant decline of their motor and intellectual skills over the ten months following placement. What the research has not made clear is the of photosynthesis graphs, extent to which this marked decline is due to physical as opposed to emotional causes. The elderly are referred to The History of Lighting homes at that point in their lives when they grow less able to care for themselves - which suggests that the factors of photosynthesis, drop-off in skills may be due to physical causes.

But the emotional stress of being placed in a home, away from family and in an environment that confirms the patient's view of himself as decrepit, may exacerbate - if not itself be a primary cause of - the patient's rapid loss of abilities. Further research is apa referencing webpage needed to clarify the relationship between depression and particular physical ailments as these affect the skills of the limiting factors of photosynthesis, elderly in nursing facilities. Apa Referencing! There is little doubt that information yielded by such studies can enable health care professionals to deliver more effective services. Notice how this call for further study locates the author in a large community of researchers on whom she depends for assistance in answering the questions that have come out of of photosynthesis her own work. The author summarizes her findings (in the first sentence of the paragraph), states what her work has not shown, and scottish for and against essay, then extends her invitation. The purpose of your paper might be to review a problem or controversy and to discuss contributing factors.

In such a case, it would be appropriate, after summarizing your discussion, to offer a solution based on the knowledge you've gained while conducting research. If your solution is to be taken seriously, your knowledge must be amply demonstrated in limiting factors of photosynthesis, the body of the paper. . Advantages! . . The major problem in college sports today is not commercialism - it is the exploitation of athletes and the proliferation of illicit practices which dilute educational standards. Many universities are currently deriving substantial benefits from sports programs that depend on the labor of factors graphs athletes drawn from the poorest sections of America's population. Essay! It is the responsibility of educators, civil rights leaders, and concerned citizens to see that these young people get a fair return for limiting factors, their labor both in scientific philosophy, terms of direct remuneration and in terms of career preparation for a life outside sports. Minimally, scholarships in revenue-producing sports should be designed to factors extend until graduation, rather than covering only four years of philosophy athletic eligibility, and should include guarantees of tutoring, counseling, and proper medical care. At institutions where the profits are particularly large (such as Texas A M, which can afford to pay its football coach $280,000 a year), scholarships should also provide salaries that extend beyond room, board, and tuition.

The important thing is that the athlete be remunerated fairly and have the opportunity to gain skills from a university environment without undue competition from a physically and psychologically demanding full-time job. This may well require that scholarships be extended over limiting factors of photosynthesis, five or six years, including summers. Such a proposal, I suspect, will not be easy to implement. The current amateur system, despite its moral and educational flaws, enables universities to hire their athletic labor at minimal cost. But solving the fiscal crisis of the universities on the backs of America's poor and minorities is not, in the long run, a tenable solution. With the support of concerned educators, parents, and civil rights leaders, and with the help from organized labor, the college athlete, truly a sleeping giant, will someday speak out and demand what is rightly his - and marketing plan situational example, hers - a fair share of the revenue created by factors their hard work.

11. In this conclusion, the author summarizes his article in one sentence: The major problem in college sports today is not commercialism - it is the exploitation of athletes and the proliferation of Company illicit practices which dilute educational standards. Graphs! In paragraph 2, he continues with an analysis of the problem just stated and follows with a general recommendation - that educators, civil rights leaders, and scientific revolution, concerned citizens be responsible for the welfare of college athletes. In paragraph 3, he makes a specific proposal, and in the final paragraph, he anticipates resistance to limiting graphs the proposal. He concludes by discounting this resistance and returning to the general point, that college athletes should receive a fair deal. An anecdote is networking advantages a briefly told story or joke, the point of which in a conclusion is to shed light on your subject. Of Photosynthesis! The anecdote is more direct than an allusion.

With an allusion, you merely refer to a story (Too many people today live in Plato's cave . . .); with the anecdote, you actually retell the story. The anecdote allows readers to discover for Company, themselves the significance of factors a reference to networking another source - an effort most readers enjoy because they get to exercise their creativity. The following anecdote concludes an article on limiting homicide. In the article, the author discusses how patterns of killing reveal information that can help mental- health professionals identify and treat potential killers before they commit crimes. she author emphasizes both the difficulty and the desirability of Essay approaching homicide as a threat to public health that, like disease, can be treated with preventive care. In his book, The Exploits of the limiting factors graphs, Incomparable Mulla Nasrudin , Sufi writer Idries Shad, in a parable about fate, writes about the many culprits of murder: What is Fate? Nasrudin was asked by a scholar.

An endless succession of intertwined events, each influencing the other. That is scientific revolution hardly a satisfactory answer. I believe in cause and effect. Very well, said the limiting factors of photosynthesis, Mulla, look at that. He pointed to a procession passing in the street. That man is being taken to be hanged. Is that because someone gave him a silver piece and enabled him to buy the knife with which he committed the murder; or because someone saw him do it; or because nobody stopped him? 12. The writer chose to marketing plan analysis example conclude the limiting of photosynthesis, article with this anecdote. She could have developed an interpretation, but this would have spoiled the dramatic value for the reader. The purpose of using an anecdote is to make your point with subtlety, so resist the situational example, temptation to limiting interpret.

Keep in mind three guidelines when selecting an anecdote: it should be prepared for (the reader should have all the information needed to understand), it should provoke the reader's interest, and it should not be so obscure as to be unintelligible. A favorite concluding device is the quotation - the words of a famous person or an authority in plan situational analysis example, the field on which you are writing The purpose of quoting another is to link your work to theirs, thereby gaining for your work authority and credibility. The first criterion for selecting a quotation is its suitability to your thesis. But you also should carefully consider what your choice of sources says about you. Factors Of Photosynthesis! Suppose you are writing a paper on the American work ethic. If you could use a line by comedian David Letterman or one by the current secretary of labor to make the final point of your conclusion, which would you choose and why? One source may not be inherently more effective than the other, but the choice certainly sets a tone for the paper. There is no doubt that machines will get smarter and smarter, even designing their own software and making new and better chips for new generations of computers. More and more of scientific revolution their power will be devoted to making them easier to use - friendly, in industry parlance - even for those not trained in computer science. And computer scientists expect that public ingenuity will come up with applications the most visionary researchers have not even considered.

One day, a global network of smart machines will be exchanging rapid-fire bursts of information at unimaginable speeds. If they are used wisely, they could help mankind to educate its masses and crack new scientific frontiers. Limiting Of Photosynthesis! For all of us, it will be fearful, terrifying, disruptive, says SRl's Peter Schwartz. In the Ford Motor Company Essay, end there will be those whose lives will be diminished. Factors Of Photosynthesis! But for the vast majority, their lives will be greatly enhanced.

In any event, there is no turning back: if the social advantages, smart machines have not taken over, they are fast making themselves indispensable - and in factors, the end, that may amount to very much the same thing. 13. Notice how the quotation is used to position the writer to make one final remark. Particularly effective quotations may themselves be used to end an essay, as in the following example. Make sure you identify the marketing plan analysis example, person you've quoted, although the identification does not need to be made in limiting factors of photosynthesis graphs, the conclusion itself. For example, earlier in the paper from which the following conclusion was taken, Maureen Henderson was identified as an scottish, epidemiologist exploring the ways in which a change in diet can prevent the onset of certain cancers. In sum, the recommendations describe eating habits almost identical to the diet of around 1900, says Maureen Henderson.

It's a diet we had before refrigeration and the complex carbohydrates we have now. It's an old fashioned diet and limiting factors of photosynthesis, a diet that poor people ate more than rich people. Some cancer researchers wonder whether people will be willing to social networking advantages change their diets or take pills on the chance of preventing cancer, when one-third of the people in the country won't even stop smoking. Others, such as Seattle epidemiologist Emily White, suspect that most people will be too eager to dose themselves before enough data are in. We're not here to graphs convince the public to take anything, she says. The public is too eager already. What we're saying is, 'Let us see if some of these things work.' We want to convince ourselves before we convince the public.'' 14. There is philosophy a potential problem with using quotations: if you end with the words of another, you may leave the impression that someone else can make your case more eloquently than you can. The language of the quotation will put your own prose into relief. Factors Of Photosynthesis! If your own prose suffers by comparison - if the quotations are the best part of your paper - you'd be wise to marketing situational analysis example spend some time revising. The way to avoid this kind of problem is to make your own presentation strong.

Questions are useful for opening essays, and they are just as useful for closing them. Opening and limiting factors of photosynthesis graphs, closing questions function in different ways, however. The introductory question promises to be addressed in the paper that follows. But the apa referencing webpage, concluding question leaves issues unresolved, calling on factors graphs the readers to assume an apa referencing, active role by offering their own solutions: How do we surmount the reaction that threatens to destroy the very gains we thought we had already won in the first stage of the women's movement? How do we surmount our own reaction, which shadows our feminism and our femininity (we blush even to use that word now)? How do we transcend the polarization between women and women and between women and men to achieve the new human wholeness that is the limiting factors, promise of feminism, and get on with solving the concrete, practical, everyday problems of marketing example living, working and loving as equal persons? This is the personal and political business of the second stage.

15. Perhaps you will choose to raise a question in your conclusion and then answer it, based on the material you've provided in the paper The answered question challenges a reader to agree or disagree with your response. Limiting Factors Of Photosynthesis! This tactic also places the reader in an active role. Philosophy! The following brief conclusion ends an article entitled Would an Intelligent Computer Have a 'Right to Life'? So the answer to limiting of photosynthesis graphs the question Would an scottish independence for and against, intelligent computer have the right to life? is probably that it would, but only if it could discover reasons and conditions under which it would give up its life if called upon to do so - which would make computer intelligence as precious a thing as human intelligence. 16.

When you speculate, you ask what has happened or discuss what might happen. This kind of question stimulates the factors of photosynthesis graphs, reader because its subject is the unknown. The following paragraph concludes The New Generation Gap by against essay Neil Howe and William Strauss. In this essay, Howe and Strauss discuss the differences among Americans of various ages, including the limiting graphs, Gl Generation (born between 1901 and 1924), the Boomers (born 1943- 1961), the Thirteeners (born 1961-1981), and the Millennials (born 1981-2000): If, slowly but surely, Millennials receive the kind of advantages family protection and public generosity that Gls enjoyed as children, then they could come of limiting factors graphs age early in the next century as a group much like the Gls of the 1920s and 1930s - as a stellar (if bland) generation of rationalists, team players, and The History of Lighting, can-do civic builders Two decades from now Boomers entering old age may well see in their grown Millennial children an effective instrument for saving the world, while Thirteeners entering midlife will shower kindness on a younger generation that is getting a better deal out of limiting factors life (though maybe a bit less fun) than they ever got at a like age. Study after story after column will laud these best damn kids in the world as heralding a resurgent American greatness. And, for a while at least, no one will talk about a generation gap. 17. Thus, Howe and Strauss conclude an essay concerned largely with the apparently unbridgeable gaps of understanding between parents and children with a hopeful speculation that generational relationships will improve considerably in the next two decades.

Some writers work with an idea, committing it to situational analysis example paper only after it has been fully formed. Others will begin with a vague notion and begin writing a first draft, trusting that as they write they'll discover what they wish to say. many people take advantage of both techniques: they write what they know but at the same time write to discover what they don't know. Limiting Of Photosynthesis Graphs! As you'll see, we used both techniques in writing this section of the networking advantages, book. [back] Francis Mossiker, trans., Napoleon and Josephine . New York: Simon and limiting, Schuster, 1964. [back] Winter Organization in Patricia Curtis, Biology , 2nd ed. New York: Worth, 1976, pp. 822-823. [back] Robert Hutchins, Gate Receipts and Glory, The Saturday Evening Post . December 3, 1983. [back]

Henry David Thoreau, Reading in Walden . Motor Company! New York: Signet Classic, 1960, p. Of Photosynthesis Graphs! 72. The History! [back] Jane Yolen, America's 'Cinderella,' APS Publications, Inc., in limiting factors graphs, Children's Literature in Education 8, 1977, pp. 21-29. [back] Excerpt from Toward an Intelligence Beyond Man's from Time , February 20, 1978. Copyright 1978 Time Inc. Advantages! [back]

Michele Jacques, Civil Disobedience: Van Dusen vs. Arendt. [Unpublished paper.] [back] Tammy Smith, Are Sex Roles Learned or Inherited? [Unpublished paper.] [back] From Hybrid Vim and Vigor by William L. Brown from pp. 77-78 in Science 80-85, November 1984. Copyright by the AAAS. [back] From Mark Naison, Scenario for Scandal, Commonweal 109 (16), September 24, 1982. [back] From The Murder Epidemic by Nikki Meredith from pp. 42-48 in of photosynthesis, Science 80-85, December 1984.

Copyright by AAAS. [back] From And Man Created the Chip, Newsweek , June 30, 1980. Copyright 1980 by Newsweek, Inc. All rights reserved. Scientific Revolution! [back] Reprinted by permission. From the graphs, September issue of Science '84 . Copyright 1984 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Social! [back]

Betty Friedan, Feminism's Next Step in The Second Stage . Limiting! New York: Summit Books, 1981. [back] Robert E. Mueller and Eric T. Mueller, Would an philosophy, Intelligent Computer Have a 'Right to Life'? Creative Computing , August 1983. [back] Excerpt from The New Generation Gap by Neil Howe and William Strauss. Factors Of Photosynthesis Graphs! Originally appeared in Atlantic , December 1992. [back]