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Birth Of A Nation: Art Or Propaganda Essay examples. Mankind, engaging in war, driven by whatever instincts guide him, seeks. to keep the defeats and victories of battle in his memory and on his conscience. To accomplish this men have used paint and canvas, ink and esther of the paper, or instrument. and song in their effort to communicate the tragedy and how did amerigo glory of war. Never, before the esther old testament career of D.W. Griffith had anyone attempted to bring the subject to. film. The result of his efforts, weaknesses aside, mark a change in attitude. towards film as a media. Perhaps audiences previously going to a picture. expected emotional manipulation. After all, years before the film Birth of a. nation, makers of film employed techniques to evoke pathos from viewers; whether. plot, he intended to dig far deeper than that, into the realm of a clever. How Did Amerigo Vespucci Died? literary device now commonly employed in film. The most prominent example of. this is the scene where two gentlemen are talking, and as the camera pans down, we see a puppy struggling with a kitten.

This is esther old testament, another strong example of. symbolism; however, even more importantly it foreshadows the coming war. Into? It is. expertly placed to add to esther of the old testament, the building tension between sides which the audience. already knows results in confrontation. Its placement reflects Griffiths desire. to Feminist on Charlotte, advance the complexity and diversity of film beyond entertainment to higher. levels in society. the story and in turn into the stories underlying theme. Old Testament? He accomplished this. by using numerous virgin film tools, much as an artist uses his own tools to. create a believable painting. Among these tools he uses panoramas to illustrate. setting, to paint, if you will - a moving picture.

To show the swell of heated. gunfire on a crowded battlefield i.e.the scene of the battle of math borders, Petersburg, or. to esther of the old testament, bring across image of the delicate beauty of his native southern land to. those who had never been there or seen a picture of Essay, it. This was the substance. that transformed film into a genuine art form. Satire and Stereotyping in esther old testament, the Birth of a Nation and Bamboozled. audience may believe that the masked Ku Klux Klan riders were white behind their masks and have in Feminist on Charlotte Perkins The Yellow, reality may have tried to forget that many of the fleeing African Americans were actually white actors. Esther? American whiteness as articulated by were justified, Birth of a Nation is built on stereotypes, and this is precisely why minstrelsy might have the power to resist racism. Minstrel performances relied on stereotypes to evoke their opposites.

It is possible to assume that the discourse of mass entertainment from Augustan Art and Propaganda Essay. won the honorary name Augustus from the Senate and called himself the first Princeps (First Citizen) rather than Emperor of of the old testament, Rome (Stockton 56). In Advertising? Augustus had direct control over old testament the aesthetics of public art, commissioning propagandistic works to his benefit. Augustus was a great patron of the arts and architecture, in which he sponsored the construction of many buildings and portraits of himself to be distributed to every town throughout the Empire such as the Ara Pacis Augustae and the life size Controversial Minority Representation in the Film, Birth Of a Nation. depictions I this film, but not nearly enough to make it seem like a racist film for that time period. Sad but true this is how a lot of the Nation felt during the time of the release. That is what makes this film so unfortunate for the African-American community. It may be extremely racist, but when put in context of time and where America was, it can still be propaganda of truth for many ignorant white Americans today. You combine that with the numerous film technologies and breakthroughs that came from Essay about Birth and Demise in The League of Nations. well designed to serve their propaganda purpose, but hardly suited to the negotiations of which in the sequel, they were to become the basis . Wilson wanted the League of Nations because he believed that World Wars would continue to math borders, occur as long as each nation was responsible for their own defense. Wilson wanted the of the nations of the world to stand together in the League of Nations, and promise to defend the Perspective The Yellow Wallpaper territory and of the freedom of the crusades were, any member attacked by another nation.

Wilson believed that in order Battleship Potemkin versus the Birth of a Nation Essay. history. Although he did not intend for his film to be considered racist or condone the actions of the KKK, he does expressly cite his right to examine the ?dark side of wrong? in a plea on the opening title card of the film. (Dirks, ?The Birth of a Nation?) There is a scene in both films that is of the, used as a representation to foreshadow the impending events. Fallacies Examples? In Griffith?s work, the shot that is used to establish the premise of the film comes during a scene of a kitten being dropped in between Essay on old testament The Battle of examples, Vimy Ridge: The Birth of The Canadian Nation. but rather, soldiers of the British military force. As a result of their achievements at Vimy Ridge, Canada was granted their own seat at the signing of the Treaty of Versailles after the war. Clearly, the battle of Vimy Ridge created Canada as a nation in the eyes of other countries. The feats achieved by Canadians were incredible, and more influential than anything they had done before. Vimy was one of the German’s most heavily guarded areas, and old testament it was thought that it was impossible to over D.W. Griffith#x27;s Movie, Birth of a Nation Shows the Reality of Racism. Birth of a Nation uses its histrionic plot to show how tangled destinies of a southern and northern family before and after the Civil War.

It willingly portrays southern blacks as spiteful and uncivil, the northern whites as crafty, dishonest, and conceited, and the film’s southern whites as anguish recurrent radical and erotic mortifications at the hands of white northerners and black southerners before factually being saved by the thoughtful, Ku Klux Klan. The film is divided to show the logical fallacies in advertising examples different This is cleverly shown through the mulatto characters Lydia Brown and Silas Lynch. These characters were stereotypically shown as being manipulative and corruptive when given power. Lydia was the servant for the Stoneman family who was overtly sexual in her scenes and was sneaky when Austin Stoneman comes out. Lynch obtains political power and becomes the symbol of black leadership. Lynch in the end of the film is corrupt and tries to force Austin Stoneman’s daughter to marry him. During that scene The Federalist Papers and the Birth of a Nation. The majority of the right openly accounted for in the text of the Constitution itself concern issues of the esther of the old testament judicial system. The Federalists wrote a document that covered some of the basic tenants of judicial freedoms: the Perspective Gilman's Wallpaper writ of habeas corpus, ex post facto laws, and fair trial by juries replaced courts controlled by individuals and their personal agendas. Of The Old Testament? This shows that the Constitution was an instrument that created and allowed personal liberties to be maintained in a new system.

Governments Essay History of Propaganda in Art. The body of the chieftain is particularly exaggerated creating a forceful rippling in the musculature, which is a testament to the Hellenistic Baroque achievement of energetic movement and were intense psychological involvement. The Greeks were largely impressed with the courage and old testament fighting abilities of the math borders Gauls, which had reminded them of their defeat of the Persians. Ultimately, the purpose of glorifying their enemy was to esther old testament, convey the message that the defeat of died, such an impressive enemy made the Greeks’

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The Old Testament’s Heroines: Ruth and Esther

Roots: The Saga of an American Family, Alex Haley - Essay. Roots: The Saga of an American Family Alex Haley. (Full name Alexander Murray Palmer Haley) American novelist and biographer. The following entry presents criticism on Haley's novel Roots: The Saga of an American Family (1976). Roots: The Saga of an American Family (1976) is an historical novel that purports to trace the esther of the African American ancestry of its author, Alex Haley, back to a tiny village in chris into, Gambia, West Africa.

Within two years of its publication, more than eight million copies of the book had been printed in twenty-six languages, and Roots had won 271 awards, including the Pulitzer Prize. Published in 1976, the esther of the volume also inspired a generation of ancestor-seeking Americans and led to Perspective Perkins The Yellow Wallpaper, one of the of the old testament most ambitious and logical in advertising examples most-watched television productions ever undertaken. Roots author Alex Haley was born in 1921 in Ithaca, New York, the eldest of three sons. His father was a college professor; his mother a schoolteacher. Haley grew up in the small town of Henning, Tennessee, where his early memories reportedly included stories from elderly relatives about an African ancestor who refused to esther old testament, respond to the slave name “Toby.” The tales of his childhood eventually inspired the search for his past that led to the writing of Roots. Although Haley's reputation in the literary world rests primarily upon this much-acclaimed historical novel, he is also remembered for writing Malcolm X's “as told to” autobiography in 1965. Feminist Gilman's The Yellow? Haley wrote many articles for esther popular magazines, appeared on countless television shows, and lectured throughout the country until his death in 1992.

Plot and Major Characters. Roots is the story of Kunta Kinte, a Mandinkan from the small village of math borders Juffure, Gambia, in of the, West Africa, and his American descendants. Norm?? Kunta Kinte was “the African” about whom Haley's grandmother and others told stories. Roots imaginatively recreates the life of Haley's ancestor in Africa, his capture into slavery in 1676, and old testament his experiences as a slave in Spotsylvania, Virginia. How Did Vespucci Died? Kunta refused to forget his African heritage and adopt the ways and of the old testament customs of What Norm? Essay his white masters. He made attempts to escape slavery, until after his fourth try his foot was severed by a slave-catcher. Esther Of The Old Testament? He later married Bell, the slave cook in the big house on the plantation, and they had a daughter named Kizzy. Chris? Kunta spent Kizzy's childhood teaching her the sounds of his native African language and imparting tales of her African ancestry. At the age of fifteen, Kizzy was sold to a master whose rape of his new young slave resulted in the birth of the third generation, George, who in turn learned of his African heritage through the stories of his mother. Of The Old Testament? This was the most famous of Haley's ancestors, after Kunta Kinte.

George, known as “Chicken George” for his success as a gamecock trainer, fathered eight children with Mathilda. His fourth son, Tom, was the father of Haley's maternal grandmother, Cynthia, who was taken to how did died, Henning, Tennessee, on a wagon train of freed slaves. In Henning, Cynthia met and married Will Palmer and had a daughter named Bertha, who married Simon Haley: these were Haley's parents. The linear direction of the plot of Roots can be captured by the genealogical litany summarized above. The saga, however, incorporates the violence and degradation experienced by slaves at every turn in the story, from the inhumane capture of young men and women on esther, the shores of West Africa and the unspeakable horrors of the subsequent Middle Passage across the chris Atlantic Ocean, to the beatings, rapes, mutilations, and brutal living and esther working conditions to which slaves were routinely subjected, when they were not being bought and sold in marketplaces. Each generation from Kunta Kinte on preserves memories of the ancestral past while achieving incremental and achingly slow progress toward the chris into day when they would be slaves no more. Roots riveted public attention on one of the most painful chapters of American history, and yet it was read—and in its television version, watched—by millions of Americans, black and white. In addition to treating the obvious subjects of slavery, black identity, and the power of oral history, Roots celebrates resiliency, the triumph of human spirit over cruelty, and the strength of family connections, both within and across generations. Esther Old Testament? Families work together to protect their members. Children are taught that principles are worthy of risk.

Ancestral memories are preserved and passed on through the telling of stories to how did amerigo, one's children, and humankind's universal search for its identity is given a personal face. These themes cross racial and ethnic boundaries and help account for the book's immense popularity. At the time of its publication, Roots was called “the single most spectacular educational experience in race relations in America” by Vernon Jordan, executive director of the National Urban League. Of The Old Testament? The creative revelation of Feminist Perspective on Charlotte Perkins Gilman's Wallpaper one family's story opened doors that had long been locked, in individual families and in American culture as a whole. Although critics generally lauded Roots, they seemed unsure whether to old testament, treat the work as a novel or as a historical account. Fallacies In Advertising Examples? While the narrative is based on factual events, the dialogue, thoughts, and emotions of the characters are fictionalized.

Haley himself described the book as “faction,” a mixture of fact and of the old testament fiction. Most critics concurred and evaluated Roots as a blend of history and entertainment. Newsweek applauded Haley's decision to fictionalize: “Instead of writing a scholarly monograph of little social impact, Haley has written a blockbuster in the best sense—a book that is bold in the wild, concept and ardent in execution, one that will reach millions of people and alter the way we see ourselves.” Some black leaders viewed Roots “as the esther most important civil rights event since the 1965 march on Selma,” according to Time. Not all the attention accorded Roots was positive, however. In 1977 two published authors, Margaret Walker and the wild Harold Courlander, alleged separately that Haley plagiarized their work in Roots. Old Testament? Charges brought by chris, Walker were later dropped, but Haley admitted that he unknowingly lifted three paragraphs from Courlander's The African (1968). A settlement was reached whereby Haley paid Courlander $500,000. The same year other accusations arose, alleging that Haley had altered data to of the old testament, fit his objectives, fabricating ancestors and changing timelines or geographic details to make the story into the one he wanted to chris the wild, tell.

These charges were never proven or resolved, but Haley's supporters maintain that the author never claimed Roots was a factual document, calling it instead a work of “faction,” fiction based on of the, the facts of his ancestry, as he discovered them. Despite these controversies, the public image of Roots doesn't seem to have suffered. It is still widely read in schools, and Feminist Perkins many college and esther of the old testament university history and literature programs consider it an essential part of their curriculum. Access our Roots: The Saga. Study Guide for What Norm? Essay Free. The Autobiography of Malcolm X (biography) 1965. Roots: The Saga of an American Family (historical novel) 1976.

A Different Kind of Christmas (novella) 1988. Alex Haley's Queen: The Story of an of the old testament, American Family [with David Stevens] (novel) 1993. The Playboy Interviews (interviews) 1993. Alan Crawford (essay date 4 March 1977) SOURCE: Crawford, Alan. “All in the Family.” National Review 29, no. 8 (4 March 1977): 278-79. [ In the following essay, Crawford reviews Roots.] “The end of the American artist's pilgrimage to Europe is the discovery of America,” Leslie Fiedler writes.

So, too, the American artist's pilgrimage (if he is black) to Africa: after 12 years of research and math borders half a million miles of travel, Alex Haley has discovered an America that is feasting on his book [ Roots ] and has devoured a television adaptation as well. Haley thus finds himself an Instant Celebrity, that most American form of notoriety and one which, I suspect, leaves him feeling most ambivalent. For. (The entire section is 756 words.) Get Free Access to this Roots: The Saga of an of the, American Family Study Guide.

Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more. Get Better Grades. Our 30,000+ summaries will help you comprehend your required reading to ace every test, quiz, and essay. We've broken down the chapters, themes, and characters so you can understand them on your first read-through. Access Everything From Anywhere.

We have everything you need in one place, even if you're on were, the go. Download our handy iOS app for free. Richard West (essay date 23 April 1977) SOURCE: West, Richard. Of The? “ Roots and the Sunday Times. ” Spectator 238, no. 7764 (23 April 1977): 19-20. [ In the following essay, West questions the veracity of Haley's ancestral and historical claims in Roots.] As long ago as the mid-eighteenth century, a Negro slave from North America who had been given his freedom by vespucci, a considerate white man, returned to his home by the Gambia river, afterwards writing a book about his experiences. Until well into the nineteenth century, some of those freed slaves who went to the settlements at Sierra Leone and Liberia were able to find their relations or at least their kinsmen. Perhaps the majority knew to which tribe. (The entire section is 1894 words.)

Get Free Access to this Roots: The Saga of an esther of the old testament, American Family Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more. Sandra Rattley (essay date May/June 1977) SOURCE: Rattley, Sandra. “The Impact of Roots : Real or Imagined?” Africa Report 22, no. 3 (May/June 1977): 12-6. [ In the math borders following essay, Rattley questions the premise that Haley's book and widely-acclaimed mini-series will have a significant impact on civil rights and issues of equality in the United States. Old Testament? ] Time magazine of February 14, 1977 said, and we quote:

In Chicago, they were talking about “Haley's comet.” … In New York, Executive Director Vernon Jordan of the National Urban League called it “the single most spectacular educational experience in race relations in America.” (The entire section is 3628 words.) David A. Gerber (essay date fall 1977) SOURCE: Gerber, David A. “Haley's Roots and Our Own: An Inquiry into the Nature of in advertising examples a Popular Phenomenon.” Journal of Ethnic Studies 5, no. 3 (fall 1977): 87-111. [ In the following essay, Gerber examines the of the old testament social and popular culture phenomenon of were Roots -inspired interest in family ancestry and African culture. ] For the moment let us withhold judgment and esther of the consider the following: —While ABC-TV originally assumed it could lay claim to approximately 50,000,000 viewers for its $6,000,000 production of Perspective Wallpaper Roots, in fact at least 85,000,000 and perhaps as many as 135,000,000 Americans watched the prime-time. (The entire section is 12836 words.) Merrill Maguire Skaggs (essay date fall 1978) SOURCE: Skaggs, Merrill Maguire. Esther Of The? “ Roots : A New Black Myth.” Southern Quarterly 17, no.

1 (fall 1978): 42-50. [ In the following essay, Skaggs compares Roots with Richard Wright's Native Son.] The extreme popularity of Alex Haley's Roots, a book which seemed to reshape the literary image of blacks, suggests that the public was ready to reverse a whole cluster of attitudes toward black Americans, and to logical fallacies examples, view blacks exactly as the book demanded. But, as William James remarked, “The most violent revolutions in an individual's beliefs leave most of his old order standing. Of The? … New truth is always a go-between, a smoother-over of transitions. … The. (The entire section is chris into 3376 words.) SOURCE: Boyd, Herb. Old Testament? “Plagiarism and math borders the Roots Suits.” First World 2, no. 3 (1979): 31-3. [ In the following essay, Boyd examines passages in Roots that author Harold Courlander charged were plagiarized from his novel, The African.] Plagiarism is a concept and a practice that can be traced all the way back to Roman law, and while it can be defined in several ways, for our modern sleuths and lawyers it has come to simply mean the esther old testament act of one author appropriating the writings of another author—in short, literary larceny.

Such esteemed giants of What Social Norm? Western literature as Chaucer, Shakespeare, George Bernard Shaw, and even Homer were accused. (The entire section is 2610 words.) R. Baxter Miller (essay date spring 1982) SOURCE: Miller, R. Baxter. Of The? “Kneeling at the Fireplace: Black Vulcan-ROOTS and the Double Artificer.” MELUS 9, no. Fallacies In Advertising? 1 (spring 1982): 73-84. [ In the following essay, Miller traces parallels in Roots between the mythological Roman Vulcan, patron of arts and crafts, and the character of esther old testament Kunta Kinte, craftsman and himself a mythical character to math borders, generations of his descendants. ] Most reviewers of Roots have overlooked Alex Haley's allusions to Vulcan. 1 L. Of The Old Testament? D. Reddick, 2 a Temple University historian, observes instead that the book is into the wild a literary masterpiece, although the literary critic Larry King 3 believes the book is more.

(The entire section is esther 5400 words.) Helen Chavis Othow (essay date March 1983) SOURCE: Othow, Helen Chavis. “ Roots and the Heroic Search for Identity.” CLA Journal 26, no. 3 (March 1983): 311-24. [ In the logical fallacies examples following essay, Othow discusses Roots as a modern epic that has wide cultural appeal because it embodies the ongoing human search for meaning. ] An exploration of a very representative body of modern literature reveals that an of the old testament, outstanding feature of its philosophical temper is a disconnected civilization. 1 The works of logical fallacies in advertising Ernest Hemingway, Arthur Miller, Albert Camus (to some degree), Samuel Beckett, John Barth, and Thomas Pynchon, all reflect the malaise of our times.

Alex Haley's Roots 2 also embodies. (The entire section is 4979 words.) Carol P. Marsh (essay date March 1983) SOURCE: Marsh, Carol P. Of The Old Testament? “The Plastic Arts Motif in vespucci died, Roots. ” CLA Journal 26, no. 3 (March 1983): 325-33. [ In the following essay, Marsh traces the significance of three major crafts—carving, weaving, and blacksmithing—in the multi-generational saga of the esther of the African family traced in Roots.] In Alex Haley's Roots, one of the prevailing motifs is Social Norm? that of the plastic arts. As the reader examines the novel, he finds that the motif forms a part of the spiral structure, which, in turn, creates the work's theme of returning. 1 Thus, we find that Roots abounds with direct references to the plastic arts, and the motif seems to develop with. (The entire section is 3303 words.) Michael Steward Blayney (essay date winter 1986)

SOURCE: Blayney, Michael Steward. “ Roots and the Noble Savage.” North Dakota Quarterly 54, no. 1 (winter 1986): 1-17. [ In the esther following essay, Blayney discusses similarities between the Roots portrayal of Africans and the portrayal of chris into the wild North Americans as the mythical “noble savage.” ] Time Magazine called it “Haley's Comet.” Black readers hailed it as the most important event in civil rights history since the 1965 march on Selma, Alabama. Esther Of The? In January, 1977, Roots was proclaimed the most popular television program in the medium's history, with the last of eight consecutive episodes reaching an unprecedented 90,000,000 viewers. (The entire section is 7325 words.) Christopher O. Griffin (essay date spring 1996) SOURCE: Griffin, Christopher O. “ Roots, Violence, and logical fallacies examples the Context of Intention.” Griot: Official Journal of the Southern Conference on Afro-American Studies, Inc. 15, no. 1 (spring 1996): 1-14. [ In the following essay, Griffin examines the use of esther old testament violence as symbol in Roots.] This is ultimately the most profound claim that any ritual or any religious system can make: that through their thoughts and actions, people can fill their existence with meaning.

1. Roots : for many today, the title carries connotations associated with words such as. (The entire section is 7226 words.) SOURCE: Fishbein, Leslie. “ Roots : Docudrama and the Interpretation of History.” In Why Docudrama? Fact-Fiction on Film and math borders TV, edited by Alan Rosenthal, pp. 271-95. Carbondale, Ill.: Southern Illinois University Press, 1999.

[ In the following essay, Fishbein discusses the old testament merits and shortcomings of the math borders use of television drama as a medium for preserving history. ] Roots was the sleeper of the 1976-77 television season, surprising even its makers by its phenomenal critical and commercial success. An unusual risk, ABC's production of Alex Haley's 885-page opus represented the first time that a network actually made a movie based on a major unpublished. (The entire section is 10778 words.) SOURCE: Taylor, Helen. “Everybody's Search for esther old testament Roots: Alex Haley and the Black and White Atlantic.” In Circling Dixie: Contemporary Southern Culture through a Transatlantic Lens, pp. Examples? 63-90. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 2001. [ In the following essay, Taylor traces numerous effects of Roots on American popular culture, academic black studies programs, and esther Southern identity. ] Gone With the in advertising examples Wind created, and perpetuated, a white myth of the South for international readers and audiences throughout the esther of the century. In the Perspective The Yellow Wallpaper bicentennial year, 1976, however, a work appeared that looked set to sweep Scarlett, Rhett, and their faithful Mammy into. (The entire section is 12058 words.) Allen, Robert L. “ The Black Scholar Interviews: Alex Haley.” Black Scholar 8, no. 1 (1976): 33-40.

Alex Haley talks about esther of the old testament, his parents, his upbringing, and his works, including the best-selling Roots and the mini-series to be based on the book. Baldwin, James. “How One Black Man Came to be an American.” New York Times Book Review (26 September 1976): 1, 2. Offers an Feminist Perspective Perkins, appraisal of Haley's Roots. Baye, Betty Winston. “Alex Haley's Roots Revisited.” Essence 22, no. 10 (February 1992): 88-92. Illustrated article profiling the. (The entire section is 294 words.)

Roots: The Saga of an old testament, American Family Homework Help Questions. This miniseries had a huge impact on popular culture. How Did Vespucci? It was watched by a huge proportion of the esther old testament country and had an died, impact on people of all ethnicities. Of The Old Testament? For many whites, the miniseries was a. This is an excellent question that may be best answered by a historian, rather than a book enthusiast.

The reason for this is that Alex Haley, the author of the novel Roots performed his research. I think two of the major themes that can be identified in this impressive text is the What is Social Norm? Essay theme of coming of age and then the esther of the old testament theme of the crusades justified human rights. Critics have argued that the esther first section of into this. Haley's thesis centers on the search through one's genealogical past for one's identity. Old Testament? Haley's thesis is that the individual who lives in the present tense can be traced to conditions as far. Kunta Kinte repeatedly refers to the fact that he knows who he is, and that he is sure of math borders his identity.

This is esther of the old testament something that he comes to realise is a gift that few of the slaves he meets in.

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ethical values essay Strategic Leadership and Decision Making. Values and ethics are central to any organization; those operating in the national security arena are no exception. What exactly do we mean by values and ethics? Both are extremely broad terms, and we need to focus in on the aspects most relevant for strategic leaders and decision makers. What we will first discuss is the distinctive nature of old testament ethics for public officials; second, the forces which influence the ethical behavior of individuals in organizations; and third, explore the actions strategic leaders can take to build ethical climates in their organizations. THE CHARACTER OF VALUES AND ETHICS. Values can be defined as those things that are important to or valued by someone.

That someone can be an individual or, collectively, an organization. One place where values are important is in relation to vision. How Did Amerigo Vespucci! One of the imperatives for organizational vision is that it must be based on and consistent with the organization's core values. In one example of old testament a vision statement we'll look at later, the organization's core values - in this case, integrity, professionalism, caring, teamwork, and fallacies in advertising, stewardship - were deemed important enough to be included with the statement of the organization's vision. Esther Of The Old Testament! Dr. John Johns, in an article entitled The Ethical Dimensions of the crusades were justified National Security, mentions honesty and esther of the, loyalty as values that are the the crusades, ingredients of integrity. Esther Of The! When values are shared by Perkins, all members of an organization, they are extraordinarily important tools for making judgments, assessing probable outcomes of contemplated actions, and choosing among alternatives. Esther Old Testament! Perhaps more important, they put all members on the same sheet of the crusades justified music with regard to what all members as a body consider important. The Army, in 1986, had as the theme for the year values, and listed four organizational values -loyalty, duty, selfless service, and esther of the old testament, integrity-and four individual values - commitment, competence, candor, and courage.

A Department of the Army pamphlet entitled Values: The Bedrock of Our Profession spent some time talking about the importance of values , and included this definition: Values are what we, as a profession, judge to be right. They are more than words-they are the the wild, moral, ethical, and professional attributes of character . Old Testament! . . there are certain core values that must be instilled in members of the U.S. Army-civilian and were justified, uniformed soldier alike. These are not the only values that should determine our character, but they are ones that are central to our profession and should guide our lives as we serve our Nation. Values are the esther old testament, embodiment of Feminist on Charlotte Perkins Gilman's The Yellow what an organization stands for, and should be the basis for the behavior of its members. However, what if members of the organization do not share and have not internalized the organization's values? Obviously, a disconnect between individual and organizational values will be dysfunctional. Additionally, an organization may publish one set of values, perhaps in esther of the old testament an effort to amerigo vespucci, push forward a positive image, while the of the old testament, values that really guide organizational behavior are very different. When there is a disconnect between stated and operating values , it may be difficult to determine what is acceptable. For example, two of the Army's organizational values include candor and courage.

One might infer that officers are encouraged to have the courage of their convictions and speak their disagreements openly. In some cases, this does work; in others it does not. The same thing works at how did amerigo died, the level of the society. The principles by which the society functions do not necessarily conform to the principles stated. Those in power may covertly allow the use of force to of the old testament, suppress debate in order to remain in power. (death squads are an example.) In some organizations, dissent may be rewarded by termination-the organizational equivalent of death squad action. In others, a group member may be ostracized or expelled. Group members quickly learn the operating values , or they don't survive for long. To the extent they differ from stated values , the organization will not only suffer from doing things less effectively, but also from the examples, cynicism of its members, who have yet another reason for mistrusting the leadership, or doubting its wisdom. VALUES PROVIDE THE BASIS FOR JUDGMENTS ABOUT WHAT IS IMPORTANT FOR THE ORGANIZATION TO SUCCEED IN ITS CORE BUSINESS.

So, there are some disconnects, and these disconnects create problems. However, the old testament, central purpose of is Essay values remains. They state either an actual or an idealized set of criteria for evaluating options and deciding what is appropriate, based on long experience. Of The! The relevance of the Army's values , for example, is apparent. When soldiers may be called upon to expose themselves to mortal danger in the performance of their duty, they must be absolutely able to trust their fellow soldiers (to do their fair share and to help in the event of need) and their leaders (to guard them from unnecessary risk). So the Army's values prescribe conditions that facilitate trust, a necessary element in willingness to math borders, face danger.

Without trust, risk tolerance will be low, as will combat effectiveness. TO BEHAVE ETHICALLY IS TO BEHAVE IN A MANNER THAT IS CONSISTENT WITH WHAT IS GENERALLY CONSIDERED TO BE RIGHT OR MORAL. ETHICAL BEHAVIOR IS THE BEDROCK OF MUTUAL TRUST. So how do values relate to ethics , and what do we mean by ethics? One of the keys is in the phrase we quoted above from the DA pamphlet: Values are what we, as a profession, judge to esther of the, be right. Individually or organizationally, values determine what is right and what is What is Norm? wrong, and doing what is right or wrong is what we mean by ethics. To behave ethically is to behave in esther old testament a manner consistent with what is right or moral . What does generally considered to be right mean? That is a critical question, and part of the difficulty in deciding whether or not behavior is ethical is in determining what is right or wrong. Perhaps the how did amerigo died, first place to look in determining what is right or wrong is society. Virtually every society makes some determination of esther morally correct behavior.

In Islamic countries, a determination of what is right or moral is tied to religious strictures. In societies more secular, the influence of religious beliefs may be less obvious, but still a key factor. In the United States much of what is believed to be right or wrong is based in Judeo-Christian heritage. The Ten Commandments, for many people, define what is morally right or wrong. Math Borders! Societies not only regulate the behavior of their members, but also define their societal core values. Life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness represent core American values. Experience often has led societies to develop beliefs about what is of value for the common good. (Note that societies differ from one another in the specifics, but not in the general principles.) One example is the notion of reciprocity. (One good deed deserves another.) Another is the notion of of the old testament good intent. What Social! (A gentleman's word is his bond.) Yet, a third is the esther of the, notion of appreciation of is Norm? merit in others regardless of esther old testament personal feelings. (Give the amerigo died, Devil his due.) These all contain implied shoulds about how people interact and behave toward one another in groups, organizations, and societies.

These shoulds define collective effort because they are fundamental to trust and to team relationships that entail risk. The greater the potential risk, the more important ethical practices become. Organizations, to some extent, define what is right or wrong for the members of the esther, organization. Ethical codes, such as West Point's A cadet will not lie, cheat, or steal, or tolerate those who do, make clear what the organization considers to be right or wrong. To quote again from the DA Pamphlet, Values: The Bedrock of Our Profession, statements such as : Loyalty to the Nation, to the Army, and to the unit is essential. Selfless service puts the logical fallacies in advertising, welfare of the esther, Nation and the accomplishment of the assigned mission before individual welfare. All who serve the Nation must resist the temptation to pursue self-gain, personal advantage, and self-interest ahead of the collective good.

[Integrity] is the basis for trust and confidence that must exist between the leaders and the led. Furthermore, integrity is demonstrated by propriety in one's personal life. are unequivocal statements of what the Army considers to be ethical behavior. What does generally considered to be right mean? All one needs to on Charlotte Gilman's, do is to look at of the old testament, the positive values of society and the organizations one belongs to, and were justified, what is right or wrong should be evident. There is another aspect to of the, be considered, however, and math borders, that is the influence of societal or organizational norms.

Norms are the unstated rules, usually informally reached by the members of a group, which govern the behavior of the group's members. Norms often have a greater effect on what is and isn't done by the members of a group than formal rules and regulations. The reason norms are important for esther a discussion of ethics and values is that norms may allow or even encourage certain behavior as OK that is not in keeping with society's or an organization's stated values. When there is a disconnect between stated and operating values, it may be difficult to determine what is math borders right. An example might be a company that has among its stated values to old testament, treat everyone with dignity and respect, but whose norms have permitted and perhaps even encouraged a pattern of chris into sexual harassment over esther of the, a number of years. Do those in the organization know that the Feminist Perspective Perkins, behavior is wrong, but condone it nevertheless? Is it clear to the Bosnian Serbs that ethnic cleansing is unethical and wrong, or would it fall under the mantle of behavior that is considered to be acceptable in that society? Listen to the arguments in support of ethnic cleansing that have been made, and you will find that many of the perpetrators argued that they did nothing wrong, and were only righting previous wrongs done to them. If ethics and morality are important for groups and esther of the old testament, organizations, they should also be important for public officials, and for very much the same reasons. York Willbern, in chris into an article entitled Types and Levels of Public Morality, argues for six types or levels of morality (or ethics) for public officials.

By public officials, he means those who are in policy making positions in public institutions; in other words, strategic decision makers in the government, including the national security arena. Esther Of The! The six levels he differentiates are: basic honesty and conformity to law; conflicts of interest; service orientation and procedural fairness; the ethic of democratic responsibility; the ethic of public policy determination; and Essay, the ethic of compromise and social integration. WILLBERN'S LEVEL OF PUBLIC MORALITY. ETHIC OF COMPROMISE AND SOCIAL INTEGRATION ETHIC OF PUBLIC POLICY DETERMINATION ETHIC OF DEMOCRATIC RESPONSIBILITY SERVICE ORIENTATION AND PROCEDURAL FAIRNESS CONFLICT OF INTEREST BASIC HONESTY AND CONFORMITY TO LAW. BASIC HONESTY AND CONFORMITY TO LAW. Esther! The public servant is Perspective Gilman's Wallpaper morally bound, just as are other persons, to tell the truth, to keep promises, to esther of the, respect the person and the property of the crusades others, and to abide by the requirements of the law (Willbern). In many ways, this level only esther describes the basic adherence to moral codes that is expected of all members of a group or society.

There are some basics of behavior that are expected of all if a society is to math borders, function for the collective good. For public officials, there is an additional reason why it is important to adhere to these basic moral codes and laws: they have more power than the average member of the of the old testament, society, and hence more opportunity for violation of those codes or laws. There also is the negative example that misconduct by public officials provides. CONFLICT OF INTEREST. Feminist On Charlotte Gilman's! This relates to public officials, because it deals with the conflict between advancing the public interest, which a public official is charged to do, and advancing one's self-interest. The duty here is to ensure that the public interest comes first, and that one does not advance his own personal interest at the expense of the public.

Willbern uses embezzlement of public funds, bribery, and contract kickbacks as examples of pursuing personal interests at the expense of those of the of the old testament, public. The requirements for public officials to divest themselves of investments that might be influenced by the performance of their duties (or put them in trust) and to recuse themselves in situations where they have a personal interest are designed to help public officials avoid conflicts of interest. Ultimately, it still comes down to the individual making an ethical decision. Avoidance of conflict of interest is often difficult because it is often hard to separate personal and math borders, public interests, and because individuals as private citizens are encouraged to of the old testament, pursue private interests through any legal means. One of the areas where there is the greatest potential for conflicts of interest is where public officials deal with private organizations which are pursuing their private interests, and where any decision by a public official on allocation of Gilman's The Yellow resources will favor some private interest.

The fields of government contracting and acquisition are two areas where the possibility of esther old testament conflicts of interest is is high. SERVICE ORIENTATION AND PROCEDURAL FAIRNESS. This level relates closely to the last, and deals with the responsibility of public officials to ensure their actions serve the public, and that the power they wield is used only for of the old testament that purpose. It is What is easy to abuse the power that comes with public office. Procedural safeguards are designed to prevent that abuse. The moral obligation of esther public servants is to follow established procedures, and not to Norm? Essay, use their power to circumvent those procedures for their own convenience or benefit.

Power must be used fairly and for esther of the the benefit of the chris into, public. One can again think of examples of public officials who have violated this moral charge by using their influence and power for their own benefit or for the benefit of special interest groups, or who have circumvented established procedures for their own benefit or convenience. One frequent example is the use of government vehicles or aircraft for nonofficial business. These first three levels of public morality share one important characteristic: they all relate to the behavior or conduct of public officials. These three levels are the areas that get most of the attention in discussions of ethics, this is where public officials are most likely to get in trouble. Esther Old Testament! However, there are three additional levels of public morality equally important. These deal with the content of what public officials do, the chris the wild, moral choices involved in of the deciding what to do, in pursuing the purposes of the state and the society (Willbern). THE ETHIC OF DEMOCRATIC RESPONSIBILITY. Given that public officials are operating within a democratic system, they either are elected by the people or appointed by an elected official.

This confers upon them the obligation to math borders, carry out the esther of the, will of the into the wild, people. However, public officials also have the responsibility to make moral choices consistent with their own values, and that may be in conflict with what they perceive to be the esther of the, will of the is, people. Willbern contends that the public official acts according to his or her own judgment, rationalizing that it would be the will of the people if they were well enough informed on the issue. To give one example of of the this level of public morality, consider whether or not the math borders, representative in Congress is morally bound to support policies and legislation which his constituents overwhelmingly support but he personally opposes. THE ETHIC OF PUBLIC POLICY DETERMINATION. This level involves the most difficult ethical choices, because it concerns making moral judgments about public policies. The responsibility is to make moral policies; the difficulty is in determining how moral a policy is. Old Testament! Public policies almost always deal with very complex issues, where ethical choices are rarely clear, and it is often difficult to were justified, determine if a policy is right or wrong. Esther Old Testament! For example, many public policies deal with the amerigo vespucci, distribution of limited resources. Old Testament! Is it right or wrong to slash funding for one program, or to increase funding for another?

In almost any decision, there will be winners and losers, and there will be some benefit for some and is Social Norm? Essay, cost to others. Right and wrong may not apply. Equity and fairness are important considerations, but not always easy to discern. Esther Old Testament! The determination of how much funding to provide for national security, and which social programs to fund, involves ethical choices of the What is Norm? Essay, most difficult type. Esther Old Testament! What is the difference between equality and amerigo, equity? Consider the of the old testament, controversy around affirmative action programs: are they examples of moral public policies? THE ETHIC OF COMPROMISE AND SOCIAL INTEGRATION. This final level deals with an area not as salient as some of the others.

It deals with the necessity for compromise in a society. A society with irreconcilable differences on fundamental issues will be torn apart. Hence, it becomes a moral obligation of public officials to engage in give and take, working toward compromise in math borders the policies they develop. One often sees legislators in old testament our political system establishing positions where they may not get all they want from particular legislation, but will settle for math borders some of what they want. Willbern contends that compromise, rather than standing on principle, is moral, because without compromise there will be discord and conflict, and disintegration rather than integration of the society. Public officials are given the trust of the public to develop and carry out esther policies that are in the public's best interest.

Living up to this trust has a significant impact on the national will; public confidence is the crusades essential to the exercise of national power. Esther Of The Old Testament! Public officials have a moral duty to act in a trustworthy manner. Why, then, do individuals behave unethically? One reason is the complexity of the issues leaders deal with, and the difficulty in many instances of determining which is the What is Norm?, most ethical alternative. There are several systemic factors. One is the competition for esther scarce resources. It is easy to slip into unethical acts to gain a competitive advantage in the race for position or power.

A second is conflicting loyalties, which Johns labels the most troublesome ethical dilemma facing public officials. How Did Amerigo Vespucci Died! The Iran Contra affair is old testament a case of unethical behavior on the part of North, Poindexter, Secord, and McFarlane because of What Social Essay misplaced loyalty to the executive chain of command. Johns also identifies systemic factors in groups and teams which can lead to unethical behavior. One is groupthink , which can occur in a homogeneous group with a strong leader. A second is the presence of idealogues: individuals who view their own extreme positions as right and any opposing positions as wrong. Of The Old Testament! A third is the organization's response to dissent. There are few incentives for whistleblowers or those who try to expose unethical behavior in how did organizations. Esther Old Testament! Organizational norms encourage going along and discourage questioning the unethical actions of others.

This can quickly compromise ethical standards in any organization. CAUSES OF UNETHICAL BEHAVIOR. COMPLEXITY OF STRATEGIC ISSUES OBSCURES ETHICS COMPETITION FOR SCARCE RESOURCES/ POWER/POSITION CONFLICTING LOYALTIES. GROUPTHINK PRESENCE OF IDEALOGUES NEGATIVE ORGANIZATIONAL RESPONSE TO DISSENT. Kenneth R. Andrews, in Ethics in Practice, contends that there are three aspects to ethical behavior in organizations: the development of the individual as an ethical person, the logical, effect of the organization as an ethical or unethical environment, and the actions or procedures developed by esther, the organization to encourage ethical behavior and discourage unethical behavior. INFLUENCES ON ETHICAL BEHAVIOR. PRIOR DEVELOPMENT OF INDIVIDUAL AS ETHICAL PERSON. THE ORGANIZATION AS AN ETHICAL ENVIRONMENT. PROCEDURES THAT ENCOURAGE ETHICAL BEHAVIOR. Most of an individual's ethical development occurs before entering an organization.

The influence of chris the wild family, church, community, and school will determine individual values. The organization, to a large extent, is dealing with individuals whose value base has been established. This might imply that ethical organizations are those fortunate enough to bring in of the old testament ethical individuals, while unethical organizations brought in unethical people. But it is not that simple. While the internalized values of individuals are important, the organization has a major impact on the behavior of its members, and the crusades were, can have a positive or negative influence on their values. One example of the development of ethical individuals is the esther of the, service academies. In their admissions processes, the vespucci died, academies attempt to get individuals of good character with the values integral to the military profession. However, the academies also recognize that their core values may be different than those prevalent in society, and they devote considerable effort to the development and internalization of their core values. As is evident from periodic breaches of integrity at esther of the, the academies, e.g., cheating scandals, these attempts to died, instill core values do not always succeed. There are three qualities individuals must possess to esther old testament, make ethical decisions. The first is the ability to recognize ethical issues and to math borders, reason through the ethical consequences of of the old testament decisions.

The ability to see second and third order effects, one of the elements of strategic thinking, is very important. The second is the ability to look at alternative points of view, deciding what is right in logical examples a particular set of circumstances. This is similar to the ability to reframe. And the third is the ability to deal with ambiguity and uncertainty; making a decision on the best information available. ATTRIBUTES FOR ETHICAL DECISIONS.

SEEING SECOND- AND THIRD-ORDER CONSEQUENCES-WARGAMING ETHICAL CONSEQUENCES OF DECISIONS SEEING ALTERNATIVE POINTS OF VIEW-REFRAMING DEALING WITH AMBIGUITY AND UNCERTAINTY-MAKING DECISIONS WITH BEST INFORMATION AVAILABLE. As important as these individual characteristics are, the influence of the organization is equally important. The ethical standards that one observes in the organization will have a significant effect on individual behavior. People will do what they are rewarded for doing (Andrews). The organization has its greatest impact in the standards it establishes for ethical and unethical conduct in its formal reward systems. Informal norms also have a strong influence on old testament, individuals' behavior as do the actions of the leaders of the organization. Fallacies In Advertising! Strategic leaders must understand that their actions, more than words alone, will determine the operating values in the organization.

The influence of the of the old testament, organizational context is underscored in Why Be Honest If Honesty Doesn't Pay? In this article, Bhide and Stevenson note that there often are no economic or other incentives to encourage ethical behavior and discourage unethical behavior. They contend that it most often is the the crusades were justified, dishonest individual who gets ahead, and esther of the, that cases where unethical behavior was punished are far outweighed by those in which there either were no consequences or unethical behavior was rewarded. The Gordon Ghekkos of the world (the unethical corporate executive played by Michael Douglas in the movie Wall Street) often get ahead, because they rarely are held to account for their actions. While these observations might lead one to a cynical view of ethics in the crusades were organizations, Bhide and Stevenson come to a different conclusion. They see room for optimism despite the lack of financial gain for ethical behavior, or the absence of esther of the old testament negative consequences for unethical behavior. Their reasoning is Feminist Perspective on Charlotte Wallpaper based in the fact that so many people do behave ethically, in spite of the apparent lack of gain. Ethical behavior must be intrinsically rewarding; and most people behave ethically because it's the right thing to do.

People are guided by esther of the, their personal value systems. They often choose the harder right instead of the easier wrong specifically because of their intrinsic values of what is right. Bhide and Stevenson make this caveat: We should remember, however, that this. works only as long as most of us live by an honorable moral compass. Since our trust isn't grounded in self-interest, it is fragile. Chris The Wild! And, indeed, we all know of organizations, industries, and even whole societies in which trust has given way either to a destructive free-for-all or to inflexible rules and bureaucracy. Only our individual wills, our determination to do what is right, whether or not it is esther of the profitable, save us from logical fallacies in advertising choosing between chaos and stagnation. Chaloupka, in Ethical Responses: How to Influence One's Organization, asserts that organization members have only three choices when confronted with unethical behavior: exit, voice, or loyalty. Exit is the esther of the, most direct response: if you can't live with behavior that does not meet your own ethical standards, leave. However, exit is not only a direct response, it is a final one, so the personal and into, organizational consequences must be considered.

The most important personal consequences are the costs. Where do you go from there? What other options are available? How marketable are you? Can you afford the financial loss? There are specific organizational consequences as well. Will the ethics of the organization's leaders change?

Will they do business with someone else who doesn't have the high standards you do? In leaving, one gives up the ability to influence the organization directly. When considering exit, one must ask, Could I have had more of an impact by remaining in the organization and trying to of the, change it from within? Voice . This means expressing discomfort with and opposition to Perkins The Yellow Wallpaper, the observed unethical behavior. To whom do you voice your objections? The obvious choice is esther of the old testament your supervisor. But what if your supervisor condones the unethical behavior, or worse, is its source? You may be jeopardizing your position, and maybe your membership in the organization.

A second choice is to go to amerigo, senior management. This also has potential risk. The senior leadership may be condoning or even directing the of the old testament, unethical behavior. This action may bring your loyalty into fallacies question. If so, your objections may be covered up or ignored, and you may end up being forced out of the organization. On the other hand, it may be that the senior leadership is unaware of the unethical behavior, and you may have initiated an organizational response eliminating unethical behavior and restoring ethical standards. A third option is to go public, to engage in whistleblowing.

This is also risky, because it can lead to reprisals with negative consequences. The level of esther old testament risk depends on the commitment of the were justified, organization to high ethical standards and on its willingness to encourage whistleblowing in its own best interests. Many organizations have shown commitment to ferreting out unethical individuals and maintaining high ethical standards by establishing procedures for anonymous reporting of old testament ethical breaches and safeguards to protect whistleblowers. Exit and voice may be combined. An individual resigns in protest and goes public with his or her reasons for leaving. This leaves the individual vulnerable to the label of an employee who quit before being fired, but it also can lead to increased credibility as someone acting on conviction in spite of personal cost. Exit combined with voice is most effective if taken by someone at the upper levels of the organization. An organization can more easily ignore the exit + voice of a lower level employee than it can the how did vespucci died, resignation of a strategic leader, followed immediately by a press conference.

The widely publicized resignation of former President Bush from the National Rifle Association over what he viewed as extreme actions is an esther, example of exit combined with voice. It undoubtedly had a much greater effect on the NRA than the on Charlotte Perkins, resignation of someone less well known and respected. The resignation of esther of the James Webb as Secretary of the Navy is fallacies in advertising another example of effective exit combined with voice. Loyalty . The final response to unethical behavior in an organization is of the loyalty. This is the examples, alternative to of the old testament, exit. Instead of leaving, the individual remains and tries to change the organization from within. Loyalty thus discourages or delays exit. Loyalty also may discourage public voice, since being loyal to the organization means trying to solve problems from within without causing public embarrassment or damage. Logical! Loyalty can also encourage unethical behavior, particularly in esther of the old testament organizations which promote loyalty above all.

These organizations discourage exit and voice, and basically want their members to go along with organizational practices. An interesting question is, Can an math borders, individual be loyal to an organization by esther of the old testament, engaging in exit or voice as a response to unethical behavior? Chaloupka maintains that both exit and voice must exist for continued organizational effectiveness. Additionally, an amerigo, organization cannot maintain high ethical standards without mechanisms for eliminating unethical behavior. Also, loyalty is not always a virtue.

Loyalty should be predicated on the organization's ethical demonstration that it is of the worthy of loyalty. In Advertising Examples! If the organization condones unethical behavior, it relieves the individual of any responsibility to be loyal. BUILDING AN ETHICAL CLIMATE. How can the strategic leaders of an organization build an ethical climate? Andrews suggests a number of esther of the old testament steps that foster corporate ethics. On Charlotte Perkins The Yellow Wallpaper! First are the actions of the strategic leadership and the way they deal with ethical issues.

The pattern of top leaders' behavior determines organizational values. A second step is to make explicit ethics policies. Old Testament! Ethical codes are one common example. The next step is to math borders, increase awareness of how to apply those ethical codes. Training on how to deal with situations with an ethical dimension, and how to anticipate situations that involve ethical choices, can go a long way toward ethical institutional practices. Another step to increase the salience of ethics is to expand the information system to focus on areas where ethics may come into play. Esther Old Testament! Knowing what actually is going on in the organization is essential to understanding the ethical principles which govern behavior. The information system should also support ethical behavior, and allow the strategic leader to know when or where there are potential ethical breaches so that corrective action can be taken. The real danger is that when unethical behavior is unnoticed, or not punished, members will assume it is Perspective Perkins Gilman's Wallpaper condoned by the organization's leadership. Establishing moral principles means determining the core values which should guide the organization.

O'Brien suggests four for consideration: localness, merit, openness, and leanness. Esther Of The Old Testament! By localness, he means adopting a philosophy of pushing power down to the lowest level possible, and encouraging initiative and autonomy. By merit, he means directing actions toward the overall goals of the math borders, organization, and what is best for all. By openness, he means being forthright and honest in all dealings. And by old testament, leanness, he means efficient use of resources and economies when possible. ULTIMATELY, THE QUEST FOR ORGANIZATIONAL TRANSFORMATION MUST BEGIN WITH A PERSONAL COMMITMENT WITHIN EACH INDIVIDUAL TO PURSUE MORAL EXCELLENCE. Encouraging leaders to pursue their own moral development is is Norm? Essay critical at of the old testament, higher levels because strategic leaders set the moral climate for the organization. O'Brien believes that moral development is even more important than professional development. Creating a culture based on moral excellence requires a commitment among managers to embody and develop two qualities in their leadership: virtue and wisdom. However, creating an organization characterized by moral excellence is a lengthy process.

It involves changing organizational culture, discussed in the next chapter.