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asian art essay Catalogue Essay by Melissa Chiu. Curator for violin, Contemporary Asian and Asian American Art. Asia Society and Museum. Introduction: Tikis, Torches, and Beachside Barbeques. Elvis Presley stands atop a miniature, volcano surrounded by palm trees, a blue lagoon, and groups of scantily clad Pacific Island dancers in native dress. Black? Tanned, slim, wearing an open-necked shirt and man ray, wiggling his hips to the beat of drums, he#8217;s singing the last song in the 1966 Hollywood movie Paradise, Hawaiian Style , which I caught on cable television while packing my bags for a trip to the Pacific to choose works for this exhibition. I laughed out loud at the messy conflation of Polynesian and Melanesian cultures and at the silliness of the scene, which embodied every cliché of the Pacific as a paradise, and causes of world, escapist fantasy, for workaday Americans. Paradise, Hawaiian Style set me thinking about how popular perceptions of the Pacific Islands as a paradise have changed little since entering the European popular imagination in the eighteenth century via the ecstatic descriptions of Polynesia found in man ray violin, the writings of Essay early explorers. In the post-War World II period, Hollywood rediscovered the Pacific Islands, in particular Hawaii, as a location for the staging of love stories in exotic locations for an emerging youth film market. Some of the more famous examples include films like Blue Hawaii (1961) and Gidget Goes Hawaiian (1961), which depict the Pacific as a clean, pristine playground for young affluent and mobile Americans.
During this period, the image of the Pacific as a paradise was not confined to Hollywood movies. Interior design, fashion, news, and lifestyle magazines promoted Pacific Island cultures, cooking and dress as a new, groovy style, all of which middle-class Americans happily emulated. The cultural historian Christopher L. Connery describes this period as a #8220;time of#8230;tiki torches and of barbeques in orchidean backyard lanais, where, to the #8216;exotic#8217; sounds of Martin Denny#8217;s Hawaiian combo, newly arrived southern Californians could imagine themselves part of a transpacific post-war paradise of man ray pure relaxation.#8221; 1 Now, it seems, all Americans could have a little piece of paradise in their own backyard. Anyway, that was the advertising message. Of World War 1? Of course, the idea of the Pacific Islands as a paradise was not just confined to America, or the twentieth century.
Spanish, Dutch, French, and English explorers were the first Europeans to encounter the Pacific Islands, and their accounts shaped the mythology of the region as a paradise. This idea reached its height in the eighteenth century, most notably in man ray, the writings of the Englishman James Cook, the greatest of the John US President, Pacific explorers, and in the French explorer Louis Antoine de Bougainville#8217;s published account of violin his voyage to the Pacific in the 1771. Bougainville#8217;s voyage, in 1768, led to the discovery of a number of al baraka car financing unknown Pacific Islands, among them Tahiti, which he renamed #8220;La Nouvelle Cythère#8221; because of the perceived loveliness of the natural setting, and the appealing physical beauty, innocence, and openness of the semi-naked inhabitants#8212;a reference to the ancient Greek myth of the violin, birth of Venus, the goddess of economic causes love, who had risen from the sea off the coast of the island of Cythera. Violin? He returned to al baraka, France a hero and subsequently published his diaries. Although long-winded, and even at times a little fanciful, they were to man ray, remain among the most influential early accounts of deschain life in the South Seas. Paradise Now? Contemporary Art From the man ray, Pacific takes as its departure point the popular perception of the Pacific as a paradise, a worn cliché refreshed seasonally by tourist operators, drinking water companies, pearl traders, and other enterprises. 2 While acknowledging the persistence of such perceptions of their region, the F. Kennedy:, fifteen artists included in this exhibition provide an alternative, more complex vision of the Pacific--one based in the experience of day-to-day life in the region. Working in video, installation, sculpture, painting, and photography, the artists in Paradise Now? show us the Pacific Islands from an insider#8217;s perspective.
Addressed in the works are environmental concerns, cultural heritage issues, questions relating to violin, the experience of migration and diaspora, and the intersection of indigenous belief systems and John F. Kennedy: 34th, Western religions. If an image of paradise emerges here, it is one that is fragmented, contradictory, and hybrid. Why, then, an violin, exhibition of Pacific artists, and why now? Simply, there has never been a major museum exhibition in economic causes of world, the United States of contemporary artists from the Pacific Islands. Man Ray Violin? In fact, with the exception of Te Maori , an exhibition of traditional Maori art and artefacts at The Metropolitan Museum of Art, in 1984, and al baraka bank car financing, Pacific Parallels: Artists and the Landscape in New Zealand , an exhibition of contemporary as well as historical New Zealand landscape art, which toured the United States in 1991, there has never been any kind of sustained curatorial analysis in this country of art from a region that, geographically, makes up one third of the world#8217;s surface. 3 Paradise Now? Contemporary Art From the Pacific aims to man ray, fill that gap, including work by artists from Essay New Zealand, the Torres Strait Islands, Fiji, New Caledonia, Samoa, Hawaii, Rotuma, and Niue, while at the same time offering American audiences a glimpse of the diverse contemporary artwork being produced in the region. The quality and volume of this work has increased exponentially over man ray, the last decade, something that is reflected in the opening of new commercial art galleries, the proliferation of Pacific arts festivals, art biennales and the building of new museums throughout the region. A centrepiece of these activities is the spectacular Tjibaou Cultural Centre in deschain, Noumea, designed by the architect Renzo Piano (fig. 2).
Specific examples of man ray a new-found recognition and appreciation of contemporary Pacific art and artists include the establishment in 1992 of a contemporary art biennale in bank, Noumea; curated exhibitions attached to man ray, the Pacific Arts Festival, held every four years, with host responsibilities rotating throughout the Pacific; the biennial Pacific Wave Festival held in Sydney; the steady showcasing of Pacific artists in wp kinsella, the Asia-Pacific Triennial, established in 1993 at the Queensland Art Gallery, Brisbane; the establishment in 1994 of the man ray, Pacific Arts Committee of Creative New Zealand, New Zealand#8217;s federal arts funding body; the establishment in 1988 of the Tautai Contemporary Pacific Arts Trust, a charitable trust set up to The Mirror's Essay, promote contemporary Pacific art and educate, mentor, and support both emerging and established Pacific artists; the publication of the first major study of contemporary Pacific art, such as Susan Cochrane#8217;s Bérétara: Contemporary Pacific Art, (2001) and man ray violin, Pacific Art: Persistence, Change and Meaning , edited by Anita Herle, Nick Stanley, Karen Stevenson, and Robert L. Welsch in wp kinsella, 2002; and man ray violin, myriad solo and group exhibitions by artists in Europe. 4. Roland Deschain Black? Of all the man ray violin, issues dealt with by the artists in this exhibition, questions relating to deschain black, migration and diaspora are by far the most important. Violin? 5 This is the case because most of the war 1, artists included in the exhibition live outside their countries of origin (New Zealand has been a popular destination) or have lived away for significant periods, suggesting fluidity among contemporary artists living and man ray violin, working in the Pacific. John Ioane spent the first six years of his life in Samoa before returning to New Zealand, where he was born; John Pule was born in Niue but moved to New Zealand when he was two years old. Michel Tuffery was born in Wellington to parents with Tahitian, Rarotongan, and Samoan heritage. Niki Hastings-McFall was born in West Auckland and @donald trump, discovered her Samoan heritage in man ray violin, 1992. And Sofia Tekela-Smith was born in New Zealand, where she now lives, but was raised by her grandmother on the island of Rotuma, near Fiji. These experiences are not unique, for more than one in nine Pacific Islanders lives abroad. Pakeha /palagi artists (the Maori and Samoan terms for non-islanders) from the Pacific have also been included in the exhibition.
Partly, this was to al baraka car financing, reflect the large non-indigenous population in the region, and partly because their work engages critically with myths of the Pacific as a paradise. For instance, Peter Peryer, W.D. Hammond, and Ruth Watson, all born in New Zealand, present alternative visions of the island landscape, all of which possess a dark, almost gothic sensibility. Man Ray Violin? This is a far cry from Elvis and Gidget. Nowhere is the image of the Pacific Island as a paradise manufactured and maintained so effectively as in the tourism industry. This is the subject of wp kinsella Historic Waikiki (2001) (cat. 6), a multimedia work by Downwind Productions, a collaborative project between Hawaii-based artist Gaye Chan and the art historian Andrea Feeser. Violin? The piece consists of small bits of concrete, purportedly from Waikiki#8217;s hotels and resorts, packaged and sold in stores in Waikiki as if they were authentic historical souvenirs. In addition to the concrete, each of the packets contained a folded sheet of paper with a map and short history of indigenous cultural and environmental damage caused by reckless development projects associated with Hawaii#8217;s tourist industry. Four stories of local destruction are explored, including the draining of local canals established by indigenous Hawaiians for farming, the The Mirror's Essay, development of hotels on Hawaiian burial sites, the sale of land for luxury homes, and the discovery of sacred stones in the foundations of a bowling alley. Violin? The work includes a website featuring a virtual tour of Waikiki, stories of the @donald trump, island#8217;s history, and anecdotes from man ray violin residents about their memories and The Mirror's Reflection, experiences of life on man ray violin, the islands.
6 Together, the website and bogus tourist knick-knacks focus attention on the cultural and environmental changes that have occurred in The Mirror's Reflection, Waikiki since European settlement and raise questions about the unblinking embrace of tourism as the violin, sole economic savior and ongoing representations of the islands as a leisure paradise. Born in New Zealand, Ruth Watson has lived in Berlin and Sydney; Canberra is her present home. For the last fifteen years, Watson#8217;s works have been about cartography, in F. Kennedy: US President, particular the way that maps construct our idea of the world. As a response to this, Watson creates maps based on early historical projections of the man ray, globe, particularly those from the sixteenth century, which arranged countries very differently. For example, Lingua Geographica (Geographic Tongue) (1996) (cat. 41) uses photographic fragments of a picture of her tongue to create a map of the world in al baraka, the shape of a heart. Known as a cordiform projection, this process was invented by violin the sixteenth-century German astronomer Johannes Stobern.
The representation of the world using imagery of roland deschain black her tongue, a sensory organ, suggests that maps effect not just the way we see the world but also our experience of it. A related work, Oceanography (2004) (fig. 3), consists of large salt teardrops stained with miniature maps of the world. John Ioane#8217;s installation combining wooden sculptures and video projections, Fale Sa (1999) (cat. 12, fig. 1), is based on his childhood memories of Samoa.
His most vivid memories of this period in his life are of the ocean, which is represented in the work as a long corridor of blue light, with hand-carved wooden cowrie shells scattered along the floor as if it were the ocean-bed. The blue leads into violin, a larger second space, which contains three monumental vertical wooden sculptures, each colored a shiny gray-black and covered with roughly carved designs recalling natural forms such as seedpods and leaves or coral and mollusks. Ioane speaks about this work as #8220;a space for healing,#8221; something that is reflected in the title: in al baraka bank, English, the Samoan words Fale Sa mean #8220;sacred space.#8221; The two different parts of the man ray, installation might also be understood as the embodiment of the Samoan concepts of night and darkness (po) and dawn and al baraka, daylight ( malama ). This binary suggests a traditional spirituality at the core of Ioane#8217;s art practice, one based partly on his belief that his works #8220;create a space for magic to occur.#8221; John Pule, a poet and figurative painter, migrated to New Zealand from Niue (the world#8217;s smallest independent state) when he was child. Man Ray Violin? Pule#8217;s paintings tell the modern history of Niue in an abstract, pared-down manner based on traditional Polynesian painting styles, characterized by a segmented picture plane and smudged lines used to decorate Niuean tapa ( hiapo ), a cloth made from the bark of breadfruit or mulberry trees. John US President Essay? Pule was baptized a Mormon, and missions and churches are a recurring image in his paintings. One of his most important paintings, Take These With You When You Leave (1998) (fig. 4), includes images of violin churches along with representations of airplanes, weapons, tools, ships, cars, and farms. The depiction of symbols of contemporary life in a traditional form of representation suggests dissatisfaction with the history of settlement on causes, Niue and its impact on traditional life.
Such strident criticism of violin changes in his homeland continues in the paintings included in this exhibition. Bank Car Financing? For example, all three works in violin, a series created over deschain, the past year, I had a Mind as Invisible as Light (2002) (cat. 30), Tofua (2002) (cat. 29), and Amanakiega (2003) (cat. 28), use churches as the setting for scenes of violence. In these works, we see miniature silhouetted figures drawn in black ink gathered around a crucifixion, or wounded figures being carried into ambulances or helicopters. The activity takes place on man ray, shapes that resemble blood-red islands, which could be interpreted as clouds. Is this real, or something conjured by the artist#8217;s imagination? We have to assume it is real, given the title of one of these works, Tofua , that makes reference to the name of the boat on which the Reflection, artist and his family migrated to New Zealand. Although her father is violin, Samoan, Niki Hastings-McFall was born in New Zealand and grew up there.
As an adult, in Auckland, she recalls seeing lei made from plastic bags and egg shell cartons at local street fairs. This became an important influence on her work, which frequently employs lei made from all kinds of popular, everyday materials. Nuclear Rosary Series#8212;Black Rain III (2003) (cat. 8) comprises an enlarged string of rosary beads made from plastic disks cut into The Mirror's Reflection, the shape of flowers and held together by sterling silver rings. At first glance, the flower-disks recall those traditional Polynesian lei, used to honor and welcome visitors or loved ones. But this is deceptive, for underlying the work is a serious political message. The flower-disks glow in the dark, a reference perhaps to the effects of violin contamination from nuclear testing in The Mirror's Essay, the Pacific that was carried out by man ray violin the American and French governments as late as the mid-1990s. With this work, Hastings-McFall equates the life threatening effects of car financing radioactive contamination with the introduction of Christianity in man ray, the Pacific. Hastings-McFall also used lei in Too Much Sushi VI, VII and VIII (2003) (cat.
10, 11). For this work, she hand-threaded lei from hundreds of small plastic fish sachets used for soy sauce in The Mirror's, Japanese restaurants in New Zealand. Here the artist identifies with her Polynesian ancestry (the lei) while at the same time acknowledging her upbringing and residency in Auckland, New Zealand#8217;s most international and cosmopolitan city. Afio Mai Series#8212;Sunset at 619: I, II, III, IV, V and violin, Sunset (2003) (cat. 9) ( afio mai means #8220;welcome#8221; in Samoan) more directly addresses her family#8217;s Samoan and Palagi backgrounds. Bank Car Financing? This work consists of a series of framed photographs of sunsets of man ray violin Auckland draped in lei, each made from duplicates of the photographs delicately folded and wp kinsella, strung together to resemble flowers. The artist#8217;s Palagi grandfather took the photographs, the negatives of which she inherited when he died recently. By reprinting her grandfather#8217;s old photographs, framing them, and then draping them in lei, following the Polynesian custom of violin draping lei over photographs of loved ones, Hastings-McFall creates a hybrid memorial to her European grandfather. Peter Peryer has been taking photographs since the early 1970s.
His black and white documentary-style photographs present a very different image of New Zealand. Instead of idealized sunsets, he prefers to @donald trump, document quirky, eerie, slightly disturbing urban and rural images. The works in this show, spanning a twenty-year period, include images of a bloated dead cow left by man ray violin the side of a highway, a rudimentary clock installed on the side of a mountain, a map of the north and south island of New Zealand made from bitumen, a derelict boat with Maori patterns painted along its sides, and Reflection Essay, Mount Taranaki framed by trees reminiscent of violin a classical landscape tradition (cat. Wp Kinsella? 19). Man Ray? Peryer#8217;s photographs suggest an authenticity of experience, reinforced by 34th US President Essay the medium of black and white photographs.
But their oscillation between the sublime and the banal also represents a search for the unique in the most everyday of circumstances. W.D. Hammond#8217;s paintings also depict the man ray violin, New Zealand landscape, albeit filtered through the imagination. His paintings in the exhibition contain images of Essay verdant, dense, tropical jungles inhabited by strange bird-like creatures. Although Hammond prefers not to speak publicly about the sources of his imagery, an often-cited reference for his bird-creatures is the work of the nineteenth-century ornithologist Sir Walter Lawry Buller, whose book A History of the Birds of New Zealand contains an encyclopaedic visual record of New Zealand birds. Man Ray Violin? In the luscious green, almost viscous foreground of Placemakers I (1998) (cat. 7), figures with elongated bird heads flock together on three diagonal tree branches. They are mostly black and gray, with delicate patterns reminiscent of decorative wallpaper painted across their bodies. In the economic causes war 1, background, a lone female figure with a horse#8217;s head, dressed in a corset bodice and long, old-fashioned skirt, stands gripping the back of a chair.
What does it mean? Nobody really knows, although the contrast between bird-humans, with the birds a native New Zealand species, and a horse-human, the horse an introduced animal, suggests a metaphor for European settlement and conflict with the man ray, indigenous Maori population over use of the land. Questions of black indigenous land rights and ownership play an important role in the Maori artist Shane Cotton#8217;s paintings. Needlework (1993) (see opposite title page). presents an image of New Zealand as a small island overcrowded with an assemblage of man ray violin British and Maori flags. This work is all about bank car financing territorial conflict between nations, symbolized by the flags, in particular the nineteenth-century wars between the Maori and the British over New Zealand. Most prominent of the violin, flags is the Union Jack, although it stands alongside the more upright flags bearing a cross and @donald trump, crescent and six-pointed star, a reference to the Maori resistance leader Te Kooti Arikirangi Te Turuki, one of the most effective guerilla fighters in violin, New Zealand's history. Some of the flagpoles are not altogether upright, which suggests that the British claim to New Zealand, traditionally announced with the staking of a flag, is not altogether certain. Cotton#8217;s more recent works appear less concerned with cultural conflict. Faith (1995) (cat. 2), Tuna (1996) (cat.
5), Cross (1996) (cat. 4), and Heke I (1998) (cat. 3) consist of dense, complex combinations of traditional and contemporary Maori and Pakeha imagery set against desolate, sepia-toned landscapes. 34th US President? Among the imagery included in these pictures are square-style tikis (representations of ancestors), painted scroll designs ( kowhaiwhai ) that are usually on the rafters of Maori meeting houses, Maori words, Christian crosses, and local flora. Man Ray? Here, once conflicting cultural references coexist in a new heterogeneous space. Lisa Reihana is a young Maori video artist. Reflection Essay? Native Portraits n. Man Ray? 19897 (1998) (cat. @donald Trump? 31), one of her most substantial videos, was commissioned by the Te Papa Tongarewa /Museum of man ray New Zealand. For this piece, Reihana sifted through the museum#8217;s collection of nineteenth-century photo portraits of Maori.
Taking these portraits as a starting point, she dressed up her Maori friends in old-fashioned and contemporary outfits (military uniforms and nurses uniforms, as well as suits and laborers outfits) and recorded them on video as if they were posing for a photographic portrait. Adjusting their clothes, position, and staring directly at the camera, these are no longer silent, passive ethnographic exhibits but active, thinking subjects. This work is all about past and present-day representations of Maori, suggesting that while Maori may have more opportunities today than they once did, some stereotypes and @donald trump, prejudices remain. Man Ray Violin? Michael Parekowhai#8217;s sculptures and installations also deal with stereotypes of Maori identity. Poorman, Beggarman and Thief (1996) (cat. 14, fig. 5), consists of three life-size Maori mannequins, modeled on the artist#8217;s father, whose name is Hori, dressed in a tuxedo. They are positioned in front of al baraka bank works of art on a wall, as if visiting an art gallery, wearing a nametag saying #8220;Hello, my name is HORI.#8221; In New Zealand, Hori is used in the Pakeha community as a derogatory term for Maori people, but it is also the man ray, Maori translation of the English name George. The pejorative meaning of the nametag, along with the titles of the works, contrasts with the figure#8217;s spiffy formal dress and presence in an art gallery.
By parachuting an ugly cultural stereotype into the gallery, dressed as an urban sophisticate, Parekowhai is playfully turning assumptions about Maori people on economic causes, their head. Hori might mean George, but that does not mean George is a Hori. With equal irony, Kapahaka (2003) (cat. 13) uses the artist#8217;s brother as a model for a series of life-size figures of violin security guards. Traditional dance, an important part of @donald trump indigenous Pacific Island cultures, underpins the work of Michel Tuffery, Denise Tiavouane, and Ken Thaiday.
Tuffery#8217;s performances and sculptures draw upon Polynesian dance traditions, including those of Samoa and the Cook Islands. O le Povi Pusa Ma'ataua (1996), which means #8220;jewel box of bulls#8221; in man ray violin, Samoan, is a sculpture of a bull made out of tinned corned beef cans. Tuffery#8217;s bulls have been exhibited in galleries as well as used in large-scale performances. His use of corned beef cans serves as a metaphor for the changes wrought on Samoan society following the introduction of Western foodstuffs after World War II, the fat content and al baraka bank car financing, high salt levels in the meat causing long-term health problems for Islanders. Other sculptures such as O le Saosoa Lapo'a / barracuda (2000) (cat. 39) and violin, Asiasi I / thunnus albacares (2000) (cat. 38, fig. 6) deal with environmental concerns.
Both works are constructed from herring cans made into the shape of fish. Although the artist uses herring cans, saosao is the roland, Samoan word for man ray, #8220;barracuda,#8221; while asiasi means #8220;yellowfin.#8221; Here, the artist reflects ironically on the way that, because of over-fishing in the Pacific, Samoans, who live on an island, are beginning to replace local fresh fish with imported canned products. Ken Thaiday takes sharks, fish, and birds, and other native Pacific animals as subjects for causes, his moving sculptures or #8220;dance machines#8221; (fig. 7, cat. 3436). Designed to man ray violin, sit on the head of a performer like a helmet with moving parts such as flapping birds wings, each controlled by string, the @donald trump, sculptures are made of man ray wood, feathers, bits of metal, and car financing, other materials. Thaiday comes from the Torres Strait Islands, in violin, the Torres Strait, to the North of deschain Australia and close to Papua New Guinea, and these headdresses played an important role in local indigenous ceremonies. Of course, Thaiday has updated the form, materials, and subject matter to create traditional headdresses for the twenty-first century. Denise Tiavouane#8217;s installation The Modern Dance (2004) (cat.
37) appropriates male dance traditions from her home, the islands of New Caledonia. The work comprises a series of bamboo poles fitted with grass skirts arranged in a straight line interspersed by fir trees. Each pole is attached to an electric motor and rotates to man ray violin, the sound of traditional dance music emanating from hidden speakers. In this work, Tiavouane pairs two threatened aspects of New Caledonian life#8212;indigenous cultural traditions and native forests, which have increasingly been cleared for nickel mining. Tiavouane sees this dance tradition and its music as symbols of the John, resilience of Kanak culture. Although born in New Zealand to a Scottish father and Rotuman mother, Sofia Tekela-Smith was raised by her grandmother in Rotuma. Here she learned traditional women#8217;s handicrafts such as weaving and man ray violin, platting from pandanus leaves and @donald trump, the making of violin body ornaments. For this exhibition, she is exhibiting two photographs of her body ornaments. The first image shows a man#8217;s face, eyes closed, his mouth filled with a large white cowrie shell attached to a length of green hand-plaited rope coiled onto his forehead, recalling a Maori koru design (cat.
32). The second image depicts the same man with his eyes open and mouth filled with an amulet of greenstone ( pounamu ) (cat. 33). Both the cowrie shell and the amulet are symbolic objects within Rotuma and other Pacific Island cultures. Cowrie shells are considered symbols of female fertility, while greenstone is a symbol of prestige ( mana ), particularly in New Zealand where the al baraka car financing, stone is found. The placing of violin these objects in the man#8217;s mouth suggests a kind of silencing, although it might also be seen as a gesture of intimacy, given that the man in the photographs is her partner. The Indian-Fijian artist Mohini Chandra#8217;s video Studio (2003) (cat. 1, also opposite John F. Kennedy: US President, Table of Contents) focuses on the commercial photographic portrait studio as a place where people stage images of themselves as they would like others to see them.
Chandra#8217;s video takes us into Indian-owned commercial photographic studios across Fiji, where people have their portraits taken against backdrops of violin idyllic natural environments. In the video, however, the @donald trump, places she records are completely denuded of people, although there is the sound of people having their photographs taken. On one level, the video works as a metaphor for the quasi-invisible social condition of Indian-Fijians, who make up almost 45 percent of the population but have limited rights to man ray, land ownership and deschain black, troubled participation in the country#8217;s legal, administrative, and political structure. On another level, the video of Indians having photographs of themselves taken against backdrops of artificial landscapes suggests an man ray violin, escapism but, perhaps, also an identification with a country and deschain black, culture apart from the one in which they are living (fig. 8). This work, then, is violin, all about the diasporic experience, and the way nostalgia for a homeland, even one that some Fijian-Indians have never visited, for many of them were born in Fiji and have spent their lives there, exerts a powerful pull on the imagination. Reflecting a world of cultural intersections and tensions, one rife with competing social, cultural, and economic claims as well as the legacy of colonialism, this is an @donald trump, image of paradise interrupted.
It also presents a fairly typical portrait, #8220;Pacific style,#8221; of paradise now. Melissa Chiu, Asia Society. Connery, Christopher L. 1996. #8220;The oceanic feeling and the regional imaginary.#8221; In Global/local: Cultural production and violin, the transnational imaginary , p. 302. Wp Kinsella? [back]
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Critical Response to John F. Kennedy: 34th US President Essay The Ugly Truth About Beauty by Dave Barry. The main idea of Dave Barry's essay is the man ray media puts too much emphasis on beauty. US President Essay? Women are lead to believe that they need to look like . something that is not physically impossible, because we're not all born to be super models. I agree with the points Barry is trying to man ray violin get across. I remember grew up playing with my Barbie doll and it being made physically out of proportion. It distorted my self image on wp kinsella, how my body should be. I agree with Barry's claim, [most] women grow up thinking they need. Barbie , Conceptions of self , Cosmetics 859 Words | 3 Pages. of that and then a lot more.
We take honor to the next level, the battlefield, where a M4 makes a bigger difference than a 4.0. In the man ray violin field of battle a . @donald Trump? soldier has to live to a certain standard in man ray violin every part of roland deschain, their life. Man Ray? We are trained to be warriors . As such we have a code, a set of wp kinsella, ethos to live by, to guide our lives, on and off the field. Mission first, never accept defeat, never quit, never leave a fallen comrade, these are the guidelines by which each and every Army soldier lives by. Carl Brashear , Chief Petty Officer , Cuba Gooding, Jr. Violin? 918 Words | 3 Pages. ?Rose Claire E. Villarson ďBatting Clean Up and Striking OutĒ and ďNeat People Vs. Sloppy PeopleĒ Dave Barryís essay . ďBatting Clean Up and Striking OutĒ was written during the 1980s. Causes? This essay is man ray, from the deschain collection of essays in the book Dave Barryís greatest hits written in man ray 1988.
Suzanne Brittís essay ďNeat People Vs. Sloppy PeopleĒ appears in Brittís collection show to tell. Both essays have severe differences in their tones and organization but they share allusions, symbols. Cleanliness , Essay , Essays 1588 Words | 4 Pages. ? Dave Pelzer was born on December 29, 1960 in wp kinsella Daly City, California. He is the son of Stephen Pelzer, who was of Austrian and Irish descent, . and man ray Catherine Pelzer. Dave Pelzer was the second of five boys in al baraka bank the family. Violin? He has experienced a truly horrific lifestyle. As a child, he endured the horrors of child abuse, this included physical torture, mental cruelty, and black was nearly starved to death. His mother referred to him as ďitĒ, he was the only child that was abused. The rest of his brothers lived.
A Child Called It , Abuse , Child abuse 1701 Words | 4 Pages. Lost in the Kitchen by: Dave Barry. ďLost in the KitchenĒ Dave Barry In Dave Barry's essay Lost in the Kitchen Barry shares his . opinion on sexual equality through a personal experience with his family on man ray violin, Thanksgiving. In the conclusion paragraph a point is made that before women's liberation, men took care of the cars and women took care of the kitchen. Now after women's liberation, men no longer feel obligated to take care of the cars. @donald Trump? By this, Barry is meaning to say that before women's liberation, women had their specific, feminine. Family , Father , Gender 586 Words | 2 Pages. Writers provide glimpses of other worlds, giving readers opportunities to reflect on their own world To what extent do you agree with this view? The . Road written by Cormac McCarthy is a post-apocalyptic novel about a man and a boy travelling down across what seems to be a bleak and dull land. In this book, we see a world that seems to have a bleak and dark future without a lot of violin, hope.
Land is wp kinsella, somehow destroyed, perhaps by a natural cause. The cycle of seasons has been completely altered and. Apocalyptic and man ray post-apocalyptic fiction , Cormac McCarthy , Earth 1543 Words | 4 Pages. ? CONCEPT NOTE Development of road from causes of world Gulbarga - Kazi Kotnoor Ė Hebbal - Kalagi - Sulepet - Chincholli - Konchavaram to man ray violin Andhra Pradesh . Black? Border leading to Zahirabad in Andra Pradesh. Chincholi is one of the most backward talukaís of violin, Gulbarga district despite the fact that it has rich mineral, forest and causes of world agricultural resources. At present Gulbarga is connected to man ray violin Hyderabad through Wagdari-Gulbarga-Sedam-Rebbanpalli road . However, Chincholi taluka which is bank car financing, closer to Hyderabad does not have any.
Andhra Pradesh , Gulbarga district , Hyderabad, India 622 Words | 4 Pages. Sioux Warrior A warrior is a person experienced in or capable of engaging in combat or warfare, especially within the context . of a tribal or clan-based society that recognizes a separate warrior class. However, a Sioux warrior is man ray, a member of the of world largest tribe of the Siouan stock of North American Indians, who originally occupied Minnesota and Wisconsin and later migrated westward to the Great Plains; several Siouan groups where Dakota, Lakota, and Nakota (Dictionary.com, 2011). Violin? In order to become. 2011 , Life , Meaning of life 1612 Words | 5 Pages. McCarthy's The Road is an epic that will amaze anyone.
McCarthy was raised Roman Catholic and attended Catholic High School in Knoxville, then . went to the University of Tennessee in 1951-52 where he majored in liberal arts. McCarthy joined the F. Kennedy: US President U.S. Air Force in man ray 1953 where he served four years, spending two of them stationed in Alaska, where he hosted a radio show. He has written ten novels, spanning the Southern Gothic, Western, and Post-apocalyptic genres. Reflection? In 2006, Alfred A. Violin? Knopf published The Road , which.
Apocalypticism , Bible , Book of Revelation 2127 Words | 5 Pages. Why do you think McCarthy has chosen not to give his characters names? How do the John F. Kennedy: 34th US President Essay generic labels of ďthe manĒ and ďthe boyĒ affect the way you /readers . relate to them? While reading The Road , a novel written by Cormac McCarthy, I was jerked from the warmth, comfort, and safety of my home and thrown into a cold, dark, and desolate world, walking alongside ďthe manĒ and ďthe boyĒ. Violin? McCarthy composes his work so graphically that readers are drawn right into the story. I believe Cormac McCarthy. Cormac McCarthy , Lily Allen , Man 2043 Words | 5 Pages. Research (Genre) ĎThe Road í is categorized as a post-apocalyptic fiction style novel. As stated in an article written from a student at . Princeton University; Post-apocalyptic fiction is a sub genre of science fiction that is set in a world or civilization after either a nuclear war, plaque, comet/rogue planet strike, or some other general disaster.
Usually post-apocalyptic fiction novels take place immediately after the catastrophe; the author focuses on the travails or psychology of survivors. Apocalyptic and post-apocalyptic fiction , Character , Chuck Palahniuk 1257 Words | 3 Pages. Dave Barry's Complete Guide to of world Guys. Wait, are you telling me that Dave Barry's Complete Guide to man ray violin Guys addresses women's issues? If women's issues include understanding why guys . spit, scratch themselves, and give each other noogies, well then this book certainly addresses them! As for addressing the whole bit about The Mirror's a patriarchal world history, the subjugation of women, and accused responsibility for the Fall of Man, well, you might as well forget it.
Dave Barry might not make you feel better about the stature of violin, women in @donald trump today's. Female , Gender , Gender role 1441 Words | 4 Pages. ?HIST-103 Foundations of Western Civilization December 4, 2013 Essay- Question 3-Terracotta Warriors During the violin Warring States period, Qin was . known as the wp kinsella greatest state dominated during the violin Zhou dynasty in 221 B.C.E. The seven major regional states merged their power into territorial states. They also took over Essay several other small states that stayed within the man ray major powers sphere of influence on the Central Plain. Their irregular political alliances and wars required mobilizing armies and wp kinsella resources. Qin Dynasty , Qin Shi Huang , Shaanxi 988 Words | 5 Pages. ?The Road How does McCarthy establish the important ideas in man ray the novel in the opening sentences? McCarthy establishes the key idea in the . novel through sentence structure and language used.
At the The Mirror's Reflection Essay beginning of the novel McCarthy, has structured his first paragraph in the middle of the man ray page (media res) this signifies the causes of world key idea that the childís life started in violin the middle, as he was born the John 34th time of the apocalypse. The first sentence also opens with an anonymous character being mentioned, Ďwhen. First-person narrative , God , Man 2214 Words | 6 Pages. There are many phenomenal musicians in the world, but very few as diverse and cultured as Dave Matthews. Matthews was born in Johannesburg, . South Africa, in man ray violin 1967. Matthews and al baraka car financing his family then moved two years later to man ray Westchester County, New York, where his dad went to bank work for IBM.
Then, in the early `70s, Matthews and violin his family moved to Cambridge, England, before returning to New York. It was in Cambridge where Matthews' dad died in 1977 from wp kinsella Hodgkin's disease. After his father's death, the. Boyd Tinsley , Carter Beauford , Dave Matthews 1486 Words | 4 Pages. Dave Chappelle is one of the most popular comedians of recent years. Man Ray? Dave was born in roland deschain 1973 in man ray Washington D.C. He has done a lot . of work in movies and television. His most famous work has been his TV show on Comedy Central, The Chappelle show. He has done two complete seasons, and the show has become very popular.
He has also been in many movies. US President? His most popular movie was Half Baked which came out in 1998. He played a janitor working in a scientific research lab who began stealing the marijuana. Black people , Chappelle's Show , Comedy Central 864 Words | 3 Pages. March 7, 2013 Humanities The Silk Road Rome_____________Central Asia______________Han China | India The Nomads The Silk . Road crossed nomadic territory Extreme Agriculture: humans + omega animals Sparce population in a large area Calorie Exchange: 90,000 calories * Plants- 100,000 calories * Animals- 10,000 calories Horse= mobility No borders (territorial imperative )= pastures War; Secure pastures Archery Who are they? Scythians Altaic people * Turks * Mongols . Central Asia , China , Family 333 Words | 3 Pages.
Module 2 Ė Written Assignment 1. Violin? Shaw and roland black Barry distinguish two different forms of utilitarianism. What are these two forms? Briefly describe . each and use examples. Two different forms of utilitarianism are described in our text. Violin? The first is called act utilitarianism. According to Shaw and Barry , act utilitarianism states that we must ask ourselves what the consequences of a particular act in a particular situation will be for all those affected (p.60). The second form of utilitarianism. A Theory of The Mirror's Essay, Justice , Distributive justice , John Rawls 932 Words | 3 Pages. Batting Clean-Up and Striking Out by Dave Barry. The subject of Dave Barryís ďBatting Clean-Up and man ray violin Striking OutĒ is the difference between men and womenís priorities.
The contrast between the . two sexes is illustrated through Barryís use of examples. He uses dirt and cleaning to show what women notice, and he uses sports as an example of what menís priorities are. He explains how women are sensitive to things like dirt and cleaning, and men are sensitive to sports through stories he tells. Dave Barryís message that he wanted to convey to Reflection the audience. Dave Barry , Debut albums , Difference 484 Words | 2 Pages.
In Barry Straussí, ďThe Trojan War: A New HistoryĒ, he discusses a topic that has been talked about for man ray thousands of years, yet is able to . bring new interpretations and arguments about it. While Strauss shows that many of the economic causes war 1 accepted ideas about the Trojan War can be disproved, he also fails to support his claims with adequate historical references and analyzes. Violin? To begin the wp kinsella book, Strauss introduces Helen of violin, Troy. Helen was the wife of King Menelaus and had attracted the attention of the Prince. Achilles , Greek mythology , Hector 1220 Words | 3 Pages. Work ethic Kutchers Sporting Camp was built in 2009, In Sebec Maine.
Dave Kutcher, and roland deschain black his father took hunting trips to Maine traditionally . for several years. David , and his father decided they liked it so much that they wanted to build there own hunting camp. Thus, the founding of Kutchers Hunting Camp. The hunting camp provide a guided hunt for each seasonal hunting. Man Ray? This includes: Bear, dear, Duck, Moose, and muzzle loading. The Mirror's? The camp ground has 400 acres of private land to violin hunt on, and 300. British Mandate of Palestine , Cleanliness , Hunting 1399 Words | 4 Pages. How Historian Barry Strauss Treats Achilles. Strauss, Barry ďAchilles Bronze Age Warrior Ē in the Military History Barry Strauss grew up in and around . Bank Car Financing? New York City.
He received Bachelors, Masters, and Doctoral degrees in man ray history from Cornell and Yale Universities. He has lived and causes studied in Greece, Germany, and Israel and has traveled extensively in Italy, Turkey, Croatia, Cyprus, Jordan, and other countries with historic sites; he has also taken part in archaeological excavations. He speaks and violin reads seven foreign . Achilles , Greek mythology , Homer 472 Words | 3 Pages. comfortable environment comedy will give for the writer to communicate their ideas. Enter humor columnist Dave Barry and his . essay, ď Road Warrior ,Ē which introduces the quality of road rage that is said affect the American public today, and he also sheds a humorous light on how easily people are angered. His use of various techniques in @donald trump his writing makes his approach to the problem of violin, road rage effective, because humor can make something that is tedious become interesting. The Mirror's Reflection? The techniques he utilizes. Comedy , Driver's education , Driver's license 863 Words | 3 Pages. Who were the Terracotta Warriors ? ďThe Terracotta Warriors are considered an 8th wonder of the world.Ē They were created over . 2000 years ago to protect Qin Shi Huangdi in the afterlife. Some people believe that the warriors were for protection, others believed that they were a curse and new research has caused argument that they were for military training. Man Ray Violin? ďThe Terracotta Army was traditionally believed to have been the guardians of the first emperor of a unified China, but research has claimed.
China , Qin Dynasty , Qin Shi Huang 1510 Words | 4 Pages. ?The Warrior Ethos The Warrior Ethos was written by The Mirror's Essay, Steven Pressfield, it was published March 11, 2011. The book is listed under . many different genreís, such as; war, military, philosophy, self-help, and psychology. The Warrior Ethos is devised into violin three parts, thirty chapters and itís roughly ninty pages long. Roland? Though the book is short, it describes history as far back as Adam and Eve and then it jumps into the present day goings-ons. Mr. Pressfield wrote The Warrior Ethos as an addition, almost. Battle of violin, Thermopylae , Gates of @donald trump, Fire , Leonidas I 848 Words | 3 Pages. English 101-1203 The essay on page 69 of violin, The Blair Reader entitled: ďThe Sanctuary of SchoolĒ was written by Lynda Barry . In this literary . work, Lynda Barry remembers her Seattle grade school in a racially mixed neighborhood as a nurturing safe haven from her difficult family life. In the following essay, we will discuss how through this descriptive and pathetic story, Lynda Barry glorifies schools and reveals the importance of economic causes war 1, public schools by comparing her life at school and her life at home. Education , High school , School 982 Words | 3 Pages.
THE ULTIMATE TRUTH An Analysis of Dan Millmanís Way of the Peaceful Warrior PROJECT PROPOSAL by Shammita. J II MA English 11PGE019 . I would say it is a tremendous pleasure, to write an analysis of the novel Way of the Peaceful Warrior , written by an American writer, Dan Millman. The book is an eye opener of sorts, and it has certainly influenced me, to live life like a peaceful warrior . Man Ray Violin? The book is a perfect work of art, which combines the various thoughts, philosophies and fables that. Character , Dan Millman , Fiction 730 Words | 3 Pages. ?CD Review 2 The album ďTime OutĒ (1959), by The Dave Brubeck Quartet is considered one of the greats in Essay the history of jazz. In 1961 it . peaked at the number two spot for man ray pop albums and sold more than one million records in the United States. Brubeckís quartet consisted of Paul Desmond on alto saxophone, Eugene Wright on bass, Joe Morello on drums, and roland black of course, Dave Brubeck on the keys. If I refer to just an man ray violin, instrument, Iím also referring to the respective player.
Iíll use these. Dave Brubeck , Meter , Musical notation 1331 Words | 4 Pages. Gender and Ethnicity in Maxine Hong Kingstonís : The Woman Warrior Maxine Hong Kingston is a Chinese American author and Essay Senior . Lecturer for man ray Creative Writing at the University of California,Berkley.She has contributed to the feminist movement with such works as her memoir The Woman Warrior ,which discusses gender and ethnicity and how these concepts affect the lives of women. Causes Of World? Kingston has received several awards for her contributions to Chinese American Literature including the National. China , Chinese American literature , Maxine Hong Kingston 1405 Words | 4 Pages. Woman Warrior Analysis Woman Warrior is a very unique take on man ray violin, an autobiography, fascinating even, in that much of it is not . necessarily true.
It is relayed through talk-stories and Reflection Essay accounts from other people. Some is man ray violin, fantasy or openly made up. Wp Kinsella? This occassionally makes Kingston seem fictional. Man Ray Violin? At the same time, these stories of all of the women connected to Kingston take us down the @donald trump road to her personal growth, understanding of her Chinese culture, and realization of how much a part of her. China , Culture of China , Family 902 Words | 3 Pages. of the Upright Stone. The story of the Warrior Maiden is not necessarily specific to the Oneida tribe, but it is man ray, actually a rather common . legend among the The Mirror's Reflection Native American peoples.
However, the story is to be found in different versions that are, for their most part, dissimilar and man ray violin adapted to the particular tradition of F. Kennedy: US President Essay, each tribe. Man Ray Violin? The Southern tribes, such as the Hopi people who are based in Mexico, have an @donald trump, almost entirely different version of the Warrior Maiden story. The Oneida version of this. Hopi , Indigenous peoples of the man ray Americas , Iroquois 1767 Words | 5 Pages. 9/2/13 Japan: Memoirs of a Secret Empire . Samurai | PBS Search Support for PBS.org provided by: What's this? Sam urai warriors . em erged as an elite force in Japan's prov inces during the early 1 0th century . The Mirror's Reflection Essay? Recruited by local chieftains, these fighting forces were m aintained long enough to wage a specific war, after which the soldiers would return to their lands to till the man ray soil.
With Japan's em peror liv ing in the ancient capital of Ky oto and unable to m aintain control of the. Japan , Oda Nobunaga , Samurai 907 Words | 3 Pages. Barry Minkow Ė Misrepresentation and Ponzi in 1987 Establishment of ZZZZ Best Company When he was a sophomore in high school, . Barry Minkow founded a carpet cleaning company - ZZZZ Best Company in his parentsí garage. At that time, the carpet cleaning industry has few entry barriers and all Minkow needed was a small amount of start-up capital. Reflection? However, he soon found out that his firm was actually tough to survive in man ray violin the industry as the ease of The Mirror's Reflection Essay, entry means fierce competition. The young man encountered. Audit , Barry Minkow , Best Co.
2470 Words | 7 Pages. Japanese warrior , known as the samurai, has played a significant role in Japan's history and culture throughout the centuries. Their ancestors . can be traced back to as far as can be remembered. Some stories have become mysterious legends handed down over the centuries. Violin? In this report you will learn who the samurai were, their origins as we know them, how they lived and fought and their evolution to today. Of World War 1? It will be clear why the man ray violin samurai stand out as one of the most famous group of warriors of all. Bushido , Government of Japan , Japan 2889 Words | 7 Pages. Eyes on the Road : U.S.
Presses To Rein In Web Gadgets In New Cars White, Joseph Barry . Wp Kinsella? Wall Street Journal [New York, N.Y] 01 . Violin? June 2011: D1. * Jump to first hit As consumers clamor for more tools to help them stay connected to online media on The Mirror's Reflection, the road , auto makers are coming under fresh pressure to minimize distracting gadgetry in man ray new cars. Economic Causes? There's absolutely no reason for any person to man ray violin download their Facebook into the car, U.S. Transportation Secretary Ray LaHood said in an interview. Automobile , Automotive industry , BMW 1565 Words | 4 Pages. The Woman Warrior is the memoir of Maxine Hong Kingston's experience growing up as a first-generation Chinese American. Economic Causes Of World? In it, she tells the . Man Ray Violin? stories of of world war 1, several other women to reveal the struggles and issues that have affected her own life. In telling their stories, she is telling her own stories because Kingston herself is a compilation of man ray violin, all the al baraka women in man ray her book. In The Woman Warrior , Kingston reveals the cultural conflicts that have affected her and F. Kennedy: 34th how, ultimately, she is able to fight back. China , Chinese American , Culture 1795 Words | 5 Pages.
of the Peaceful Warrior For my book project I read the book Way of the man ray violin Peaceful Warrior , by economic causes, Dan Millman. Set in man ray violin Berkeley . California, Dan Millman a college student struggles to find the part of of world war 1, himself that has always been missing. One night while out man ray, walking from his dorm, Dan comes across a gas station and a strange man that is soon to al baraka car financing turn his life upside down. This man, known as Socrates, shows Dan a side of man ray violin, existence that only The Mirror's Reflection Essay, few people had ever seen. To become a warrior like Socrates and.
Brain , Cognition , Human 1167 Words | 3 Pages. Dave Chappelle's comedy has made numerous aspects of American race relations and violin racial stereotypes subject to ridicule in a manner that has . both united and divided. On one hand, his name became synonymous with comedy for the younger generations; on the other, his values caused him to question his own comedy, leading him to effectively terminate his career. ďIn the Wake of 'The Nigger Pixie': Dave Chappelle and the Politics of Crossover ComedyĒ by F. Kennedy: Essay, Bambi Haggins demonstrates that Chappelle's comedic. African American , Chappelle's Show , Chris Rock 1076 Words | 3 Pages. the existence of the problem strongly in man ray Egypt which will be discussed by (tony ) Tony:(summary proof of black, problem) Road traffic accidents . pose a global health, economic and social crisis. Man Ray? Each year, road traffic accidents kill more than a million men, women and children around the world.
Tens of millions more are injured, some of whom become permanently disabled. In Egypt, road traffic accidents are the leading cause of death for persons aged 5 to wp kinsella 25 years. Each year; more than 5000 citizens are. Road accidents , Road transport , Traffic collision 1407 Words | 4 Pages. Warriors of God by James Reston Jr. is a non-fictional view of the third crusade. This particular crusade spanned from 1187-1192, containing . many gruesome battles and a lot of intense moments between Islam and Christianity. Reston supplies the violin reader with a little background to the third Crusade when he talks about the first Crusades happening since 1095. Reston gives a fairly impartial view of wp kinsella, this holy war. He discusses the battles, politics, and emotions of the Crusade as an outside party. Conrad of Montferrat , Crusades , First Crusade 938 Words | 3 Pages. ?Family over Everything The film Warrior was released September 9, 2011 by director, writer and man ray violin producer Gavin OíConnor.
OíConnor takes us . through a story of two former MMA fighting brothers dealing with a harsh family past (ď Warrior Ē). Gavin has also directed the 2000 film, Tumbleweeds, and the winner of the Best Sports Movie Award in 2004, Miracle (ďGavin OíConnorĒ). Tom Hardy (Tommy Conlon) was also featured in a major 2010 film, Inception, and This Means War in 2012. He also played one of economic of world, the. 2000 in film , American films , English-language films 1846 Words | 4 Pages. Alice Walker, Warrior Marks: Female Genital Mutilation and the Sexual Blinding of Women.
New York: Harcourt Brace, 1993, 373pp. Man Ray Violin? Female . genital mutilation, also known as female circumcision, is a practice that involves the removal of part or all of the female external genitalia. It occurs throughout the world, but most commonly in Africa where they say that it is a tradition and social custom to keep a young girl pure and wp kinsella a married woman faithful. But to man ray some Westerners, the practice is viewed. Circumcision , Female genital cutting , Genital modification and mutilation 1038 Words | 3 Pages. I came into the screening of Peaceful Warrior , director Victor Salva's adaptation of former gymnast/self-help writer Dan Millman's 1980 . autobiography Way of the The Mirror's Essay Peaceful Warrior : A Book That Changes Lives (using a screenplay written by Kevin Bernhardt), with mixed feelings.
I had seen clips of the man ray movie on @donald trump, Ebert Roeper, and violin they seemed a little boring. When I finally saw the car financing movie, I wasn't bored but I did have a different negative reaction ultimately. Dan Millman (Scott Mechlowicz) is violin, a. Amy Smart , Dan Millman , Nick Nolte 932 Words | 3 Pages. A Warrior's Triumph The Woman Warrior by Maxine Hong Kingston presents the John 34th US President Essay story of a girl trapped between the cultures of man ray violin, her surrounding . environment and that which her mother and family have forced upon her. Knowing only the Chinese way of life, this girl's mother attempts to familiarize her daughter, whom is bank car financing, also the narrator, with the history of their family. The mother shares this heritage through the use of man ray, stories in hopes the narrator will be prepared for her ultimate return to China.
China , Family , Girl 1597 Words | 4 Pages. Barry Lamar Bonds (born July 24, 1964) is an American former Major League Baseball outfielder. Bonds played from wp kinsella 1986 to violin 2007, for the . Pittsburgh Pirates and San Francisco Giants. Wp Kinsella? He is the violin son of former major league All-Star Bobby Bonds. He debuted in the Major Leagues with the Pittsburgh Pirates in 1986 and joined the San Francisco Giants in 1993, where he stayed through 2007. Bonds' accomplishments during his baseball career place him among the greatest baseball players of all-time.
He has a. Babe Ruth , Barry Bonds , Baseball 1127 Words | 3 Pages. The need among Americans to wp kinsella be diverted in ever more imaginative ways -- through high-thrill parks, virtual reality arcades, and theme restaurants, plays . right into man ray violin the hands of Dave Corriveau and wp kinsella Buster Corley, co-founders and CEO#8217;s of Dave and Busters. The duo#8217;s 50,000 square foot complexes include pool hall, an eye popping, cutting edge midway arcade, a formal restaurant, a casual diner, a sports bar and a nightclub rolled into violin one sprawling complex. In business since 1990, this is. Consultative selling , Customer , Customer service 1819 Words | 5 Pages. Dave Thomas: an American Philantropist. Dave Thomas Dave Thomas was an All American philanthropist as well as a most successful business man.
Thomas was the founder . and CEO of Wendy's Old Fashioned Hamburgers, which became popular for its square patties. He is also known for personally appearing in eight hundred television commercials for the chain from 1989 to 2002, more than any other person not just in the fast food industry but in television history (Newsweek 1). He created such an wp kinsella, atmosphere in these ads that much of the public. Burger King , Dave Thomas , Fast food 1115 Words | 3 Pages. Road Rage Since 1990, it has killed hundreds of man ray violin, people and wp kinsella injured over man ray 10,000.
Its victims are from all ages, socioeconomic groups, and . areas of the country. What is known as road rage is growing at an alarming rate. What is Road Rage? Road rage, also called intermittent explosive disorder, is a term used to refer to John F. Kennedy: 34th violent incidents resulting from stress caused by violin, accidents or incidents on roadways. It is often a natural extension of aggressive driving. Essentially road rage is aggressive. Aggression , Anger , Driver's license 1711 Words | 5 Pages. Performance Style of Dave Brubeck. The performance style of F. Kennedy: Essay, Dave Brubeck Dave Brubeckís unique performance style is man ray violin, characterized primarily by his use of . polytonality, polyrhythm, and immense amounts of improvisation. His style grew from his upbringing and The Mirror's as he put it, ďdifferent approach to man ray violin all of the normal thingsĒ.
By no means did Dave take the wp kinsella normal approach; he made it all the way threw the conservatory with out being able to read the piano music he was playing. His ability to think on the spot and his amazing ear took jazz. Clef , Darius Milhaud , Dave Brubeck 1000 Words | 3 Pages. as close to the left side of the road and man ray violin allow all traffic going in the opposite Reflection Essay direction to pass on the right hand side. Man Ray? 2. Turning . Left: When needing to turn onto a road on the left, stay close to the left side of the road and after making the turn continue on the left side of the road . (Do not cut across lanes from the right side of the road and The Mirror's Reflection Essay then turn left). 3. Turning Right: When turning onto a road on the right side, first approach the center of the road as safely as possible and then. Automobile , Pedestrian crossing , Road 1391 Words | 3 Pages. ? Silk- road was at one time the violin top Cyber-black market in roland deschain black the game. An educated college graduate, Ross Ulbricht is . accused of man ray violin, creating Silk Road . The website sold everything from illegal drugs, guns, porn, driverís licenses and other illegal services. It was estimated that the website generated amounts of 1.2 million in wp kinsella sales. An FBI agent was quoted saying ď Silk Road was the most sophisticated and extensive criminal marketplace on the internet todayĒ.
The website used. Federal Bureau of Investigation , Heroin , Illegal drug trade 2096 Words | 5 Pages. The road to violin success is not straight. There is a curve called failure, a loop called friends, caution lights called family, and you will have . flats called jobs. However, if you have a spare called determination, an engine called perseverance, insurance called faith, and a driver called God, you will make it to a place called success.. Life is a challenge, a test all humanity should sit for. Black? From life, we learn so many lessons. Man Ray? How to overcome our fears, what do we aim for, and how can we achieve. Brick , Bricks , Brickwork 795 Words | 3 Pages. The growth of of world war 1, transport brings forth all other good things that a society longs for. Road is one of the most common transport infrastructure . use and it is often the primary transport infrastructure to be developed in growing and developing regions.
Due to its nature of man ray violin, being the easiest infrastructure mode, most people have adopted it as their basic means of transport all over the world. This has resulted into roads congestion condition in wp kinsella which during rush hours and in urban centers the violin situation. Accident , Pedestrian , Pedestrian crossing 910 Words | 3 Pages. Dave and Busters: Deanna Hubert Dave and Buster's, Inc. is a nationwide food and fun chain of huge adult-oriented complexes. Reflection Essay? D . B's combines everything from restaurants and bars to high-tech arcade games to shuffleboard games. Many refer to the establishment as the Chuck-E-Cheese for man ray violin adults. D B's mission statement is, _To deliver an black, unparalleled guest experience through the best combination of food, drinks and games in an ideal environment for celebrating all out fun_ ( Dave and Buster's, 2008).
1932 , 2008 , Dave Buster's 1515 Words | 7 Pages.
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The Qualities of a Good Leader ! Essay. Leadership is a quality which cannot be acquired by any person from the other but it can be acquired by self-determination of a person. Leadership can best be called the personality of the very highest ability-whether in ruling, thinking, imagining, innovation, warring, or religious influencing. Image Source: donnafishter.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/06/leadership-01.jpg. Leadership is a quality hidden in the personality of a human being. Violin. Human personality is very complex and it is very difficult to grade individuals according to oneís personality. Leadership, on the other hand, depends on the organic structure of the personality which includes experience, skill, responsibility, intelligence, power of organizing people and social interaction. Leadership is an indispensable activity, which every leader has tap perform for directing the people, working under him.
It is the ability of the Leader to induce subordinates to work with confidence and zeal. In other words ďLeadership is the process by which an roland deschain leader imaginatively directs, guides and influence the man ray violin, work of others in choosing and attaining specified goals by mediating between the individuals and the organisation in such as manner, that both will obtain maximum satisfaction. Some people have a misconception that only those people who are physically strong can become good leaders, but this is not the fact. A leader may not be physically strong but he needs to be mentally strong and firm in @donald trump decisions. For example, Mahatma Gandhi, the Father of the Nation was the greatest leader but he was active and had a firm desire to serve the Nation. Violin. He had the power of organizing and uniting people and attracting people towards him by his speeches.
This is the best quality of a leader which he had in him. We can also say that, a person who can satisfy the basic psychological needs of his followers can also be an effective leader. Leadership is a quality which cannot be acquired by any person from the F. Kennedy: 34th US President Essay, other but it can be acquired by self-determination of a person. Leadership can best be called the personality of the very highest ability-whether in ruling, thinking, imagining, innovation, warring, or religious influencing. Leader can be classified according to their work.
For example, those who are related to politics are the political leader, those officers who are related to the profession of Army or Police are the leaders of man ray violin, their respective fields. Roland Deschain Black. In fact leadership is the most important quality required in a political leader and equally in Army and Police Officers because the future and security of the county lies in man ray their hands, so they should properly use their power and be always attentive so that any enemies whether within or from outside country can not cause any harm or damage to the Nation. Intelligence and Alertness. The most important quality which a leader should possess is intelligence and alertness. A leader has to economic of world war 1, use his/her brain every time and also has to remain alert with eyes and ears open otherwise he/she could easily be carried by any fraud or enemy. Violin. Many a times we see such situations around us, where a person in Reflection Essay trouble or problem doesnít hesitate in blaming and embarrassing even his closest friend to save himself, and also does not bother about his friends at all because the person has to get rid of man ray violin, his problems anyhow.
So, he just thinks about himself and his life, the life of other does not matter to him much. Almost all of us are having one or more such close friends, so a leader should always keep in John 34th US President mind that he should not trust even his closest friends more than required as it can create problems for him. At the man ray violin, time of war, an Army Officer who leads his soldiers as to apply his brain every second and has to be attentive while marching ahead. A Police Officer has to roland, be attentive always while he is at work as his duty is to control crime and provide safety to the people. The political leader of violin, a county should be most intelligent as the security of not only few people but of the whole nation depends in him in one way or the other. Therefore, we can say intelligence and alertness are the indispensable qualities of roland black, a leader.
As for example, one of the greatest leader of his time, Winston Churchill could win the Second World War just by applying his brain and his alertness. Action Oriented approach. The other qualities of man ray violin, a leader include impartiality,action-oriented approach and John F. Kennedy: 34th US President positive attitude. A good leader should always be impartial towards all his followers, because the moment he becomes partial, he no longer remains a leader as he loses the confidence of others. The duty of man ray violin, a leader is to encourage and raise the standard of wp kinsella, all his followers and not just a few of them, and he should always remember his duty. Further, a leader should be action-oriented. A single leader cannot do every work by himself, so he needs help of others for doing all his constructive works. A leader should be effective enough towards himself and man ray encourages everyone through his words to do constructive work while walking on a right path so that everyone in this country can become aware of his/her rights as well as duties and can provide his/her help in US President Essay the development of the country. In our country, the constitution has given us the right of democracy through which everyone whether a beggar or the President has been given the right to choose a leader. Everyone wants his leader to be effective, intelligent, active, and man ray action-oriented who can encourages the masses and do the needful for his people and his area. Some of the black, great action-oriented leaders were Winston Churchill, Mahatma Gandhi, Jawaharlal Nehru, Subash Chandra Bose, Indira Gandhi,Abraham Lincoln who succeeded in attracting the masses towards themselves through their speeches and encouraging people to work for their county and thus they succeeded in registering their name in history forever.
Of course, they are now dead but are present in the hearts and minds of the people of their countries and even now they are remembered with respect. A leader should also be an man ray optimist having a positive attitude. he should not think negatively or plan something showing negative attitude. @donald Trump. A person who thinks or plans somethingís showing his negative attitude never be a Leader. A leader should always be courageous. He should have courage to face the troubles or problems and solving the problems by himself in place of blaming and embarrassing others. Cowards, who at the time of facing problems or troubles in their life try to blame and embarrass others can never succeed in man ray violin their life. Such person remain at the same place where they stood in the beginning. To gain height and achieve something, one should come out of cowardness, jealousy and should become innovative, courageous, action-oriented and optimist.
A good leader has all these qualities in him. To elaborate further the qualities of a good leader there are three theories of leadership and @donald trump these are (a) trait theory (b) behavioral theory and (c) situation theory. The first approach (trait theory) views leadership as a conglomeration of a set of personality traits. The older tradition in these studies of leadership has been the violin, search for a cluster of traits, attributes or other types of individual difference, which see leaders apart from their followers or which distinguish effective leaders from al baraka bank ineffective ones. A good leader, as it found more often, is a good teacher.
Instead of bossing his followers or group members Ė a good leader always helps them through experience that brings a changed mind and motive. Finally, a good leader must be faithful to his group members and activities. Violin. This in turn, will result in an atmosphere of wp kinsella, assurance among the followers. Having faith in self abilities and the world around him/her the leader gains inspiration and also inspires others in the process. Elaborate and Edited by violin, Users. In this world, there are two types of F. Kennedy:, people. One type is known as the leaders, and the other as followers. One needs to decide whether he wants to be a followers or a leader, well, the compensation for man ray violin, the both differs, the John F. Kennedy: 34th, follower cannot reasonably expect the compensation to which a leader is entitled, although many followers make the mistake of expecting such pay. Broadly speaking, on one hand it is no disgrace to be a follower and on the other hand, it is nor credit to remain a follower for man ray violin, very long.
Not all followers can become leaders. For becoming a good leader one needs to poses leadership qualities. The Major Attributes of Leadership. The following are the major attributes of leadership: Infinite Courage : In fact, no follower will like to be dominated by a leader who lacks self-confidence, courage and John F. Kennedy: wisdom. No intelligent follower will be dominated by such a leader for very long. Self Control : The person who controls self rules others ! The man who canít control himself can never control others. In fact, self-control sets a mighty example for oneís followers, which the more intelligent will emulate. Sense of man ray, Justice : Without a sense off fairness and economic causes war 1 justice, no leader can command and retain the respect of his followers. Decision Making : The man who wavers in his decision, shows that he is not sure of violin, himself, cannot lead others successfully. Planning : The successful leader must plan his work and work his plan.
A leader who moves by guesswork, without practical, definite plans, is comparable to a ship without a rudder. Sooner of later he will land on the rocks. Doing More : One of the penalties of leadership is the necessity of @donald trump, willingness, upon the part of the leader, to do more than he requires of man ray violin, his followers. Pleasing Personality : Leaderships calls for respect. 34th US President Essay. A person without a good and pleasing personality will not be respected by his followers for very long. Well, personality can be defined as the complex of all the attributesĖbehavioral, temperamental, emotional and mentalĖthat characterize a unique individual and violin without it, a person can neither become a intelligent followers nor a good leader. Sympathy : The word sympathy can be best defined as sharing the feelings of others (especially feelings of sorrow or anguish). The successful leader must be in John 34th US President Essay sympathy with his followers. Moreover, he must understand them and their problems. Responsibility : The person who wants to man ray, be a leader must develop the quality of taking responsibility.
With responsibility comes power. John F. Kennedy: Essay. A leader is assumed to be responsible for the mistakes and the shortcomings of his followers. If he tries to man ray, shift the responsibility, he will not remain the leader. Cooperation : Without good co-operation and coordination no organized plan could be executed. 34th. Thus a successful leader must understand and apply the principles of man ray violin, cooperative efforts and be able to al baraka car financing, induce his followers to do the same.
Leadership calls for power, and power calls for cooperation. Classification of Leadership. Broadly, leadership can be classified into two categories (a) Leadership by Consent (b) Leadership by force. The former, and by violin, far the most effective, is leadership by consent of, and with the sympathy of the followers. The later is leadership by force without the consent and sympathy of the black, followers.
History is filled with evidence that leadership by man ray violin, force cannot endure. The downfall and disappearance of roland deschain black, dictators and kings is significant. It concludes that people will not follow forced leadership indefinitely. The Ten Major Causes of Failure in violin Leadership. Inability to Organize details: A good leader is supposed to be a person with immerse power of @donald trump, organizing things in much better way than his followers. The successful lead must be the master of all details connected with his position. That means, of course, that he must acquire the violin, habit of relegating details to capable lieutenants.
Unwillingness to render humble services: The greatest among ye all shall be the servant of allí is a truth which all able leaders observe and respect. Black. A leader should always be ready to do the act, upon demand, which he intends to man ray violin, be done by his followers. Expectation of pay for what they Ďknowí instead of what they do with that which they know: A person is not paid for what he knows but for @donald trump, what he does. A leader must understand and implement this theory in violin his day to day activities.
Fear of competition from followers: A leader should never fear that one day his followers may take his position. An efficient leader may through his know knowledge of his job and the magnetism of his personality, greatly increase the efficiency of others, and induce them to render more service and roland black better service than they could render without his aid. Imagination can be defined as the formation of a mental image of something that is violin not perceived as real and is not present to the senses. Without imagination, the leader is incapable of meeting emergencies, and of creating plans by which to guide his followers effectively. Selfishness is evil. A leader should not claim all the roland, honor for the works of man ray, his followers. He is contented to see the honors, when there are any, go to his followers, because he knows that most men will work harder for commendation and The Mirror's Reflection recognition than they will for money alone. What is man ray violin Intemperance ? Well, it is the quality of being intemperate.
Followers donít respect an intemperate leader. Moreover, intemperance in any of its various forms, destroys the endurance and the vitality of all who indulge in @donald trump it. The leader who is not loyal to his trust, and to man ray, his associates, those above him, and those below him, cannot long maintain his leadership. Disloyalty marks one as being less than the dust of earth, and brings down on oneí head the contempt he deserves. A good leader should poses the US President, power of authority by consent and not by man ray violin, force. The leader who tires to impress his followers with his ďauthorityĒ comes within the category of leadership, through force. In fact, the The Mirror's Reflection Essay, competent leader requires no Ďtitleí to give him the respect of man ray, his followers.
The man who makes too much over causes of world his title generally has little else to emphasize. Things a leader needs to do. A leader gets things done through other people. Although people differ from one another physically and psychologically, they are all governed by certain basic needs. The most important need in man ray violin all individuals is the need to gain recognition. A leader who can satisfy this need will have no difficulty in influencing people, and getting done the job in hand. While attempting to satisfy this great urge, the leader should scrupulously avoid criticizing people since no one likes to Reflection, be others. On the positive side, the violin, has to give hearty, generous and sincere appreciation. If one takes the trouble, one can always discover something or the other in causes war 1 an individual for which real appreciation can be expressed. Next, the leader, in order to violin, get willing cooperation, has to Essay, look at things from the other personís point of man ray, view.
He has to see what the other person wants rather than what he himself is interested in. People, as a rule and by nature, are interested in themselves. Unconsciously, you first think about yourself before you think of others. In a self first. The word most used during any conversation is the single lettered ĎIí. When you open a magazine to F. Kennedy: Essay, which you have contributed, you first start reading your own article, although you might already be knowing every word of it by heart. A leader must, therefore, assiduously cultivate the habit of playing down the ĎIí and playing up the ĎYOUí. Man Ray. Prove to the them. You donít have to spend money, much time or effort on F. Kennedy: 34th US President Essay this.
You can do it with your smile, with your words, enthusiasm, and your warm, firm and friendly hand clasp. Be considerate, courteous and helpful to others. Man Ray Violin. Be sympathetic and treat others as you would like to be treated by them. Concentrate on F. Kennedy: Essay what you can do for others and you will find this approach working wonders. People will vie with one another to man ray, do things for you, without your ever asking for it. Talk about others and especially their good points. If you keep talking about economic causes of world, yourself, you will soon tire others and soon they will start avoiding you as a bore. If you speak well of yourself, others will think you are boasting, and if you speak ill of yourself they will believe it, so first donít talk about yourself. Instead, try talking about the other individual and his interests. Encourage him to speak about himself. Man Ray Violin. ďAppreciation makes people feel more important than anything else you can give them.Ē You have to deschain black, search and see what is there in him.
It will compel you to recognize this importance. Man Ray. We donít have to John 34th US President Essay, wait till someone does something for us to show our appreciation. We can begin it at man ray violin any time and place. All we have to do is to @donald trump, start looking for things in people to man ray violin, appreciate them. You want that people should admire you and recognize your merits. If you pause and roland reflect, you will find that the other individual also has identical wants and aspirations. Therefore, if you are selfish and man ray try to project only your own requirements, you will soon find others avoiding you. They would be reluctant to listen to @donald trump, you or meet your requirements.
You must, therefore, go all the way and meet their requirements. Very soon, you will notice the other individuals paying attention to your needs and man ray doing things automatically the way you would like them to be done. If you want to lead and wp kinsella influence others, you have to put yourself out to man ray, do things for them. You have to spend time, energy and effort to satisfy the @donald trump, needs of others. For instance, you have to remember faces and names. The aspiring leader has, therefore, to make it a point to violin, remember names and faces. Reflection. While addressing letters, you must spell the name and initials correctly and man ray violin include the full decoration, if any. If an individual has earned a doctorate or a professional chair, make it a point to address that person as Doctor so and so or Professor so and 34th so instead of plain Mr. or Mrs. or Miss.
People also appreciate if you remember their birthdays, wedding anniversaries, etc. The efforts you make to remember such seemingly trivial points and act on them will yield rich dividends. Encourage people to talk about themselves. Man Ray Violin. Be an @donald trump enthusiastic and encouraging listener and pay rapt attention to what other say. Ask them for more details in areas where they display great interest. Question them abut the reasons for their success, for their mastery, for their special skills and for their prosperity. Learn about their hobbies, preferences, likes and dislikes. The more you know about an individual, the easier it will be for you to satisfy his requirements and motivate him in the direction in which you want him to go. Next to taking interest in the other personís activities and looking at things from man ray violin his angle, motivation can be brought about by the first impression you make on him. In creating this first favorable impression, nothing proves so effective as a warm and cheerful smile.
A warm smile states to a stranger that you like him, you are glad to see him and that you would welcome his company. You would have noticed among your circle of friends that the wp kinsella, individual who has a natural smile on his face is the one who is most sought after. You notice a particular charm in a lady, who has a pleasant and cheerful smile all the time on her face. Your smile has to be sincere. If it is artificial, if it is only put on for the occasion, very soon it will fade away from your face.
On the other hand, a sincere smile creates a ready trust in the other person. If you do not have a natural smile, you can cultivate it by careful training and also developing the right mental attitude. View things optimistically. Whenever the chips are down and things are not going the way you have planned, think of some funny incident and repeat it to man ray violin, yourself. The sunshine will come up soon. Also do not reserve your smiles only for strangers. Smile naturally and @donald trump freely with every individual whom you come across. Let this part of smiling sincerely become a regular habit with you. You will be surprised to see the violin, impact that a warm and genuine smile can create. People will suddenly sit up and take notice of you. All doors will be open and you will be welcome everywhere.
People will go out of their way to seek your company because you bring joy to them. On the economic of world, other hand, a grim face makes you look too serious. What is more, the smile has a way of violin, influencing your mental attitude. You feel a happier man by wearing a smile on your face. According to economic of world, a Chinese proverb, a man without a smiling face should not open a shop. In other words, his business or enterprise will be a total failure if he does not know how to keep himself cheerful and friendly. Not only should he feel friendly and cheerful, he should also readily demonstrate it and man ray violin show it to theirs by his disarming, charming and welcome smile.
Frank Irvin Fletcher has described the value of a smile at Christmas in the following words: It costs nothing, but creates much. It enriches those who receive, without impoverishing those who give. It happens in economic causes of world a flash and the memory of it sometimes lasts forever. None are so rich they can get along without it, and none so poor but are richer for its benefits. It creates happiness in the home, fosters goodwill in a business and is the countersign of man ray violin, friends.
It is rest to the weary, daylight to the discouraged, sunshine to the sad and @donald trump natureís best antidote for trouble. Yet it cannot be bought, begged, borrowed or stolen, for it is something that is man ray violin no earthly good to anybody till it is @donald trump given away. And if in the last-minute rush of Christmas buying some of man ray, our sales people should be too tired to give you a smile, may we ask you to leave one of yours. Thus, the first step in the technique of motivating others is to begin with yourself taking a keen interest in them and winning their hearts through a genuine, warm and wp kinsella charming smile. PublishYourArticles.net is home of thousands of articles published by users like YOU.
Here you can publish your research papers, essays, letters, stories, poetries, biographies and man ray allied information with a single vision to liberate knowledge. Before publishing your Articles on The Mirror's Reflection this site, please read the man ray violin, following pages:
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Free Information Technology essays. 1.1 Problem Statement. Volume, variety and velocity of data is increasing day by day, it leads to the generation of big data and by using existing techniques it is man ray violin not easy to process such big volume of data and mine frequent patterns that exist in data . Perform Association Rule Mining and FP Growth on Big Data of E-Commerce Market to find frequent patterns and association rules among item sets present in database by using reduced Apriori Algorithm and reduced FP Growth Algorithm on war 1, top of Mahout (an open source library or java API) built on Hadoop Map Reduce Framework. Big Data refers to datasets whose amount is away from the ability of characteristic database software tools to analyze, store, manage and capture. This explanation is deliberately incorporates and subjective, a good definition of how large a dataset needs to be in order to be considered as big data i.e. we cannot define big data in man ray violin, terms of wp kinsella, being big than a certain number of man ray, terabytes or thousands of gigabytes. We suppose that as technology advances with time the @donald trump volume of datasets that would be eligible as big data will also rise. The definition can differ from sector to sector; it is depending up on which kind of software tools are normally present and what size of datasets are general in a particular industry. According to study, today big data in many sectors will range from violin, a few dozen terabytes to thousands of terabytes. ' Velocity, Variety and Volume of data is growing day by day that is why it is not easy to manage large amount of data.
' According to study, 30 billion data or content shared on face book every month. Issues/Problems while analysing Big Data: ' According to analysis, every day more than one billion shares are traded on the New York Stock Exchange. ' According to F. Kennedy: 34th US President Essay analysis, every day Facebook saves two billion comments and man ray likes. ' According to analysis, every minute Foursquare manages more than two thousand Check-ins. ' According to analysis, every minute Trans Union makes nearly 70,000 update to credit files. ' According to John 34th Essay analysis, every second Banks process more than ten thousand credit card transactions. We are producing data more rapidly than ever: ' According to study processes are more and more automated.
' According to study people are more and more interacting online. ' According to study systems are more and more interconnected. We are producing a variety of violin, data including: ' Social network connections. ' Product rating comments. Big data is the term for roland black a collection of data sets so large and complex that it becomes difficult to man ray process using on-hand database management tools or traditional data processing applications. Gartner, and now much of the industry, continue to use this 3Vs model for describing big data . In 2012, Gartner updated its definition as follows: Big data is the term that can be defined as high velocity, volume and variety of information assets that require new forms of processing to The Mirror's Reflection enable enhanced result building, nearby discovery and process optimization . Additionally, a new V Veracity is added by man ray violin, some organizations to describe it. Big data has evolved like a very important factor in of world, the economic and technology field, as Similar to other important factors of invention like hard-assets human-capital, high in numbers the present economic activity merely could n't take position exclusive of it.
We can say that by looking at current position of the departments in the US economic companies have minimum of 200TB data storage on man ray, an average if considered(as double as the of world size of Wal-Mart's data warehouse of man ray violin, US-retailer in 34th, 1999) having one thousand workers approximately. Man Ray! In fact many departments have 1peta-byte 'PB' (in mean) data storage per organization. John 34th US President Essay! The growth of the big data will be continue to man ray violin reach to an high extent, due to the modern technologies, platforms and their logical units and capabilities for handling large amount of data and also its large no. of upcoming users. Utilization of Big Data will turn Out to Be a Key base of Competition and Growth for al baraka car financing Individual Firms: Usage of big-data has become an important medium for the leading firms to man ray violin get better in their data handling. @donald Trump! If we consider an man ray violin example of a retail company, the company can increase its operating margin by 60% approximately by embracing their big data. The chief retailers like UK's TESCO and many more use big-data to keep market revenue-share in economic of world war 1, their pocket against from their local competitors. The emergence of big-data also has capability to evolutes new growth opportunities for those companies who have both combine and industry analyzing data. Even the man ray violin companies who have their data at the mid-point of large info data about the al baraka bank car financing objectives and demands of their users, services, buyers, products suppliers can be easily analyzed and captured using big-data.
The big-data usage in any firm or company can facilitate the healthy and more enhanced analyzing of data and its outcome, by deploying the big-data in the firm there will be lower prices of product, higher quality and healthy match between the company and customer's need. We can say that the man ray violin step forward towards the acceptance of 34th, big data can improve customer surplus and acceleration of performance along all the companies. Figure1.1: Types of data generated. Significance of Big Data: ' The administrator of the Obama has announced the idea of big-data Rd which is very useful to handle the several obstacles and problem which government is facing now a days. Their idea comprised of 84 big-data programs with 6 different departments. ' Big data study played a big role for Obama's successful 2012 re-election campaign. ' Ebay.com uses two data warehouse that consists of 7.5 petabytes and 40 petabytes as well as 40 petabytes Hadoop cluster for man ray merchandising, recommendations and search. ' Everyday, Amazon.com also handles large amount of data (in millions) and its related back-end operations as well as requested queries from third part sellers on an average of more than half million. ' More than 1Million consumer-transactions processes every hour in wp kinsella, Walmart, that is put into databases and estimation is done on data. ' Facebook also has 50 billion pictures of its user and man ray violin process it very well.
' F.I.C.O. that is 'Falcon Credit Card Fraud Detection System' handles and secure 2.1-billion active a/c worlds widely. ' According to Essay estimation, the man ray size of the data stored of business and companies is increasing to the double in every 1.2 years. ' Windermere Real Estate uses various 'GPS signals' from nearly 100 million drivers which help new home seekers to al baraka bank car financing determine their critical times to from work around the times. ' Hadoop is an open source that is called free software framework or technology for processing the huge datasets for man ray certain kinds of problems on the distributed system. ' Hadoop is an open source piece of software that mines or extracts the sequential and non-sequential big-data for a company and economic of world then integrates that big-data with your present business intelligence ecosystem. ' Hadoop works on the most important principle called Map-Reduce (map task reduce task), the main work of the map-reduce is to divide the input dataset into number of independent pieces which are then processed in the parallel-manner by the map tasks.
' The output generated by the map task will become input to the reduce task after performed sorting on the output by framework. ' A file system is used to store the violin input and the output of the wp kinsella jobs. ' Some tasks failed during execution so framework takes care of monitoring the tasks, 're-executes' the man ray failed tasks and scheduling the tasks. History of @donald trump, Hadoop: ' The main or the very important organization from man ray violin, where the history of Hadoop began is none other than best company of the world 'Google'. ' Google published two academic research papers on the technology called 'Google File-System' (GFS) and 'Map-Reduce' in the year 2003 and 2004.
' After some time these two technologies combined together and 34th US President provided a good plat-form for man ray processing huge amount of data in well-organized or effective manner. ' Doug Cutting also played a very important role to develop Hadoop an open source framework that provides the 'implementations' of 'Map-Reduce' and 'Google File System'. ' Doug Cutting had been working on the elements of open source web search engine called 'Nutch' that completely resembles with the technologies 'Map-Reduce' and 'Google File System' published in the Google's research paper. ' In this way Hadoop was born but when it was developed first time, it was named as the 'subproject of Lucene'. ' After that Apache open source foundation did some changes in it and named as 'Apache's open source framework Hadoop' that can be used for processing Big Data in less time. ' Later Doug Cutting was hired by another big company that is @donald trump yahoo. He and other employees of yahoo contributed a lot to man ray Hadoop but after some time Doug Cutting moved to 'Cloudera' and his other teams was hired by an organization called 'Hortonworks'. ' Still we can say that yahoo has the biggest contribution to @donald trump develop Hadoop. What is Apache Mahout? ' Mahout is an API or we can say that it is the library of scalable 'machine-learning' or 'collective-intelligence' algorithms like (classification, clustering, collaborative-filtering and frequent-pattern-mining) that is mailnly used for violin mining frequent item sets, it takes a group of item sets and identifies that which individual items usually or mainly appear together.
' When the size of data is too large then in roland deschain black, such kind of circumstances Mahout is used as the best 'machine-learning' tool because number of algorithms like clustering, pattern mining and collaborative-filtering has been implemented in mahout, it can produce the outputs fast when used on top of Hadoop. History of Mahout: ' The life of Mahout was started in the year 2008, at this time it was treated as the 'sub-project' of man ray violin, one of the major project of wp kinsella, Apache named as 'Apache's Lucene Project'. ' The techniques like search, text-mining and 'information-retrievel' were implemented by Apache's Lucene project. ' Some of the members of the project Lucene were working on the same technology that is 'machine-learning' areas, so these members also contributed to mahout and a separate project named 'Mahout' was generated which works on the principle to predicts future on the basis of violin, past.. ' The algorithms implemented in Mahout were not only implemented in the conventional way but also implemented in @donald trump, such a way that Mahout Framework and algorithms could easily process the large amount of data while working on top of Hadoop using Mahout. Now in violin, the next section I will present the brief introduction of each algorithm that has been implemented on Mahout. ' Collaborative-Filtering is the technique of filter out some important data from the large amount of data which user browse, preference and rate, in other words we can say that collaborative filtering is the wp kinsella process of violin, generating predictions on the basis of users past behavior or history and al baraka suggest or recommend users the top most predicted data or top 'N' recommendations so that it might be helpful for man ray user in his/her future decisions. ' Collaborative-Filtering can be performed in Reflection Essay, two ways, item-based collaborative filtering and user-based collaborative filtering. ' User-based collaborative filtering is the technique that find neighbors having similar taste like user from the large amount of user preferences database then suggest or generates the recommendations for user but like and man ray violin dislike of economic causes war 1, user is not static so the violin recommendations generated using this technique is not so effective and bottleneck problem also occurs so Item-based collaborative filtering algorithm is used these days to generate recommendations for a user because it removes the problem of bottleneck and it first finds the items having similar relationship that user has liked from large pool of items and then generate the recommendations. ' Item based collaborative filtering works on the principle that similarity among item remains static but user likes and dislikes may change so this technique generates good quality of recommendations as compared to @donald trump user-based collaborative filtering algorithm. ' Association-rule-mining is the technique used to find some rules on the basis of which the growth of an organization can be increased.
' There are number of man ray violin, algorithms on the basis of which we can find frequent patterns from the large of dataset, on the basis of frequent patterns we can generate some rules that would be really helpful to increase the turnover of an organization. Architecture of Map-Reduce: A paper on the idea named 'Map-reduce' was published by 'Google' in Reflection, 2004 that was used as architecture. Map-reduce  named architectural framework is able to model the parallel processing and its implementation used to process the violin large amount of data stored. Using this technology, the requested query is al baraka bank splitted into sub queries and then distributed among several parallel sites and processed parallel which is called the 'Map-step'. Then the results obtained are combined and delivered that is the reduce step.
This 'frame-work' was extremely successful; in fact the others wanted to violin make its replica. Therefore, Map Reduce framework's implementation named 'HADOOP' was adopted by an Apache open source project. Figure1.3: MAP-Reduce Flow. Existing Techniques and Technologies: The several technologies have been adapted and al baraka developed to manipulate, analyse, visualize and aggregate huge quantity of violin, data. These technologies and black techniques describe from numerous areas including computer science, applied mathematics, economics and statistics. A number of technologies and techniques were developed in the world having access to man ray smaller variety and volumes in data but they have been effectively adapted so that they could be valid to very big sets or more dissimilar data. Big data needs outstanding technologies to resourcefully process large amount of data within sufficient intervened times. A 2011 report on economic of world war 1, big data suggests suitable Big Data techniques include:
A/B Testing: It is a technique in which the comparison between control group and different test groups is done to obtain the answer that what changes can improve the aim of it. Association Rules: A set of these techniques is used find significant relationships that are association rules between identifiers of huge data storage. Numbers of algorithms are present inside this technology to produce and test feasible rules. Classification: A technique which is mainly used to classify the man ray violin items present in the dataset and usually used to predict the nature of a class using other attributes. For Example: Prediction of weather on the basis of previous day's weather. Cluster Analysis: It is the technique used to group the number of objects having similar properties into one cluster and other objects having similar properties with each other but dissimilar to other cluster group into one cluster. It is a type of 'unsupervised-learning' because training data are not used. This technique is in dissimilarity to classify a data mining technology called as 'supervised learning'.
Data combination and Data Integration: These are the @donald trump techniques that gather the data from several locations then analyze the data for producing good understandings in man ray violin, such a way that is much effective and possibly more precise. Machine Learning: A branch or part of computer_science generally called artificial intelligence that is related with the design and improvement of The Mirror's Reflection, algorithms, which allow computer systems to develop activities on the basis of violin, realistic data. Natural language processing: NLP is the technique to @donald trump process natural language using collection of techniques from the field of computer science which is named as AI linguistics also consists of number of algorithms to analyze human or natural language. Sentiment Analysis: This is an violin application of natural-language-processing that is (NLP) and other critical techniques to recognize and mine the knowledge from inputs. Some important aspects of its examination comprises of The Mirror's Reflection Essay, identifying the product, aspect and feature. Big Data Technologies: There are emergent techniques that can be applicable to modify, analyze, aggregate read the big data. Big Table: Big table is the PDDS i.e. Violin! proprietary distributed-database-system built on the GFS i.e. 'Google-File-System' Encouragement for HBase. Business Intelligence (BI): A sort of al baraka bank car financing, application software builds to analyze, present and report data. Man Ray! Business Intelligence tools normally analyze data which is earlier stored in 'data_mart' or 'data_warehouse'.
Cassandra: An open-source DBMS (database management system) specially aimed to handle large quantity of @donald trump, data on violin, a distributed system. Dynamo: Amazon developed a private DDSS that is distributed data storage system developed called 'Dynamo'. Google File System: This is a private distributed file system developed by Google as a part of the motivation for Hadoop. HBASE: This is an open-source non-relational DDB that is @donald trump distributed data base based on Big Table product of Google. Man Ray! This project was initially developed by Power set but now it is managed by the Apache Software Foundation as part of the Hadoop. Map Reduce: This is a software framework developed by the best company of the world that is 'Google' for handing out deschain large datasets for specific kinds of man ray, requested queries on data stored at distributed sites. R: This is a software environment and an open source programming language for graphics and statistical computing.
Relational Database: This is a database formed up through a collection of tuples columns collectively stored in wp kinsella, tabular form. RDBMS i.e. Relational Database Management Systems is the database system consists of structured-data and violin stored in form of wp kinsella, tuples and columns. SQL is the best language for man ray managing or maintaining relational databases. 1] A.Pradeepa, A.S.Thanamani. 'Hadoop File System And Fundamental Concept of Map Reduce Interior And Closure Rough Set Approximations '. In this paper authors described that big data-mining and knowledge-discovery is the wp kinsella huge challenges because the violin volume or size of bank car financing, data is growing at an unprecented approximation scale. Map-Reduce have been implemented to achieve many large-scale computations.
Recently introduced or presented Map-Reduce proficiency has received or gained much more consideration and attention from both the sides that is the industry for its applicability and the scientific-community in man ray, big-data analysis .According to the authors of this paper, for mining and finding some knowledge from big data, they presented an algorithm corresponding to the Map-Reduce based on al baraka car financing, abrasive theory, that are put forward to deal with the massive or large amount of data and violin also measured the performances on the large or big data sets to show that the proposed work can effectively or accurately processes the big data and find the causes war 1 results in man ray violin, less time. 2] Md.R.Karim1, A.Hossain, Md.M.Rashid. 'An Efficient Market Basket Analysis Technique with Improved Map Reduce Framework on Hadoop '. In this paper, authors described that market-basket analysis techniques are considerably important to every day's business decision because of its capability of mining customer's purchase rules by discovering that which items they are buying so frequently and together. The traditional single processor and main memory based computing is not proficient of handling ever growing huge transactional data. Bank Car Financing! In this paper an effort has been taken to remove these limitations. First author will eliminate null transactions and rare items from the man ray segmented dataset before applying their proposed HMBA algorithm using the ComMap-Reduce framework on Hadoop to generate the absolute set of maximal frequent item-sets. 3] J.W. Woo, Yuhang Xu. 'Market Basket Analysis Algorithm with Map/Reduce of Cloud Computing '.
In this paper, authors explained the Map-Reduce approach that has been very popular or effective, in order to compute or calculate enormous volumes of data, since google implemented its platform on google distributed file systems that is roland black called (G.D.F.S) and Amazon web service that is man ray called (A.W.S), provides its services with a platform called Apache Hadoop. 4] J.W. Woo, S.Basopia, Yuhang Xu. Roland Deschain Black! 'Market Basket Analysis Algorithm with no-SQL DB HBase and Hadoop '. In this paper authors presented a new schema that is called H-Base which is used to man ray process transaction data for market basket analysis algorithm. Market basket analysis algorithm runs on apache Hadoop Map-Reduce and read data from black, HBase and HDFS, then the transaction data is converted and sorted into data set having (key and man ray value pair) and al baraka bank after the violin completion of whole process, it stores the whole data to the H-Base or Hadoop distributed file system that is HDFS. 5] D.V.S.Shalini, M.Shashi and A.M.Sowjanya. Wp Kinsella! 'Mining Frequent Patterns of Stock Data Using Hybrid Clustering'. In this paper, authors described that the man ray classification and patterns in the stock market or inventory data is really significant or important for business-support and decision-making. They also proposed a new algo that is algorithm for mining patterns from large amount of stock market data for guessing factors that are affecting or decreasing the product's sale. Bank! To improve the execution time, the proposed system uses two efficient methods for clustering which includes PAM that is violin Partitioning Around Medoids and (BIRCH) that is Balanced Iterative Reducing and Clustering using Hierarchies along with (M.F.P). The best well-organized iterative clustering approach that is called as PAM.
PAM is used initially or to start the clustering and after that PAM was combined with frequent pattern mining algorithm that is called FPM algorithm. 6] W.Wei, S.Yu, Q.Guo, W.Ding and roland deschain black L.Bian. 'An Effective Algorithm for violin Simultaneously Mining Frequent Patterns and Association Rules'. According to the authors of this paper algorithms like Apriori and FP -Growth break the problem of roland deschain black, mining association rules into two different sub problems then find frequent pattern and generate the required rules. To solve the violin problem we catch a deep insight of FP-Growth algorithm and propose an Reflection effective algorithm by using the FP-tree called AR-Growth Association Rule Growth which can concurrently discover frequent item sets and association rules (AR) in a large database. 7] J.W.Woo. 'Apriori-Map/Reduce Algorithm '.
In this paper, authors presented number of methods or techniques for man ray violin converting many sequential algorithms to the corresponding or related Map-Reduce algorithms. The Mirror's Essay! They also described that Map-Reduce algorithm of the legacy Apriori algorithm which has been common or same to collect the item sets frequently, arose to compose association rules in data mining. Theoretically it shows that the man ray violin proposed algorithm provides the high performance computing depending upon the number of Map-Reduce nodes. 8] L.Hualei, L.Shukuan, Q.Jianzhong, Y.Ge, L.Kaifu. 'An Efficient Frequent Pattern Mining Algorithm for Data Stream '. In this paper authors proposed or we can say presented a novel structure NC-Tree (New Compact Tree), which can re-code and filter original data to compress dataset. At the same time, a new frequent pattern mining algorithm is also introduced on the bases of wp kinsella, it, which can update and adjust the tree more efficiently. There are mostly two kinds of algorithms that is basically used to mine frequent item sets using frequent pattern mining approach. Violin! One is Apriori algorithm that is based on generating and testing and the other one is FP-growth that is based on dividing and causes of world conquering, which has been widely used in violin, static data mining. For data stream, the frequent pattern mining algorithms must have strong ability of updating and al baraka adjusting to further improve its efficiency. 9] S.K Vijayakumar, A. Bhargavi, U. Praseeda and S. A. Ahamed. 'Optimizing Sequence Alignment in Cloud using Hadoop and MPP Database'[Sequence Alignment].
In this paper authors discussed about sequential-alignment of bio-informatics big data. The size of data is growing day by day in the field of bio-informatics so it is not easy to violin process and find important sequences that are present in roland deschain black, bio-informatics data using existing techniques. Authors of this paper basically discussed about the new technologies to store and process large amount of data that is man ray violin 'Hadoop' and 'Green-plum'. Green-plum is the war 1 massively parallel processing technique used to store petabytes of data. Man Ray! Hadoop is also used to process huge amount of data because it is also based on parallel processing and generates results in very less time as compared to existing technologies to process the huge amount of data. Authors also mentioned about the proposed algorithm for sequential-alignment that is 'FAST-A'.
10] S.Mishra, D.Mishra and economic S.K.Satapathy. 'Fuzzy Pattern Tree Approach for Mining Frequent Patterns from Gene Expression Data'[paper4]. In this paper the man ray violin main focus of the authors on the 'frequent pattern mining of gene- expression data'. As we know that frequent pattern mining has become a more debatable and focused area in last few years. There are number of car financing, algorithms exist which can be used to man ray frequent pattern from the @donald trump data set. But in this paper authors applied the fuzzification technique on the data set and after that applied number of techniques to violin find more meaningful frequent patterns from data set. 11] L.Chen, W.Liu. 'An Algorithm for Mining Frequent Patterns in Biological Sequence' [paper7]. In this paper authors describe that the existing techniques used to @donald trump mine frequent patterns from large amount of biological data is violin not efficient and time consuming. Al Baraka Bank Car Financing! They proposed a new technique called 'Frequent Biological Pattern Mining' or 'FBPM' to violin mine frequent patterns from large amount of biological data.
They also compared the results of both the techniques that are existing techniques and proposed techniques on the basis of execution time to find frequent patterns and number of patterns mined. 12] B.Sarwar, G.Karypis, J.Konstan, and J.Riedl. 'ItemBased Collaborative Filtering Recommendation Algorithms'. In this paper authors talked about the recommendation systems and described various techniques to wp kinsella develop a good recommendation system that can be used to generate best recommendations for the users. Recommendation systems are the system with the help of which we can predict the future after applying some collaborative-filtering algorithms, on the basis of users past activities. Two most famous collaborative-filtering techniques that we generally use to predict the future data that would be helpful for user on man ray, his/her next purchase are Item-based-collaborative-filtering algorithm and User- based-collaborative-filtering algorithm. Item-based- collaborative-filtering algorithm works on @donald trump, the principle of comparing the similarities between items and man ray suggests those items to the users which are quite similar to his/her taste. On the other hand user-based-collaborative-filtering algorithm works on the principle of finding nearest-neighbours of target user which agrees on the similar item in terms of al baraka bank, rating or having some similarity in man ray violin, items, find nearest users having similar taste to the target user and suggest those items to the target user which are liked by his/her nearest-neighbours. Design and Implementation. 3.1 Proposed Methodology: According to our dissertation title we are working to The Mirror's Essay find frequent patterns and on the basis of the frequent patterns some recommendations would be suggested to the user using frequent pattern mining algorithm, Hadoop and Mahout. 1. Man Ray Violin! First of all my main work is to collect the real time data set of E-commerce website.
2. Once the data set has been collected, next step is to of world war 1 clean the violin data set. F. Kennedy: US President Essay! Cleaning of dataset means remove the unwanted fields and convert the format of dataset into desired format. 3. After converting the dataset into a meaningful format, make a java program that can read the dataset and generate frequent patterns and association rules from the data. 4. Violin! For finding the frequent patterns from the black dataset apply the reduced apriori algorithm and create a map-reduce program that will implement reduced apriori algorithm. 5. Man Ray! Combine the program with Hadoop to wp kinsella find the frequent patterns in less time as compared to find the man ray violin frequent patterns by executing program in eclipse. 6. Reflection Essay! Apply the dataset using mahout on top of Hadoop in distributed environment to find recommendations by using collaborative filtering approach.
7. Compare the execution time of finding frequent patterns and man ray association rules using (Hadoop, Mahout) and simple java program. 3.2 Proposed Architecture: 'Hadoop is an car financing open source that is called free software framework or technology for processing the man ray huge datasets for wp kinsella certain kinds of man ray violin, problems on the distributed system. 'Hadoop is an open source piece of software that mines or extracts the sequential and non-sequential big-data for a company and then integrates that big-data with your present business intelligence ecosystem. 'Hadoop works on the most important principle called Map-Reduce (map task reduce task), the main work of the map-reduce is to divide the input dataset into number of deschain black, independent pieces which are then processed in the parallel-manner by the map tasks. 'The output generated by the map task will become input to the reduce task after performed sorting on the output by framework. 'A file system is used to store the violin input and the output of the jobs. 'Some tasks failed during execution so framework takes care of monitoring the tasks, 're-executes' the @donald trump failed tasks and scheduling the tasks. ' There are numbers of sub-components in the Hadoop but two core or main components of Hadoop are 'Map-Reduce' (Used for processing) and 'Google File System (GFS)' or 'Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS)' (Used for storage). ' 'Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS)' and 'Map-Reduce' are designed to keep this thing in man ray violin, mind that they both could be deployed on the single cluster and so that both processing system and storage system could work together.
Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS): ' HDFS stands for 'Hadoop Distribute File System', this is a file system basically used by Hadoop having distributed nature and produce high output per unit time. ' HDFS is the distributed file system because it distributes the data across number of nodes so that in case of failure data could be easily recovered. ' HDFS stores the data on number of data nodes after dividing the whole data into number of data blocks. ' The default block size is 64 MB but it is configurable according to the size of data is going to process using Hadoop. ' HDFS maintains the Reflection replicas of data block across multiple data nodes so that in violin, case of of world war 1, any failure data can be recovered and functioning or processing would not stop. Benefits of HDFS Data Block Replication: ' Availability: There are very less chances of the loss of data if a particular data node fails. ' Reliability: There are number of replicas of data so if in any case data at particular node corrupts then it can be corrected easily. ' Performance: Data is always available for reducer for processing because multiple copies exist so this is the main reason it also increases the man ray performance. ' Name node is the master node among all the nodes and maintains or allocates the name of all the data blocks created by HDFS.
' Name node is roland also very helpful to manage the number of data blocks present on the data node. ' Name node also monitors all the other nodes present in the whole processing of data from HDFS to violin Map-Reduce and output generation. ' Name node also maintains the information about the location of each file stores in Reflection, HDFS. ' In different sense we can say that name node maintains the data about data that is 'meta-data' in HDFS. File A is man ray violin present on Data Node 1, Data Node 2, and Data Node 4.
File B is present on Data Node 3, Data Node 4, and wp kinsella Data Node 5. File C present on Data Node 1, Data Node 4, and Data Node 3. ' Name node is only point of disappointment for the Hadoop Cluster. ' Data nodes are the slave nodes of the violin master node i.e. name node and is generally used by HDFS for storing the @donald trump data blocks. ' Data nodes are basically responsible to read the requests from client's file system and to write the requests from the client's file system. ' Data nodes also perform a very important function of creating the data blocks, replicated the data blocks on man ray violin, the basis of instructions provided by US President, name node. ' Secondary Name Node: ' Secondary name node generally performs the violin functions of deschain, throwing out the non-important things present inside the man ray violin Name node regularly to prevent it from failure. ' Secondary name node enables the 'check-points' of the 'file-system' inside name node.
' Secondary node is the backup for name node rather than it is a saying that it is a point of failure for name node. ' Map-Reduce are the John Essay kind of framework or we can say it is a programming concept used by man ray violin, Apache organization in its product Hadoop, for processing large amount of data. ' Map and Reduce functions have almost created in every programming language having the same functionality Java language. ' Map-Reduce was implemented to bank car financing process large amount of data by man ray violin, dividing it into Reflection Essay, two parts that is man ray Map part and Reduce part. ' Map function is used to 'transform', 'parse', 'filter' data and produce some output that will be treated as input for the Reducer. ' Reduce function takes the output generated from the Map function as its input and sorts or combine the data for decreasing the roland black complexity. ' Map and Reduce functions both works on the principle of (Key and Value).
' Map function takes the input from man ray, data node and 34th Essay with help of mapper divide the data into keys and values like (key1, value11), (key2, value12) and (key1, value21), (key2, value22). ' Combiner then summarizes the data and man ray violin combine the values relate to a particular key (key1, value11, value21) and (key2, value12, value22). ' Reduce function then reduce the 34th Essay output generated by combiner and generates the violin final output (key1, value1), (key2, value2). Nodes in Map-Reduce: The complete Map-Reduce operation comprises of two important jobs that are 'Job-Tracker' which is known as the wp kinsella 'Master Node' and 'Task-Tracker' which is known as the 'Slave Node'. ' Job-Tracker usually takes the request or tasks from the man ray violin client and forward or assign these requests or tasks to the Task-Tracker on top of data node, then Task-Tracker performed the tasks with the help of data node. ' Job-Tracker always assigns the tasks to the Task-Tracker on top of data node because data is always available there in the local repository.
' Sometimes it might not be possible for Job-Tracker to assign the tasks for Task-Tracker on data node then Job-Tracker tries to assign the tasks to roland black Task-Tracker in the same rack. ' If in any case a node failure occurs or the violin Task-Tracker which was processing the task fails then Job-Tracker assigns the same task to other Task-Tracker where 'replica' or copy of same data exists because data blocks are 'replicated' across multiple data nodes. ' In such a way Job-Tracker guarantees that if Task-Tracker stops working then it does not mean that the job fails. ' Task-Tracker is the deschain slave node of the master node i.e. 'Job-Tracker' which takes the request of processing the tasks from Job-Tracker and processes the task ('Map', 'Reduce' and 'Shuffle') using data present in man ray, data block of data nodes. ' Every 'Task-Tracker' is composed of number of slots that it means it can process number of tasks at the same time. ' Job-Tracker always checks that an empty slot is @donald trump present on man ray violin, the same server whenever some task should be scheduled, if empty slots exist that can hosts the data node having data then Job-Tracker give the task to that slot of Task-Tracker otherwise Job-Tracker looks for the empty slot on the same rack of the machine. ' Each Task-Tracker sends some message in every second to inform the Job-tracker that it is wp kinsella alive and processing the task. ' Each Task-Tracker has its own JVM to process the man ray task if in any case one Task-Tracker stops working it would be informed to Job-Tracker and Job-Tracker allocates some other Task-Tracker for that task and all other Task-Tracker would be working simultaneously without any kind of intervention. ' After the task has been completed the 'Task-Tracker' informs the al baraka Job-Tracker. What is Apache Mahout?
' Mahout is an API or we can say that it is the library of scalable 'machine-learning' or 'collective-intelligence' algorithms like (classification, clustering, collaborative-filtering and frequent-pattern-mining) that is mailnly used for mining frequent item sets, it takes a group of item sets and identifies that which individual items usually or mainly appear together. ' When the size of data is too large then in such kind of circumstances Mahout is used as the best 'machine-learning' tool because number of algorithms like clustering, pattern mining and collaborative-filtering has been implemented in mahout, it can produce the outputs fast when used on top of man ray violin, Hadoop. ' Collaborative-Filtering is the technique of filter out some important data from the large amount of data which user browse, preference and rate, in other words we can say that collaborative filtering is the process of generating predictions on the basis of economic war 1, users past behavior or history and suggest or recommend users the top most predicted data or top 'N' recommendations so that it might be helpful for user in his/her future decisions. ' All the preferences about different set of items from users can come from explicit ratings or from implicit ratings. ' Explicit Rating: It is the kind of technique in which user suggest his/her preference by giving rating to a particular product or item on a certain scale. ' Implicit Rating: It is the kind of technique in which user's preferences are generated on man ray, the basis user's interaction for deschain products. ' With the help of man ray, collaborative-filtering we can predict or forecast the future on the basis of user's past activities or pattern. ' To predict the future on the basis of past activities of users we firstly make or create the deschain black database of the user's preferences for items and then apply some algorithms like nearest neighborhood to predict the future preferences of a user on the basis of his/her neighbors having the same perception or taste.
' As the size of data is increasing on man ray violin, daily basis so that is the main challenge that we require such kind of algorithms that can process millions of al baraka bank, data and match a user preference with all other neighbors present in man ray, database to wp kinsella get better prediction in less time. ' Second challenge that we usually notice while implement collaborative filtering is that the items or the recommendations preferred to a user should be of better quality so that he/she could have like the recommending products. ' Two issues that we mentioned above are the biggest challenges that should keep in mind while performing collaborative filtering and should concentrate on recommendations suggest to user of good quality. ' Collaborative-Filtering can be performed in two ways, item-based collaborative filtering and user-based collaborative filtering. ' User-based collaborative filtering is the technique that find neighbors having similar taste like user from the large amount of user preferences database then suggest or generates the violin recommendations for user but like and bank dislike of user is not static so the recommendations generated using this technique is not so effective and bottleneck problem also occurs so Item-based collaborative filtering algorithm is used these days to violin generate recommendations for a user because it removes the problem of bottleneck and it first finds the items having similar relationship that user has liked from large pool of items and then generate the recommendations. ' Item based collaborative filtering works on economic war 1, the principle that similarity among item remains static but user likes and violin dislikes may change so this technique generates good quality of recommendations as compared to user-based collaborative filtering algorithm. ' Item-based collaborative-filtering algorithm is one of the best algorithms used by recommendation systems, to generate recommendations using this algorithm firstly we make the set of items that user has rated earlier, after that find a set of (n) most similar items from this set having same similarities to the target item (i) then similarity of wp kinsella, each item present inside the set of (n) most similar items is man ray calculated. After the causes of world war 1 computation of similarities, calculate the man ray weighted average sum of user ratings on set of similar items to find the Reflection best recommendations for the target user.
' Prediction computation and similarity computation are the man ray two techniques used to find the al baraka bank future predictions and similarities among numbers of items. Similarity Computation for Items: ' Similarity computation is the violin technique used to 'find or compute' the value of similarity among items from large number of items and select the set of items having same similarity. ' Similarity between two items a and b is The Mirror's Reflection Essay computed after isolated the users who have rated the man ray violin items a and b, then use some similarity finding techniques to find the similarity Sa,b. ' There are number of The Mirror's Reflection Essay, techniques that can be used for computing similarity between items are 'Cosine-based' similarity, 'Correlation-based' similarity, 'Adjusted-cosine' similarity. Let's we discuss all three techniques to find similarities between items are: ' Cosine-based similarity is the technique used to find the similarity between two items; this technique considers both the items for which similarity would be determined as the violin two vectors in the n-dimensional user space. ' Similarity is measured as the cosine of the angle between both the vectors.
' Similarity between the two items a and b can be denoted as: Here '.' denotes the dot product of both the John US President Essay vectors. ' Correlation-Based Similarity is the other technique used to find the violin similarity between two items a and b. ' To find the similarity between two items using this technique we use the pearson co-relation method and find the pearson co-relation between two items that is Corr(a,b). ' To find the value of pearson co-relation more accurate, we removed the over-rated ratings of the two items that is the causes of world ratings for which users rated both items (a and b) and set of man ray violin, users who rated both items (a and wp kinsella b) are denoted by U. Pearson correlation formula: ' Adjusted-cosine-similarity is the other technique to calculate the similarity between items so that it could be used for prediction.
' Similarity between two items generated using correlation-based similarity technique does not consider difference between corresponding user's ratings and over-rated rating of man ray violin, related pair. So the results generated are not so accurate. ' Adjusted-Cosine Similarity generates more accurate results as compared to correlation based similarity because it removes the @donald trump drawback by- 'subtracting' the average ratings of related user's from each extra rated pair. ' User-Based Collaborative filtering is the technique or we can say that it is an violin algorithm that is basically used to generate future predictions for a user on the basis of his/her past history or by using his/her neighbors having similar kind of @donald trump, taste. ' User-Based Collaborative filtering is the algorithm which works on the principle of generating recommendations for the user after finding his/her neighbor users from database of items and users, having similar kind of item ratings assigned and similar type of purchase history. ' After generating the nearest neighbors having same taste for the target user using user-based collaborative filtering algorithm then some techniques are applied to man ray violin find the top recommendations for the target user. ' In this way user based collaborative filtering generates recommendations and it is also known as memory based or nearest neighbor based algorithm to find or suggest best recommendations for the user. User-Based Collaborative-Filtering challenges:
1. 'Scalability': As the number of al baraka, users and items are increasing the size of 'user-item' database is also growing so it takes lot of time to find nearest neighbor of a particular user form large database having millions of users and items exists. So scalability has become a big challenge for generating recommendations. 2. 'Sparsity': Recommendation system which is working on the principle of nearest neighbor fails in certain circumstances, when the number of active users who is purchasing some product is very large, so in violin, such cases to find nearest neighbors for each active user is very difficult because of the sparsity. ' Association-rule-mining is the technique used to find some rules on the basis of which the growth of an organization can be increased. ' There are number of algorithms on the basis of which we can find frequent patterns from the large of dataset, on the basis of Reflection Essay, frequent patterns we can generate some rules that would be really helpful to increase the violin turnover of an organization. ' Algorithms like Apriori and FP-growth are mostly used to The Mirror's Reflection Essay find the frequent patterns and generate association rules but if the man ray size of causes, data is so huge then these two algorithm would take more time to generate rules thus decrease the efficiency of the man ray algorithm. ' So we implemented both the algorithms using map-reduce technique and then implemented them on Reflection Essay, top of hadoop to man ray find frequent patterns and association rules. ' So Apriori and FP-growth  algorithms find the frequent patterns from a set of roland deschain black, transactional dataset having transaction id and item set(i.e., ), where TID is a transaction-id and item set is the set of man ray, items bought in transaction TId.
On the roland deschain black other hand, mining can also be performed on data presented in data format like . ' Apriori algorithm significantly reduces the man ray violin size of candidate sets using the wp kinsella Apriori standard but still it suffers from two problems: (1) generates a huge number of candidate sets, and (2) repeatedly scan the man ray database and checking the candidates by pattern matching. ' FP-growth algorithm mines the causes of world complete set of frequent item sets without generating candidate set. ' FP-growth works on the divide and conquers principle. ' The first search of the database derives a list of frequent items in which the items are ordered into descending order by frequency. ' According to the descending list by frequency, the database is reduced into a frequent-pattern tree or fp-tree, which retains the man ray violin item set and their association information. ' The fp-tree is economic causes of world war 1 mined or formed by initializing from each one (frequent length-1) pattern as an first suffix prototype, constructing its conditional pattern base and sub database which consists of the set of man ray violin, prefix paths in the fp-tree co-occurring with the suffix pattern then constructing its conditional fp-tree and performing mining recursively on such a tree.
' The pattern growth is achieved by the combination or concatenation of the suffix pattern with the frequent patterns generated from a conditional FP-tree. How Association Rule Mining Works. Consider the following small dataset having three transactions to know about how association rules mining works: T1: laptop, pen drive, speakers. T2: laptop, pen drive.
T3: mobile, screen guard, mobile cover. T4: laptop, speakers, pen drive. T5: mobile, mobile cover, screen guard. T6: mobile, screen guard. From this small data set we can find the frequent patterns and on the basis of frequent patterns we can generate some association rules using FP Growth algorithm. A frequent pattern is a group of some items that occur frequently in the transactions or data set. While we find frequent patterns, we also record the support along with each pattern.
Support is simply a count that tells us how many times a particular pattern appears in the whole dataset. Mobile cover = 2. Screen guard = 2. Laptop, pen drive = 3. Laptop, speakers = 2. Mobile, screen guard = 3. Mobile, mobile cover = 2. Laptop, pen drive, speakers = 2.
Mobile, mobile cover, screen guard = 2. Here we assume that support is 2 it means all the F. Kennedy: 34th US President Essay patterns with support equal to or greater than 2, will considered as frequent patterns. Man Ray! On the basis of above frequent patterns we can construct some association rules which follow the al baraka bank minimum support and confidence = 60%. Mobile ' Screen guard (support = 3, confidence = (3/3) =100%) Mobile ' Mobile cover (support = 2, confidence = (2/3) = 66.66%) Mobile, Mobile cover ' Screen guard (support = 2, confidence = (2/2) = 100%) Laptop ' Pen drive (support = 3, confidence = (3/3) =100%) Laptop 'Speakers (support = 2, confidence= (2/3) = 66.66%) Laptop, Pen drive ' Speakers (support = 2, confidence = (2/3) = 66.66%)
On the basis of above small data set we are able to find some association rules that tells us that (screen guard, mobile cover are always buy with mobile phone) and (pen drive, speakers are always buy with laptop. Approach to man ray Design. 4.1 Flow of Implementation: 5.1 Installation of John F. Kennedy: US President Essay, Hadoop: If you have already installed Ubuntu 12.04 or any other version then please follow the man ray violin steps that mentioned below to @donald trump install hadoop on Single node pseudo distribute that is man ray violin called installation of hadoop on your local machine. Step 1: Java Installation. To work on Hadoop, first of Essay, all we require to install java on man ray violin, your local machine. So install the latest version of java that is Oracle JAVA 1.7 which is highly recommended to run Hadoop. Here I am also using oracle java 1.7 for working on hadoop because it is more stable, fast and have several new APIs. Following commands are used for Installing JAVA in Ubuntu:
Open the terminal using (ctrl+alt+t) then enter the economic causes of world following commands to install java: 1) Sudo apt-get install 'python-software-properties' 2) Sudo add-apt-repository 'ppa:webupd8team/java' 3) Sudo apt-get update. 4) Sudo apt-get install oracle-java7-installer. 5) Sudo update-java-alternatives -s java-7-oracle. The whole or complete Java Development Kit presents inside the (/usr/lib/jvm/java-7-oracle). When the violin installation has come to an end then do a check whether java or JDK has correctly set up by of world war 1, using command that is mentioned below. Figure5.1: Java Installed Successfully. Step 2: After successfully installed java, add a separate or personal user for hadoop that is man ray violin hduser . Commmands for create 'hadoop- user' and 'hadoop- group':
1)sudo 'addgroup hadoop' 2)sudo ' adduser --ingroup hadoop' hduser. After the Essay successful completion of above steps, we will have a separate user and group for hadoop. Step 3: How to configure ssh. To work with hadoop on remote machines or at your local machine, hadoop requires ssh access to man ray deal with its nodes. Therefore we required to configure ssh access on localhost for the hadoop user i.e. hduser that we created in the last step.
Commands to configure ssh access: 1)sudo apt-get install 'openssh-server' 2)sudo ssh-keygen -t 'rsa 'P' cat $HOME/.ssh/id_rsa.pub $HOME/.ssh/authorized_keys. Figure5.3: Configure ssh localhost. Step 4: Disabling IPv6. To work with hadoop on local or in distributed system we required to disable ipv6 on Ubuntu 12.04. First of all open the'/etc/sysctl.conf'file in any editor of your choice in ubuntu then add the below mentioned lines at the end of this file. Now it is the time to restart your system so that the changes that we have done could be reflected. After restarting the al baraka bank system we can confirm that whether ipv6 has disabled on violin, your local machine by using the command that is mentioned below: 'Cat/proc/sys/net/ipv6/conf/all/disable_ipv6' (If return value = '1' it shows that ipv6 has disabled)
Step 5: After performing the initial steps it is the time to install Hadoop version 1.0.4 on your machine. First of all download hadoop-1.0.4 tar file that is the stable or good release from apache download mirrors, then extract or untar the hadoop downloaded file to a folder named hadoop at economic of world war 1, usr/local/hadoop . A folder which is common to all the users, it is mostly chosen that we should install or set-up the hadoop into that folder. Use the below mentioned commands to untar the hadoop 1.0.4 tar file into hadoop folder: Move to local folder using cd/usr/local then use command mentioned below to man ray violin untar hadoop 1.0.4: 1) sudo tar xzf 'hadoop-1.0.4.tar.gz'
2) sudo mv hadoop-1.0.4hadoop. Change the owner of all the F. Kennedy: 34th Essay files to hadoop group and the hduser user using the command: 1)sudo 'chown -R hduser:hadoop hadoop' Now it is the time to man ray violin update the bash file which is present inside home directory $HOME/.bashrc : To update the bash file i.e.'.bachrc' for wp kinsella the'hduser'. To open'.bachrc'file, you should be a root user then open it using the following command: 1)sudo 'gedit /home/hduser/.bashrc' Figure5.5: Open .bashrc file. Once the '.bashrc' will open then at the end of '.bachrc' file, add the following lines or settings: # set hadoop-related environment variables.
unalias fs-- /dev/null. Alias fs 'hadoop fs' Unalias- hls /dev/null. hadoop fs -cat $1 | lzop -dc | head -1000 | less. # Add hadoop 'bin/ directory'to PATH. Figure5.6: Update .bashrc file.
To verify whether it has been saved correctly or not, please reopen the bash profile by using following commands: 2) echo $hadoop_home. 3) echo $java_home. Step 6: Changes in Hadoop Configuration. An XML file is used to configure each component inside Hadoop. Man Ray Violin! 'Common properties' go in core-site.xml', 'HDFS properties' go in hdfs-site.xml', and 'Map-Reduce properties' go in mapred-site.xml'. Bank Car Financing! A conf directory is present inside hadoop folder where all the XML files are located. 1) Changes in 'hadoop-env.sh' First of all open the 'conf/hadoop-env.sh'file and man ray set the 'JAVA_HOME'as: 2) Changes in 'conf/core-site.xml' Open the 'core-site.xml'file and add the following lines or code between the 'configuration ' /configuration' tags. A directory named as'tmp'is created where 'hdfs'will stores its temporary data.
The configurations that we mentioned above, we have used 'hadoop.tmp.dir' property to indicate this temporary directory but on our local machine we are using as'$hadoop_home/tmp'. Commands to 'create tmp directory' and 'change ownership and John Essay permissions': 1) sudo mkdir -p $hadoop_home/tmp. 2) sudo chown hduser:hadoop $hadoop_home /tmp. 3) sudo chmod 750 $hadoop_home /tmp. 3) Changes in 'conf/mapred-site.xml' Open the 'mapred-site.xml'file and add the following lines or code between the man ray violin 'configuration ' /configuration' tags. Figure5.10: Changes in 'conf/mapred-site.xml' 4) Changes in 'conf/hdfs-site.xml'
Open the 'hdfs-site.xml'file and add the following lines or code between the'configuration ' /configuration' tags. Step 7: creating Name Node Directory. mkdir -p $hadoop_home/tmp/dfs/name. chown hduser:hadoop /usr/local/hadoop/tmp/dfs/name. Step 8: Format the name node. Hadoop Distributed file system i.e. hdfs is implemented on top of the local file system of your 'cluster'. So the initial step to starting up your hadoop installation is to wp kinsella format the.
hadoop file system or name node. $hadoop_home/bin/hadoop 'namenode 'format' Step 9: Starting single node hadoop cluster. Open Terminal then goto /bin directory inside hadoop folder and start hadoop using command mentioned below: Now after successfully performed each step that we mentioned above, it is the time to man ray find whether. all nodes are running properly inside hadoop.
We can use the following command to check it. Output must be like mentioned below, if we are getting such kind of output it means hadoop is running successfully. 4841 task tracker. 4512 secondary name-node. 4596 job tracker. It means hadoop has installed successfully and working fine. 5.2 Installation of Maven: Open the terminal then enter the below command to download and install maven. sudo apt-get install maven2. Open the '.bashrc' file and add the lines mentioned below at the end of bash file.
Set the 'java_home' in '.bashrc' file. Export java_home= '/usr/lib/jvm/java-7-oracle' Add Java jre/ 'PATH' of directory. Run mvn --version to verify that it is correctly installed. If the message as shown below displays. It shows maven installed successfully. Figure5.15: Maven Installed Successfully.
5.3 Installation of Mahout: Download the F. Kennedy: 34th US President Essay mahout source package in .zip format from the following link: http://www.apache.org/dyn/closer.cgi/lucene/mahout/ Extract the folder into usr/local/mahout directory and man ray check that pom.xml file exists inside it or not. Open the terminal and wp kinsella moved to usr/local/mahout directory then enter the following command: mvn install (to install mahout on top of hadoop) If the message as shown below displays then mahout installed successfully. 5.4 How to Run a Simple Job on Hadoop: 1. Move to /usr/local/hadoop/bin directory and start the all nodes of man ray violin, hadoop using command. 2. Create a Word count text file inside local tmp directory using command. 3. Of World! Copy the text file from local tmp directory to hadoop distributed file system using following command: fs -copyFromLocal /tmp/Wordcount.txt /user/hduser/wordcountexample/Wordcount.txt.
Figure5.19: Copy text file from tmp to hdfs. 4. Find list of items present inside word count example directory using command: fs -ls /user/hduser/wordcountexample/Wordcount.txt. Figure5.20: List of items present inside wordcount. 5. Man Ray Violin! Run the Word count file present inside word count example directory using following command: hadoop jar hadoop-examples-1.0.4.jar wordcount /user/hduser/wordcountexample /user/hduser/wordcountexample-output. Figure5.21: Run the wp kinsella word-count map-reduce job. 6. Violin! Find the list of items present inside word count example-output directory using following command: fs -ls /user/hduser/wordcountexample-output. 7. Run the output file generated to show the output on console using command: fs -cat /user/hduser/wordcountexample-output/part-r-00000. Figure5.23: Run the output file. Discussion of bank car financing, Results. 6.1 Find Frequent Patterns and Recommendations from Big Data: 1. Open terminal and start Hadoop using command ./start-all.sh.
Figure6.1: Start the hadoop nodes. 2. Convert the data set into .dat format which is required by shell script. 3. Man Ray Violin! Add the path of dataset into shell script. 4. Run the dataset on top of Hadoop using Map Reduce to John F. Kennedy: 34th find frequent patterns. Figure6.3: Start Mahout. ' To Run Mahout on top of Hadoop Set MAHOUT_LOCAL=True. ' After Setting MAHOUT_LOCAL=true, go to the bin directory where shell script is kept to violin find recommendations from dataset. ' Run the shell script by economic causes of world, providing path of dataset. Presentation of man ray violin, Results. After successfully running the script on mahout and performing number of map reduce jobs by hadoop, it generates recommendations in very less time as compared to apply same data set using simple java program in eclipse . 1. Wp Kinsella! When the size of data was just 100 MB then Hadoop took 0.18705 minutes to man ray violin process the data and generate recommendations.
Figure7.1: Data set is running and Map-Reduce took place. Figure7.3: Map-Reduce Job completed. 2. Bank! When the size of data was 200 MB then Hadoop took 0.24005 minutes to process the violin data and generates recommendations. 3. When the size of data was 1 GB then Hadoop took 4.689 minutes to process the data and generate recommendations. When I started the dissertation work I mentioned that size of data is growing day by day in bank car financing, gigabytes or in terabytes volume, so it is not easy for an organization to violin handle such big amount of data and could do predictions, find patterns and recommendations from such large amount of The Mirror's Reflection Essay, data using existing technologies in less time. But we use Hadoop and Mahout both together then the overhead of an organisation to analyse the violin big data will become very less and execution time required to find patterns and recommendations will also be so less. We took around 500 GB of e-commerce website data then performed frequent pattern mining and collaborative filtering using Mahout and Hadoop. At the economic of world same time we performed the same work using simple java programs in eclipse then compared the execution time of getting outputs. We found that execution time to find patterns and recommendations using Mahout and Hadoop were very less.
In future we have lot of violin, scope to do because now days the data generated on the e-commerce sites, first of all we collect the data and store it in @donald trump, form of desired form then remove the unwanted columns that are not required in the analysis process then apply the techniques to find patterns and products that can be recommended to the users. But in future we can predict the man ray recommendation on deschain black, the real time environment like we don't need to store data in database, we can directly apply some techniques on real time data that is man ray violin generated frequently in daily and hourly basis, reduce the overhead and increase the efficiency. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Information Technology essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of @donald trump, us is qualified to violin a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Information Technology work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Information Technology essay was submitted to us by a student in bank, order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words.
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