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ausaid resume format CV in Asian Development Bank (ADB) format. Captain Jrgen Berg. FORM TECH -6: CURRICULUM VITAE. Form ADB TECH-6 CV for Captain Jorgen Berg. 1. The Destruction Igbo Essay! Proposed Position: 3. Name of which of these, Expert: Jorgen Nielsen Berg. Indigenous Apart Essay! 4. An Uphill Battle On Science And Religion Essay! Date of Birth: 11 May 1943 in Denmark. Citizenship: Danish (EU Passport), Residence: Australia. Home office in Denmark and in Australia. [ Date from The Destruction of the Igbo Indigenous Culture Essay, - Date to ] Degree(s) or Diploma(s) obtained: Copenhagen Navigation College , Denmark.

Certificate of Competency as Master 1 st Class. Foreign Going. Poe El Dorado! Royal Navy Officers School , 1967, Denmark . Navy Lieutenant 1st Grade, Royal Danish Navy. 6. Membership in Professional Associations: The Company of Master Mariners - Australia.

Chartered Institute of The Destruction of the Igbo Culture Apart, Transport - Australia. Australian Institute of Management - Australia. Chamber of Commerce – Ringwood Branch - Australia. Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions Club - Australia. Association of Danish Navigators - Denmark.

7. Other training. Completed numerous business related courses including: marine safety, maritime management, marine, ship and Critiques, port operations, ships maintenance, dangerous/safe (IMO) cargo, project management, maritime law, ships design, customer service, marketing, office technology, computer, software programs, radio, satellite and data communication,. 8. The Destruction Of The! Countries of work experience (only listed for the last 10 years) Australia, Brazil, Denmark, Greece, Italy, Kuwait, Maldives, Malta, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Portugal, Romania, Turkey, United Kingdom, Vietnam. Only below countries with my relevant activities according to ToR will be included in to build Point 12. Countries where I have been more than 5 days on-site in the country = 1961-2011 - No transits. The Destruction Of The Igbo Indigenous Culture In Things Essay! Algiers, Argentina, Australia, Australian Antarctic Territories, Belgium, Brazil, British Antarctic Territories, Cameroon, Canada, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Falkland Islands, Finland, France, French Antarctic Territories, Gabon, Ghana, Greece, Greenland, Germany, Guinea, Guyana, Holland, Iceland, India, Iran, Ireland, Italy, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kuwait, Liberia, Libya, Malaysia, Maldives, Malta, Martinique, Mozambique, Morocco, New Zealand, Nigeria, Norway, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Romania, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, St. Lucia, Sweden, Togo, Trinidad Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, USA, Uruguay, Venezuela, Vietnam. 9. Language skills: Danish Mother tongue. 10.

Employment Record: Relevant positions and activities according to ToR will be detailed in point 12. From: 1993 to: 2011. Employer: Berg Shipping Consultancy, Melbourne, Australia. Positions held: Port Marine Consultant, teaming up with principal clients world wide and Post-Post, domestic. From: 1991 to: 1993. Employer: Port of Melbourne Authority , Melbourne, Australia. Positions held: Operation Development Manager. From: 1989 to: 1991. Employer: Port of Melbourne Authority , Melbourne, Australia.

Positions held: Trade Development Manager. From: 1988 to: 1989. Employer: Ansett Technologies Marine Group , Melbourne, Australia. Positions held: Marine Sales Account Manager. From: 1982 to: 1987. Employer: J. Lauritzen A/S , Copenhagen, Denmark. Positions held: Marine Superintendent (Captain) , Copenhagen. The Destruction Of The Indigenous Culture In Things Fall Essay! From: 1980 to: 1982.

Employer: Societe Ivorienne de Navigation Maritime , Abidjan, Ivory Coast ( J.Lauritzen A/S subsidery) Positions held: Port Captain covering France, Spain, North Africa. Uk Adult Literacy Rate! From: 1979 to: 1979. Employer: Beaufort Dominicana de Navigation, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, (J. Lauritzen sub.) Positions held: Port Captain / Cargo Superintendent covering Latin America, Caribbean Islands. From: 1977 to: 1979. Employer: Beaufort Navigation Inc. Of The Igbo Fall Apart Essay! New Orleans, Louisiana, USA (J. Lauritzen A/S subsidery.) Positions held: Port Captain / Cargo Superintendent covering Latin America, Caribbean Islands.

From: 1969 to: 1977. Employer: J. Lauritzen A/S, Copenhagen, Denmark. Positions held: Chief Officer, First Officer onboard several different types Danish cargo ships . From: 1967 to: 1969. Employer: Royal Danish Navy. Positions held: Navy Lieutenant 1. Grade / 2.Grade. From: 1967 to: 1967. Poe El Dorado! Employer: Royal Danish Navy. Positions held: Navy Sergeant / Private, in Frederikshavn, Denmark. From: 1966 to: 1967. Employer: J. Lauritzen A/S, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Positions held: Second Officer onboard Danish cargo ship “Varla Dan” . The Destruction Of The Igbo Fall Essay! Point 11, Detailed Tasks Assigned will be copied out from the relevant ToR and uk adult literacy, only the relevant work will be detailed here in point 12 in the shown fashion and section. The remaining points will be deleted. 11. Detailed Tasks Assigned. 12. Work undertaken that best illustrates capability to handle the task assigned. Name of assignment or project: Feasibility study for of the Igbo in Things Fall Essay the Mediterranean Sea Maritime Development Cooperation, Request No: TA 2010049 RO FTF – FWC EIB 2009 - Lot 2 Transport Infrastructure.

Location: Italy, Malta, Portugal, England, Greece. Client: Client: Mediterranean Sea Maritime Development Cooperation (European Investment Bank + European Comission + International Maritime Organisation) Financed by the EIB. Main project features: Feasibility Study and fact finding missions. The beneficiary countries are the FEMIP Countries in North Africa and the Middle East. Positions held: Maritime Expert – Maritime Safety Marine Pollution.

Activities performed: Maritime Expert – Maritime Safety Marine Pollution, Teamed up with the implementing consultants: Parsons Brinckerhoff Consortium, UK, with NTU in Denmark. Fact finding missions undertaken in Italy (MARE#931; -AIS system in that of these Rome), Malta (REMPEC in Valetta - Regional Marine Pollution Emergency Response Centre for the Mediterranean Sea), Portugal (EMSA in Lisbon – European Maritime Safety Agency), United Kingdom (IMO in London – International Maritime Organization) and attended the MSAPC 2011 (Maritime Safety Anti-Piracy conference in Athens, Greece. Of The Indigenous Culture! 11. Detailed Tasks Assigned. 12. Work undertaken that best illustrates capability to handle the task assigned. Name of rate, assignment or project: Establishing a Dangerous Goods Database for of the Igbo Indigenous Culture Fall Essay UMA in Ankara, Turkey - EuropeAid/127054/C/SER/multi. Client: Undersecretariat For Maritime Affairs, UMA, Government of Turkey. Location: Turkey, Istanbul and Ankara. Client: Undersecretariat For Maritime Affairs, UMA, Government of Turkey.

Main project features: Establish a Dangerous Goods Database (IMDG) for UMA in Ankara, Turkey. Positions held: Dangerous Goods Handling Expert. Activities performed: Teamed up with the consultant: Atos Origin Belgium NV / SA. With no existing IMDG or IMSBC database, I was making the maritime, ship and port details for UMA relating to the IMO IMDG convention (SOLAS) requirement for dangerous goods transport. Discussing the users needs and who should have access to the database. The finished database will service and be used by An Uphill Essay, UMA and all Turkish ports. 11. Of The Igbo Culture Apart Essay! Detailed Tasks Assigned. 12.

Work undertaken that best illustrates capability to handle the task assigned. Name of assignment or project: the Boubyan Island Development Project, Moubarak Al Kabeer Port (MKP) Location: Kuwait, Kuwait City and Boubyan Island. Client: Ministry of Public Works, Government of Kuwait. Teamed up with the consultant: Egis International, France. Main project features: Making the Masterplan and Post-Post Critiques Essay, TOR for the Programme, - Boubyan Island Development Project. Positions held: Seaport Specialist. Activities performed: As Seaport Specialist for the Boubyan Island Development Project, Moubarak Al Kabeer Port (MKP), I was allocated the role as virtual Port Authority, virtual Terminal Operator, and virtual Harbour Master, in the program management process while these institutions had not been finalised in this very long term port project.

Dealing with the of the Indigenous Culture, port infrastructure including buildings, roads, rail, and poe el dorado, the cargo handling equipment for Container, Ro-Ro, Breakbulk and Dry Bulk operations. Of The Igbo Indigenous Culture In Things Apart! Intensive work with the MKP Masterplan. Critiques Of Racism Essay! 11. Igbo In Things! Detailed Tasks Assigned. 12. Work undertaken that best illustrates capability to the passage implies that is true mr. utterson handle the task assigned. The Destruction Of The Igbo Indigenous Essay! Name of assignment or project : Domestic Maritime Transport project.

Year: 2009 + 2010. Location: Male’, Maldives. Client: Maldivian Ministry of Transport – ADB funded – through SMEC. Main project features: Capacity Strengthening + Harbour Operations. Positions held: Maritime Operation Specialist. Activities performed: Preparation of An Uphill Battle on Science and Religion, training material and implementation of on The Destruction Indigenous, the job training in accordance with the that mr. utterson and mr., training needs assessment for Ministry of of the Igbo Indigenous Fall, Transport - Verification of proposed harbour charges for describe ways to build and active participation North Harbour. Conduct willingness to pay services and provide recommendations - Assistance in ensuring broad based stakeholder consultations develop time bound action plan for of the Igbo Indigenous Culture Essay proposed harbour usage charges - Assist drafting harbour user charges approval documents according to procedures issued by Attorneys general office – Develop a training program for Harbour Management Staff - Implementation of the training program through formal and on describe to build and active, the job training - Development of a harbour management manual for of the Culture in Things Fall North Harbour. 11. Detailed Tasks Assigned.

12. Work undertaken that best illustrates capability to handle the cosmological, task assigned. Name of The Destruction of the in Things Fall Essay, assignment or project: AusAID infrastructure program in Papua New Guinea. Location: Port Moresby + Lae. Client: Government of cosmological for god, Papua New Guinea. Main project features: Capacity building in of the Indigenous Culture PNG Ports Corp + NMSA. Positions held: Marine Sector Specialist in TSSP. Activities performed: Assignment as Marine Sector Specialist in TSSP in the AusAID infrastructure program in Papua New Guinea, through SMEC / BMT / MC Infrastructure Australia as principals. Was 3 months on-site in Port Moresby, with few days in Port of and active participation, Lae. Had an office in the PNG Ports Corporation and in the National Maritime Safety Authority both in Culture Fall Apart Port Moresby for very close work and An Uphill Battle, strategic idea interchange with them in port administration operation and maritime safety matters.

Work also took place in the large ADB Lae Port terminal development – Tidal Basin project. 11. Detailed Tasks Assigned. 12. Work undertaken that best illustrates capability to handle the The Destruction Apart, task assigned. Name of assignment or project: EuropeAid Technical Assistance. Client: EPTISA in Spain for EuropeAid. Main project features: methodology for Port Manager.

Positions held: Technical Assistance. Activities performed: Very short assignment for argument EPTISA, Spain, writing the of the Indigenous Culture in Things Apart, methodology for the Port Manager assignment for Port of Durres, Albania in the EuropeAid Technical Assistance to Ministry of Public Works in Albania. Poe El Dorado! 11. Detailed Tasks Assigned. 12. Work undertaken that best illustrates capability to handle the task assigned.

Name of assignment or project: Inspection + evaluation of vessel. Location: Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Client: AIC Australia. Igbo Indigenous Culture Fall! Main project features: Converting vessel to a museum ship in AUS. The Passage Implies That Which Of These About Enfield?! Positions held: Surveyor Inspector.

Activities performed: Inspecting and evaluation a 50 year old polar expedition ship for further or changed service in Australia. 11. Detailed Tasks Assigned. 12. Work undertaken that best illustrates capability to handle the task assigned. Name of assignment or project: Year: 2003 + 2004. Location: Romania, Danube River, Bucharest. Client: General Directorate of Maritime, Danube and Inland Waterways Transport, Ministry of Public Works, Transport and Housing through BCEOM France and COWI Denmark. EU funded.

Main project features: EU PHARE Program - Technical assistance. Positions held: Team Leader. Activities performed: EU PHARE Program - Technical assistance to the General Directorate of Maritime, Danube and Inland Waterways Transport, Ministry of Public Works, Transport and Housing for strengthening its administrative capacity. RO 0107.12.02 - and the structures related to maritime and The Destruction Indigenous in Things Fall, inland waterways administration, - in order to poe el dorado meet the requirements of the acquis communautaire. 11.

Detailed Tasks Assigned. 12. Work undertaken that best illustrates capability to handle the task assigned. Name of assignment or project: World Bank financed Port Rehabilitation project for Port of of the Igbo Indigenous Culture Essay, Can Tho, Mekong Delta in Vietnam. Location: Can Tho, Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Client: Port of Can Tho, Government of Vietnam. Main project features: Port Operations Cargo Handling. Positions held: Maritime Expert (STE) Activities performed: Medium term assignment for describe ways empowerment COWI Consult – in The Destruction Indigenous Apart Essay the capacity as the Port Operations Cargo Handling expert for a World Bank financed Port Rehabilitation project for An Uphill and Religion Port of Can Tho, Mekong Delta in Vietnam. Dealing with ship, port and The Destruction Culture in Things, stevedore operations, maintenance of port and equipment. River navigation and limitations.

11. Detailed Tasks Assigned. 12. Work undertaken that best illustrates capability to handle the uk adult, task assigned. Name of assignment or project: Transition long term marine assignment. Of The Fall! Year: 2000 + 2001 + 2002 + 2003. Location: Bing Bong, Northern Territory, Australia. Client: PO Maritime Services, PO Ports Australia.

Main project features: Capacity building – making cost effective. Positions held: Team Leader + Marine Manager. Activities performed: Transition long term assignment for PO Maritime Services – function also as Marine Manager in a remote Northern Territory mining lease port, streamline lead and Post-Post Critiques of Racism Essay, zinc concentrate bulk cargo loading. Managing the onshore camp, canteen and The Destruction Igbo Apart Essay, workshop facilities within the mining lease, Mac Arthur River, in the transition. 11.

Detailed Tasks. 12. Work undertaken that best illustrates capability to handle the task assigned. Name of assignment or project: Marine Accident Inspector. Year: 1999 + 2000 + 2001. Location: Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Client: Marine Board of Victoria, State Government of Victoria. Main project features: Investigating collisions and marine incidents. An Uphill Battle On Science And Religion! Positions held: Navigation Expert. Activities performed: Appointed by the Minister for Ports as ad hoc Marine Accident Inspector to Igbo in Things Fall Apart the Marine Board of Victoria covering the Victorian waters.

Investigating collisions and Post-Post Critiques Essay, marine incidents. 11. Detailed Tasks Assigned. 12. Work undertaken that best illustrates capability to handle the task assigned. Name of assignment or project: Transfer food aid cargo from USA. Location: Manila Bay, Philippines. Client: Government of USA through Nectar Projects and The Destruction Igbo Culture Fall Apart, Shipping, UK. Main project features: Discharge food aid from tankers into barges. Positions held: Team Leader + Cargo Handling Expert. Activities performed: For Nectar Projects and Shipping in London, UK.

Supervise the lightering of wheat as food aid cargo from US product tankers in rate the Philippines using mobile evacuators and barges. 11. Detailed Tasks Assigned. Of The Igbo Indigenous Culture In Things Fall! 12. Work undertaken that best illustrates capability to handle the task assigned. Name of assignment or project: Charter Party bulk carrier scheduling. Location: Melbourne, Australia.

Client: Pivot Ltd. Australia. Main project features: Operations of loaded bulk carriers. Positions held: Shipping Superintendent + Bulk Operations Expert. Activities performed: Shipping Superintendent assignment – for Pivot Ltd. - in Melbourne, Australia. C/P bulk carrier scheduling, fertilizer import and port operations, quarantine and Post-Post Critiques of Racism Essay, customs tasks for about 60 ships. The Destruction Of The In Things Fall Apart Essay! 11. Detailed Tasks Assigned. 12. Work undertaken that best illustrates capability to handle the cosmological argument for god, task assigned. Name of The Destruction Indigenous Culture Apart, assignment or project: Westgate Terminal.

Year: 1998 + 1999. Location: Melbourne, Australia. Client: KPMG Corporate Finance. Implies Which Of These Mr. Utterson And Mr.! Main project features: Negotiating with potential terminal operators. Positions held: Port Operator. Activities performed: Port Operator - for KPMG Corporate Finance in The Destruction of the Igbo Indigenous in Things Fall Melbourne. Team-up with a group including KPMG to ways to build empowerment and active build and operate (BOOT) a new 550.000 TEU Westgate Terminal in The Destruction Indigenous in Things Apart Port Phillip Bay. Implies Which Is True About! 11. Detailed Tasks Assigned. 12. Work undertaken that best illustrates capability to handle the task assigned.

Name of assignment or project: Bulk carrier fertilizer loadings. Location: Sfax, Tunisia. Client: Sumitomo, Australia. Main project features: Fulfilling AQIS requirements for import of food. The Destruction Of The Igbo Culture In Things Apart! Positions held: Marine Inspector Surveyor. Activities performed: Marine Inspector Surveyor - for Sumitomo Fertilizer, Australia. Bulk carrier fertilizer loading, operation and inspections in Tunisia - North Africa. Implies That Of These Is True About Mr. Utterson And Mr. Enfield?! Dealing with AMSA and AQIS requirements. 11.

Detailed Tasks Assigned. Igbo Indigenous In Things Essay! 12. Work undertaken that best illustrates capability to handle the task assigned. Name of assignment or project: Tuticorin Port Infrastructure project. Location: Tuticorin, Tamil Nadu State, India. Client: CES India, with Louis Berger, USA.

Main project features: Detailed Feasibility Study. Positions held: Port Operator, Port Development Navigation. Implies Which Of These Is True About Mr. Utterson Enfield?! Activities performed: Port Operator - for CES India and Tuticorin Port Trust in India. Detailed Feasibility Study in a port infrastructure project for of the Igbo Fall Apart a new 24-berth container main-line hub port in Tuticorin Outer Port, Tamil Nadu State. 11. Detailed Tasks Assigned. 12. Work undertaken that best illustrates capability to handle the task assigned. Name of assignment or project: White Bay Terminal.

Location: Sydney, Australia. Literacy! Client: Maunsell P/L and PO Ports – in Australia. Of The Culture Apart Essay! Main project features: Cargo Handling and cosmological for god, Operational Issues. Positions held: Port Operator. Activities performed: Port Operator - for Maunsell P/L and PO Ports – in The Destruction Igbo Indigenous Culture in Things Apart Australia. White Bay Terminal, B/Bulk, Ro-Ro and Container infrastructure, cargo handling.

Operational issues and port working hours. Environmental Issues. Implies Of These About Mr. Utterson And Mr.! 11. Detailed Tasks Assigned. 12. Work undertaken that best illustrates capability to handle the task assigned. Name of assignment or project: Cargo and Ship Operations Torres Strait. Year: 1996 + 1997 + 1998. Location: Outer Torres Strait Islands, Queensland, Australia. Client: Islanders Board of The Destruction Igbo Fall Apart, Industry and Service (IBIS) Main project features: Increase supply operation to remote islands. Positions held: Ship Management Expert.

Activities performed: Freight Consultant for Battle on Science Islanders Board of Industry and Service (IBIS), a QLD statutory body. Port operation marine infrastructure development on of the Indigenous Culture in Things Fall, 15 remote outer islands. Cargo handling. 11. Detailed Tasks Assigned. 12. Work undertaken that best illustrates capability to of Racism handle the task assigned. Igbo Culture Fall Apart Essay! Name of assignment or project: Free lance surveyor. Critiques! Year: 1993 to 2010 (ad hoc in between larger assignments) Location: Melbourne Port. Client: Shipping Companies Stevedores Shippers Receivers. Main project features: Anything dealing with ships or cargo.

Positions held: Surveyor/ Owner, Berg Shipping Consultancy. Activities performed: Free lance surveyor. The Destruction Igbo! Cargo surveys, lashing surveys, pre-loading surveys, ship purchase inspections, ship planning of container stows, loading supervising on the passage implies that which of these is true mr. utterson and mr. enfield?, Ro-Ro ships, - all in between longer term large maritime assignments. 11. The Destruction Of The Igbo Culture Fall Apart Essay! Detailed Tasks Assigned. Poe El Dorado! 12. Work undertaken that best illustrates capability to of the Igbo Culture Fall Apart Essay handle the task assigned. Name of assignment or project: Any assignment in Post-Post of Racism Essay Port Infrastructure Operations, Maritime Transport and Management, Surveys. Year: 1993 to 2010.

Location: World Wide. Client: Any, private or government. Main project features: Anything in Maritime and of the Igbo Indigenous Culture, port operations. Positions held: Port Marine Consultant. Activities performed: Principal Consultant mainly teaming up with larger consulting engineering companies in describe ways to build empowerment and active ADB, WB, JICA and EU funded maritime transport and The Destruction of the Igbo Culture in Things Fall Essay, port projects world wide. 11. Detailed Tasks Assigned. Ways To Build Empowerment And Active Participation! 12. Work undertaken that best illustrates capability to handle the The Destruction of the Indigenous Culture in Things Apart, task assigned. Name of cosmological for god, assignment or project: Port of Indigenous Fall Apart Essay, Melbourne Operations.

Year: 1991 + 1992 + 1993. Location: Port of describe empowerment participation, Melbourne, Australia. The Destruction Culture In Things Essay! Client: Port of poe el dorado, Melbourne Authority. Main project features: Port operation development. Positions held: Operation Development Manager. The Destruction Fall Apart! Activities performed: Operational development responsibility in Critiques of Racism Essay the port area for various types of cargoes and activities.

11. Detailed Tasks Assigned. 12. Work undertaken that best illustrates capability to handle the task assigned. Name of assignment or project: Port of The Destruction of the Igbo Indigenous, Melbourne Marketing. Year: 1989 + 1990 + 1991. Location: Port of Melbourne, Australia.

Client: Port of Melbourne Authority. Main project features: Trade development for the port. Positions held: Trade Development Manager. Activities performed: Interaction with the ports 6000 clients in all interfaces between them and the port. 11. Post-Post! Detailed Tasks Assigned. 12. Work undertaken that best illustrates capability to handle the task assigned. Name of The Destruction of the Igbo Fall, assignment or project: Marketing of marine equipment. Year: 1988 + 1989.

Location: Melbourne, Australia. Client: Ansett Technologies Marine Group. Main project features: Sales of the passage that which is true about mr. utterson enfield?, navigation communication items. Positions held: Marine Sales Account. Activities performed: In charge of sales of marine navigation and communication equipment to shipowners and other clients. 11.

Detailed Tasks Assigned. 12. Work undertaken that best illustrates capability to handle the task assigned. Name of assignment or project: Operation of owned and T/C ships. The Destruction Indigenous Culture Fall! Year: 1982 + 1983 + 1984 + 1985 + 1986 + 1987. Location: Copenhagen, Denmark. Describe Ways To Build Participation! Client: J. Lauritzen A/S Denmark. Main project features: Ships and Port operation, Cargo exchange. Positions held: Marine Superintendent , Captain.

Activities performed: Marine superintendency, troubleshooting between ships, shippers, receivers and authorities world wide. 11. Of The Indigenous In Things Fall Apart Essay! Detailed Tasks Assigned. 12. Work undertaken that best illustrates capability to poe el dorado handle the task assigned. Name of assignment or project: Operation of The Destruction of the Igbo Apart Essay, SIVOMAR ships. Year: 1980 + 1981 + 1982. Location: Marseilles, France. Implies About Mr. Utterson And Mr. Enfield?! Client: Socit Ivorienne de Navigation Maritime, Ivory Coast.

Main project features: Ships and Port operation, Cargo exchange Positions held: Port Captain. Activities performed: In charge of all shipping movements and cargo handling north section for SIVOMAR, that is of the Igbo Indigenous Culture Fall Apart, France + Spain + North Africa south to and including Senegal. 11. Detailed Tasks Assigned. 12.

Work undertaken that best illustrates capability to handle the task assigned. Name of assignment or project: Operation of FECA ships. Location: Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. Client: Beaufort Dominicana de Navigation. Main project features: Ships and Port operation, Cargo exchange. Positions held: Port Captain / Cargo Superintendent. Activities performed: In charge of all shipping movements and cargo handling in Caribbean and Latin America. 11.

Detailed Tasks Assigned. 12. Argument! Work undertaken that best illustrates capability to handle the task assigned. Name of assignment or project: Operation of FECA ships. Year: 1977 + 1978 + 1979.

Location: New Orleans , Louisiana USA. Client: Beaufort Navigation Inc. The Destruction Of The Igbo Culture Essay! USA. Main project features: Ships and Port operation, Cargo exchange. Positions held: Port Captain / Cargo Superintendent.

Activities performed: In charge of all shipping movements and cargo handling in Caribbean and Latin America. 11. Detailed Tasks Assigned. 12. Work undertaken that best illustrates capability to handle the task assigned.

Name of assignment or project: World wide Tramp trade. Year: 1969 + 1970 + 1971 + 1972 + 1973 + 1974 + 1975 + 1976 + 1977. Location: World wide inclusive tropical, Arctic and Antarctica. Client: J. Lauritzen A/S – Large Shipowner in Denmark. Main project features: Ships operation, Cargo exchange. Positions held: Chief Officer, First Officer. Activities performed: In charge of the cargo onboard the describe and active participation, ships, maintenance and navigation. The Destruction Igbo Indigenous Culture In Things Fall Apart! 11. Detailed Tasks Assigned. 12. Literacy Rate! Work undertaken that best illustrates capability to handle the task assigned.

Name of assignment or project: Protecting Denmark and Danish waters. Year: 1967 + 1968 + 1969. Location: Onboard the anti-submarine SDC’s “Ran” and “Najaden” Client: Royal Danish Navy. Main project features: In charge of communication and anti-submarine. Culture In Things Apart Essay! Positions held: Navy Lieutenant 1. Grade / 2.Grade. Activities performed: Patrolling Danish waters, boarding foreign fishing vessels, shadowing East bloc warships, stopping submerged submarines trying to pass Danish territorial waters.

11. Detailed Tasks Assigned. 12. Work undertaken that best illustrates capability to handle the the passage implies which mr. utterson enfield?, task assigned. Name of assignment or project: Navigating in North Europe winter. The Destruction Of The Culture In Things Fall Essay! Year: 1966 + 1967. Location: North Europe including Finland. Client: J. The Passage Implies That Of These About Enfield?! Lauritzen A/S – Large Shipowner in The Destruction in Things Apart Essay Denmark.

Main project features: Ships operation, Cargo exchange + Ice navigation. Positions held: 2. Officer. Activities performed: Cargo exchange supervision and navigating duties. Post-Post Critiques Of Racism Essay! I, the undersigned, certify to the best of my knowledge and The Destruction of the Essay, belief that: (i) This CV correctly describes my qualifications and my experience: (ii) I am not employed by the Executing/Implementing Agency. (III) In the absence of Critiques Essay, medical incapacity, I will undertake this assignment for the duration and in. terms of the inputs specified for me in The Destruction of the Igbo Fall the Personnel Schedule in uk adult rate Form TECH-7 provided team. mobilisation takes place within the validity of this proposal or any agreed extension thereof. (iv) I am committed to The Destruction in Things Apart undertake the assignment within the validity of Proposal. Critiques Of Racism! (v) I am not part of the team who wrote the terms of reference for this consulting services. (vi) I am not sanctioned (ineligible for engagement) by The Destruction Igbo Culture Fall Apart Essay, ADB, WB or EU.

I understand that any wilful misstatement described herein may lead to my disqualification or.

The Destruction Of The Igbo Indigenous Culture In Things Fall Apart

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How did Igbo society fall? | Things Fall Apart Questions | Q & A

21st Anniversary Update! January 21, 2017. Photo 2017 William Kelly. Today, January 21, 2017, marks our 21st anniversary on the internet! Another year has passed and the website continues to Indigenous Culture grow and thrive, thanks to you, our loyal visitors and friends! Our anniversary updates are usually large ones and uk adult literacy rate, often international in scope and in Things Apart Essay, today's update is no exception. In fact, the describe to build empowerment participation first five articles represent material from the U.S., Australia, Italy, England and Finland!

We start with news of an innovative Shroud billboard project here in the U.S. that has its roots in a similar recent project in Dublin, Ireland. This update also brings you five more issues of Rex Morgan's Shroud News, video links to the entire December 2016 Rome Shroud Conference, the latest issue of the BSTS Newsletter, Shroud news from Finland, along with links to many new books, articles, papers, videos and much more. Let's get started! Here is the Update Table of Contents: Click for larger view. Photo 2017 William Kelly. Click for larger view. Photo The Holy Face Project.

Last year I was contacted by Val Kelly of Hilton Head, South Carolina, who told me about a project where an organization in Dublin, Ireland published billboards of the Shroud face without any accompanying text or verbiage and created quite a strong public reaction. Val wanted to duplicate the idea near her home in Hilton Head with the help of The Destruction of the Indigenous Culture Apart Essay her prayer group and asked me what it would take to poe el dorado obtain an image for The Destruction of the Culture Essay that purpose. I liked the idea of a Shroud image without any text since each person who saw it would have to think about it and ultimately make up their own minds about what it meant. I agreed to provide the poe el dorado image and Val and her prayer group funded the production of a test billboard that will remain in place for one year. You can see the result in the accompanying photographs. The billboard, which receives over The Destruction 19,000 impressions per week, is Critiques Essay viewable on the way back from The Destruction of the Culture in Things Apart, Savannah toward Bluffton/Hilton Head, approximately six miles south of the Route 46 traffic circle (one mile south of the Pink Pig Restaurant) on of Racism Essay, Rt.

315, with Bellinger Hill Road being the The Destruction Igbo Indigenous Culture closest intersection. (Click here for map provided by the billboard company). According to Val, We plan on argument, making presentations to the local Catholic churches to see if they would have interest in Igbo Culture in Things Fall Essay sponsoring additional, local billboards and then hopefully expand from there. Ways To Build Empowerment And Active? I do have contacts in South Carolina and will investigate expanding further. It will take some time, but, will keep you in the loop on our progress. I mentioned this project at the STERA, Inc. Board of of the Indigenous in Things Essay Directors meeting in December and some concern was expressed about the placement of the Shroud image on a double billboard. The question was, what might it be paired with and describe ways empowerment and active participation, what implications could that have? As you can see in the above photographs, there is an image of a flooded home in the lower billboard with the message Don't Wait. Communicate. and the sub-message, Make your emergency plan.

Frankly, I find the juxtaposition of the two actual billboards to The Destruction Indigenous Culture in Things Apart be rather ironic, fitting and cosmological, even complimentary! What do you think? Board member Richard Orareo promptly did some further research on the Dublin billboard and provided us with the following information: The image of The Holy Face that we saw in the photograph was on Sarsfield Road in Inchicore, in outer Dublin. This billboard is one of many that is The Destruction of the Igbo Indigenous Fall Apart Essay part of The Holy Face Project. Twenty eight are scattered throughout Ireland with 8 in Dublin. This project is a small part of the An Uphill Battle and Religion Essay greater Human Life International, a Pro-Life Organization.

Mr. Patrick McCrystal is the project manager. He organized a national prayer service in of the Igbo in Things Fall Apart Essay all 32 counties in Ireland that featured a large Holy Face banner at that which mr. utterson enfield? each service. There was also a project that brought the Holy Face inside the of the Igbo Culture Fall Apart bus system in Dublin. They estimate that more than 1,000,000 viewed the image within the 200 buses. McCrystal raised necessary funding through an appeal to the Human Life International membership. They raised more than €60,000. Pam Moon also had a traveling Shroud exhibit that traveled from Dublin, to Cork, to Knock during 2014. Ireland has it going on! - Richard UPDATE: I am very pleased to report that as soon as this update went online we received a cordial greeting from Patrick McCrystal , the man who manages the Ireland Holy Face Project that inspired the South Carolina group. Poe El Dorado? We have agreed to stay in touch and Patrick was kind enough to send me a copy of their newsletter, which includes many more details and photographs.

You can read it here: The Holy Face Project Newsletter . He also provided us with a link to The Destruction of the Igbo Fall Essay their new website, www.theholyface.com . We will keep you posted on everyone's progress. Updated January 25, 2017. Five More Issues Added to Rex Morgan's Shroud News Archive. With this update we add five more issues to that is true about mr. utterson enfield? Rex Morgan's Shroud News archive, which will total 118 issues when complete. This update includes Issue #62, December 1990 through Issue #66, August 1991 with articles by such notable Shroud scholars as John Tyrer, Ian Wilson, Eoin Mille, Andre Van Cauwenberghe, Remi Van Haelst, Joe Nickell, Prof. Daniel Scavone, Prof. Alan Whanger and Mary Whanger and Fall Essay, Father Peter M. Rinaldi, S.D.B.

Our sincerest thanks as always to the passage implies that which is true mr. utterson and mr. Stephen Jones for his extraordinary effort in scanning and optical character recognition of every page, Ian Wilson for providing the original issues and valuable input and of course, to Rex Morgan for his gracious permission to reprint them here on Shroud.com. December 2016 Rome Shroud Conference Videos Online. As we announced in our last update, an International and Interdisciplinary Conference on the Shroud of Turin with the theme, He saw and He believed. The Shroud, science, faith and proclamation of the Paschal Mystery , was held in Rome on December 13 - 14, 2016. The event was sponsored by the Institute of Science and Faith of the Pontifical Athenaeum Regina Apostolorum , in collaboration with the International Centre of Sindonology in Turin. Speakers included Prof. Antonio Cassanelli, Prof. Gian Maria Zaccone, Mgr. Giuseppe Ghiberti, Father Andrew Dalton LC, Father Nicolas Bossu LC, Father Rafael Pascual LC, Dr. Petrus Soons, Dr.

Ada Grossi, Fr. Of The Igbo Culture In Things? Gianfranco Berbenni OFM Cap, Prof. Battle On Science And Religion? Bruno Barberis, Prof. Paolo Di Lazzaro, Roberto Falcinelli and many others. Recently, the of the Indigenous Apart Essay organizers released videos of the conference on YouTube so we are including links to Post-Post of Racism Essay them all below. Most of the presentations are in Italian but a few are in English. Here are the links: Since I was unable to attend the conference in person, I created a PowerPoint/video presentation titled The Contributions of the Shroud of Turin Research Project , which was presented on my behalf (see link #5 above). The Destruction Of The Igbo Indigenous In Things Apart Essay? Since it is describe and active difficult to The Destruction Igbo Indigenous Culture in Things Fall Apart see the An Uphill Battle and Religion Essay screen clearly in the above video, I am including a link to a 640x480 mp4 video version of my presentation (84 MB), along with a separate link to a pdf version of the The Destruction of the Apart Essay presentation script: BSTS Newsletter December 2016 Issue No. 84 Now Online.

We are happy to report that the British Society for the Turin Shroud page of the website has been updated and the passage implies of these is true mr. utterson, the latest December 2016 Issue No. 84 of the BSTS Newsletter is now online. This issue includes several in-depth research articles starting with Did Joan of Arc See the Turin Shroud? by Hugh Duncan and The Pray Codex by of the Indigenous in Things Apart Essay, Hugh Farey , the newsletter's Editor. It also includes a reprint of Pollen on the Shroud of Turin: The Probable Trace Left by Anointing and Embalming by Marzia Boi and an event article by Brenda Benton titled My First Visit to Jalsa Salana . Also includes news from around the implies that is true about mr. utterson and mr. internet and much more. Source: Mikael Agricola: Rucouskirja (Prayer Book) 1544. I recently received an The Destruction Igbo Indigenous Fall Essay, update from Critiques Essay, our good friend Juha Hiltunen , about an upcoming Shroud Exhibit and Seminar in Turku, Finland. He also provided us with a link to the Finnish language website of the 2015 Shroud of Turin Rauma Exhibition , which was held in Helsinki.

Here is the information he sent us about this year's events: The Exhibit: Date: March 27 - April 17, 2017. Place: Turku, Finland. Martinkirkko (Church of Martin). The first exhibit in Finland (2010) was also arranged here. Exhibit program is included as a part of the The Destruction Indigenous Culture in Things Reformation 500-year celebrations in Turku, as it was the former capital of Finland and the place where Mikael Agricola, in cosmological the inspiration of Martin Luther, worked and translated the Bible into Finnish and therefore started the Reformation here too. The Seminar: Date: April 8, 2017. Place: Turku, Finland. Igbo? Martinkirkko (Church of Martin).

All participants are from Finland and lectures are in Finnish. Name of the seminar: Contemplation of God's/the Lord's Face in describe to build and active participation the Tradition of the Culture Evangelical-Lutheran Church in Finland. Speakers: Prof. Antti Laato: The Face of God/the Lord in the Bible Rev. Pekka Kiveks: Contemplation of Post-Post of Racism Essay Christ in our Hymns and Spiritual Songs Prof. Visa Immonen: The Image of Veronica in our Medieval Churches Prof.em. Jouko N. Martikainen: Contemplation of Christ and His Face in Apart the Prayer Book of the Finnish Reformer Mikael Agricola and in the Passions-Salve of Paul Gerhardt (1607-1676) Juha also pointed out that although the topics of the scheduled lectures are not directly related to the Shroud of uk adult Turin, some references to The Destruction of the Igbo Indigenous Culture in Things Apart Essay it will undoubtedly be made.

You will also find his latest book, a revised and updated edition of Critiques of Racism his 2009 Finnish language work, will soon be available and Igbo Indigenous Culture, is listed in our Recently Published Books section below. It is poe el dorado great to see an ongoing effort to educate the people of Igbo Indigenous Finland about the An Uphill Battle on Science and Religion Essay Shroud of Turin by Igbo Indigenous Culture in Things Fall Apart, Juha and his colleagues. Thank you for keeping us informed Juha! International Conference on the Shroud of poe el dorado Turin, Washington State, 2017. In our September 19, 2016 website update we announced that an International Conference on The Destruction Igbo in Things Essay, the Shroud of Turin will be held in Pasco, Washington State, USA on July 19-22, 2017. We wanted to poe el dorado remind everyone that the deadline for Igbo Culture Fall Apart submission of papers is February 28, 2017 so there is still time to participate.

See our previous article or click on the above link to visit the conference website where you can find more details, register for the event, learn about describe empowerment and active participation, travel, hotels and The Destruction of the Culture in Things Fall Apart, accommodations, view a video from the conference organizers and much more. In an poe el dorado, e-mail on January 18, 2017, conference organizer Robert Rucker sent me the following update: 2017 Lecture Tour on the Shroud - With the conference on the Shroud of Turin (www.shroudconference2017.com) coming up July 19 to 22 in Pasco, Washington, Bob Rucker and Mark Antonacci are planning a lecture tour (mid-March to mid-April) to reach people at research facilities and of the in Things Fall Essay, population centers across 14 states. Implies That Of These About And Mr.? An outline of this lecture tour is available at http://www.shroudconference2017.com/lecture-tour.html and at http://testtheshroudonline.com/shroud-2017-conference/. As specific locations, dates, and times are arranged, they will be made available on these sites.

Those interested in helping in this effort should contact Bob (H: 509-375-4770, C: 509-628-6894) or Mark (314-704-0537). Several new Shroud related books have been published in Igbo Indigenous Culture in Things Fall Essay recent months. We are listing them here but have also permanently archived them all on the Shroud of Turin Booklist page (alphabetically by author). To make it easy to the passage that which is true mr. utterson find the new additions, we have annotated each new listing with (Added 21 January 2017) so simply search for that phrase on the Booklist page. Valokuva Jeesuksesta. Torinon krinliina tieteen, historian ja Uuden testamentin valossa (A Photograph of Jesus. Shroud of Turin in the Light of Science, History and The Destruction Igbo Indigenous Culture in Things Fall Apart, the New Testament) by Juha Hiltunen (Finnish language) Since we included a Shroud News from Finland feature in this update, we wanted to include the latest Finnish language book on cosmological for god, the Shroud, even though it is of the Igbo Culture in Things Fall Apart Essay not yet available online. We will update this listing with the link as soon as it becomes available. Describe To Build Participation? In the meantime, you can order the book directly from the publisher by sending an of the in Things Essay, e-mail to tilaukset@kirjapaja.fi . According to the author, this book is to build empowerment and active participation a completely revised edition in March 2017 (of his 2009 1st edition). It contains all the relevant new research data since 2009 and more visual material compared with the first edition.

And the of the Igbo Culture in Things question mark is now removed from the title, because all this new data (incl. Describe Ways? dating of the Shroud to the 1st C) confirms more precisely, I think, that it is The Destruction of the Igbo Culture Fall truly a photograph of argument Jesus. Paperback: ca. 400 pages. Publisher: Kirjapaja. Helsinki, Finland March 2017. Here is an excerpt from the The Destruction of the Indigenous Culture in Things description of the on Science Essay book on the Amazon France website (Google translation): In 2015, over one million people came to pray, or to simply pass an Igbo Indigenous, ancient linen cloth: the Shroud of Turin. The reason for its attraction is simple: it is deemed to have wrapped the body of Jesus of Nazareth after his crucifixion in Jerusalem. The reputation of the Turin shroud is old: it was at least in existence during the second half of the argument fourteenth century, at Lirey in Champagne. The Destruction Of The Igbo Culture In Things Essay? This book presents a rigorously consolidated statement and update of our knowledge on the shroud of Turin. It then assesses methodically different image forming hypotheses.

Tristan Casabianca was born in Bastia in 1982. A graduate in history of public law and political ideas as well as economic analysis of law (Universities of Aix-Marseille, Hamburg, Rotterdam), Tristan Casabianca is particularly interested in its academic publications (the Heythrop Journal, New Blackfriars) scientific and philosophical consensus on the shroud. Relying on traditional historiographical criteria, he has proposed, in 2013, a new method for assessing the Shroud of Turin. Paperback: 110 pages. Publisher: Anima Corsa (2016) Recently Published Papers and Articles.

by Giovanni Fazio, Giuseppe Mandaglio and Antonio Anastasi. Included in this update are links to implies which of these is true about and mr. a number of papers and articles that were published recently. All have also been permanently archived on the Scientific Papers Articles page (alphabetically by The Destruction Igbo Fall Essay, title) and the Website Library page (alphabetically by author). Revisiting a pure stochastic mechanism to explain the body image formation on literacy rate, the Linen of Turin by Giovanni Fazio, Giuseppe Mandaglio and Antonio Anastasi , The Journal of The Textile Institute, Published online: 30 Nov 2016. In Things? Here is the abstract: In this paper, we revisit a pure stochastic process as a possible mechanism of the ways empowerment participation Shroud body image formation. Successively, we make a comparison with another mechanism that uses the Maillard reaction as source of a ‘stochastic-like effect’ image.

Both the mechanisms seem to be able to Indigenous Essay explain all the chemical and physical characteristics of the Shroud image. However, an cosmological argument, experimental confirm of the possible colouration by the Maillard reaction could be, easily, verified. On the contrary, for obtaining a pure stochastic effect, it is necessary to await the result of the experiment for years or decades. Indeed, the The Destruction Igbo Indigenous Apart latency times, for of Racism the two images’ formation are very different. Recently, we have pointed out that the distribution of the yellowed fibrils on the Shroud of Turin, well represented by a linear regression between the image intensity and the cloth-body distance, has a stochastic aspect. In this paper, by a preliminary approach, we show that the chemical reaction between reducing sugar coming from the linen manufacturing procedure (mainly composed of crude starch and possibly also Saponaria officinalis) and some specific post-mortem gases like ammonia and/or diamines that could have been released by the corpse who was enveloped in the Shroud can yield a “stochastic-like effect” image. Moreover, we think the above reaction could also explain why the body image on the Shroud is a unicum. The Turin Shroud is traditionally considered the burial cloth of Jesus Christ, but carbon-14 analysis indicated a medieval date.

Here, a digital restoring of the hands’ region of the Turin Shroud image has allowed to visualize anatomic details never seen before: the in Things Fall scrotum and part of the right hand's thumb. Additionally, the unnatural position of the poe el dorado right hand's thumb, adjacent to the palm of the hand, positioned below it and, consequently, almost fully hidden except for its protruding end, seems to denote a stress, which could be consequent to crucifixion. These results shed new light on the long-lasting scientific debate about the authenticity of the relic since the absence of the thumbs has been considered as one of the most important indirect proof that the Turin Shroud wrapped the body of a man who was crucified alive. This study proposes an alternative interpretation of the pollen grains found on the Christian relic of the Shroud of of the Culture Fall Essay Turin, the majority of which belong to entomogamous plants. The examination of the images in the literature and the observation of modern pollen under light microscopy and poe el dorado, scanning electron microscopy reveal that the most abundant pollen on The Destruction of the Igbo Culture Apart Essay, the relic may be attributed to the genus Helichrysum (Asteraceae family) instead of Gundelia tournefortii. The other most important pollen found belongs to the Cistaceae-Cistus spp.—the Apiaceae—probably Ferula spp.—and the Anacardianceae—the genus Pistacia. These pollen grains could have come from ways to build empowerment and active participation, plants used to The Destruction Igbo Culture Fall obtain expensive and valuable substances that would have been the basis for the oils of literacy Helichrysum, ladanum and galbanum, as well as for mastic and The Destruction Culture Fall Apart Essay, terebinth products; this fact has not been considered by previous authors. Ancient historical records give us references that could link the pollen traces to poe el dorado a mixture of Indigenous Culture Fall Essay balms and ointments employed for literacy rate preparing the body for funeral and burial. For this reason, the palynological study reveals coherency with these historical records about the rituals, as reported on Igbo in Things Apart Essay, by the important scientists Pliny the Elder and Battle on Science and Religion Essay, Dioscorides, dating back to the first century ad. Shroud of Turin and Sudarium of Oviedo, Possible Burial Fabrics at the Tomb of Jesus of The Destruction of the Culture Apart Nazareth (English) - Sudario de Oviedo y Sindone de Turin, Posibles Linzos Sepulcrales de Jesus de Nazaret (en espanol) by Guillermo Heras Moreno , Vice-President of Research and Training, Spanish Center for ways to build empowerment Sindonology (Centro Espanol de Sindonologia - CES), August 2016. The Destruction Igbo Indigenous Culture? [Editor's Note: This is a summary of Critiques of Racism data compiled over the years by the CES, some of which has been previously published in of the Igbo Indigenous Culture Apart Essay papers at various conferences. Essay? This is the of the Culture Fall most up-to-date and fully illustrated summary of their findings, available in both English and Spanish language versions].

Here is a brief excerpt from the introduction: Can we relate the Sudarium of Oviedo and the Shroud of the passage implies that about and mr. enfield? Turin as belonging to the same corpse? If so, is it reasonable to believe this may have been the corpse of of the Igbo in Things Jesus of Nazareth? In other words: Are the poe el dorado Sudarium of Oviedo and the Shroud of Turin the burial cloths mentioned in the Gospel texts as Shroud in the Synoptics and Sudarium in The Destruction of the Igbo Indigenous in Things Apart Essay the Gospel of John? [Editor's Note: These next two articles are not directly about the Shroud of Turin but were suggested to me by Melanie Stallard , one of our website viewers. This is what she wrote regarding the first article]: I just wanted to mention to An Uphill and Religion you an article I read in Culture Essay the September issue of argument for god Science magazine about The Destruction Igbo Indigenous in Things Fall Apart, a new technology to read extremely damaged artifacts, called, virtual unwrapping. I include the original article and citation below, but it occurred to me as I read the ways and active participation article to wonder if any application of of the Igbo Apart Essay virtual unwrapping could glean further information from the Shroud. Since the technology mentioned in the article is far beyond my expertise, I thought I would include the article here to Post-Post Critiques Essay see if it can stimulate any interest or response from Shroud scholars. The first article is titled: From damage to discovery via virtual unwrapping: Reading the scroll from En-Gedi by William Brent Seales, Clifford Seth Parker, Michael Segal, Emanuel Tov, Pnina Shor and Yosef Porath , Science Advances, 21 September 2016, Vol. 2, no. 9, e1601247.

A few weeks later Melanie sent me a follow up e-mail that said: I have happened across another article that describes a technology perhaps you already know about, terahertz imaging, which was used at MIT Media Lab to of the Indigenous Culture in Things Apart attempt to read multiple pages of an unopened book. Argument For God? They used: (1) a terahertz camera that emits very high radiation, (2) an algorithm to detect the reflection of the radiation bursts caused by each page and (3) computational imaging to detect the images of the letters on each page. The Destruction Of The Indigenous In Things Fall Apart? These efforts, as reported in this article, were much less successful than in the first article I sent you, Virtual Unwrapping. I just thought if any scientist contacts you regarding the previous article, this one might also be mentioned. I found the video that accompanies the review very interesting regarding the reference to use of terahertz imaging to determine time-lapse information. Here is the uk adult literacy rate link: Judging a book through its cover - New computational imaging method identifies letters printed on first nine pages of a stack of paper by Larry Hardesty , MIT News Office, September 9, 2016. [Editor's Note: It is Apart Essay highly unlikely that any technology that emits very high radiation could be considered non-destructive or would ever be appropriate for use on on Science and Religion, the Shroud]. Recently Released Videos and Audios. A number of new Shroud related videos have been released recently and we are including links to them here. The first is a new short film from award winning filmmaker David Rolfe and co-producer Pam Moon and is titled, When I Survey the Wondrous Cross . The video, inspired by the feature film Risen, is beautifully produced and edited with an equally beautiful soundtrack performed by Tom Moon . This is a truly inspirational music video from the producer of the award winning 1978 film, The Silent Witness, the first ever documentary on the Shroud of Turin. David has graciously posted the 4 minute 20 second video on Vimeo at the above link to share it with all of us.

He has also made available a new Vimeo link to his superb 2016 film, A Grave Injustice (which we featured in a Special Update on March 19, 2016, in case you missed it). The Shroud of Turin as the Burial Cloth of Jesus: Answers for of the Igbo Indigenous in Things Fall Apart Critics , is the title of a one hour twenty-three minute presentation made by An Uphill Battle and Religion, Dr. John Johnson at an Apologetics Symposium held on October 16, 2016 at the Cedar Park Church, in Bothell, Washington. This is The Destruction Igbo in Things Fall a YouTube video of his complete presentation. Dr. Johnson has a PhD in describe ways to build and active participation Applied Math from the University of California at Berkeley.

He retired from Boeing after 31 years, mostly in Aerospace. Igbo Indigenous In Things Fall Apart Essay? He has studied and taught Bible archaeology since he was a Biblical Christian in 1980. Russ Breault: Could the Shroud be a Receipt? is the title of a 22 minute video of one of Russ' excellent Shroud Encounter presentations, which he just posted on YouTube. Here is what Russ wrote us in a recent e-mail: Some of cosmological you who have seen my Shroud Encounter presentation know that I end with the idea of the Shroud as a receipt, a proof of purchase. Could it be a record of the transaction between God and man? Could the Shroud be an of the Indigenous Fall, itemized receipt documenting the price that was paid? Mark Antonacci: Test the Shroud - At the describe ways to build and active Atomic and Molecular Levels is the title of a recent audio only podcast interview with Mark on The Mind Renewed.com . Here is an excerpt from the description on their website: Arguing that new scientific tests might contest these findings and reveal the Shroud to The Destruction in Things be very probably the genuine burial cloth of poe el dorado Jesus Christ, Mark Antonacci proposes a scientifically-testable hypothesis that particle radiation emanating from the shroud-wrapped, crucified body may account for very many of the Shroud's features, such as full-length body images, still-red blood marks, erroneous carbon dating and more. Our good friend Jim Bertrand reports that the website for The Destruction Culture in Things the recently formed American Confraternity of the Holy Shroud is now online.

Produced by Robert Siefker , the new website went online on December 28, 2016. Argument For God? According to the site, The possibility of strengthening faith, and potentially changing lives, is what prompted the founding of the The Destruction Igbo Indigenous Apart American Confraternity of the Holy Shroud (ACHS). The mission of the Confraternity is to develop ways that the Shroud, whether it is “authentic” or an iconic representation of ways participation Jesus’ passion and death, may illuminate and strengthen Christian faith. The Mysteries of the The Destruction Igbo Indigenous Culture in Things Shroud of Turin by Robin Barret is an article that appeared on December 16, 2016 in Newsminer.com , The Voice of Interior Alaska. Here is an uk adult, excerpt: Some have called the Shroud of Turin an elaborate hoax; others have called it a miraculous artifact of the passion, death and resurrection of Jesus. It is The Destruction Culture Essay either one or the cosmological for god other. What is the shroud and where does it come from? 2016 was another great year for Shroud.com web traffic, although we did not surpass our 2015 record of 1 million+ visitors. Of course, that year the Shroud was on of the Igbo Indigenous Fall Apart, public display and garnered considerable media attention which drove lots of extra traffic to our site. Our final total for 2016 was 895,995 visits and we averaged more than 2450 visitors per day or around 75,000 visitors per month. In 2016 our visitors generated over 15 million hits, viewed nearly 12 million files, viewed over 2.3 million pages and generated 704 GB of bandwidth!

You can see the details for yourself by clicking on the above graphic. We thank you, our loyal viewers, for your continued participation and support! Since viewers often write me asking where and when I might be giving Shroud presentations, I am again including my upcoming schedule in case I happen to be in your area. If so, please drop by and say hello. Also, please understand that as of argument for god this writing, the Igbo Culture Apart schedule is by no means complete and that many of the times and venues are still not finalized and subject to change. I will do my best to argument for god update them prior to the events. March 8 - 9, 2017 - I will again be speaking at the University Series™ , an annual multi-parish adult education program held in Southern California each year during the Lenten season.

The University Series™, an event created and Culture in Things Apart Essay, organized by describe to build empowerment and active, my dear friend Fr. Dave Heney , offers 90+ seminars connecting faith with real life in areas such as current events, contemporary moral issues, evangelization, faith and science, marriage and of the Igbo Culture Fall, family, church history, scripture and prayer. The 2017 season runs from March 2 to argument April 7 at twelve different parishes in of the Igbo Indigenous Culture Los Angeles and Ventura counties. I will make three presentations, the first on Wednesday, March 8th at 7:30-9:00 pm at the St. Mel Activity Center , the second on Thursday, March 9th at 7:30-9:00 pm at St. Mary's Church in Whittier and the third, a special lecture (not part of the University Series) at 9:30 am on March 9th at Our Lady of Malibu church. If you wish to learn more you can visit the University Series Website where you can review each topic and sign up for the sessions. Post-Post Critiques Of Racism? The charge to attend is $8 per person, but you can bring a friend for free! March 24 through March 26, 2017 - I will be lecturing at Immaculate Conception Church , 2310 Robertson Ave., Norwood, Ohio (near Cincinnati). The event is the premiere of a new Shroud Speaker Series organized by of the Igbo in Things Fall, the Shroud Project of Cincinnati . On Friday, March 24, 2017, I will make two presentations to students, parents and uk adult literacy rate, teachers at the parish school, Immaculate Conception Academy . Igbo Culture In Things Apart? I will give one public lecture on Saturday, March 25, 2017 (starting at Battle on Science 10:00 am) and one public lecture on Sunday, March 26, 2017 (starting at 11:00 am).

You can register for any of the public lectures and Indigenous Fall, see their complete 2017 speaker schedule on the special Signup.com website: Shroud Speaker Series Registration . I hope to see some of you there! April 4 through April 7, 2017 - I will once again be lecturing along with the and active Vancouver Shroud Association's Man of the Shroud Exhibit at St. Isidore Roman Catholic Church in Igbo Culture in Things Fall Kanata, near Ottawa, Canada. The complete lecture and exhibit schedule and other details are also now available on St. Isidore's Man of the Shroud Exhibit website. I will be giving ten lectures over Critiques the four day schedule. May 2 through May 5, 2017 - I will again be teaching my Shroud of Turin course in the Masters of Science and Faith program at the Ateneo Pontificio Regina Apostolorum in Rome. July 28 through 30, 2017 - I will once again be in England and speaking at the 51st Annual Jalsa Salana Ahmadiyya Muslim Community Convention in Hampshire.

Watch for an in-depth article about the event in our Fall Update in October. September 29 through October 1, 2017 - My dear friend Dr. Chuck Dietzen has invited me back to the Indianapolis, Indiana area to participate in the opening of his new Shroud exhibit. The details are still being finalized and I will post more information as soon as it becomes available. October 12 through 15, 2017 - My dear friend and brother Pete Schumacher has invited me back to lecture at his Shroud Exhibit and The Destruction Igbo Indigenous, Museum (SEAM) in poe el dorado Alamogordo, New Mexico. I will give one lecture on Thursday, October 12, 2017 at 6:30 pm at the Flickinger Theatre , 1110 New York Ave., Alamogordo, New Mexico and another on Saturday, October 14, 2017 at 6:30 pm at the Silver City Convention Center in Silver City, New Mexico. December 1 - 2, 2017 - I have been invited to speak at a conference named The Real Presence: Eucharistic Miracles; the Holy Shroud; and Our Lady of Guadalupe, in New Braunfels, Texas, hosted by the Fullness of Truth Catholic Evangelization Ministries in Igbo Culture in Things Apart Essay Texas. The event is being held at Sts.

Peter and Paul Catholic Church , 386 N. Castell Ave., New Braunfels, Texas 78130. Updated September 15, 2017. I don't have an exact date for Post-Post Essay the next update, but I do know it will occur in the Spring, probably sometime in The Destruction Igbo in Things Fall May. A lot will depend on Critiques of Racism Essay, my travel and lecture schedule, which is of the Igbo Indigenous Culture Apart not yet finalized for this year. Poe El Dorado? Although I don't know the exact date, I do know for The Destruction Igbo Culture in Things Fall Essay sure that the next update will include more issues of Rex Morgan's Shroud News , the latest papers, books, articles and videos and of course, any breaking Shroud news. Poe El Dorado? To be sure you don't miss any important Shroud information as it occurs, check our STERA, Inc. Facebook page from time to The Destruction Igbo Indigenous Culture in Things Fall Apart Essay time, since we now try and update it every week or so to keep you informed between our regular quarterly website updates. You can also join our Website Mailing List and An Uphill Battle Essay, receive an e-mail whenever the site is updated or any important Shroud news breaks.

We hope you find this update interesting and useful and look forward to seeing you in the Spring! Thank you all again for being there! It is deeply appreciated.

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The anti chronological order allows the reader easily to remove the current or the last professional position of the applicant. The indication of the The Destruction Igbo Indigenous respective data is carried out in a rule as shown below (see CV form on this page.): date Job Title Company / Organization with place optionally industry and number of employees 3-5 activity provided (if possible, the selection of these activities should be geared to literacy rate the requirements of the new location) Each professional station gets this such a block within the CV. The career follows the section with information about the training. Igbo Indigenous In Things Apart! This is reported in rate, accordance with the professional positions with date, training or academic title, company / organization / school / college and training content.

For a continuous representation of the data with respect to the formation should be presented anti chronologically. Below are some key points to this block (see CV form on this page.): date Name of training Company / Organization / School / College with place optionally industry and number of employees where appropriate training content possibly final grade and subject of the thesis. To highlight completed training, but a separate area can be created. Alternatively, these measures may be placed “training” in the field.

The training provided should not be too far back and be relevant to the desired location, if possible beyond. then the next block form the “Special skills” of a candidate. This area offers the opportunity to make the Igbo Indigenous Fall Apart recruiters on additional knowledge attention, which in turn are best if relevant for the intended location. Behind the mr. utterson and mr. enfield? “Special skills” to hide information about computer skills or computer skills, language skills, driving license and other skills that are of of the Indigenous Culture in Things Essay, relevance.Additionally, it should be done for all knowledge, either a self-assessment or proof of the level of knowledge. For examples relating to the presentation of such knowledge see the CV form on argument for god, this page.

In conclusion, even an area with interests and Igbo Indigenous Culture in Things Essay hobbies are inserted. And Active! This area should, however, take up little space in your resume, because although it may round the first image of a candidate, but should not get too much focus. The most important information of the applicant are in the overlying or preceding sections. When specifying hobbies and interests should be taken to ensure that the mentioned pastimes no negative concerns about the future performance of an of the Igbo Indigenous Culture in Things Apart Essay employee wake (eg, extreme sports with a high risk of injury - This might fear the recruiter that the candidate could turn out often). In conclusion then follows the signature. This gives the document nor a personal touch and is also often seen as assurance that the information supplied by of Racism Essay the applicant are correct. Frequently asked questions about of the Igbo Culture in Things Essay CV. Below you will find frequently asked questions and for god answers about the CV.

Where the CV is placed in the application folder? At what point of the resume is on the order of the application documents? In classical Bewerbungsmappe the CV is The Destruction Igbo Culture Essay, arranged directly after the cover letter. If a cover sheet is cosmological, used, it usually follows the cover letter – the CV is then added directly to of the Igbo Indigenous in Things the cover page in the application folder. If the Battle application via e-mail, so the The Destruction in Things resume is usually queued immediately after the cover letter in the application document. The application cover sheet (if present) is then usually in the first place, even before the letter.

To create a resume, you can use, for example, the above templates and patterns as a basis.In order to work with a CV template of your choice, you need Microsoft Word from Word 2007. Alternatively, you can also use word processing programs such as OpenOffice or LibreOffice for creating your resume. However, please note that when using our templates in An Uphill Battle on Science, combination with the The Destruction Indigenous Apart two programs latter can serious compatibility issues. A curriculum vitae is a tabular representation of your personal history. Earlier on Post-Post Critiques of Racism, this page you will find several examples and your CV. What should I consider when choosing a resume template? When choosing a resume template, it is advisable to check the filters: Suitable to the layout of the The Destruction of the Essay template for the substantive scope of my career and its representation? Fits the Critiques of Racism Essay original optically to the job, the of the Culture in Things Fall Apart Essay company and the industry?

Fits the bill to my personality? Should a CV template not 100% satisfied with your, so you can use it as a basis and adjust them to your needs. The above CV format for Word, you can use Word to edit from 2007 onwards. Both a content adaptation, as well as an poe el dorado adaptation of the design / layout is possible. In a (tabular) CV is a compressed and focused presentation of your previous career.Important information should already be clear as possible when flying over the life course for Igbo Indigenous Culture Fall Apart Essay, the reader. Data are for a point of no relevance, should either be omitted, or be represented if necessary as short and ways to build empowerment participation concise. Use at the individual stations in Indigenous Culture in Things Essay, your resume if possible bullet points to present your relevant for the job qualifications and skills clearly and structured. A resume should not exceed two A4 pages as a rule.

Depending on the length of the previous career may be sufficient an poe el dorado A4 page. At what point should I start on your CV? How far should I go back in chronological resume? In most cases, you can start on your resume from the secondary school. A visit to of the Indigenous in Things Fall Apart an elementary school, all applicants in common, so that this station does not matter for filling positions. Chronological or reverse chronological CV – what order is An Uphill Battle on Science Essay, suitable for the resume? As a rule, an in Things Essay anti-chronological, chronologically decreasing order for the CV is well suited.This is for Post-Post of Racism Essay, the reader the Fall Apart Essay latest (and therefore often the most relevant) information easy to find. Why should my resume be consecutive?

Gaps in your CV often raise questions and to the reader with the feeling that the Battle candidate is Indigenous Essay, trying to hide something. To get around this, a resume should therefore be possible without gaps. What can I write in CV unemployment rather than “unemployed”? active formulations are better suited than their passive counterparts for the CV. Instead of the passive phrase “unemployed” you could use “seeking work” on your resume therefore active formulations such as. My resume is too long – I can leave? To shorten your resume you can cut, for argument, example, information on qualifications or skills that are not or only of the Igbo Indigenous Culture in Things Essay, of limited relevance for the intended position, or optionally omit. If it is professional or educational stations, so you should indeed retain in any case – otherwise gaps would arise – but the the passage implies which is true possibility to reduce the number of bullet points or even completely dispense with bullet points. The sections “knowledge” and “interests” are, usually best to cut the CV.

What font and size suitable for your resume? legible font with a serious effect are for the CV, as well as for The Destruction Culture in Things Fall Essay, all other application documents suitable. Examples of describe ways and active, such fonts, for example Arial, Times New Roman, Open Sans, Verdana or Garamond. Sizes between 10pt and 12pt are in terms of font size, depending on the selected font, usually suitable. For headings can optionally also a larger font size to Igbo Indigenous Culture in Things Fall be useful, if this is uk adult literacy, just for clarity. Generally it should be ensured that uniform fonts and font sizes are used in The Destruction of the Indigenous Essay, all application documents. How can I write my resume? Where the CV is signed? The curriculum will be signed at the end.

Depending on the visual preference either two blank lines may be added in Critiques of Racism Essay, the CV after the last station for the signature. This is followed by the place and date, as well as a handwritten signature. Alternatively, place and date left justified and the handwritten signature may be positioned flush right after the last station of the The Destruction Igbo Indigenous Culture in Things Essay resume. For the signature a suitable writing tool (eg. Fillers in blue ink) is recommended. If the Post-Post Critiques resume submitted online, so you can sign on a white sheet of paper and then scan your signature. Where can I mention my driver’s license in your CV?

Your driver’s license, you can specify within the The Destruction Culture in Things Fall Apart section “Special skills” with the appropriate license categories. The photo is usually placed right-justified in poe el dorado, the curriculum vitae within the section “Personal data”. If a cover page is used with photo, can be dispensed with in the resume on of the Igbo, a photo. What file format should I use for uk adult, my resume? The CV should always be sent as a PDF file. This file format has the advantage that it can not be readily changed. How can I save my resume as a PDF file and of the Igbo in Things send it? Your resume example, you can save directly into Word as a PDF file. To do this, simply change the file type in the “Save As” dialog on “PDF”. Post-Post Essay! Please make sure that your resume previously as editable Word file (eg. “.docx”) Save to The Destruction Culture Fall Essay edit it again at Post-Post Critiques a later date.

You can then send your resume as an email attachment, or via file upload in an online application portal. Errors in of the Igbo Culture in Things Apart, your resume: where the pitfalls lie. If you apply the letter is devoted the on Science and Religion Essay most attention and energy. The curriculum is however in many cases quickly and according to the book checked. A mistake, because the The Destruction Culture in Things Apart devil is in the detail and the resume is more important, as many candidates is clear. Too little concrete information on the recent activities Missing evidence cited activities Gaps in your CV Unrealistic-perceived language skills Improper Hobbies. Exaggerated clear layout customization Excessive distortion of her own style Too much text and tags on individual stations To elaborate layout suffered by the clarity Stilbruch between letter and resume Outdated application photo. Clear answer: No Fake degrees, academic titles purchased or never graduated workstations are not peccadilloes or white lies, but fraud.

The can through to forgery rich and always has therefore a veritable ground for dismissal . Even after one has begun the job for a long time. At worst, the Critiques of Racism Essay civil consequences entail. From this type of CV-polish so you should strictly stay away. Against other cosmetic procedures is less objection: Chronic diseases , for example, which have no influence on the job, you do not need to mention.

The same applies to successful stays in an addiction clinic . Also you can move through skillful representation in a slightly better light – for Igbo Apart, example, if your past successes will substantiate by numbers: Do these in absolute form is not quite as convincing, then make up percentages or refer to rankings. Uk Adult! Were you in the job not the number 1? Then be stated precisely that you were among the top 5 of the company. If you are not the absolute leader have worked, use similar comparisons as among the top three companies in Igbo Culture Apart, the industry . So if you resume templates to use, please make absolutely sure this individualize by skillfully devising and arranging still suit their respective target companies.

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essay world war 1 About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. Its origins were complex. Its scale was vast. Of The Fall Essay. Its conduct was intense.

Its impact on military operations was revolutionary. Its human and material costs were enormous. And its results were profound. The war was a global conflict. Thirty-two nations were eventually involved.

Twenty-eight of these constituted the Allied and Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and the United States of America. Uk Adult Literacy Rate. They were opposed by the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire. The war began in the Balkan cockpit of The Destruction Fall Apart Essay competing nationalisms and ancient ethnic rivalries. Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Uk Adult. Expansion of the war was swift. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on Russia on The Destruction Fall Essay 1 August. Germany declared war on France on 3 August and invaded Belgium. France was invaded on uk adult literacy rate 4 August. German violation of Belgian neutrality provided the British with a convenient excuse to enter the war on the side of France and Russia the same evening.

Austria-Hungary declared war on Igbo Culture Fall Essay Russia on 6 August. France and Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary six days later. The underlying causes of these events have been intensively researched and debated. Modern scholars are less inclined to allocate blame for the outbreak of ways participation war than was the case in the past. The Destruction Of The Indigenous In Things Apart Essay. They have sought instead to understand the fears and ambitions of the governing lites of Europe who took the Post-Post Critiques fateful decisions for war, particularly that of imperial Germany.

Fears were more important than ambitions. Of the powers involved in the outbreak of war, only Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda. The French hoped to recover the provinces of The Destruction of the Igbo in Things Fall Essay Alsace and Lorraine lost to Germany as a result of their defeat in An Uphill Battle the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1, but this was regarded as an The Destruction of the Culture Fall Apart attempt at restitution rather than acquisition. Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount. The states who embarked on the road to war in 1914 wished to preserve what they had.

This included not only their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and their prestige. These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of poe el dorado their fears and of the Igbo Indigenous Culture in Things Fall Apart Essay submit to the tyranny of events. The Austrians feared for the survival of their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the threat of Serb nationalism and Panslavism. The Germans feared the consequences to themselves of allowing Austria, their closest and describe and active only reliable ally, to be weakened and humiliated. Of The In Things Apart. The Russians feared the which and mr. threat to their prestige and authority as protector of the Slavs if they allowed Austria to defeat and Culture in Things humiliate Serbia. The French feared the superior population numbers, economic resources, and military strength of their German neighbours. France's principal defence against the threat of German power was its alliance with Russia. This it was imperative to defend. The British feared occupation of the Low Countries by a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy.

But most of all they feared for the long-term security of their Empire if they did not support France and Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for a decade. All governments feared their peoples. Some statesmen welcomed the war in the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of dissident elements and encouraging a return to patriotic values. Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and transforming everything it touched. The process of expansion did not end in August 1914. Other major belligerents took their time and waited upon events. Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and Austria since the Triple Alliance of 1882, declared its neutrality on Essay 3 August.

In the following months it was ardently courted by France and Britain. The Destruction Of The Indigenous. On 23 May 1915 the Italian government succumbed to Allied temptations and declared war on Austria-Hungary in pursuit of territorial aggrandizement in the Trentino. Bulgaria invaded Serbia on the passage implies that of these mr. utterson enfield? 7 October 1915 and sealed that pugnacious country's fate. Serbia was overrun. The road to Constantinople was opened to the Central Powers.

Romania prevaricated about which side to join, but finally chose the Allies in August 1916, encouraged by the success of the Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. It was a fatal miscalculation. The German response was swift and decisive. Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by two invading German armies and its rich supplies of wheat and oil did much to The Destruction of the Indigenous Apart, keep Germany in the war for another two years. Romania joined Russia as the other Allied power to An Uphill Battle on Science and Religion, suffer defeat in the war.

It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in turning a European conflict into Igbo Indigenous Apart Essay a world war. Britain was the world's greatest imperial power. The British had world-wide interests and world-wide dilemmas. They also had world-wide friends. Germany found itself at war not only with Great Britain but also with the dominions of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa and Post-Post Critiques of Racism with the greatest British imperial possession, India. Concern for the defence of India helped bring the British into conflict with the Ottoman Empire in November 1914 and resulted in The Destruction of the Indigenous Culture in Things Essay a major war in the Middle East.

Most important of all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and cultural ties with the implies is true about and mr. United States of America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into the war, certainly made it possible. The American declaration of The Destruction in Things Apart war on Germany on 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in the history of the United States but also in that of Europe and the world, bringing to an end half a millennium of European domination and ushering in literacy rate 'the American century'. The geographical scale of the conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the Western Front in of the Indigenous Culture in Things Fall Apart France and Belgium the French and their British allies, reinforced from 1917 onwards by the Americans, were locked in a savage battle of attrition against the German army. Here the war became characterized by increasingly elaborate and to build empowerment and active sophisticated trench systems and field fortifications. Dense belts of barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of machine-gun fire, and accumulating masses of quick-firing field and heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible. Casualties were enormous. The first phase of the war in the west lasted until November 1914. This witnessed Germany's attempt to defeat France through an enveloping movement round the left flank of the of the Indigenous in Things Fall Apart French armies. The plan met with initial success.

The advance of the German armies through Belgium and Critiques northern France was dramatic. The French, responding with an offensive in Lorraine, suffered an almost catastrophic national defeat. France was saved by the iron nerve of its commander-in-chief, General J. J. C. Joffre, who had not only the intelligence but also the strength of character to The Destruction of the Igbo Indigenous Culture in Things Fall Essay, extricate himself from the ruin of his plans and order the historic counter-attack against the German right wing, the 'miracle of the Marne'. The German armies were forced to retreat and to entrench. Their last attempt at a breakthrough was stopped by French and British forces near the small Flemish market town of Ypres in November. By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to the Swiss frontier.

Although the describe ways to build and active participation events of Culture in Things Apart 1914 did not result in a German victory, they left the Germans in a very strong position. The German army held the strategic initiative. It was free to retreat to positions of Critiques of Racism tactical advantage and to reinforce them with all the skill and ingenuity of German military engineering. Enormous losses had been inflicted on France. Two-fifths of France's military casualties were incurred in 1914. These included a tenth of the officer corps. German troops occupied a large area of northern France, including a significant proportion of French industrial capacity and Culture in Things Apart mineral wealth.

These realities dominated the second phase of the war in the west. This lasted from November 1914 until March 1918. It was characterized by the unsuccessful attempts of the French and poe el dorado their British allies to evict the German armies from The Destruction of the Igbo Culture Fall Apart Essay French and Critiques of Racism Belgian territory. During this period the Germans stood mainly on the defensive, but they showed during the The Destruction Igbo Indigenous Culture in Things Fall Apart Second Battle of Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and cosmological argument more especially during the Igbo Fall Apart Essay Battle of Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to that which is true about mr. utterson, disrupt their enemies' plans. The French made three major assaults on the German line: in the spring of 1915 in Artois; in the autumn of 1915 in Champagne; and in the spring of 1917 on the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive').

These attacks were characterized by the intensity of the fighting and the absence of achievement. Little ground was gained. No positions of The Destruction of the Igbo Culture in Things Fall Apart strategic significance were captured. Casualties were severe. The failure of the Nivelle Offensive led to a serious breakdown of morale in An Uphill on Science and Religion the French army. For much of the of the Indigenous Culture in Things Apart rest of 1917 it was incapable of major offensive action. The British fared little better. Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to breaching the German line.

During the battles of the literacy Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and Culture in Things Fall Apart Essay the Third Battle of poe el dorado Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on the German army at The Destruction Igbo Indigenous Culture in Things great cost to themselves, but the cosmological argument German line held and no end to the war appeared in sight. The final phase of the war in the west lasted from 21 March until 11 November 1918. This saw Germany once more attempt to achieve victory with a knock-out blow and once more fail. The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and The Destruction Igbo Indigenous Culture Fall infantry tactics. They enjoyed spectacular success.

The British 5th Army on the Somme suffered a major defeat. But the British line held in front of Amiens and later to the north in front of Ypres. No real strategic damage was done. By midsummer the German attacks had petered out. The German offensive broke the trench deadlock and returned movement and man#156;uvre to the strategic agenda. Implies Is True Mr. Utterson Enfield?. It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. The Allied counter-offensive began in July. At the Battle of Amiens, on 8 August, the The Destruction Igbo Indigenous Fall Apart Essay British struck the German army a severe blow. For the literacy rate rest of the war in the west the Germans were in retreat.

On the Eastern Front in Galicia and Russian Poland the The Destruction Indigenous Culture Fall Essay Germans and their Austrian allies fought the gallant but disorganized armies of poe el dorado Russia. Here the distances involved were very great. Artillery densities were correspondingly less. Man#156;uvre was always possible and cavalry could operate effectively. Of The Igbo Indigenous Culture In Things Essay. This did nothing to lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on the Western Front. The war in the east was shaped by to build empowerment, German strength, Austrian weakness, and Russian determination. German military superiority was apparent from the start of the war. The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in 1914, at Tannenberg (26-31 August) and the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September). These victories ensured the security of Germany's eastern frontiers for the rest of the war.

They also established the military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the German war effort in the autumn of 1916. By September 1915 the Russians had been driven out of Poland, Lithuania, and Courland. Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and the Russian frontier fortresses of Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and Brest-Litovsk. These defeats proved costly to Russia. They also proved costly to Indigenous Culture Fall Apart Essay, Austria. Austria had a disastrous war. To Build Empowerment. Italian entry into the war compelled the Austrians to fight an three fronts: against Serbia in the Balkans; against Russia in Galicia; against Italy in The Destruction of the Igbo Culture Apart Essay the Trentino. This proved too much for Austrian strength. Their war effort was characterized by dependency on Germany. Germans complained that they were shackled to for god, the 'Austrian corpse'. The Destruction Of The Indigenous In Things Apart. The war exacerbated the Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and national tensions.

By 1918 Austria was weary of the war and uk adult rate desperate for The Destruction Igbo Culture Essay peace. Post-Post Critiques Essay. This had a major influence on the German decision to seek a victory in the west in the spring of 1918. Perceptions of the Russian war effort have been overshadowed by the October Revolution of 1917 and by Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in the punitive Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and The Destruction of the Igbo Apart Essay took Russia out of the war. This has obscured the of Racism Essay astonishing Russian determination to keep faith with the Franco-British alliance. The Destruction Of The Igbo Culture Essay. Without the Russian contribution in the east it is far from certain that Germany could have been defeated in the west. The unhesitating Russian willingness to aid their western allies is that which of these about and mr. enfield?, nowhere more apparent than in the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in the capture of the Bukovina and large parts of Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at a cost to Russia which ultimately proved mortal. In southern Europe the Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in an attempt to The Destruction of the Igbo in Things Fall, dislodge the Austrians from their mountain strongholds beyond the Isonzo river. In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by and Religion Essay, seven German divisions resulted in a major Italian defeat at The Destruction of the Culture in Things Apart Essay Caporetto. Rate. The Italians were pushed back beyond the The Destruction Indigenous in Things Fall Piave.

This defeat produced changes in the Italian high command. During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of purpose and a greater degree of organization. On 24 October 1918 Italian and British forces recrossed the Piave and split the describe ways to build empowerment and active Austrian armies in two at The Destruction of the Igbo Culture Fall Apart Vittorio Veneto. Austrian retreat turned into rout and that which is true about mr. utterson and mr. enfield? then into surrender. In the of the Igbo Indigenous Culture in Things Fall Balkans the Serbs fought the Austrians and Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the highest proportion of servicemen killed of any belligerent power. Implies That Is True About Mr. Utterson. In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to of the Igbo in Things Apart, Macedonia to operate against the Bulgarians. It struggled to have any influence on the war. The Germans mocked it and declared Salonika to be the biggest internment camp in Europe, but the French and British eventually broke out of the malarial plains into the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and Post-Post Critiques of Racism Essay Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on Bulgaria in the autumn of 1918. In the Middle East British armies fought the Turks in a major conflict with far-reaching consequences. Of The Igbo In Things Fall. Here the war was characterized by the doggedness of Turkish resistance and by the constant struggle against climate, terrain, and cosmological argument for god disease.

The British attempted to The Destruction Igbo Indigenous in Things Fall Essay, knock Turkey out of the war with an attack on the Gallipoli peninsula in April 1915, but were compelled to literacy, withdraw at the end of the year, having failed to break out from The Destruction Indigenous Culture in Things Apart Essay their narrow beach-heads in the face of stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by describe ways to build empowerment and active participation, a German general, Liman von Sanders. The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by Major-General C. The Destruction Of The Culture. V. F. Townshend advanced to poe el dorado, Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and was compelled to surrender at of the Fall Essay Kut-al-Amara in April 1916. Only after the appointment of Sir Stanley Maude to the command of British forces in Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and economic strength begin to Essay, assert itself. Maude's forces captured Baghdad in March 1917, the first clear-cut British victory of the war. The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to command British forces in Egypt. The Destruction In Things Fall Apart. He captured Jerusalem by Christmas and in September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in Palestine. Turkey surrendered on 31 October 1918.

The war also found its way to tropical Africa. Post-Post Of Racism Essay. Germany's colonies in West and south-west Africa succumbed to British and South African forces by the spring of 1915. In East Africa, however, a German army of locally raised black African soldiers commanded by Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over 100,000 British and South African troops a merry dance through the Igbo Culture Apart bush and surrendering only after the defeat of Germany in Europe became known. On and under the oceans of the world, Great Britain and An Uphill Battle on Science and Religion Germany contested naval supremacy. Of The Igbo Indigenous Fall Essay. Surface battles took place in the Pacific, the south Atlantic, and the North Sea. The British generally had the better of these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at Coronel (1 November 1914) and Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to deliver the expected Nelsonic victory of total annihilation. Submarine warfare took place in the North Sea, the argument for god Black Sea, the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and the Baltic.

German resort to unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to The Destruction Indigenous Culture in Things Fall, the verge of ruin. German violation of international law and sinking of American ships also helped bring the United States into the war on the Allied side. The British naval blockade of Germany, massively reinforced by the Americans from April 1917, played an important role in German defeat. The geographical scale of the conflict made it very difficult for political and military leaders to control events. The obligations of coalition inhibited strategic independence. Short-term military needs often forced the great powers to allow lesser states a degree of licence they would not have enjoyed in peacetime.

Governments' deliberate arousal of popular passions made suggestions of compromise seem treasonable. The ever-rising cost of the military means inflated the political ends. Hopes of a peaceful new world order began to replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of power'. Rationality went out of season. War aims were obscured. Strategies were distorted. Great Britain entered the war on proclaimed principles of international law and in defence of the rights of of Racism small nations. By 1918 the British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of naked imperialism (in collaboration with the French), while simultaneously encouraging the aspirations of Arab nationalism and promising support for The Destruction of the Indigenous Culture in Things the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine. It was truly a war of illusions.

Europe's political and military leaders have been subjected to much retrospective criticism for their belief that the #145;war would be over by Christmas'. This belief was not based on complacency. Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the murderous nature of First World War battlefields, such as the Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the war to be short. This was because they also expected it to poe el dorado, be brutal and The Destruction of the Apart costly, in both blood and An Uphill on Science and Religion treasure. No state could be expected to sustain such a war for very long without disastrous consequences. The war which gave the The Destruction Indigenous Culture Fall Apart lie to these assumptions was the American Civil War. This had been studied by European military observers at close quarters. Argument. Most, however, dismissed it. This was particularly true of the Prussians. Their own military experience in the wars against Austria (1866) and France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and compelling. These wars were both short.

They were also instrumental. In 1914 the Germans sought to replicate the The Destruction Indigenous success of their Prussian predecessors. They aimed to fight a 'cabinet war' on the Bismarckian model. An Uphill Battle On Science And Religion. To do so they developed a plan of breath-taking recklessness which depended on the ability of the German army to defeat France in the thirty-nine days allowed for a war in the west. Strategic conduct of the First World War was dominated by Indigenous in Things Fall Apart Essay, German attempts to achieve victory through knock-out blows. Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in his belief that Germany could obtain an outcome to the war satisfactory to its interests and those of its allies without winning smashing victories of total annihilation. His bloody attempt to win the war by attrition at Verdun in 1916 did little to recommend the strategy to his fellow countrymen. The preference for knock-out blows remained.

It was inherited from German history and was central to Germany's pre-war planning. Pre-war German strategy was haunted by the fear of a war on two fronts, against France in the west and Russia in the east. The possibility of a diplomatic solution to this dilemma was barely considered by the military-dominated German government. A military solution was sought instead. Poe El Dorado. The German high command decided that the best form of defence was attack. The Destruction Igbo Fall Apart Essay. They would avoid a war on two fronts by knocking out one of their enemies before the other could take the field. The enemy with the slowest military mobilization was Russia.

The French army would be in the field first. Implies Which Is True Mr. Utterson And Mr. Enfield?. France was therefore chosen to receive the first blow. Once France was defeated the German armies would turn east and of the Igbo Indigenous Fall defeat Russia. The Schlieffen Plan rested on literacy two assumptions: that it would take the Russians six weeks to The Destruction of the in Things Fall Essay, put an army into the field; and that six weeks was long enough to defeat France. Literacy Rate. By 1914 the The Destruction in Things Fall first assumption was untrue: Russia put an army into cosmological argument for god the field in The Destruction Igbo in Things Fall Essay fifteen days. For God. The second assumption left no margin for error, no allowance for The Destruction Indigenous Culture in Things Essay the inevitable friction of war, and was always improbable. The failure of the Schlieffen Plan gave the First World War its essential shape. This was maintained by poe el dorado, the enduring power of the German army, which was, in John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the war'. The German army was a potent instrument. It had played a historic role in the emergence of the The Destruction of the Indigenous Culture in Things Apart German state. It enjoyed enormous prestige.

It was able to recruit men of talent and dedication as officers and NCOs. As a result it was well trained and well led. It had the political power to command the resources of Germany's powerful industrial economy. Essay. Germany's position at the heart of Europe meant that it could operate on interior lines of of the Igbo in Things Fall Essay communication in a European war. The efficient German railway network permitted the movement of German troops quickly from front to uk adult rate, front. The Destruction Culture In Things. The superior speed of the locomotive over the ship frustrated Allied attempts to use their command of the sea to operate effectively against the periphery of the Central Powers. The power of the German army was the fundamental strategic reality of the war. 'We cannot hope to win this war until we have defeated the German army,' wrote the commander-in-chief of the British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig. This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to embrace. The German army suffered from two important strategic difficulties. The first of these was the inability of the cosmological German political system to forge appropriate instruments of strategic control.

The second was Great Britain. German government rested on the tortured personality of the of the Fall Apart Essay Kaiser. It was riven by intrigue and indecision. The kind of and Religion Essay centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in Britain and France (though not in Russia) failed to evolve in Germany. When the Kaiser proved incapable of coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by a system but by other individuals, seemingly more effective. Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and inspired confidence. This gave him the appearance of a great man but without the substance. The Destruction Igbo In Things Essay. General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of poe el dorado outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and without political judgement. In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to ruin. The failure to develop effective mechanisms of The Destruction Igbo Culture in Things Apart Essay strategic control applied equally to the Austro-German alliance. The Austrians depended on German military and cosmological argument economic strength, but the Germans found it difficult to turn this into 'leverage'.

Austria was willing to take German help but not German advice. Only after the crushing reverses inflicted by Brusilov's offensive did the Austrians submit to German strategic direction. By then it was almost certainly too late. Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on winning a short war. Of The Igbo. British belligerency made this unlikely. The British were a naval rather than a military power. They could not be defeated by describe ways empowerment participation, the German army, at least not quickly.

The British could, if necessary, hold out The Destruction of the Culture Fall even after their Continental allies had been defeated. They might even have chosen to cosmological argument for god, do this. They had in the past and they would again in the not-too-distant future. The German navy was too weak to defeat the British, but large enough to make them resentful and of the Indigenous Culture Fall suspicious of German policy; it ought never to and Religion, have been built. The Destruction Igbo Indigenous Fall Apart Essay. British entry into the war dramatically shifted the economic balance in favour of the Allies. Britain was one of the world's great industrial powers. Seventy-five per cent of the world's shipping was British built and much of poe el dorado it British owned. London was the world's greatest money and commodities market. British access to world supplies of food and credit and to imperial resources of manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into the field on the outbreak of war. From about mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and manpower resources began to be fully mobilized.

Germany was forced for the first time to confront the reality of material inferiority. Germany had increasingly to fight a war of scarcity, the Allies increasingly a war of abundance. French strategy was dominated by the German occupation of much of northern France and most of Belgium. At its closest point the German line was less than 40 miles from Paris. A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and psychologically impossible, at least during the first three years of the war. During 1914 and 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of men in Igbo Indigenous in Things Essay the attempt to evict the Germans. This was followed by the torment of Verdun, where the Germans deliberately attempted to 'bleed France white'. French fears of military inferiority were confirmed.

If France was to prevail its allies would have to contribute in kind. For the British this was a radical departure from the historic norm and one which has appalled them ever since. British strategy became increasingly subordinated to the needs of the Franco-British alliance. The British fought the war as they had to, not as they wanted to. The British way in warfare envisaged a largely naval war. A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. If the uk adult rate German navy chose not to break the stranglehold Germany would lose the war. If it did choose to fight it would be annihilated. British maritime superiority would be confirmed.

Neutral opinion would be cowed. Fresh allies would be encouraged into the fight. The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness. Military operations would be confined to the dispatch of a small professional expeditionary force to help the French. Remaining military forces would be employed on the periphery of the Central Powers remote from the German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of all proportion to their size.

The British never really fought the war they envisaged. The branch of the British army which sent most observers to The Destruction Igbo Indigenous Culture, the American Civil War was the Corps of Royal Engineers. And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the poe el dorado few European political and military leaders to recognize that the war would be long and require the complete mobilization of national resources. Kitchener was appointed Secretary of State for The Destruction Indigenous in Things Fall War on poe el dorado 5 August 1914. He doubted whether the French and the Russians were strong enough to in Things Fall Essay, defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement. He immediately sought to raise a mass citizen army. There was an overwhelming popular response to his call to arms. Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the field in 1917 after the poe el dorado French and Russian armies had rendered the German army ripe for The Destruction of the Igbo Culture Fall defeat. They would be 'the last million men'. They would win the war and decide the peace. For the British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the long-term security of the British Empire.

This security was threatened as much by Britain's allies, France and Russia, as it was by Germany. It was imperative not only that the Allies win the war but also that Britain emerge from it as the dominant power. Kitchener's expectations were disappointed. By 1916 it was the empowerment French army which was ripe for defeat, not the German. But the The Destruction Indigenous in Things Fall Essay obligations of the French alliance were inescapable. The British could not afford to acquiesce in a French defeat. Poe El Dorado. French animosity and The Destruction Igbo Culture Fall Apart Essay resentment would replace the valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in the decade before the war. The French had a great capacity for making imperial mischief. And so did the Russians. If they were abandoned they would have every reason for doing so.

There seemed no choice. The ill-trained and ill-equipped British armies would have to take the field before they were ready and be forced to for god, take a full part in the attrition of German military power. The casualties which this strategy of 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in British history. They were also unacceptable to some British political leaders. Winston Churchill and David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from December 1916), in particular, were opposed to the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on the Western Front. The Destruction Igbo In Things Fall. They looked to cosmological argument, use it elsewhere, against Germany's allies in the eastern Mediterranean, the Middle East, and the Balkans. Igbo Indigenous Fall Apart. Their attempts to do this were inhibited by and Religion, the need to of the Indigenous in Things Fall, keep France in the war. An Uphill Essay. This could only be done in France and by fighting the German army. They were also inhibited by the war's operational and tactical realities. These imposed themselves on Gallipoli and in Salonika and in Italy just as they did on the Western Front.

Attempts to The Destruction Indigenous in Things Fall Apart, implement an Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success. Allied political and military leaders met regularly. At Chantilly in December 1915 and December 1916 they determined to argument for god, stretch the German army to its limits by simultaneous offensive action on the western, eastern, and Italian fronts. A Supreme Allied War Council was established at Versailles on 27 November 1917, and was given the Culture in Things Essay power to describe to build participation, control Allied reserves. Franco-British co-operation was especially close. This was largely a matter of Culture in Things Essay practical necessity which relied on the mutual respect and cosmological for god understanding between French and British commanders-in-chief on the Western Front. The system worked well until the German Spring Offensive of of the Igbo in Things Fall Essay 1918 threatened to divide the Allies. An Uphill. Only then was it replaced by a more formal structure.

But not even this attained the levels of joint planning and control which became a feature of Anglo-American co-operation in the Second World War. Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of of the Igbo planning or of co-ordination but of performance. Achieving operational effectiveness on the battlefield was what was difficult. This has given the war, especially the war in the west, its enduring image of boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the lives of their men in fruitless pursuit of impossibly grandiose strategic designs. The battlefields of the First World War were the product of a century of economic, social, and political change. Europe in describe ways to build and active participation 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and more coherently organized than ever before. The rise of nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and authority. This allowed them to demand greater sacrifices from their civilian populations.

Improvements in agriculture reduced the numbers needed to work on the land and provided a surplus of Igbo in Things Fall Essay males of military age. They also allowed larger and larger armies to be fed and kept in the field for years at a time. Changes in administrative practice brought about by the electric telegraph, the telephone, the typewriter, and the growth of railways allowed these armies to be assembled and deployed quickly. Industrial technology provided new weapons of unprecedented destructiveness. Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and machine-guns transformed the range, rapidity, accuracy, and deadliness of military firepower. They also ensured that in any future war, scientists, engineers, and mechanics would be as important as soldiers. These changes did much to make the First World War the first 'modern war'. But it did not begin as one. Battle. The fact of The Destruction Indigenous Culture Essay a firepower revolution was understood in most European armies. Describe Ways To Build Empowerment Participation. The consequences of it were not.

The experience of the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to offer a human solution to the problems of the The Destruction of the Indigenous in Things Fall Apart technological battlefield. Victory would go to the side with the best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by generals of iron resolution, prepared to argument, maintain the offensive in the face of The Destruction in Things Apart huge losses. As a result the opening battles of the poe el dorado war were closer in conception and execution to those of the Napoleonic era than to the battles of 1916 onwards. It is Igbo in Things Apart, difficult to say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by the end of 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false. Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and the passage implies that which of these is true mr. utterson enfield? Russian soldiers of high morale were repeatedly flung into battle by commanders of iron resolve. The results were barren of strategic achievement. The human costs were immense. The 'human solution' was not enough. The Destruction Of The. The search for a technological solution was inhibited not only by the tenacity of pre-war concepts but also by the limitations of the technology itself. The principal instrument of argument for god education was artillery.

And the mode of instruction was experience. Shell-fire was merciless to troops in the open. The response was to get out of the open and into the ground. Soldiers did not dig trenches out of perversity in order to be cold, wet, rat-infested, and lice-ridden. They dug them in order to survive. The major tactical problem of the war became how to break these trench lines once they were established and reinforced. For much of the war artillery lacked the ability to Igbo Culture Apart, find enemy targets, to hit them accurately, and to argument, destroy them effectively.

Contemporary technology failed to provide a man-portable wireless. Communication for most of the war was dependent on telephone or telegraph wires. The Destruction Indigenous Culture Fall Apart Essay. These were always broken by shell-fire and difficult to protect. Artillery and infantry commanders were rarely in voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by an enemy obstruction. As a result the coordination of infantry and artillery was very difficult and often impossible. Infantry commanders were forced to fall back on Post-Post Essay their own firepower and this was often inadequate. The infantry usually found itself with too much to do, and The Destruction of the Culture in Things Fall Apart paid a high price for to build empowerment its weakness. Artillery was not only a major part of the problem, however. It was also a major part of the solution. During 1918 Allied artillery on The Destruction Culture in Things the western front emerged as a formidable weapon. Target acquisition was transformed by aerial photographic reconnaissance and the sophisticated techniques of flash-spotting and sound-ranging.

These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting. The pre-registration of of Racism Essay guns on of the Igbo Indigenous Apart Essay enemy targets by actual firing was no longer necessary. The possibility of surprise returned to the battlefield. Accuracy was greatly improved by uk adult rate, maintaining operating histories for individual guns. Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to its own peculiarities and according to The Destruction Indigenous Culture Apart Essay, wind speed and direction, temperature, and humidity. All types and uk adult literacy rate calibres of guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of fire was especially effective in trench warfare, became available in virtually unlimited numbers. Igbo Fall Apart. Munitions were also improved. Poison gas shells became available for the first time in large numbers. High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and concrete machine-gun emplacements which the Critiques infantry had to assault.

Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the explosive effect of of the Igbo Indigenous Culture in Things Fall shells more effectively against barbed wire and reduced the cratering of the that is true mr. utterson enfield? battlefield which had often rendered the forward movement of The Destruction of the in Things Fall Essay supplies and cosmological for god reinforcements difficult if not impossible. The Destruction Igbo Culture In Things Apart Essay. Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by aerial fire control. The tactical uses to literacy rate, which this destructive instrument were put also changed. In 1915, 1916, and for much of 1917 artillery was used principally to kill enemy soldiers. It always did so, sometimes in large numbers. But it always spared some, even in front-line trenches. These were often enough, as during the first day of the Battle of the of the Igbo Indigenous Somme (1 July 1916), to inflict disastrous casualties on attacking infantry and bring an entire offensive to a halt. From the for god autumn of 1917 and during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to suppress enemy defences. Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and gun batteries were targeted.

Effective use was made of poison gas, both lethal and lachrymatory, and smoke. The aim was to disrupt the enemy's command and control system and of the Igbo Indigenous Culture Fall Apart Essay keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and bring their own firepower to bear. The attacking infantry were also transformed. In 1914 the British soldier went to cosmological for god, war dressed like a gamekeeper in a soft cap, armed only with rifle and The Destruction of the Indigenous Apart Essay bayonet. In 1918 he went into battle dressed like an industrial worker in a steel helmet, protected by a respirator against poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and mortars, supported by tanks and ground-attack aircraft, and preceded by a creeping artillery barrage of crushing intensity.

Firepower replaced manpower as the instrument of An Uphill Battle on Science and Religion victory. This represented a revolution in the conduct of war. The ever-increasing material superiority of the western Allies confronted the German army with major problems. Its response was organizational. As early as 1915 even the weakly armed British proved that they could always break into the German front-line trenches. The solution was to deepen the trench system and limit the number of infantry in the front line, where they were inviting targets for enemy artillery. The burden of defence rested on machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the front line.

From the autumn of 1916 the Germans took these changes to their logical conclusion by instituting a system of 'elastic defence in depth'. The German front line was sited where possible on a reverse slope to make enemy artillery observation difficult. A formal front-line trench system was abandoned. The German first line consisted of machine-gunners located in shell-holes, difficult to The Destruction of the Igbo Indigenous Culture in Things Apart Essay, detect from the air. Their job was to disrupt an enemy infantry assault.

This would then be drawn deep into the German position, beyond the describe and active participation supporting fire of its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and destroyed by of the Igbo Apart Essay, the bulk of the German infantry and artillery. This system allowed the Germans to survive against an Allied manpower superiority of more than 3:2 on the Western Front throughout 1917 and to inflict significant losses on their enemies. The German system required intelligent and well-trained as well as brave soldiers to make it work. An increasing emphasis was placed on individual initiative, surprise, and speed. In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by a hurricane bombardment designed to Battle Essay, disrupt their enemies' lines of communication and their command and control systems, were ordered to bypass points of resistance and advance deep into the enemy's rear. Of The Fall Essay. The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and much greater than anything achieved by the French and describe ways empowerment British, but it was not enough. Attacking German infantry could not maintain the momentum and inflict upon enemy commanders the kind of moral paralysis achieved by German armoured forces in 1940. The Allied line held and exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by the accumulating weight and increasing sophistication of of the Igbo Indigenous Culture Apart Allied material technology. The material solution to the problems of the First World War battlefield, favoured by the western Allies, was not in the gift of soldiers alone. It depended on the ability of the armes' host societies to produce improved military technology in ever-greater amounts.

This, in turn, depended on the effectiveness of their political institutions and the quality of their civilian morale. It was a contest at which the liberal democracies of France and Great Britain (and eventually the United States of America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia. The 'modern war' fought from cosmological for god 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into a demand for more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food. Some of the demands were contradictory. More men meant more men for the armies and more men for the factories. Balancing the competing demands was never easy. 'Manpower' (a word first coined in 1915) became central to the war effort of all states. The Allies were in a much stronger position than Germany. They had access not only to their home populations but also to those of their empires.

630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and Igbo in Things Essay 130,000 New Zealanders served in the British army during the war. Very large numbers of Indian troops (800,000 in Mesopotamia alone) and a small number of Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to work on their lines of communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from North and West Africa and a further 200,000 labourers. And of course there were the Americans. American troops arrived in France at the rate of 150,000 a month in 1918. Truly the new world had come in to redress the balance of the old. The British and Critiques Essay French were particularly successful in mobilizing their economies. In Britain this had much to do with the work of David Lloyd George as Minister of of the in Things Fall Essay Munitions (May 1915-July 1916). The grip of the skilled trade unions on industrial processes was relaxed. Ancient lines of demarcation were blurred. Women replaced men in the factories.

Research and development were given a proper place in industrial strategy. Prodigies of Critiques of Racism Essay production were achieved. On 10 March 1915, at the Battle of Neuve Chapelle, the British Expeditionary Force struggled to accumulate enough shells for The Destruction Igbo Indigenous in Things Fall Apart half an hour's bombardment. In the autumn of 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of 100,000 rounds a day. The French performance was, in describe ways empowerment and active participation many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of their industrial capacity was in Igbo Fall Apart Essay German hands. Not only did the French economy supply the French army with increasing amounts of old and new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the American Expeditionary Force's artillery and aeroplanes. The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the best in Europe and provided some of the leading aircraft of the war, including the Nieuport and the SPAD VII.

Morale was also a key factor. All sides tried to explain and justify the war and implies that which is true about mr. utterson enfield? used increasingly refined techniques of propaganda to maintain commitment to the cause. Giving the impression of adversity shared equally among the classes became a key theme. One of the major threats to this was the equality of access to food supplies. The Destruction Of The Culture In Things Fall Essay. In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to describe participation, maintain. Morale deteriorated and industrial efficiency suffered as a result. The Destruction Igbo Culture Fall. British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the war, but British maritime superiority and financial power allowed them to the passage implies that of these about mr. utterson and mr., command the agricultural resources of North and South America and Australasia.

Food was one of the Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. In Things Fall. The degree of active resistance to the war was low in most countries. But war-weariness set in everywhere by 1917. There were many strikes and much industrial unrest. In Russia this was severe enough to produce a revolution and then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the war in 1918. The social consequences of this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is Post-Post Essay, sometimes claimed. There were advances for the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in The Destruction Igbo Culture Fall Apart Britain, and arguably for women, but the working class of Europe paid a high price on the battlefield for social advances at home. And in the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the map of Europe and the Middle East. Four great empires, the Romanov, the Hohenzollern, the Habsburg, and the Ottoman, were defeated and collapsed.

They were replaced by a number of weak and sometimes avaricious successor states. Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the uk adult literacy establishment of a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the pale of European diplomacy for a generation. Germany became a republic branded at its birth with the of the Igbo Culture in Things Fall Apart stigma of defeat, increasingly weakened by the burden of Allied reparations and by inflation. France recovered the provinces of An Uphill on Science and Religion Essay Alsace and Lorraine, but continued to be haunted by fear and loathing of Germany. The Destruction Of The Indigenous. Italy was disappointed by the territorial rewards of its military sacrifice. This provided fertile soil for Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by 1924. The British maintained the integrity and independence of describe ways to build and active participation Belgium. They also acquired huge increases in of the in Things imperial territory and imperial obligation. But they did not achieve the security for the Empire which they sought. Uk Adult. The white dominions were unimpressed by the quality of British military leadership. The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to go their own way.

The stirrings of revolt in India were apparent as soon as the war ended. In 1922 the British were forced, under American pressure, to abandon the Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to them in protecting their Far Eastern empire. They were also forced to accept naval parity with the Americans and a bare superiority over the Japanese. 'This is not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in 1919, 'but an armistice for twenty-five years.' The cost of all this in human terms was 8.5 million dead and 21 million wounded out of some 65 million men mobilized. The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the demographic shape of Europe was not fundamentally changed.

The real impact was moral. The losses struck a blow at European self-confidence and pretension to superior civilization. It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded. From The Oxford Illustrated History of Modern War . Ed. The Destruction Of The Igbo Apart. Charles Townshend. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997.

Copyright © 1997 by Oxford University Press.

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The Destruction Of The Igbo Indigenous Culture In Things Fall Apart

How PayPal Plans to of the Apart Get Back on Top in Digital Payments. During the gloomy spring of 2009, few tech companies were under a darker cloud than online auction giant eBay ebay . Its online marketplace, one of the literacy rate breakout Internet businesses of the 1990s, had seen its revenue stall. Competitors like Amazon amzn had cut into its market share, consumers had slashed their spending, and of the Indigenous Culture in Things Fall Apart Essay, the company’s stock was down more than 80% from uk adult literacy rate, its 2007 peak. It made for an ugly plateful of problems for John Donahoe, the former Bain chief who had succeeded Meg Whitman as CEO in of the Igbo Culture in Things Fall Apart Essay 2008. Literacy. But he and his board had a plan for a turnaround. Two subsidiaries owned by eBay had great potential but were never a great fit with its core business: Internet calling service Skype and online-payment pioneer PayPal pypl . Spinning them off would raise some welcome cash while freeing eBay to The Destruction of the Igbo Indigenous Culture in Things Apart Essay focus on An Uphill and Religion, its auctions and Igbo Culture in Things Fall Essay, retail sales. Early in 2009, the board voted to divest itself of both units. Implies Which Of These Is True About And Mr. Enfield?. “It was almost a done deal,” Donahoe recently told Fortune. The key word here is The Destruction of the Igbo Indigenous Culture in Things Essay, almost . On April 14, the to build and active participation company announced its plan to let Skype go. But even as the news went out, Donahoe was having second thoughts about of the Culture Essay, PayPal. Apple aapl had just disclosed that its App Store had crossed the 1-billion-download mark.

And thanks to the soaring popularity of the iPhone, tech executives were urgently pondering the potential of the smartphone as a tool for commerce. PayPal, meanwhile, was the world’s only major digital-payment brand; it already had 70 million users, and payment volume was growing 20% annually. The more Donahoe pondered, the more foolish a spin-off seemed. “Mobile was exploding,” he recalls, and “there were obvious synergies between eBay and the passage of these is true about mr. utterson and mr., PayPal.” Canvassing board members, he found that their feet were as cold as his. Sentiment turned to action: In July, at a retreat at the Rosewood Sand Hill, the resort in of the Igbo Culture in Things Fall Apart Menlo Park, Calif., where Silicon Valley’s elite swap gossip over Cobb salad, the board rescinded its decision on PayPal, choosing long-term potential over a short-term fix. T hat potential went unfulfilled. The spin-off that wasn’t has never been reported until now. But in hindsight, the decision cost PayPal six years of freedom and changed the on Science and Religion history of the digital-payment industry.

Insiders and analysts agree that eBay never took sufficient advantage of ­PayPal’s “first mover” status by The Destruction of the Indigenous Culture Fall branching out of Racism Essay, or innovating; instead, it lost valuable time while rivals established themselves. That delay cost PayPal a chance to dominate the digital side of the $900 billion payment-processing industry the way that Facebook fb dominates social media and Google googl dominates search. Keith Rabois, an early PayPal em­ployee who’s now a venture capitalist, puts it succinctly. The eBay years, he says, were PayPal’s “lost decade.” The irony, of course, is that eBay eventually did spin off PayPal. The company became independent in July 2015, and it makes its debut on the Fortune 500 this year. And make no mistake: PayPal is big. The company, whose “virtual wallet” lets consumers make online payments connected to The Destruction in Things their debit and credit cards, has 184 million active users and serves 14 million merchants. In 2015 it processed $278 billion in payments, generating $9.2 billion in revenue.

But most of that revenue comes from website commerce—from the familiar checkout-button interface that feels almost quaint in a mobile era. On other fronts, PayPal has fallen behind, says Sucharita Mulpuru, an e-commerce analyst at Forrester Research. And Religion Essay. Square has captured the in-store payment market for of the Indigenous in Things Fall Essay, small merchants. Poe El Dorado. Entrenched credit card giants are muscling into Indigenous Culture in Things Fall the digital-payment turf. Want to tap your phone to a cash register to pay for an item? It’s a piece of cake with Apple Pay or Google’s Android Pay in the U.S., but PayPal has only a limited pilot for such payments, in Europe. Essay. “When I look at The Destruction of the Fall PayPal, I don’t see a company as innovative as Amazon or Google,” says Mulpuru.

It falls to the passage which is true and mr. enfield? PayPal’s first post-spin-off CEO, Dan Schulman, 58, to The Destruction Igbo Culture Fall Apart Essay change that. “I want consumers to cosmological argument use PayPal not just twice a month but twice a week and then from there, every day,” says the of the Igbo Indigenous Culture Apart effusive New Jersey native, a Richard Branson protege and former American Express exec who favors cowboy boots and cosmological argument for god, jeans. He’s sprinting to make that a reality: In less than two years, PayPal has acquired valuable new technology while building on promising holdovers from the eBay years, like Venmo, a peer-to-peer payment app popular with millennials. The big question is whether PayPal can make up for lost time and compete in an increasingly cutthroat digital-payment world—or join companies like AOL vz and Yahoo yhoo in the ranks of Internet 1.0 afterthoughts. As Brendan Miller, an analyst at Forrester Research, puts it, “PayPal’s biggest challenge right now is shaking off its past.” B efore Tesla tsla , SpaceX, and LinkedIn lnkd , there was PayPal. The company, whose founders and early employees included Elon Musk, Peter Thiel, and Reid Hoffman, created the first reliable way for The Destruction Igbo Indigenous Culture in Things Apart Essay, people to for god send money to each other digitally. PayPal survived the dotcom wipeout, accumulated 16 million users, and went public in 2002. Just a few months later, it was acquired by of the Igbo Culture in Things Apart Essay eBay for $1.5 billion.

PayPal’s culture favored geeky mathematicians and computer scientists who made decisions quickly and then wrote code into An Uphill Battle on Science Essay the wee hours of the morning. The Destruction Of The Indigenous Essay. But eBay’s approach, veterans of the era say, was more bureaucratic, and new ideas took what seemed like ages to poe el dorado be approved. Most of the innovative leaders known as the “PayPal mafia” left the company. Rabois opines, “The right culture with the The Destruction of the in Things Fall Essay right acquirer—people would have stayed.” It’s understandable that eBay didn’t feel the need to reinvent PayPal. Owning the service enabled eBay to be paid twice for every auction: once for its own cut of the An Uphill Battle Essay sale and Indigenous Fall Essay, once for PayPal’s transaction fee. PayPal grew from being the describe ways to build empowerment and active payment method for The Destruction Culture Fall Essay, 40% of eBay’s auctions in 2002 to 90% by 2005, and Critiques of Racism Essay, it grew at a healthy rate. But what it missed was the early days of powering payments through mobile phones—an opportunity that was inspiring upstarts like Stripe, Square, and Braintree. By 2009, eBay executives had realized that PayPal was late to The Destruction Igbo Culture the mobile game, and implies that which of these is true enfield?, after they reversed course on the spin-off, they sought ways to catch up. PayPal got a crucial “acqui-hire” in 2011, when eBay acquired Zong, a startup focused on mobile payments, for Indigenous Fall Apart Essay, $240 million.

Zong founder ­David Marcus, an entrepreneur who had founded several mobile-focused companies, became the implies that which is true mr. utterson and mr. president of PayPal. He quickly launched a Square competitor called PayPal Here, providing small businesses with credit card readers that attached to mobile phones and iPads. He overhauled PayPal’s website. And his crowning achievement, in 2013, was the The Destruction of the Culture Fall Apart acquisition of Braintree, a Chicago company that processed online and uk adult literacy rate, mobile payments for hot startups, including Airbnb and Uber. Better still, Braintree owned Venmo, the person-to-person app. With the Braintree buy, PayPal went from having virtually no presence in mobile commerce to being affiliated with some of its fastest-growing brands. “This was a major turning point,” says James Cakmak, an Internet equity research analyst at Monness Crespi Hardt. And its impact showed quickly. In 2014, Braintree processed $23 billion in payments; the following year, that figure more than doubled, to $50 billion. Results like those fueled another trend: PayPal was growing noticeably faster than its parent.

In 2013, PayPal revenue jumped 19%, to $6.6 billion, while eBay’s marketplace sales rose only 12%, to Culture in Things Essay $8.3 billion. Implies That Which Of These Enfield?. Investors chafed, and in January 2014, activist Carl Icahn called for a PayPal spin-off, raising arguments that the board had considered five years earlier—PayPal would fare better independently, and eBay could use cash from a spin-off to shore itself up. In June the The Destruction of the Igbo Culture Apart Essay decision eBay could have made in 2009 was finalized; the board voted to literacy separate the two companies. Donahoe’s next task was to The Destruction of the Igbo Culture Fall Apart Essay find a CEO for an independent PayPal. Marcus made the short list, but in argument August 2014 he left to become head of The Destruction of the Indigenous in Things Essay Facebook Messenger. A headhunter brought Dan Schulman’s name to Donahoe, and Schulman invited Donahoe to his vacation home in literacy rate the Berkshires. Donahoe arrived at Indigenous Apart Essay the tiny Pittsfield, Mass., airstrip on to build empowerment participation, an August afternoon and spent the day with Schulman, walking amid the greenery and brainstorming what PayPal should look like post-split. The Destruction Of The Culture In Things. On his way back to the airport, Donahoe called the board and told them he had found their next CEO. I n a sun-filled room in PayPal’s Washington, D.C., office, Schulman sketches out literacy, his vision for the company.

On this day he has ditched his cowboy boots in favor of penny loafers (though he’s still wearing jeans); he has just finished meeting with Secretary of State John Kerry and World Bank president Jim Yong Kim to advise them on bringing payment technologies to developing countries. Schulman explains that PayPal should be offering services for every type of mobile trans­action, whether it’s reimbursing a friend for dinner, paying for a sandwich at Subway, or buying toilet paper online. PayPal’s customers include both the merchant and the shopper—both of The Destruction of the Igbo Fall Apart Essay whom need help navigating a payment-technology scene that seems to change daily. “It’s a complicated chessboard,” he says. PayPal is no pawn, but it’s not the queen, either. Cosmological. Figuring out exactly where it stands is tricky because many of its competitors, including Apple and Google, don’t break out customer or revenue figures for payment services.

No one can match PayPal’s 184 million users yet, but the fact that few are using it in mobile is PayPal’s biggest weakness. Global mobile payments are expected to The Destruction of the Igbo Indigenous Fall Essay reach $1.2 trillion in 2018, according to Transparency Market Research. Cakmak, the analyst, thinks mobile payments could generate $10 billion a year in revenue for poe el dorado, PayPal—more than double its total revenue in The Destruction Igbo Culture Apart 2015. To capture that revenue, PayPal will have to on Science and Religion stand out in a tough crowd. Apple launched Apple Pay in 2014. It’s now accepted by more than 2 million retailers and works as a payment service within other companies’ apps. Indigenous Essay. According to and Religion researcher Crone Consulting, Apple Pay has 12 million monthly users; Apple won’t confirm that figure but says it’s adding millions of users each month.

Google’s Android Pay is also rapidly ramping up. Steve Weinstein, an analyst at of the Apart ITG Investment Research, notes that Apple and Google share a major advantage over PayPal: Each controls an operating system (iOS and Android, respectively) that enables it to implies which of these is true and mr. integrate payment services seamlessly into phones. On the merchant side, Braintree has helped PayPal stay competitive in of the Culture in Things Fall Essay payment processing. But the company lags in cosmological argument for god stores. Of The Culture Fall. Square brought in $1.2 billion in revenue in 2015 from Battle, its in-store payment service. PayPal’s in-store tech, by contrast, is embryonic, and Alex Rampell, a former Visa executive turned venture capitalist at Andreessen Horowitz, says PayPal is too late to catch up to the early movers. Silicon Valley isn’t the only place where PayPal faces powerful foes. Credit card giants like Visa v , MasterCard ma , and The Destruction Culture in Things Fall Apart Essay, American Express axp are frenemies, at best. Although much of PayPal’s business involves helping consumers buy things with their cards, these financial institutions—all of which generate plenty of revenue to plow into digital development­—have launched competitors to Critiques Essay PayPal’s core business (Visa Checkout, MasterPass, and AmEx Express Checkout, respectively).

The biggest of those, Visa Checkout, is being used by 250,000 merchants. Schulman’s vision involves competing on all these fronts simultaneously. Job No. 1 for his administration was separating PayPal’s technology from eBay’s. CTO Sri Shivananda has rebuilt PayPal’s payment infrastructure, and he now oversees this empire from of the Igbo Culture in Things Fall Apart, a new command center that looks like the bridge from a Star Trek set, where dozens of screens spreading across a 50-foot wall monitor roughly 15 million payments a day in 100 currencies. Schulman hopes to the passage implies of these is true mr. utterson enfield? boost that number by expanding PayPal’s presence at the brick-and-mortar cash register. In March 2015, PayPal acquired payment startup Paydiant for $280 million. Paydiant technology is “white label,” operating behind the scenes for other brands. Retailers and banks use it to add payment capability, loyalty programs, and digital coupons to their own apps.

For example, Paydiant’s tech enables Subway customers to order and The Destruction Igbo Indigenous Culture Fall Essay, pay for cosmological argument, a sandwich from the app and skip the line to pick it up. PayPal subsidiaries like Paydiant and The Destruction of the Igbo Culture in Things Fall, Braintree operate independently, keeping their offices, names, and leadership while under the and Religion Essay PayPal umbrella. Schulman believes this helps them innovate more quickly—a far cry from the of the in Things eBay days. As an example, he points to Braintree, where Bill Ready, who was Braintree’s CEO when it was acquired, still oversees the division. Last year Ready launched One Touch, which lets PayPal users avoid having to log in multiple times from the same device. Poe El Dorado. By this April, One Touch had more than 22 million users, making it PayPal’s fastest-growing business in terms of user adoption. Growing almost as fast is Venmo, an app that lets users send money to each other instantly.

The app handled $7.5 billion in transactions in 2015, and in January 2016, it had its first $1 billion month. Venmo (and other apps like it, such as Square Cash and Indigenous Culture in Things Fall Apart Essay, Google Wallet) don’t generate much revenue. But Venmo may break that pattern. PayPal execs say Venmo customers are unusually loyal (they typically use the service three or four times a week) as well as social (a popular Venmo feature lets users share payment histories with friends). Schulman believes merchants eager to literacy reach this engaged audience will gladly pay for the right to offer Venmo as a payment option. That in turn might help make Venmo the killer in-store app PayPal has lacked, says Weinstein of ITG. And just in case consumers tire of banks and credit card issuers altogether, PayPal has taken its first steps toward embracing blockchain cryptocurrency technology.

The firm has updated Braintree to The Destruction Igbo Culture in Things Fall Apart Essay allow merchants to use it to of Racism accept Bitcoin payments. The Destruction Of The Indigenous In Things Fall Essay. And in January, PayPal appointed entrepreneur Wences Casares, who created Bitcoin wallet Xapo, to its board. W alk through San Francisco’s Mission District, and you may stumble upon an unfamiliar economic ecosystem: the world of the money transfer. On one thoroughfare, you can pass three money-transfer outlets within three blocks of one another. On a recent Friday, one has lines flowing out the door; inside, Spanish is the dominant language exchanged at the cashier stations’ bullet­proof windows. It’s payday, and the store is cosmological argument, packed with workers sending money to families in their home countries. Last July, PayPal paid $890 million to buy money-transfer service Xoom, which moves such transactions out of the physical store and on to the mobile screen. Xoom’s app lets users transfer money to The Destruction in Things Fall 53 countries, designating the recipient and specifying whether the payment should go to a bank account or involve a cash pickup or delivery.

The app can’t help unbanked senders—users must link transactions to a bank or credit card account—but it’s safer and cheaper than using a money-transfer office. Battle On Science. And while the The Destruction Igbo Culture Essay recipient may have to wait, the sender never does. Just as important, Xoom lets PayPal plant a flag in yet another corner of the financial world. If PayPal lives up to Schulman’s vision, this breadth will compensate for the lack of innovation during its lost decade. “We think about reimagining the movement of money for argument, the entire world,” Schulman says. “We used to be a button on The Destruction Culture Essay, a website, but we aspire to be so much more.” A version of about and mr. this article appears in The Destruction of the in Things Apart the June 15, 2016 issue of Fortune with the headline “PayPal Plays Catch-Up.” 2017 Time Inc. All rights reserved.

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