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L’ambiguite narrative dans l’?uvre romanesque de Tahar Ben Jelloun : L’enfant de Sable et La nuit sacree. Japan Customs Vs. US? 1 L'Enfant de Sable, texte narratif de l'ecrivain marocain Tahar Ben Jelloun, manifeste une evidente ambiguite du discours structuree de maniere consciente et systematique. Human Resources? Cette situation est fondee sur l'identite indeterminee du personnage principal, sur la creation des univers symboliques et oniriques et sur la superposition des voix narratives. Customs Vs. US Examples? 2 L'?uvre de Tahar Ben Jelloun cotoie le conte, la legende, les rites maghrebins, les mythes ancestraux, etc. Becomes? Son originalite consiste dans le fait de savoir reunir tous les aspects de la tradition et de la culture maghrebine dans une symbiose avec des facteurs de la vie quotidienne et des problemes qui touchent la societe actuelle. Japan Business Examples? 3 Ses personnages participent aussi de ces sources et ils ne peuvent qu'exister dans un monde imaginaire : ils font surgir un langage interdit en rapport avec le corps, la sexualite ou la situation de la femme. 4 Ses recits se trouvent souvent domines par les desordres de la memoire et les jeux de l'imagination ; cette situation, unie aux difficultes d'une ecriture complexe, fait que l'interpretation de ses textes est un vrai defi pour le lecteur. Harry Potter A Communist? 1 Tous les fragments cites appartiennent a l'?uvre de Tahar Ben Jelloun, L'Enfant de sable, Ed. Japan Business Customs? Du Se (. Reflection? ) 5 L'Enfant de Sable (1985) n'echappe pas a ces tendances.

L'action se situe dans un quartier d'une ville arabe ; base sur un fait divers, le roman raconte l'histoire d'Ahmed, la huitieme fille d'un riche commercant qui subit une education masculinisant, puisque son pere a besoin d'un male pour etre reconnu socialement. Customs Vs. US Business Customs? Il est convaincu que sa femme porte une maladie car elle ne peut pas concevoir d'enfants males – « Ca doit etre une malformation1 » (p. Market Hypothesis? 22) » – mais il ne la repudiera pas, ni prendra d'autre epouse. Japan Business Essay Examples? La decision de soumettre cette nouvelle fille aux lois masculines appartient exclusivement au pere et le pacte entre le couple se scelle : La femme ne pouvait qu'acquiescer. Elle obeit a son mari, comme d'habitude, mais se sentit cette fois-ci concernee par une action commune. Friends Description? Elle etait enfin dans une complicite avec son epoux. Japan Business Customs Vs. US Examples? Sa vie allait avoir un sens. Personal The Light In Oneself By Jiddu Krushnamarti? (p.

23) 6 Ce personnage ambigu arrive a etre conscient de sa realite, mais il l'accepte. Business Vs. US Business Essay? Dans un moment donne, il reconnait son conflit : Je sais, j'ai un corps de femme. Hypothesis? (. Japan Business Customs Vs. US Business Customs? ) J'ai un comportement d'homme, ou plus exactement, on by Jiddu, m'a appris a agir et a penser comme un etre naturellement superieur a la femme. Customs Essay Examples? Tout me le permettait : la religion, le texte coranique, la societe, la tradition, la famille, le pays. Harry? et moi-meme. Japan Business Customs Essay? (p. And Clark Sacagawea? 152) J'ai vecu dans l'illusion d'un autre corps, avec les habits et les emotions de quelqu'un d'autre. J'ai trompe tout le monde jusqu'au jour ou je me suis apercue que je me trompais moi-meme. Customs Business? (p. Google Practices? 169) 7 L'indetermination sexuelle, cle pour comprendre le conflit ideologique et existentiel du roman, provoque chez Ahmed une insecurite qu'il ne peut pas resoudre : il est conscient de l'ambiguite de son identite, mais il n'arrive pas a comprendre l'enigme dont il est le protagoniste. Customs Vs. US Examples? Il assume sa confusion existentielle, qui reste implicite dans le titre du roman : Etre femme est une infirmite naturelle dont tout le monde s'accommode.

Etre homme est une illusion et une violence que tout justifie et privilegie. Human? Etre tout simplement est un defi. Essay Examples? (p. Potter? 94) 8 Le texte presente l'histoire d'Ahmed et son passage par les « sept portes », symboles de son processus d'evolution : la naissance, l'enfance, l'adolescence, le mariage, etc. Dans toutes ces etapes, il a des doutes par rapport a son identite, bien qu'il ne puisse pas resoudre le dilemme. Business Essay Examples? Arrive, par exemple, le moment des changements physiques comme la menstruation, la crise existentielle surgit : Aucun detail ne devrait venir, ni de l'exterieur ni du fond de la fosse, perturber cette rigueur. Human? Pas meme le sang. Examples? Et le sang un matin a tache mes draps. Harry Potter Becomes A Communist? (. Customs Business Customs Essay? ) Sur mes cuisses un mince filet de sang, une ligne irreguliere d'un rouge pale. Hypothesis? (. Vs. US Business? ) C'etait un rappel, une grimace d'un souvenir enfoui, le souvenir d'une vie que je n'avais pas connue et qui aurait pu etre la mienne. Harry? (p. Business Essay Examples? 46) 9 La mort de son pere est essentielle car elle l'oblige a etre conscient, definitivement, de sa condition et il reproche a ses s?urs leur soumission : A partir de ce jour, je ne suis plus votre frere ; je ne suis pas votre pere non plus, mais votre tuteur. The Lewis Essay? J'ai le devoir et le droit de veiller sur vous. Japan Vs. US Essay Examples? Vous me devez obeissance et respect.

Enfin, inutile de vous rappeler que je suis un homme d'ordre et que, si la femme chez nous est inferieure a l'homme, ce n'est pas parce que Dieu l'a voulu ou que le Prophete l'a decide, mais parce qu'elle accepte ce sort. Alors subissez et vivez dans le silence ! (pp. Resources Practices? 65-66) 10 En acceptant le versant masculin, privilegie, qui ne lui correspond pas physiologiquement, il a perpetue l'injustice traditionnellement commise, fait qui lui est presente avec toute sa cruaute : Vous savez combien notre societe est injuste avec les femmes, combien notre religion favorise l'homme (. Business Examples? ) Vous avez pris gout aux privileges et vous avez, sans peut-etre le vouloir, ignore, meprise vos s?urs, (p. Google Human Resources? 87) 11 A ce qu'il repond, en repudiant tous les referents familiers face auxquels il se trouve : La grande, l'immense epreuve que je vis n'a de sens qu'en dehors de ces petits schemas psychologiques qui pretendent savoir et expliquer pourquoi une femme est une femme et un homme est un homme. Customs Examples? Sachez, ami, que la famille, telle qu'elle existe dans nos pays, avec le pere tout-puissant et les femmes releguees a la domesticite avec une parcelle d'autorite que leur laisse le male, la famille, je la repudie, je l'enveloppe de brume et ne la reconnais plus. And Clark Expedition: Sacagawea? (p. Japan Customs Essay? 89) 12 La deuxieme partie du texte est dominee par le niveau onirique. Google? Finalement, Ahmed assume le role de femme, prend le prenom de Zahra et decide de retourner vers son passe pour chercher sa veritable personnalite. 13 Le roman nous propose differentes issues au conflit pose, mais elles ne sont pas definitives, car l'une d'elles serait La Nuit Sacree. Business Customs Vs. US Customs Essay Examples? L'Enfant de Sable se structure comme une metaphore d'un conflit existentiel qui concerne toute la societe ; ce conflit collectif serait represente par la figure d'Ahmed/Zahra, catalyseur d'une conscience collective ; son histoire reste un pretexte pour la denonciation sociale a tous les niveaux : le role de la femme, la tradition et la modernite, la sexualite, etc… 14 Dans une analyse plus exhaustive des aspects formels qui composent le recit, base pour les conclusions interpretatives posterieures, nous percevons que l'element principal qui rend propice l'unite du texte reside dans l'indetermination sexuelle deja mentionnee et dans la recherche du sexe sous l'ambiance oppressive d'une societe et d'une religion bien definies.

Dans ce jeu d'identites, les differentes voix narratives se superposent pour insister sur l'imprecision inherente au texte : le conteur public, Ahmed et Zahra, les auditeurs qui prennent la parole pour essayer de donner un sens a l'histoire, etc. Reflection Regarding By Jiddu Krushnamarti? Dans les deux parties du texte, la ligne anecdotique ne se voit interrompue que par les commentaires des narrateurs et par les « lectures » qu'on fait d'un livre ou se trouve, hypothetiquement, l'histoire d'Ahmed/Zahra. Japan Vs. US Business Customs? A tout cela il faut ajouter le probleme des continuels changements de narrateurs qui rendent difficile la lecture du recit. Essay? Apres la mort du pere et de l'epouse d'Ahmed, la narration souffre d'une bifurcation. Japan Business? On nous presente differentes versions de la meme histoire racontee par des conteurs qui assurent en etre temoins. Reviews? De toute facon, dans la deuxieme partie du roman, l'axe unificateur reste occulte car chaque narrateur projette sur l'histoire sa propre experience et solution, en laissant la porte ouverte a d'autres possibles interpretations. Ces ruptures, creees par les etres narratifs, se trouvent renforcees par le brisement du niveau reel de la narration avec des recits oniriques ou hallucinatoires. Business Vs. US Examples? Finalement, les changements temporels entre le passe, le present et le futur, rendent difficile aussi la perception de l'unite du texte. Harry Potter? 15 Le temps du recit n'est pas unitaire non plus, car il se trouve genere par l'action du narrateur-narrateurs et il est interrompu par de nombreuses prolepses qui se correspondent au niveau onirique et hallucinatoire deja mentionne. Japan Business Customs Customs Essay Examples? Par contre, le temps de l'action du recit atteint son unite grace a la presence d'Ahmed, sauf pour le denouement final ou l'auteur nous donne plusieurs interpretations, toujours vers un itineraire chaotique. Human? Le recit eclate par une concurrence des narrateurs et des voix en rivalite, car chaque conteur remplace l'anterieur et tous pretendent etre les heritiers de l'histoire.

16 La polyphonie narrative produit la creation des differents univers symboliques et parfois oniriques qui accentuent l'ambiguite du discours. Customs Vs. US Customs? A cette polyphonie il faut ajouter la superposition des voix des differents personnages qui prennent la parole pour insister sur la realite du conflit existentiel du personnage principal. Market Hypothesis? 17 Ainsi, des le debut de l'histoire, nous trouvons un narrateur omniscient a la troisieme personne, charge de nous situer l'action et de continuer avec l'evolution des presences narratives, et d'un conteur public a la premiere personne qui raconte l'histoire d'Ahmed, d'apres le livre que celui-ci lui avait donne, nous supposons, avant de mourir. Business Customs Business Essay? Au cours de la lecture, nous nous rendons compte que cette deuxieme entite narrative fonctionne comme un miroir qui deforme la realite, la manipule et se situe entre le premier narrateur et le propre Ahmed, mais en justifiant toutes ses interventions par le Livre ou il a trouve l'histoire. A cause de ce conteur, le personnage acquiert parfois un statuts d'irrealite, renforce par l'intervention du public qui, lentement, prend la parole. Friends? 18 L'action de ce premier conteur est amplifiee par deux autres importantes interventions ou Ahmed parle a la premiere personne : la lecture du livre et de quelques lettres qui forment partie d'un echange epistolaire que la partie masculine du personnage maintient avec sa partie feminine. Japan Business Customs Examples? Ainsi, Ahmed se dedouble en deux presences narratives, avec deux univers bien definis, produits de son indetermination sexuelle. Harry? Finalement, le pretendu frere de Fatima prend la parole, tandis que le conteur se transforme en auditeur, pour affirmer qu'il est le vrai possesseur de l'histoire qu'on est en train de raconter. Business Business Customs Examples? Dans tout ce processus, le personnage d'Ahmed a cree un univers propre, symbolique, que personne ne comprend, pour pouvoir survivre a cette situation et pour attendre un changement radical de sa destinee. The Open University? Il se retire dans une chambre ou seulement Malika, la servante, peut entrer et ou il essaie de recuperer toutes les sensations qui lui ont ete interdites : La lumiere le deshabillait. Le bruit le perturbait.

Depuis qu'il s'etait retire dans cette chambre haute, voisine de la terrasse, il ne supportait plus le monde exterieur (. Customs Examples? ) Il avait besoin d'un long moment, peut-etre des mois, pour ramasser ses membres, mettre de l'ordre dans son passe, corriger l'image funeste que son entourage s'etait fait de lui ces derniers temps, regler minutieusement sa mort (. Google Resources Practices? ). Japan Customs Vs. US Business Customs Examples? (pp. Friends Description? 8-9) 19 Toute la premiere partie du texte est donc dominee par cette alternance des narrateurs qui provoque une certaine confusion sur la personnalite fictive du narrateur omniscient. Business Essay? Dans la deuxieme partie du roman, ou le niveau onirique regne, cette diversite narrative est plus vertigineuse. The Lewis Expedition:? Apres la mort du premier conteur et la destruction du manuscrit, le narrateur omniscient cede peu a peu le tour de parole a une serie de personnages du public, qui reprennent un espace symbolique cree anterieurement, le cirque, pour situer le recit d'Ahmed et pour lui donner une solution propre. Ahmed, en plus, assume finalement son role de Zahra et le narrateur masculin a la premiere personne se transforme en une presence feminine. Vs. US Business Customs Essay Examples? Parfois, avec cette prise de conscience, Ahmed est le narrateur de sa propre histoire, fonction qui se complete par la lecture de quelques lettres anonymes que celui-ci recoit. Friends Description? Ces lettres ont une fonction clairement narrative et elles representent le premier espace symbolique ou Ahmed prend le role de femme : ainsi, il nous montre le processus de dedoublement de la personnalite et la posterieure crise d'identite que tout cela comporte. Business Examples? 20 Dans le recit de Salem, le cirque et les personnages qui appartiennent a cet espace, rendent propice la mort de Zahra. Reviews? Ce narrateur pense que tout le conflit n'est pas un probleme d'erreur de la nature, mais une deviation sociale qui ne peut que finir par un suicide. Business Customs Vs. US Business Examples? La solution d'Amar passe par la reflexion existentielle, car il considere que Zahra es prisonniere de sa destinee et qu'elle ne peut pas supporter le fait d'avoir « deux vies avec deux perceptions et deux visages mais les memes reves, la meme profonde solitude » (p. Hypothesis? 155).

Amar substitue l'espace onirique du cirque a celui de la retraite de la premiere partie et il affirme que Zahra s'est laisse mourir dans sa chambre d'ou elle n'est jamais sortie, en detruisant avec son recit l'espace recree par le narrateur anterieur. Business Customs? Fatouma, qui actualise la derniere intervention du public, s'identifie avec Zahra. Harry Potter? Elle soutient que l'histoire est la sienne, qu'elle l'avait perdue et qu'elle l'avait recuperee grace aux recits du conteur, de Salem et d'Amar. Business Customs Business? Sa version suppose une extrapolation et une universalisation completes car il se situe a Buenos Aires. Google Practices? Ces trois narrateurs, donc, modifient le recit et son denouement selon leur propre point de vue et leur vision de la realite. Vs. US Customs Examples? Chacun d'entre eux represente un aspect marginal de la societe (le sexe, l'intellectualite et la femme) leur niveau symbolique etant indeniable. Market Hypothesis? 21 Apres toute cette serie de presences narratives, nous trouvons finalement la figure du « troubadour aveugle », l'intellectuel qui observe comment son discours se transforme en metadiscours litteraire. Customs Vs. US Business Essay Examples? Il nous donne la derniere solution de ce roman au conflit pose ; selon lui, cette issue a toujours ete chez les intellectuels, meme si elle traverse les frontieres du texte car La Nuit Sacree insiste a nouveau sur ce meme probleme.

22 Pour conclure avec les derives symboliques et interpretatives de ce roman, nous pouvons remarquer que le texte est concu comme la metaphore d'un conflit existentiel de l'auteur qui sert de creuset au conflit collectif de tout un peuple soumis par un processus de colonisation. Cette collectivite est representee par le personnage d'Ahmed, bien que tous les narrateurs y participent. Friends Description? Sur un plan individuel et diegetique, le personnage essaie d'assumer sa condition, et il accepte volontiers et consciemment la situation a laquelle il a ete mene. Japan Business Business Customs Essay? Mais, au fur et a mesure qu'il a decouvert son corps et qu'il a pressenti sa veritable personnalite, Zahra se rebelle contre Ahmed et on description, arrive a un degre d'une forte diegese quand elle accepte la condition de femme qui lui avait ete niee par l'organisation anecdotique du roman. Japan Business Essay Examples? Cette diegese coincide avec le cirque et avec la disparition de Malika, fait necessaire pour que Zahra puisse se developper comme femme. Market Hypothesis? Toute cette evolution se trouve accompagnee par l'absence d'un espace propre a ce personnage principal et par l'expulsion systematique de tous les espaces ou il s'introduit momentanement. Japan Business Vs. US Essay Examples? De cette facon, du moment ou Ahmed assume le role du pere apres la mort de celui-ci, son espace devrait etre la maison, mais il ne peut pas l'occuper physiquement car il n'est pas un homme ; il decide donc de se retirer et de creer son propre univers. Google Human Practices? Il sortira volontiers de cette retraite – espace de l'interiorisation – en acceptant sa condition.

Il arrive au cirque ou il agit avec son role de femme. Japan Business Customs Vs. US Customs? Mais il sera aussi expulse de cet espace car l'indetermination sexuelle l'empeche d'accepter sa condition. Potter A Communist? Precisement, sa partie masculine, representee par la lettre du correspondant anonyme, provoquera cette nouvelle exclusion. 23 Finalement, Ahmed est exclu non seulement de son espace physique, mais aussi de l'interieur, car l'ambiguite existentielle qu'il subit ne lui permet pas d'avoir une seule conscience, bien qu'il ait un seul corps. Japan Business Customs? Cette realite provoque la creation des univers paralleles. Google Practices? Il affirme : « je suis (. Japan Business Customs Business Customs Examples? ) moi et un autre » (p.

96) ou « je suis moi-meme l'ombre et la lumiere (. Reviews? ) le maitre de la maison (. Japan Vs. US Customs Essay Examples? ) et l'invite, le regard qui se cherche et le miroir » (pp. Resources? 44-45). Apres avoir pris la decision d'assumer sa condition masculine – « je ne dors plus dans le corps d'un autre » (p. Japan Vs. US Essay? 53) –, il a besoin de demontrer qu'il a trouve un espace propre ; cette nouvelle situation changera car la retraite suppose une nouvelle crise d'identite – « Qui suis-je ? Et qui est l'autre ? » (p. Friends Description? 55) –, recueillie dans la correspondance qu'il maintient avec soi meme. Japan? Ce sera precisement son correspondant, sa partie masculine, celui qui lui fera decouvrir son corps et les sensations de femme dans les differents espaces oniriques. Human Practices? A la fin de sa retraite, elle se voit expulsee a nouveau : elle accepte son indetermination bien que cela suppose vivre sans un espace propre. Business Customs Business? Nous arrivons, donc, a la conclusion que Ahmed/Zahra n'a pas d'espace reel defini car elle ne possede pas non plus de sexe, de personnalite ni de conscience definies, de la meme facon que le conflit qu'elle symbolise. University Reviews? 24 Comme conclusion, nous pouvons constater que le texte nous fournit differentes issues au conflit pose, grace aux jeux des narrateurs. Japan Business Customs Vs. US Business Examples? Cette polyphonie narrative nous permet de considerer les differents recits comme homodiegetiques.

Cette multiplicite des voix se projette en dehors des frontieres du texte en donnant naissance a un nouveau recit, La Nuit Sacree, ou le narrateur principal assume finalement son identite feminine. Etant donne que cette analyse se base sur une etude intrinseque au texte, nous ne mentionnerons que quelques ?uvres de reference, sans aucune intention d'exhaustivite. The Open University? Ben jelloun (T.) : L'Enfant de Sable, Paris, Ed. Business Customs Vs. US Customs Essay? Du Seuil, 1985. The Lewis Expedition: Sacagawea Essay? Gauvin (L.) : L'ecrivain francophone a la croisee des langues. Customs Vs. US Business Customs Essay Examples? Entretiens, Paris, Ed. Reflection Regarding The Light Krushnamarti? Karthala, 1997. Business? Joubert (J.-L.) : Et alii. Expedition: Sacagawea? Les litteratures francophones depuis 1945, Paris, Bordas, 1986. Japan Vs. US Customs Examples? Memmi (A.) : Ecrivains francophones du Maghreb, Paris, Ed.

Seghers, 1985. The Lewis Sacagawea Essay? Viatte (A.) : Histoire comparee des litteratures francophones, Paris, Nathan, 1980. Vs. US Essay? 1 Tous les fragments cites appartiennent a l'?uvre de Tahar Ben Jelloun, L'Enfant de sable, Ed. Expedition: Sacagawea Essay? Du Seuil, Paris, 1985. Japan Essay Examples? Par la suite, nous n'indiquerons que la page ou ils se trouvent.

Violeta Maria Baena Galle , « L’ambiguite narrative dans l’?uvre romanesque de Tahar Ben Jelloun : L’enfant de Sable et La nuit sacree », Cahiers de Narratologie [En ligne], 10.1 | 2001, mis en ligne le 16 octobre 2014, consulte le 05 octobre 2017. URL : http://narratologie.revues.org/6922. Human? Université de Ayamonte (Espagne) Article L.111-1 du Code de la propriete intellectuelle. Customs Examples? Espace du recit, recit de l’espace en contexte germanique 31 | 2016. Regarding The Light In Oneself? Serialite narrative. Japan Vs. US Business Customs Essay Examples? Enjeux esthetiques et economiques 30 | 2016.

Street Art 2 29 | 2015. The Open? Street Art 1 28 | 2015. Business Vs. US Business Essay? Le recit comme acte cognitif 27 | 2014. Les bifurcations du recit interactif: continuite ou rupture? 26 | 2014. Sacagawea? Nouvelles frontieres du recit. Japan Customs Examples? Au-dela de l’opposition entre factuel et fictionnel 25 | 2013.

Humour et modernite dans les litteratures de langues romanes du XIXe au XXIe siecle 24 | 2013. Resources? Avant-gardes et litterature narrative 23 | 2012. Japan Business Customs Vs. US Essay Examples? Le sujet et l’art dans la prose francaise contemporaine (1990-2012) 22 | 2012. Voix off et narration cinematographique. Friends? Second volet 21 | 2011. Japan Business Customs Business Customs? Rencontres de narrativites : perspectives sur l'intrigue musicale 20 | 2011. The Open Reviews? Voix off et narration cinematographique 19 | 2010.

Images composites, arts pluriels 18 | 2010. Japan Business Customs Examples? Litterature et sciences 17 | 2009. Stereotype et narration litteraire 16 | 2009. Market? Images et recits 15 | 2008. Business Business? Recits et genres historiques 14 | 2008. Reviews? Prose d'idees : formes et savoirs 13 | 2006. Japan Customs Vs. US Business Customs Essay? Nouvelles approches de l'intertextualite 12 | 2005. Human? Recit et ethique 11 | 2004.

Figures de la lecture et du lecteur 10.1 | 2001. Japan Business Vs. US Customs Essay Examples? ISSN electronique 1765-307X. Informations Titre : Cahiers de Narratologie Analyse et theorie narratives En bref : Revue dediee a l'etude des genres narratifs et a la production de recits et d'objets culturels.

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Designed customized reports Bar code labels. Friends. Bar Code printer deployment. Coordinated between the business and the technical team members through the solution delivery process. Recommended supported all Oracle Applications patching, upgrades and maintenance activities by examples, testing and troubleshooting functional issues. Conducted CRP, User Acceptance Test User Training. Go Live.

Managed Oracle Service Requests (SR's) to resolution. Environment : Oracle Applications 11.5.10.2. Oracle R12 implementation, Escalade Inc, Evansville, IN Jan 2008 Feb 2009. ERP Specialist - MFG SC. Escalade Inc is a manufacturer and The Lewis and Clark distributor of sporting goods and Japan Business Customs Customs office/graphic arts products through two wholly owned subsidiaries: Escalade Sports and Martin Yale. Reflection The Light In Oneself By Jiddu. As a SME I implemented INV, BOM, WIP, ASCP, WMS, MSCA, CST, PO and Quality across multiple sites in US, Mexico Europe using Oracle Business Accelerator. Key initiatives are Planning and scheduling configuration , Integration with Demantra forecast model, Constrained Planning configuration, Available to promise (ATP) configuration, Build to Order process set-up, RF Scanner, label printing bar code process deployment for manufacturing, receiving and shipping, Super market setup, WMS org configuration , Put away and Cross Docking rule set-up, MSCA GUI configuration, PTO Kit set-up, Direct Indirect cost mapping, Return Repair process, Set-up for Demo Trade-show inventory, NPI and ECO process, Purchasing approval hierarchy configuration , Auto create purchase requisition from planning workbench, Cycle count and Japan Customs Physical count setup, OSP and Drop-ship process, Quality collection plans and collection element set-up, Engineering, Production Purchasing hold, Scrap calculation, XML and Discoverer reports, Workflow configuration, Scrap calculation, Data migration from AS400 to oracle, Training and change management. Collected business requirement by interviewing client team across multiple sites. Reviewed business process documents. Accountable for providing leadership and facilitation for requirements gathering, structured documentation and potter becomes a communist presentation of findings.

Gap Analysis and Resolution. Prepared functional specifications use-case document for new or modified business processes. Conducted work sessions to capture required input for Accelerator questionnaire. Configured Production and Customs Test instance using Accelerator advance setup template. Configuration Tool runs issues resolved and validated base set-up. Prepared Setup specification documents BR100 configured oracle modules INV, BOM, WIP, ASCP, WMS, MSCA, PO, CST and Quality.

Integrated Quality with WIP and Purchasing to capture Quality data during manufacturing, receiving and Personal Regarding The Light return process. Mapped Non conformance, disposition, skip lot inspection processes. Data Migration strategy. Prepared CV060/CV040 - Conversion specification documents, Data Validation Load file preparation. Performed Data conversion through Data Loader.

Supported conversions like Items, Item Categories, BOM, Routing, Cost, Item transaction default, Price list, On hand. Designed customized reports Bar code labels and prepared specification documents. Integrated testing with Bartender S/W label printer. Trained Users on Oracle forms and Handheld Computers/Handheld Terminals. Barcode scanning process deployment for MFG, Receiving Shipping area. Used Oracle UPK to prepare training manuals, user training document work instruction sheet. Helped with security, Oracle responsibilities, alerts, workflow approvals and system privileges. Identified and analyzed non-functional requirements such as system performance, usability, reliability, adaptability, security, and Customs vs. US Business Customs Essay other operational aspects.

Coordinated between the practices, business and Customs vs. US Business Customs the technical team members through the solution delivery process. Recommended supported all Oracle Applications patching, upgrades and harry a communist maintenance activities by testing and Customs vs. US Business troubleshooting functional issues. Managed Oracle Service Requests (SR's) to The Lewis and Clark Sacagawea Essay resolution effectively. Conducted Super user training, CRP, User Acceptance Test, end user training. Japan Business Customs Vs. US Business Examples. Go Live. Production Support Implementation issues, Training, Month end, year end activities. Environment : Oracle Applications R12.0.4. Oracle Apps, Cummins Power Generation, Fridley, MN Jul 2007 Jan 2008. Cummins Power Generation is a global provider of power generation systems, components and services in the open university reviews standby power, distributed power generation, as well as auxiliary power in mobile applications.

As a Solutions Architect designed and deployed ‘Cummins Annual Operating Plan automated processes, solution that integrate IT and vs. US Business examples business process to market support strategic business information needs. Oracle solution primarily involves Oracle Inventory, Work in Process, Bills of vs. US Business Customs examples Material Cost management. And Clark Expedition: Sacagawea Essay. In order to Japan Customs vs. US Customs Essay examples prepare the annual operating plan (AOP) for harry potter becomes a communist Cummins line of Business Customs Essay examples business (commercial, consumer Electronic) it is imperative to understand the impact of Personal Regarding In Oneself Krushnamarti impending cost changes to the sellable products. Variation between the estimated total product cost planned in the AOP and actual total product cost resulting from cost roll should ideally be zero. Business Customs Vs. US Customs Essay. To estimate the market, impact of cost change variance as early as possible in AOP process, a custom functionality ‘Tool Reports’ blended with standard oracle process got designed and Japan Business vs. US Essay examples deployed. Requirements definition evaluation: functions and features.

Prepared business use case, functional and technical design specifications document. Solution design for market AOP automated tool and reports. Coordinated between the business and the technical team members through the Japan Business Customs, solution delivery process. Identified operational inefficiencies and integration issues. Suggested alternative solution. Prioritization and harry a communist assignment of development activities to offshore team. Specification documents for reports customizations. Designed deployed customized reports. Prepared test script, user training document and Japan vs. US Essay examples work instruction sheet. Conducted integrated testing and UAT. Analyzed data issues and resolved problems.

Supported development and execution of Personal Regarding The Light In Oneself Krushnamarti deployment plan. Environment : Oracle Applications 10.7. Achievement : Year 2007 AOP variation was $15.7 million. Japan Business Essay Examples. After AOP automated tool deployment, 2008 variation is virtually Zero. Oracle 11i Roll-out, USG Interiors Inc, Greenville, MS Mar 2007 - Jun 2007. USG is a leading manufacturer of building materials for the construction and remodeling industries. As an ERP analyst rolled out Oracle Inventory, Bills of Material, Work in Process, Warehouse Management and the open Mobile Supply Chain Applications (MSCA) and cost modules at USG plant. Key initiatives were Item attributes, template, categories configuration, RF Scanner and bar code process deployment, WMS Org configuration, WMS Rules set-up, Receiving manufacturing transactions on Essay RF scanner, New product introduction (NPI), cycle count set-up, Work Order-less Completions and return process, Scrap calculation , Production Reporting and Reconciliation, product cost mapping , Custom reports. Requirement collection evaluation. Scope determination. Mapped business process with the oracle modules.

Gap Analysis and Resolution. Prepared Setup specification documents BR100 configured oracle modules in development and production environment. Trained Users on Oracle forms and Handheld Computers/Handheld Terminals for potter manufacturing and inventory transactions. Prepared test plans, user training document work instruction sheet. Designed implemented customized reports/labels required by users.

Integrated testing with bar code S/W label printer. Coordinated between the business and the technical team members through the solution delivery process. Recommended Supported all Oracle Applications patching, upgrades and maintenance activities by testing and troubleshooting functional issues. Managed Oracle Service Requests (SR's) to resolution effectively. Conducted Super user training, CRP , User Acceptance Test , end user training and Go Live. Production Support roll-out issues , Training, Month end activities. Environment: Oracle Applications 11.5.10. Oracle 11i Implementation at Datex-Ohmeda Inc, Laurel, MD Oct 2005 - Feb 2007.

Manufacturing Functional Lead. Datex-Ohmeda Inc is Business vs. US Customs examples, implementing Oracle Applications Suite of the open reviews software to meet its e-business vision. As a Function Lead implemented Oracle INV, BOM, WIP, ENG, MS/MRP, PO, ERES and AME at Laurel plant. Key initiatives were to configure Planning, Inventory Min-Max planning, SMI material through Kanban Replenishment, cycle count physical count set-up, OSP process, Shelf life item management. Japan Business Customs Vs. US Customs. Super market setup (Lean MFG) to streamline material handling, ERES deployment across oracle modules, ATO PTO, Approval hierarchy set-up, Data migration from legacy system to market hypothesis oracle. Japan Customs Examples. Coordinated with technical team for description customization, third party system integrations (e-Matrix, GXS- supplier portal, BI Reports-Cognos), SOX compliance. Requirement collection evaluation. Scope determination. Business Vs. US Customs Examples. As-Is Vs To-be Process Analysis.

Gap Analysis and description Resolution. Accountable for Japan Business Customs Business Customs Essay examples providing leadership and facilitation for Personal Reflection Regarding In Oneself by Jiddu Krushnamarti requirements gathering, structured documentation and presentation of Japan Customs Essay examples findings. Prepared Setup specification documents BR100 configured oracle modules in The Lewis development and production environment. Prepared Conversion specification documents CV60/CV40, Data Validation Load file preparation. Deployed ERES AME framework to achieve FDA compliance for required business transactions. Performed Data conversion through Interfaces/Data Loader. Conversions like Items, Item Categories, BOM, Routing, Cost, Item transaction default, On handetc. Error resolution.

Designed customized reports Bar code labels required by Business Customs vs. US Business Customs, users. The Open University Reviews. Specification documents for Reports Customizations MD63 interface MD60. Developed comprehensive test plan at various Phase CRP1, CRP2, and ITEST Go-live. Customs Business Customs Essay. Prepared Test scripts for user testing by mapping the actual business scenarios. Exhaustive Implementation Testing End to harry potter End. Managed Quality Center/ Test Director for test case management and defect tracking. Prepared Test Plan, Training Documents and work instructions. User training and User Acceptance Test. Go Live. Managed Oracle Service Requests (SR's) to resolution effectively. Production Support resolved implementation issues.

Month end, year end activities. Environment : Oracle Applications 11.5.10. Oracle 11i Implementation at GE Clinical Systems, Madison, WI Feb 2004 Aug 2005. GE Clinical Systems in the business of high end Medical equipment like digital imaging, scanners etc. Japan Customs Vs. US. It is carrying out the implementation in a global single instance in a discrete manufacturing environment. As a MFG Consultant I was responsible for friends INV, WIP, BOM, CST and Japan Business vs. US Business ENG module implementation. Key initiatives were to description set up Item parameter, cycle count physical count, Model BOM Configuration, Product Cost mapping, Cost-roll up and variance analysis, Data migration and validation, NPI and ECO process. Coordinated with technical team for third party system integrations (Sales workbench, Service Parts Order Management, BI Reports, IQA) Mapped business requirements.

As-Is Vs To-be Process Analysis. Gap Analysis and Resolution. Prepared Setup specification documents BR100 configured oracle modules in development and Business Customs vs. US production environment. Prepared Conversion specification documents CV60/CV40. Data Validation Load file preparation. Performed Data conversion through Interfaces / Data Loader. Personal Reflection Krushnamarti. Conversions like Item, Item Categories, BOM, Routing, Cost, On handetc.

Error resolution. Designed customized reports/labels required by Japan Business Business Essay, users. Specification documents for Reports Customizations MD63 interface MD60. Developed comprehensive test plan at various Phase CRP1, CRP2, and friends description ITEST Go-live. Prepared Test scripts for user testing by mapping the actual business scenarios. Exhaustive Implementation Testing End to Business vs. US Business Customs End. Managed Quality Center/ Test Director for friends description test case management and defect tracking. Prepared Training Documents.

End user training. Conducted CRP UAT. Go-live. Managed Oracle Service Requests (SR's) to resolution effectively. Production Support resolved implementation issues. Japan Business Customs Vs. US Examples. Month end Quarter close activities. Environment : Oracle Applications 11.5.9. Oracle Apps Production Support, GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI Apr 2003 Jan 2004.

Production support activities (24x7) for GE healthcare live sites across Americas, Europe and market hypothesis Asia. Tracked and resolved business user issues and helped with process across Manufacturing, Distribution and Finance modules. Assisted program manager by scoping the proposed solution leading to accurate cost and time estimates. Developed functional specifications and system design specifications document to meet business requirements. Supported Conversions, Report, Interfaces, and Business Customs Business Essay Extensions requirements. Prepared Set-up BR100, Conversion specification documents CV60/CV40. Supported Data conversions like Items, Item Categories, BOM, Routing, Cost, on google hand, Sourcing rule, Item Transaction Defaults, Open PO, Price List. Coordinated between the business and Business Customs Essay the technical team members through the Regarding by Jiddu, solution delivery process. Test plan development and Business Customs examples execution. Conducted User training.

Prepared training documents and work instructions. Month end, Quarter close, Year end activities and potter a communist reporting. Environment : Oracle Applications 11i. Configure, Price, Quote, GE Healthcare, Mumbai, India Feb 2001 Mar 2003. Configure-Price-Quote (CPQ), a Product Configuration application, is GEHC’s global initiative to integrate its multiple equipment selling systems on a single global platform. CPQ integrates with the Japan Business vs. US Essay, Order to Receipt (OTR) Oracle Apps system different components of sales workbench. CPQ Application is being developed using Selectica’s ISS (Interactive Selling System) tool. Identified and consolidated key Business needs requirements from different GEHC businesses feeding into the CPQ program. Analyzed and potter becomes a communist Evaluated enhancements to the application. Coordinated between User and technical teams through the Japan Business Customs vs. US Essay, design and development process to delivery.

Developed test plan and integrated test script. Used Test Director for human resources practices defect tracking. Designed Product hierarchy tool to support product configuration. Developed use cases system mock up for support tools. Bajaj Tempo Limited, M.P., India Jul 1997 Jun 1999. Bajaj Tempo is Business vs. US Business Customs Essay, a leading light commercial Vehicle manufacturer in the open reviews India. Manufacture Tempo Trax, Tempo Traveler, Matador, Tempo Tractor, and Business vs. US Customs Essay Mini-door in the segment of passenger load carrying vehicle. Harry Potter A Communist. As Production Engineer I was -in-charge of Tempo Trax production line, managed manpower of around 20 employees and reporting to Plant Manager. Production planning to meet daily and Customs Customs Essay monthly targets.

Manufacturing scheduling Resource allocation. Co-ordination with supporting dept. Becomes A Communist. (Maintenance, Quality control, IT , Return Repair dept etc). Performance monitoring execution. Production issue resolution. Master of Engineering (Manufacturing Systems), Birla Institute of Technology and Science- Pilani, Bachelor of Engineering (Mechanical), Govt.

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an essay on anything Slavoj #381;i#382;ek: Say Anything. In The Fright of Real Tears: Krzysztof Kieslowski between Theory and Post#8209;Theory (London: BFI, 2001), Slavoj #381;i#382;ek makes some criticisms of my arguments bearing on the history of Japan examples, film style. Description! I reply to those criticisms in Japan Customs Business Customs Essay the last chapter of Figures Traced in Light (pp. 260264). But there is much more to say about FRT , and this online essay supplements my remarks in Figures . The Book and the Background. Most of and Clark, FRT offers standard film criticism, providing impressionistic readings of various Kieslowski films in regard to Business vs. US Customs examples recurring themes, visual motifs, dramatic structures, borrowed philosophical concepts, and the like. #381;i#382;ek also reiterates 1970s argument about how film editing “sutures” the viewer into the text.

I’ll have almost nothing to say about these stretches of FRT . But #381;i#382;ek launches the book with an introduction and two chapters criticizing arguments made in a collection of essays edited by myself and Noël Carroll, Post#8209;Theory: Reconstructing Film Studies (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1996). The subtitle of #381;i#382;ek’s book indicates the centrality of what he takes to be the Post#8209;Theory movement, even though he doesn’t pursue arguments about it through the book. Indeed, the harry becomes a communist first two chapters seem to me awkwardly welded onto a fairly conventional book of free-associative film interpretation. Why invoke Post#8209;Theory at Japan Business Essay examples all, then? The Preface to FRT by Colin MacCabe explains that he asked #381;i#382;ek “to address the weaknesses and insularity of film studies as they had developed in the university sector over the previous two decades” (vii).

Film studies, MacCabe feels, has developed a “narrowness and sterility” (vii). It’s worth pausing on the ironies here. MacCabe was one of the moving spirits of Screen magazine in the 1970s, where the foundations of Lacanian and neo-Marxist film theory were laid. Regarding The Light In Oneself By Jiddu! As MacCabe put it in 1974: “Given Screen ’s commitment to examples theoretical understanding of film, the magazine has been engaged over the open university, the last five years in Customs vs. US Business Customs Essay examples the elaboration of the various advances in description semiotics, structuralism, psychoanalysis and Marxism.” 1 It is this blend that has been endlessly reiterated in the precincts of academic film studies. Across many years, it was the orthodoxy.

For many of Customs Essay, us, that trend seemed and still seems “narrow and sterile.” Judge for harry potter becomes a communist yourself, based on this passage signed by MacCabe from the golden age of Screen : The problem is to understand the terms of the construction of the subject and the modalities of the replacement of this construction in Japan Customs vs. US examples specific signifying practices, where “replacement” means not merely the Personal The Light by Jiddu repetition of the place of that construction but also, more difficultly, the supplacementthe overplacing: supplementation or, in certain circumstances, supplantation (critical interruption)of that construction in the place of Customs vs. US Business Customs, its repetition. 2. It’s a remarkable sentence in many respects, but assuming that it can be explicated, what saves this intellectual project from narrowness and sterility? In the 1970s MacCabe declared that this theory was committed to Marx’s concept of class struggle. Exactly how Lacanian psychoanalysis was to friends assist the class struggle, and Japan Business Customs vs. US Essay, why it should be preferred to human other means of assisting that struggle, was never made clear in Screen . In any event, MacCabe trots this claim out again as another aim of #381;i#382;ek’s book, which “intervenes” in contemporary debates “without ever abandoning questions of class struggle and the unconscious” (viiiix). Once more, neither MacCabe nor #381;i#382;ek explains why one cannot be a good socialist without reading Lacan. (More on this below.) MacCabe’s objections apply, he says, not to film historians, who have conducted “vital and important [sic] work” (vii). This too harbors irony, since the Theoretical Correctness of Japan Customs Customs Essay, Screen and its followers blocked historical research from developing in the 1970s.

Primary-document history was labeled “empiricist” and “positivist,” Screen published almost no such work, and for decades afterward, many historians feared being attacked for their lack of Grand Theory acumen. Efforts to harry potter a communist study early cinema history, the history of the U.S. film industry, and Customs vs. US Business Customs Essay, the like emerged in quite different venues from the BFI publications. Now, however, MacCabe welcomes historical research as an area of film studies. Rather, it’s film theory that has become inert, “either banally rehashed or obtusely opposed” (viii). Though MacCabe isn’t specific, it seems that the obtuse opposition is incarnated in “ ‘Post#8209;Theory’ and cognitivism” (viii). I say “seems” because this is as close as MacCabe gets to naming names: “For those followers of fashion who look for Personal Regarding Krushnamarti a retreat from Marx and Freud, a hideous mimicking of the threadbare nonsense of the ‘third way,’ this book will be a grave disappointment” (viii). Just parsing this cryptic sentence raises questions: What fashion dictates a retreat from Marx and Freud?

One would think that Post#8209;Theory was sweeping the Business Customs examples academy. The Open! And why didn’t MacCabe object to fashion when Screen theory was reiterated uncritically for decades? Presumably MacCabe finds Post#8209;Theory has parallels with Tony Blair and New Labour’s “Third Way.” 3 What are these affinities? What grounds can MacCabe have for linking ideas about cinema floated by Midwest college professors to a crisis in Japan Customs Essay examples British politics, let alone finding the The Lewis parallels “hideous”? In any event, what’s wrong with positing alternatives to intellectual positions? In any field of Customs Business, inquiry, can’t there be a third, or fourth, or fifth way of asking and answering questions?

Evidently MacCabe’s purpose isn’t to and Clark Expedition: Essay make a claim or back a case, merely to fulminate, but even his terms of abuse (“fashion,” “hideous,” “threadbare nonsense”) aren’t specific. Apart from Customs vs. US Business Essay reviving the allegiance of Lacan and Expedition: Sacagawea, class struggle, MacCabe says, “#381;i#382;ek’s account of Post#8209;Theory lays bare both its obvious fallacies and Business Business, its more hidden vanities” (ix). On the contrary. Although MacCabe designated #381;i#382;ek his hitman, it’s more than a little surprising to find that at Reflection Regarding In Oneself by Jiddu nearly every opportunity #381;i#382;ek doesn’t engage with the substantive arguments of Post#8209;Theory at Japan vs. US all. There are three essays in Personal Reflection Krushnamarti the anthology that directly criticize the psychoanalytic project in film theory: Stephen Prince’s “Psychoanalytic Film Theory and the Problem of the Missing Spectator”; my “Contemporary Film Studies and the Vicissitudes of Grand Theory”; and Noël Carroll’s “Prospects for Business Business Customs Essay Film Theory: A Personal Assessment.” How does #381;i#382;ek address the challenges these essays propose? His chief strategy consists of invective and rhetorical questions. “Does what [the Post#8209;Theory attacks] describe as Theory, or what they attribute to Theory, not read as a comically simplified caricature of Lacan, Althusser et al? Can one really take seriously Noël Carroll’s description of Gaze theorists?” (4). #381;i#382;ek takes you no further. No argument, no evidence, just dismissal à la MacCabe.

Then, #381;i#382;ek asks, who are the “Lacanians” referred to in Post#8209;Theory ? “Except for Personal Regarding Krushnamarti Joan Copjec, myself, and some of my Slovene colleagues, I know of no cinema theorist who effectively accepts Lacan as his or her ultimate background” (2). He goes on to mention other writers, such as Laura Mulvey and Kaja Silverman, who accept Lacan’s descriptions of patriarchy but criticize him as a “phallogocentrist” (2). Japan Customs Vs. US Business Customs Essay Examples! What’s odd here is that Carroll, Prince, and market, I don’t attack “Lacanians”; the Japan Customs examples phrase is not to be found in our essays. Prince concentrates on Freud, while Carroll discusses Lacan as one ingredient of 1970s and 1980s film theory. My essay emphasizes what I call subject-position theory, of which Lacanian doctrines form only market part. All three essays speak of psychoanalytic film theory and Japan Business Essay, psychoanalytically inclined theorists. To use a term #381;i#382;ek employs often in FRT , one might say that the Lacanians in these essays exist only as his phantasms. In any event, he doesn’t try to fight these phantoms by defending Lacan’s account of mental life against its many rivals. Description! He accepts, as we’ll see shortly, key premises of Lacanianism on faith, as do many people he wouldn’t characterize as deep-dyed Lacanians. #381;i#382;ek’s complaints about lumping Lacanians together diverts our attention from the point at issue. Whether Lacan forms an “ultimate background,” whatever that means, isn’t worth disputing. #381;i#382;ek knows perfectly well that a great many film scholars have cited Lacan and Japan Customs Essay, used his work to bolster theoretical or interpretive claims.

Although the three essays invoke many writers by The Lewis and Clark Expedition: Essay name (and my essay analyzes one essay by the #381;i#382;ek-endorsed Lacanian Copjec), the crucial issue is the role Lacan’s theories play within the intellectual doctrines of contemporary film theory. This #381;i#382;ek doesn’t address. Once we get past rhetorical questions and diversionary tactics, #381;i#382;ek is given an Customs vs. US examples, excellent opportunity to engage with Post#8209;Theory by Stephen Prince’s essay. Prince argues, I think plausibly, that psychoanalysis lacks reliable data on The Light Krushnamarti, which to build its theories. Records of the clinical session are available only to the analyst (yielding “nontraceable disclosures”); there are no established standards for interpreting the patient’s discourse; and the analyst inevitably filters the full range of the patient’s reports, summarizing and inflecting them in her interpretation. Prince then argues that these failings are present in Freud’s own classic paper, “A Child is Being Beaten.” Prince goes on to suggest that psychoanalytic theory of cinema is at a disadvantage because of its weak account of perception and its resolute ignoral of the ways in Customs vs. US Business Essay examples which cinema resembles the world, both of which can be better accounted for by rival theories. There are many things #381;i#382;ek (and MacCabe, the market book’s patron) would object to here. But #381;i#382;ek never discusses any of them. Business Essay Examples! It’s entirely possible that Prince has mischaracterized psychoanalytic method, or has misread Freud’s paper, or has misunderstood Lacanian film theory. But #381;i#382;ek doesn’t make any effort to show weaknesses in the essay.

He merely mocks the title (p. 1). Likewise, you’d think that he’d slice my essay to ribbons. “Contemporary Film Studies” delineates two trends in the field, what I call subject-position theory (the Screen legacy) and culturalism. I trace those trends historically and try to show continuities between them. Reflection Regarding The Light In Oneself! The conceptual continuities I argue for involve social constructivism, theories of subjectivity, the centrality of identification, and Customs vs. US Customs Essay examples, an underlying commitment to semiotics. I also argue that subject-position adherents and culturalists follow similar argumentative routines, notably a commitment to doctrine-driven inquiry, a fondness for pasting together ideas from quite divergent theorists, a reliance on association rather than linear reasoning, and a commitment to hermeneutic applications of theory to films (producing “readings”). On each point I advance some critical remarks, including charges of self-contradiction. A philosopher ought to be rubbing his hands at the prospect of going after this essay. I could be vulnerable from many angles. #381;i#382;ek could attack my characterization of Freud, Lacan, and market, the rest; my critiques of same; and above all my outline of the Japan vs. US Customs two trends. Most important, although I didn’t have #381;i#382;ek in mind when I wrote the essay, he himself instantiates all the conceptual commitments and rhetorical habits I criticize.

His work is reviews a pastiche of many, widely varying intellectual sources (from Ernest Laclau to Stephen Jay Gould). He is an Japan Business Customs Customs Essay, associationist par excellence. His use of films is purely hermeneutic, with each film playing out allegories of google human, theoretical doctrines. Customs Vs. US Customs! And he never doubts his masters Hegel and Lacan, exemplifying the tendency I characterize this way: “The pronouncements of Lacan, Althusser, Baudrillard, et cie are often simply taken on faith” (21). So my complaints should strike very close to Personal Reflection Regarding home. Yet not a peep from Japan vs. US Business Customs examples #381;i#382;ek on any of these points. If I’m right, his theoretical program is seriously on the wrong track, but he feels no obligation to engage with my claims. This isn’t the thinker MacCabe says is “determined to follow the logic of any concept or text through to description its bitter or sweet end” (FRT, viii). 4. Carroll and #381;i#382;ek 1: Reply as Confirmation. #381;i#382;ek is a philosopher, so perhaps we’d expect him to engage most fully with another of his profession. Noël Carroll’s essay “Prospects for Film Theory: A Personal Assessment” presents criticisms that are severe and pointed.

Carroll argues that proponents of Grand Theory embrace a monolithic conception of theorizing, conflate theorizing with interpreting specific films, use political correctness to Business Customs vs. US Customs attack their opponents, unwontedly charge opponents with “formalism,” and exhibit a bias against the concept of google, truth. Remarkably, #381;i#382;ek responds to not a single one of these charges. He doesn’t, contra MacCabe, lay bare any fallacies, nor does he mount what he promises in his introduction will be a “critical dialogue with cognitivist/historicist Post#8209;Theory” (7). What he does lay bare, apparently all unawares, are statements wide open to Carroll’s objections. Japan Vs. US Business! Here is Carroll: Proponents of the Theory let on that the resources Theory grew out Japan vs. US Business Customs Essay examples of the The Lewis and Clark Sacagawea Essay student movement and out of a resistance to oppression everywhere. Consequently, from their point of view, criticism of the Business Customs Theory virtually represents a clear and potter, present danger to the very Revolution itself. Anyone who opposes the Theory, for whatever reason, is Japan Business vs. US Business Customs examples politically suspect.

Criticisms of the dubious psychoanalytic premises of the Theory are denounced as reactionaryin a political sense!as if a belief in The Lewis and Clark Expedition: Sacagawea Essay the equality of races requires assent to Lacan and the rest of the pet paraphernalia of the Theory. (45). MacCabe’s evocation of the class struggle in his introduction strikes this note, as does #381;i#382;ek’s promise to show how Kieslowski’s work, “the site of antagonistic ideological tensions [sic], of the ‘class struggle in art’, can be redeemed by a Lacanian approach” (7). #381;i#382;ek begins his book by Business vs. US Business saying that the Post#8209;Theory trend is “often sustained by a stance of harry potter a communist, profound political resignation, by a will to obliterate the traces and disappointments of political engagement” (13). The one piece of evidence he supplies for this is startlingly shaky. #381;i#382;ek takes the scholar Ben Brewster as “emblematic of the present-day state of Business vs. US Business Customs, cinema theory” (13). Why? Because Brewster shifted from Personal being a proponent of Screen theory to becoming a film historian displaying an “exclusive preoccupation with pre#8209;1917 cinema” (13). Japan Vs. US Business Customs Essay Examples! Why does this matter?

Because Brewster focuses on a period “prior to the open reviews the October Revolution, as if to emphasise the Japan vs. US Customs Essay will to obliterate the trauma of the and Clark Expedition: Essay failed leftist involvement in Theory” (13). About #381;i#382;ek’s diagnosis that Brewster’s research constitutes a form of fetishistic disavowal reminiscent of a reluctance to look at feminine genitals, I shall say nothing. I just want to point out that Brewster has not restricted his research to cinema before 1917, not even in the book #381;i#382;ek mentions in Customs vs. US Business Essay examples a footnote, 5 so the tenuous thread of association fails even as a literary conceit. On its first page, FRT presents a strained reach for cleverness at the expense of nuance and accuracy. We’ll encounter this strategy again.

For our theorists, politics equals left politics equals the glory years of May 1968 theory. Regarding The Light! Marx is always invoked, with nods to Eurocommunism, Althusser, and, surprisingly, Mao. In 1974 MacCabe saluted the Chinese Cultural Revolution as proof that ideology remained a potent force. 6 In a recent DVD liner note on Japan vs. US Business Essay examples, Godard’s Tout va bien , he describes the Cultural Revolution as Mao’s effort to have the Red Guards “revolt against the ruling state and party apparatus. The young were encouraged to question authority and to insist on the importance of the class struggle.” 7 MacCabe doesn’t mention that Mao stirred up the market young in order to regain his power over that same party apparatus, or that the Red Guards were not encouraged to question his authority, or that the vs. US Business ten years of Cultural Revolution shut down China’s education, exiled intellectuals to labor camps, destroyed centuries of cultural artifacts, killed hundeds of thousands of people, and ruined the harry potter a communist lives of millions more. #381;i#382;ek also invokes the Great Helmsman: “To put it in good old Maoist terms, the principal contradiction of today’s cinema studies. To continue in a Maoist vein, I am tempted to[identify a given opposition] as the second, nonantagonistic contradiction of cinema studies, to Business Customs Customs examples be resolved through discussion and self-criticism”(1, 2). Personal Regarding The Light In Oneself! Needless to say, why Maoism is good as well as old doesn’t concern #381;i#382;ekperhaps because, like many of his other citations, this tip of the hat to the cult of personality serves merely as an effort at knowing rhetoric. Certainly self-criticism doesn’t enter his text. Vs. US Business Customs Examples! So Carroll’s diagnosisthat theoretical sallies are often justified by an unwarranted link to a particular brand of The Lewis Expedition: Sacagawea Essay, politicsis borne out by the very book seeking to demolish Carroll’s views. Similarly, Carroll’s essay argues that in Japan Business Customs Essay general film theories don’t necessarily bear traces of the theorist’s political orientation. “I have evolved theories of movie music and point-of-view editing, but they do not, in any sense that could be called logical, imply my political position about practices anything from gun control, to sexual harassment, to communal ownership of the Japan Customs Customs Essay examples means of production” (46). The reason is that theories generally underdetermine political viewpoints. “Given theories may be espoused by The Lewis Expedition: Sacagawea either the forces of Japan Customs vs. US Business Customs, light or the forces of darkness” (47).

We might expect this to hypothesis arouse a sustained critique from #381;i#382;ek, who obviously doesn’t believe in the underdetermination of theories; but no such luck. He remains silent. Vs. US Customs! There’s yet another moment in which #381;i#382;ek confirms Carroll’s critique. Carroll’s essay criticizes totalizing conceptions of theory: Under its aegis, the film theorist sets out to subsume every aspect of cinematic phenomena under the The Lewis and Clark putative laws and Customs vs. US Customs Essay examples, categories of his or her minimally customized version of the reigning orthodoxy. Theorizing becomes the routine application of some larger, unified theory to questions of cinema, which procedure unsurprisingly churns out roughly the same answers, or remarkably similar answers, in every case.

The net result, in short, is theoretical impoverishment (41). And here is #381;i#382;ek, claiming that Post#8209;Theory. starts to behave as if there were no Marx, Freud, semiotic theory of ideology, i.e. as if we can magically return to some kind of naivete before things like the unconscious, the the open overdetermination of our lives by the decentred symbolic processes, and so forth became part of our theoretical awareness (14). #381;i#382;ek can’t entertain the prospect that ideas can be “part of our theoretical awareness” and still be invalid. Suppose, just suppose, that all these “things”points of doctrineare shot through with conceptual and empirical mistakes. This is what Prince, Carroll, and I are saying. Japan Vs. US Customs Essay Examples! We don’t ignore this theory; we criticize it.

Being skeptical about weak theories isn’t a return to innocence. It’s an advance; it can cast out error. The task is potter becomes not to call us naïve but rather to Japan Business Business Customs show that the unconscious, the overdetermination of harry, so on and so forth remain valid ideas. The way to show this is Business Customs vs. US Customs examples not by waxing nostalgic for the days when everyone read Althusser, but by overcoming our criticisms. Yet in #381;i#382;ek’s hands, confirming Carroll’s objections once more, Lacanian theory functions as a set of axioms or dogmas rather than working ideas to be subjected to critical discussion. Post#8209;Theory argues against the very idea of Theory and Personal Reflection Regarding The Light by Jiddu Krushnamarti, supports the idea of theories and Japan Business Customs Customs Essay examples, theorizing (p. xiv).

Theories operate at many levels of and Clark Sacagawea Essay, generality and tackle many different questions. Theorizing is a process of proposing, refining, correcting, and perhaps rejecting answers, in the context of a multidisciplinary conversation. But for #381;i#382;ek, the unconscious, the overdetermination of our lives, and Business Customs, all the rest is Theory entire and whole. Becomes! No intellectual activity (save “historical research”) lives outside it, and it can be discussed only by Business Business those already accepting the premises of its sacred texts. And once the only correct Theory is packaged with the only correct political attitudes, you have a powerful weapon against anyone who differs. FRT confirms Carroll’s claim: “The Theory has been effectively insulated from the open reviews sustained logical and empirical analysis by a cloak of Japan Business Customs vs. US Customs, political correctness” (45). Carroll and #381;i#382;ek 2: Dialectics of Inquiry and of Nature. #381;i#382;ek ignores almost all the substantive points Carroll makes in his essay. The one issue he singles out is market hypothesis Carroll’s proposal that film studies should be more self-consciously dialectical.

Carroll explains at several points what he means by this. In his sense, dialectics is an alternative to the method #381;i#382;ek embraces, that of deriving a film theory from Japan Business Customs vs. US Customs Essay axioms or first principles. Instead, dialectical exchange is a form of Reflection Regarding Krushnamarti, debate, “defending one’s own theory by demonstrating that it succeeds where alternative theories falter” (56). More extensively: Theories are framed in specific historical contexts of research for the purpose of answering certain questions, and Japan Customs Essay, the relative strengths of theories are assayed by comparing the answers they afford to the open reviews the answers proposed by alternative theories. This conception of theory evaluation is pragmatic because: (1) it compares actual, existing rival answers to the questions at Customs vs. US Customs Essay examples hand (rather than every logically conceivable answer); and (2) because it focuses on solutions to The Lewis Essay contextually motivated theoretical problems (rather than searching for answers to any conceivable question one might have about cinema) (56). #381;i#382;ek does object to Carroll’s point, but he misconstrues it.

He says that this conception of dialectics is “simply the notion of cognition as the gradual progress of our always limited knowledge through the Business Customs examples testing of specific hypotheses” (14). The Light By Jiddu! Now this is vs. US plainly not what the google human resources passage quoted above says. Business! #381;i#382;ek eliminates the communal and comparative dimensions of Personal Regarding In Oneself by Jiddu Krushnamarti, inquiry Carroll invokes, and introduces “the testing of specific hypotheses.” He goes on to add that the process is “unending,” assigning to Carroll “a modest view of endless competive struggle” (15). But again, Carroll does not say that the process is infinite. Business Customs Vs. US Customs Examples! He says that by google human eliminating error and mounting sound theories, we can arrive at reliable if approximate truths. These theories may stand for a long time; perhaps a better theory will never come along (58). “There is no reason to concede that we cannot also craft film theories in Business Customs Essay examples the here and now that are approximately true” (58). Reflection In Oneself By Jiddu Krushnamarti! There is nothing inherently unending about this process. Customs Vs. US! So #381;i#382;ek has misunderstood Carroll’s conception of market hypothesis, dialectical inquiry. But that’s not all. Having rewritten Carroll’s claims, #381;i#382;ek blurts out: “Well, if this is dialectics, then Karl Popper, the most aggressive and dismissive critic of Japan Business Customs Essay examples, Hegel, was the description greatest dialectician of Customs Essay, them all!” (15). This expostulation encapsulates many assumptions, all of them questionable. First, Carroll’s conception of theory-building doesn’t follow Popper, since Carroll has made no reference to friends falsifiability as the key criterion for conjecture and refutation.

Carroll’s view of collective problem-solving through debate is a far broader position in the philosophy of science than Popper’s account. Secondly, as Carroll points out in a subsequent version of his essay, “an unbiased examination of the history of philosophy will show, I believe, that Hegel has no patent on dialectics.” 8 I’d go further and vs. US Essay, observe that the concept of dialectic derives from market ancient Greece, and it simply means “conversing.” Carroll is using the concept in Japan Customs examples its most basic and uncontroversial sense. #381;i#382;ek could have distinguished Carroll’s use from that of other thinkers, notably Hegel, but that would require a careful and painstaking response, not a cri de cœur . To assume that Hegel possesses the only valid concept of the dialectic is something of an undergraduate howler. Finally, Carroll uses the concept of the dialectic as a regulative and pragmatic principle of inquiry. The Lewis And Clark Expedition: Sacagawea! #381;i#382;ek, like Hegel, believes that the dialectic also exists in the world, as a constitutive principle of nature, society, and indeed being itself. Thus #381;i#382;ek says that there is a dialectic informing the history of Business examples, film style (pp. 2225). In this way, a particular version of reviews, dialectical inquiry is justified by an ontological assumption. Business Vs. US Business Examples! #381;i#382;ek brooks no dispute on this: again and again he refers to the “proper” use of dialecticsthe one forged by Hegel and, mysteriously, Freud (25).

But he nowhere defends Hegel’s idea of dialectic against the hosts of objections that have been raised by over a century of critics; nor does he defend his somewhat idiosyncratic version of Hegel. 9 Another philosophical slip#381;i#382;ek confuses epistemic criteria with ontological onesand another moment at which a canonical thinker becomes a security blanket. #381;i#382;ek has one more cluster of Personal Reflection In Oneself Krushnamarti, objections to Business Customs vs. US Business examples Carroll’s conception of the open university reviews, dialectical theory-building. “Dialectics proper,” he says, is distinguished by “the way the subject’s position of enunciation is included, inscribed into Japan Business Customs vs. US Customs Essay examples the process: the cognitivist speaks from the safe position of the excluded observer who knows the relativity and limitation of all human knowledge, including his own” (15). These are presumably the “hidden vanities” to google human practices which MacCabe alludes. Japan Vs. US Business Customs Examples! The easy answer to this claim is this: #381;i#382;ek uses enunciation theory as the basis for his objection. If you don’t accept a theory of enunciation (which neither Carroll nor I do), the the open university objection fails. Customs Examples! (Note, in passing, #381;i#382;ek’s invocation of enunciation theory rests upon the oft-cited liar paradox: the semantic contradiction involved in Regarding The Light In Oneself by Jiddu Krushnamarti saying “I am lying” supposedly exemplifies split subjectivity in all of Customs, language.) The equally obvious riposte is that Carroll, cited above, doesn’t believe in the relativity of all human knowledge (he in fact argues against relativism) and instead argues that truth is to market some degree attainable.

Once more #381;i#382;ek has misunderstood the claims he’s criticizing. #381;i#382;ek goes on to create a sort of theoretical ad hominem . Having ascribed “modesty” to the position he attacks, he goes on Japan Business Customs vs. US Essay, to say that it’s actually an arrogant view. The Open! But he does this by again caricaturing the Japan Customs Business Customs examples claims. “When I say, ‘The theory (which I am deploying) is just an impotent mental construct, while real life persists outside,’ or engage in similar modes of referring to the wealth of pre-theoretical experience, the friends apparent modesty of such statements harbours the arrogant position of Customs Business Essay, enunciation of the subject who assumes the capacity to compare a theory with ‘real life’” (15). In passing, I note that #381;i#382;ek here seems to equate the The Lewis and Clark Expedition: Essay subject with an entity like an individual, capable of actions like assuming; but this is a philosophical error, as I point out in my Post#8209;Theory contribution (1415). Also in passing, I note that until #381;i#382;ek shows that enunciation theory is a plausible account of language or mental activity, his diagnosis, which wholly depends on this theory, need cause me no worries. More substantially, Carroll, Prince, and Japan Business Business Essay, I never say or imply that our theoretical conjectures are “impotent mental constructs” when faced with the teeming reality outside our theories.

Where does he get this stuff? And what’s so arrogant about comparing a theory with real life? #381;i#382;ek does it all the time. Consider this passage from an interview, in which #381;i#382;ek is asked about his fondness for Lenin’s theories: What I like in Lenin is precisely what scares people about google him-the ruthless will to discard all prejudices. Why not violence? Horrible as it may sound, I think it’s a useful antidote to all the aseptic, frustrating, politically correct pacifism.

Let’s take the campaign against vs. US Business examples, smoking in the U.S. I think this is a much more suspicious phenomenon than it appears to be. If #381;i#382;ek can apply Leninist politics of violence to anti-smoking legislation (will he found a Cheka to purge nonsmokers?), I assume that other theorists aren’t being arrogant in talking of how comparatively harmless movies relate to the world we live in. Dialogue versus Monologue. Throughout #381;i#382;ek’s objections to Carroll’s notion of dialectical inquiry, one blind spot is market evident. In his references to Japan Customs vs. US Customs Essay “testing hypotheses” and the isolated “subject of enunciation,” in his accounts of dialectical thinking by the solitary theorist, he ignores the intersubjective dimension of theorizing. Dialectical inquiry proceeds because a researcher belongs to a community committed to both rational and empirical investigation.

Whatever one’s personal feelings about people arguing against the open, you, the regulative ideal of a research community is Customs vs. US Business Customs Essay respect for argumentation and evidence. People who don’t agree with you aren’t your enemies; their criticisms may be painful, but one cooperates with them in Reflection Regarding The Light In Oneself by Jiddu an effort to attain more conceptual precision and empirical adequacy. Business Vs. US Business Customs! Yet consider what #381;i#382;ek claims in another book, in Personal Reflection Regarding The Light by Jiddu commenting on an essay in Post#8209;Theory : Lenin liked to point out Japan Customs Essay that one could often get crucial insights into one’s own weaknesses from the perception of intelligent enemies. The Open University! So, since the current essay attempts a Lacanian reading of David Lynch’s Lost Highway , it may be useful to Japan Customs vs. US Business start with a reference to “Post#8209;Theory,” the recent cognitivist orientation of cinema studies that establishes its identity by a thorough rejection of Lacanian cinema studies. 10. Lenin, of course, saw his political opponents as his enemies, and description, he dealt with them as such. But to characterize one’s intellectual opponents this way is revealing of #381;i#382;ek’s attitude toward debate. One doesn’t cooperate with enemies.

Another regulative principle of collective truth-seeking is dialogue. Whatever their personal motives, scholars are united in seeking logically sound theories that illuminate a range of phenomena. That’s what allows debate to flourish. Essay Examples! When the community norms flag, debate withers and the open university, theory becomes a chorus of monologues. Customs Vs. US! Arguably, though, #381;i#382;ek fails to grasp the intersubjective dimension of theorizing because he doesn’t believe in resources theory as a conversation within a community, a process of question and Business Customs Business Customs Essay examples, answer and rebuttal. This construal of the open university reviews, his attitude toward theory fits what we know of Business Business Customs Essay examples, his intellectual demeanor. Consider these reports from an admiring journalist: 11. Bearded, disheveled, and loudBarely pausing to sit down, #381;i#382;ek launches into a monologue so learned and amusing that it could very well appearverbatimin one of the many books he has written (42). “Discussing Hegel and Lacan is like breathing for Slavoj.

I’ve seen him talk about theory for The Lewis and Clark Expedition: four hours straight without flagging,” says UCBerkeley’s Judith Butler. When not mediated by the printed page, however, the obsessive-compulsive quality that makes his hyperkinetic prose so exhilarating is Japan Customs Business Customs somewhat overwhelmingeven, evidently, for #381;i#382;ek himself. Popping the occasional Xanax to settle his nerves, he tells me about his heart problems and panic attacks. As his eyes dart around the room and his manic monologue becomes more frantic, I fear that I may be his last interviewer. #381;i#382;ek is like a performance artist who is terrified of abandoning the stage; once he starts talking, he seems unable to stop (42). #381;i#382;ek has developed an elaborate set of psychological tricks to manipulate his American students and enable him to have as little contact with them as possible. At the first meeting of each course, he announces that all students will get an Reflection Regarding The Light In Oneself by Jiddu Krushnamarti, A and should write a final paper only if they want to. “I terrorize them by creating a situation where they have no excuse for giving me a paper unless they think it is really good. This scares them so much, that out of forty students, I will get only a few papers,” he says. “And I get away with this because they attribute it to my ‘European eccentricity.’ ” #381;i#382;ek says that he deals with student inquiries in a similar spirit. “I understand I have to take questions during my lectures, since this is America and everybody is Business Customs Essay examples allowed to talk about everything. But when it comes to office hours, I have perfected a whole set of The Lewis and Clark Expedition: Sacagawea Essay, strategies for how to block this,” he says with a smirk. Japan Business Vs. US Business Customs Examples! “The real trick, however, is to The Lewis Essay minimize their access to Business Customs vs. US Business me and The Lewis Sacagawea Essay, simultaneously appear to be even more democratic!” Initially, #381;i#382;ek scheduled office hours immediately before class so that students could not run on indefinitely. Then he came up with the idea of requiring them to submit a written question in advance, on the assumption that most would be too lazy to do it (they were). #381;i#382;ek reserves what he calls “the nasty strategy” for Japan Business large lecture classes in which the students often don’t know one another. “I divide the time into six twenty-minute periods and then fill in market hypothesis the slots with invented names.

That way the students think that all the hours are full and I can disappear,” he claims (49). There’s a lot to Japan Business Business Customs Essay digest hereparticularly the rich image of a theorist who pronounces on all things political, historical, aesthetic, and psychological criticizing Americans for being “allowed to talk about everything”but you don’t need to be either a cognitivist or a psychoanalyst to hazard one conclusion. An insistent monologist and a teacher confessing himself uninterested in student response might not be able to appreciate the community-driven nature of inquiry postulated by Post#8209;Theory . Personal Reflection In Oneself By Jiddu Krushnamarti! This, then, is Japan Customs Business examples what #381;i#382;ek’s “critical dialogue” with Post#8209;Theory amounts to. Once more Carroll proves prophetic: “Sustained, detailed, intertheoretical debate and criticism is rare in the history of film theoryNowadays this tendency is particularly pronounced in discussions of cognitivism, which view is swiftly dismissed by castigating buzz-words like ‘formalism,’ or maybe ‘idealism,’ uttered just before the author goes on to repeat, at length, yet again, the harry becomes a communist received wisdom of Theory” (57). #381;i#382;ek obviously thinks that he has engaged in a critical dialogue, and he’s not alone. A review 12 of FRT praises #381;i#382;ek as “formidably well-read,” a “subtle theorist” able to operate “at the highest levels of psychological and philosophical abstraction.” The book offers, in Japan Customs vs. US Business the reviewer’s opinion, “A mode of aesthetic analysis that fully describes the most spectral and intangible [sic] of human practices, film without compromising the underlying theoretical rigor.” Everything I’ve said so far indicates that I can’t agree. Where are the subtleties? Where is the rigor? The reviewer doesn’t say, passing over Japan Business Business examples, the book’s avowedly theoretical chapters in a couple of Personal The Light In Oneself by Jiddu, paragraphs.

Perhaps the reviewer accepts #381;i#382;ek’s own conception of Post#8209;Theory . The reviewer says that #381;i#382;ek’s “fierce critique” rests on the idea that Post#8209;Theory “attempts to move away from a reliance on theory and back toward more empirical accounts of film.” Since anyone who read Post#8209;Theory would understand that we plead for Japan Business Customs Customs better theories, not the elimination of theoretical work, I have to conclude that the reviewer relies on #381;i#382;ek’s characterization of the book’s project. Friends! And this is Japan vs. US Business Customs a mistake, for #381;i#382;ek makes several errors. First, he claims that the Post#8209;Theory collection is “a kind of manifesto” of cognitive film theory. Expedition: Essay! 13 This flies in the face of the introduction to Post#8209;Theory , where Carroll and I say, “It needs to be stressed that though a number of the articles in this volume are cognitivist, the Japan Business Customs Customs volume itself is not a primer in cognitivism. The unifying principle in this book is that all the research included exemplifies the possibility of Personal Regarding The Light by Jiddu Krushnamarti, scholarship that is not reliant upon the psychoanalytic framework that dominates film academia (xvi).” Moreover, there is cognitivist film theory that isn’t “post-theoretical”; presumably many people pursuing cognition-based answers to theoretical questions don’t reject psychoanalysis from the Japan Business Customs Business Essay standpoint we adopt. Market Hypothesis! Many psychologists studying filmic perception have probably never heard of Jacques Lacan. I conclude that #381;i#382;ek uses the term “Post#8209;Theory” to Business Customs vs. US Business sum up a broad movement he takes to be emerging within film studies as the principal rival to the open university the psychoanalytic (specifically, Lacanian) paradigm. This makes a conveniently broad target, but only at the expense of vs. US Business Customs Essay examples, subtlety and rigor. When #381;i#382;ek treats the Post#8209;Theory movement as “the cognitivist and/or historicist reaction” to and Clark Sacagawea Grand Theory ( FRT , 1), he displays a second confusion. To call the historical essays collected in Post#8209;Theory “historicist” is at best ambiguous. Vs. US Customs Essay Examples! In the relevant sense, historicism involves the and Clark Sacagawea belief that concepts held by historical agents at a given time are sui generis and can’t be unproblematically translated into terms available at the historian’s moment.

For example, Foucault’s position in Japan Customs vs. US Business Customs examples “What Is an Author?” can be described as historicist. He posits that the The Lewis Sacagawea Essay modern concept of the author came into Japan Business vs. US Business Customs existence at a particular time and place and can’t be presumed to Reflection Regarding The Light by Jiddu operate in Essay earlier circumstances. But historicism in this sense plainly isn’t advocated or even presupposed by the historians in the Post#8209;Theory collection; their essays don’t take a position on this issue. Of course it’s possible that #381;i#382;ek simply means to indicate that the essays are historical studies; but then he’s misusing the term “historicism.” As a philosopher, #381;i#382;ek should be committed to clarifying terms rather than fogging them. At some point someone is likely to say that #381;i#382;ek is elusive because he’s playful. His flights of fancy try to get you to think outside the box; he’s a provocateur. I suppose this comes down to taste, but I find #381;i#382;ek not provocative at friends all. Praising Lacan, Lenin, and Mao seems to me not rebellion but a retread. And we come at some point to a matter of sincerity.

When is Japan Business Business Essay examples he not being playful? When is he putting forth a claim he’s committed to? For example, in FRT he proposes that pictures have two frames, one external, one internal, “the frame implied by the structure of the resources painting” (130). “These two frames by definition never overlap” (130). 14 Yet in his prologue, #381;i#382;ek explains that at a conference, asked to Business Customs vs. US Business Customs examples comment on a picture, he “engaged in a total bluff” (5) by positing the existence of harry a communist, these two frames. He goes on to make fun of people who took it seriously: To my surprise, this brief intervention was a huge success, and many following participants referred to the dimension in-between-the-two-frames, elevating it into a term. This very success made me sad, really sad.

What I encountered here was not only the Japan Business Business examples efficiency of the open university, a bluff, but a much more radical apathy at Japan Business Business Customs Essay examples the very heart of university reviews, today’s cultural studies (6). The postmodern emperor doesn’t need a child in Japan Business vs. US Customs examples the crowd to point out his nakedness; he does so himself, and mourns the fact that he fooled so many. But the question nags us: Are we to believe the two-frames theory when it’s floated later in the book? Evidently not, since it’s admittedly a bluff. But perhaps #381;i#382;ek really believes the theory, so that in the prologue, when he says that his theory is a bluff, he’s bluffing. This compels us to ask: Might not everything he says about Lacan, Post#8209;Theory, and the rest be a bluff akin to the two-frames bluff? No wonder #381;i#382;ek takes the Liar’s Paradox to be the The Lewis and Clark Essay prototype of language use. Business! What others might find a dizzying display of academic cleverness makes me sad too, but perhaps in a different way. Are we wasting our time in expecting #381;i#382;ek to offer reasonable arguments? Fundamental questions of responsibility arise here, especially in potter a communist relation to Japan Business Customs examples a writer not hesitant to condemn the beliefs and resources, actions of others.

It’s tedious to be lectured on Japan Business Essay, morality and ethics from market someone who casually announces petty acts of vs. US, deceit, like sneaking out of office hours or fooling gullible academics who are eager to take a master’s every word as a revelation. “Well,” #381;i#382;ek or a sympathetic reviewer might ask me, “can’t we say that he engages seriously and straightforwardly with your claims? He has much to say about your book, On the practices History of Film Style and your claims about contingent universals in one essay of Post#8209;Theory .” He does indeed. I was surprised, however, that when he turns on his analytical powers, how little his objections amount to. I’ve made my reply in Business Essay Figures Traced in Light (260264), so I won’t rehash it here. I think I show that when #381;i#382;ek tries to be serious and market, dismantle an argument critically, the results are vague, digressive, equivocal, contradictory, and either obviously inaccurate or merely banal. This might explain why he so seldom tries to be analytical.

Vagueness, digressions, equivocations, etc. are less apparent if you’re playful. But we can forgive all this, others will reply, because #381;i#382;ek is such a lively writer. Vs. US! Recall that Boynton, above, calls his prose “hyperkinetic” and “exhilarating,” and Expedition: Sacagawea, names him “a dazzlingly acute thinker and prose stylist.” Frankly, I can’t imagine Boynton and Japan Business Customs examples, I are reading the same writer. As with many contemporary theorists, #381;i#382;ek’s dominant register is what Frederick Crews has called ponderous coyness. 15 His humor is academic, and academic humor is to humor as military intelligence is to intelligence.

As for the texture of the prose, try to find the acuteness and hyperkinesis here: The underlying principle and friends description, support of this thesis of the symbolic order is that, in each field of meaning, if this field is to be ‘totalised,’ there has to be an additional/excessive signifier which, as it were, gives a positive figure to that which cannot be properly included into this field, somewhat like Spinoza’s well-known criticism of the Japan Business vs. US examples traditional personalized notion of God: at the point at which our positive knowledge of the causal links fails, we supplement this lack with the Personal Reflection by Jiddu idea of ‘God,’ which, instead of providing a precise idea of a cause, just fills in the lack of this idea. ( FRT , 6465). Not only is this an obscure and pretentious way of Customs vs. US Business Customs Essay, recycling a familiar post-Structuralist idea, the sentences aren’t minimally well-written. (I grant that “as it were” is a nice touch, as if the entire passage weren’t built on metaphors and supposition.) In all, this writing style isn’t a good way to achieve #381;i#382;ek’s goal of description, distinguishing “Theory proper” from “its jargonistic imitation” ( FRT , 5). What makes people think that #381;i#382;ek writes gracefully, I think, is the casual way he drops in Business Customs vs. US Business Customs movies, current event, and homely examples. So this: “These partial objets petit a are neither subjective nor objective, but the short-circuit of the two dimensions: the subjective stain/stand-in that sustains the order of objectivity, and the objective ‘bone in the throat’ that sustains subjectivity” ( FRT , 65) is followed by: “Does this not provide the and Clark Sacagawea Essay reason why, in so-called caper films?” ( FRT , 66). A stretch of Japan Business Customs vs. US Customs examples, churned mud is university softened by a stream of colorful, if far-fetched, examples. Cutely illustrating an ontological concept through mundane instances seems to make for a user-friendly approach.

In every appreciation of #381;i#382;ek, there is a sentence somewhere marveling at how his vision sweeps from lofty abstraction to pop-culture examples. “He takes in Customs Business Customs Essay subjects including national cuisines, the Cathar heresy and the literature and film of the GDR, citing Plato, Hegel, Derrida, Heidegger and more” (Monroe, “Fright of friends description, Real Theory”). But such potshot erudition is in fact quite easy to achieve. If academics are this easily impressed by name-dropping, no wonder #381;i#382;ek’s bluffs find success. And from this standpoint, #381;i#382;ek’s claim that correct thought moves from universal concepts to Business vs. US Business examples singular manifestations can be seen to serve the strategic purpose of justifying his grandiloquent rhetorical leaps from the sublime to the ridiculous, from Leninist strictures on violence to anti-smoking legislation. Market! Finally, I’m left with the question: Why do #381;i#382;ek and MacCabe elevate a single anthology ( Post#8209;Theory ) into a movement (Post#8209;Theory)? The book has won little attention, and no one else has built it into a mighty opposite to Lacanian theory.

I can only speculate. My hunch is that both #381;i#382;ek and examples, MacCabe see intellectual work as a struggle for power. Recall their admiration for the likes of The Lewis and Clark Sacagawea, Lenin and Mao, note their rhetoric of enemies and obtuse opposition, and then observe that other passages suggest that by calling for conceptual and empirical theorizing, Post#8209;Theory aligns itself with science. Japan Business Customs Business Customs Essay! And science is Reflection The Light by Jiddu a threat. After telling us that no quantum physicists worry about the ontology of what they observe (I suspect this will depend on Customs Business Essay, what you mean by ontology), #381;i#382;ek complains: The objectivised language of experts and scientists. . .can no longer be translated into the common language, available to everyone, but is present in it in the mode of fetishized formulae that no one really understands, but which shape our artistic and friends description, popular imaginary (Black Hole, Big Bang, Superstrings, Quantum Oscillations). Japan Business Vs. US Business Customs! The gap between scientific insight and common sense is unbridgeable, and it is this very gap which elevates scientists into the popular cult-figures of the ‘subjects supposed to know’ (the Stephen Hawking phenomenon) ( FRT , 67). Potter Becomes A Communist! As usual, any few lines of #381;i#382;ek demand both glossing and Japan vs. US Business Customs, interrogation.

He starts by talking about common language, then shifts to talking about common sense; but the two aren’t the same. Although many scientific ideas violate common sense, they can be put in intelligible language. Can it really be said that science writers like Stephen Gould, Richard Dawkins, Matt Ridley, Jared Diamond, Deborah Blum, Helena Cronin, John Gribbin, and James Gleick can’t explain difficult scientific concepts to readers prepared to spend a little time thinking? Moreover, given #381;i#382;ek’s tortured style, does he seem to have any regard for writing in a “common language, available to The Lewis and Clark Expedition: Sacagawea everyone”? And if it’s wrong for scientists to be elevated as “subjects supposed to know,” why isn’t the same stricture applied, say, to Freud and Lacan, who have become far more Delphic oracles than Einstein or Hawking? Or even applied to the “popular cult-figure” of the Japan Business Customs vs. US Customs Essay examples larger-than-life, I-am-ze-bull European intellectual who says outrageous things in Personal Reflection Regarding In Oneself Krushnamarti order to rouse us from our bourgeois slumber? Needless to say, #381;i#382;ek is Japan Business vs. US Business examples strategically vague; his comments evoke attitudes, not arguments. Description! Nor does he mention that, whatever cult value may attend to scientists in the popular press, the Japan Business Customs Business Customs Essay examples general public remains remarkably resistant to scientific findings and friends, scientific thinking. Most Americans believe in angels and a literal place called Hell.

Most accept astrology, consider the Japan Customs Business Essay examples theory of evolution unfounded, and think that dinosaurs and humans lived at the open the same time. This state of Japan Customs vs. US Business Essay, affairs, surely related to the class struggle, won’t be changed by another gloss on the concept of suture. Someone will remark that at least #381;i#382;ek loves movies. To this there’s an university reviews, easy reply. Who doesn’t? 1 : Colin MacCabe, “Days of Hope-A Response to Colin McArthur,” Screen 17, 1 (Spring 1976), 103. 2 : Ben Brewster, Stephen Heath, and Business vs. US Business Customs examples, Colin MacCabe, “Comment,” Screen 16, 2 (Summer 1975), 87.

3 : Thanks to reviews Benjamin Noys for pointing this out to me. 4 : I can’t resist adding that #381;i#382;ek’s third chapter, devoted to the notion of suture, misses another opportunity. Instead of recycling confused 1960s and 1970s claims about Japan Business vs. US Business Essay examples point-of-view cutting, he could have attacked the cognitivist criticisms of suture theory that I float in human practices Narration in the Fiction Film (Madison, 1985), 110113. 5 : Ben Brewster and Lea Jacobs, Theatre to Cinema: Stage Pictorialism and the Early Feature Film (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998). See the many discussions of Business vs. US examples, 1917 releases in the book, as well as the analysis of (1919), 133-136. See also Ben Brewster, “The Circle: Lubitsch and the Theatrical Farce Tradition,” Film History 13, 4 (2001), 372389. 6 : Ben Brewster and Colin MacCabe, “Editorial: Semiology and Sociology,” Screen 15, 1 (Spring 1974), 78. 7 : Colin MacCabe, “Postscript to May 1968,” Tout va bien program booklet, Criterion DVD no. 275 (2005), 20. 9 : I say idiosyncratic because #381;i#382;ek says (and he’s apparently not being playful here): “The basic rule of dialectics is Expedition: thus: whenever we are offered a simple enumeration of subspecies of a universal species, we should always look for the exception to the series” (27).

I’m not sure that Hegel would agree that this is the basic rule, but it’s a good research strategy. Always look out for counterexamples to universal claimsespecially those made by psychoanalytic theory! Remarkably, #381;i#382;ek goes on: “For example, it is my conjecture that the key to Hitchcock’s entire opus [sic] is the film which is integral and at the same time an exception. The Trouble with Harry (1954)” (27). Ontology and epistemology, not argued for Business Customs Customs examples but rather illustrated, and by Personal Reflection Regarding In Oneself by Jiddu a Hitchcock movie at that: such is the zigzag of the #381;i#382;ekian dialectic. 11 : All these quotations come from Robert S. Boynton, “Enjoy Your #381;i#382;ek!” Lingua Franca 8, 7 (October 1998): 4150. 12 : Alexei Monroe, “The Fright of Real Theory,” in Kinoeye: New Perspectives on European Film , available at http:/www.kinoeye.org/01/04/monroe04.php.

14 : To be fussily philosophical, if this distinction is Customs Customs Essay examples true “by definition” it can only be a deductive truth (which it obviously isn’t) or a stipulative definition posited by the speaker. If it’s the description latter, we require further conceptual or empirical proof that the stipulation is reasonable. #381;i#382;ek provides none. 15 : Frederick Crews, “‘Kafka Up Close’: An Exchange,” New York Review of Books (7 April 2005), 80. have comments about the state of this website? go here.

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conclusion structure A SHORT GUIDE TO THE. AMERICAN POLITICAL SYSTEM. The United States is - by size of electorate - the Customs vs. US Business second largest democracy on the globe (India is the largest and Indonesia comes third) and the most powerful nation on earth, politically, economically and militarily, but its political system is in many important respects unlike any other in the world. This essay then was written originally to inform non-Americans as to how the American political system works. What has been striking, however, is how many Americans - especially young Americans - have found the essay useful and insightful. There is considerable evidence that many Americans know and understand little about the market hypothesis political system of their own country - possibly more than is the case with any other developed democratic nation. In the U.S., the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) tests what American students are learning. It has found that the two worst subjects for American students are civics and American history. Japan Business Vs. US Business Essay? One NAEP survey found that only 7% of eighth graders (children aged 13-14) could describe the market hypothesis three branches of government. On one of Business Customs vs. US Business examples my trips to the United States, I was eating cereal for breakfast and found that the Sacagawea Essay whole of the reverse side of the cereal packet was devoted to a short explanation of the executive, legislative and judicial branches of the American government.

I find it hard to vs. US Business imagine that many democratic nations would feel it necessary to explain such a subject in such a format. It is probably more importamt than ever than both Americans and non-Americans understand the fundamentals of the American political system because, in Donald Trump, we have a US President who is behaving quite unlike his predecessors and effectively challenging the famed constitutional system of 'checks and balances'. So I hope that this explanation helps . To understand any country's political system, it is helpful to know something of the history of the becomes a communist nation and Business Customs Business Customs Essay examples, the background to the creation of the becomes (latest) constitution. But this is Japan Customs Customs, a fundamental neccesity in the case of the American political system. This is because the Constitution of the United States is so different from those of harry potter other nations and because that Constitution is, in all material respects, the same document as it was over Japan Business vs. US Essay examples, two centuries ago. There were four main factors in friends description the minds of the 'founding fathers' who drafted the US Constitution: The United States had just fought and won a bloody War of Independence from Britain and it was determined to Japan vs. US Business Customs create a political system that was totally different from the university reviews British system in which considerable authority still resided in a hereditary King (George III at the time) or Queen and in which Parliament was increasingly assertive in the exercise of its growing powers. Business Customs Essay Examples? Therefore the new constitution deliberately spread power between the three arms of harry potter a communist government - executive, legislature and judiciary - and ensured that each arm was able to limit the exercise of power by the other arms.

The United States was already a large country with problems of communications and Japan Business Customs Business examples, a population of varied background and education. Reflection Krushnamarti? Therefore, for all the intentions to be a new democracy, it was seen as important to limit the Japan Business Customs influence of swings in public opinion. So the election of the president was placed in Reflection In Oneself by Jiddu Krushnamarti the hands of an Electoral College, rather than the subject of direct election, and the terms of office of the president and the two chambers of the legislature were all set at different lengths. The United States was the creation of 13 individual states, each of which valued its traditions and powers, and so the overarching federal government was deliberately limited in its powers compared to the position of the central government in Business Customs Business Customs Essay other nations. Arguably the harry potter becomes later Civil War was about states' rights more than it was about slavery and there is still a real tension today between the states and federal government. The original 13 states of the Customs Business Essay USA were of very different size in terms of population and from the beginning there was a determination by the smaller states that political power should not be excessively in the hands of the larger states. Therefore the Constitution is Personal Regarding In Oneself, built on a 'Great Compromise' between the Virginia plan (representation by population) and the New Jersey plan (equal representation for all states) which resulted in the House of Representatives being constructed on the basis of population and the Senate being composed of an equal number of representatives regardless of population. This is why today six states have only vs. US Business Customs, one member in the House of Representatives but two members in google the Senate. Whatever the 'founding fathers' intended, the sheer longevity of the Japan Customs Constitution and the profound changes in description America since its drafting means that today the balance of power is not necessarily what the drafters of the Constitution had in mind.

So originally the legislature was seen as the most powerful arm of government (it is described first in the Constitution) but, over Japan Essay, time, both the Personal Reflection The Light In Oneself by Jiddu Presidency (starting with the time of Abraham Lincoln and the Civil War) and the Supreme Court (especially on social issues like desegregation, marriage and abortion) have assumed more power. Unlike Britain but like most nation states, the American political system is clearly defined by basic documents. The Declaration of Independence of 1776 and the Constitution of 1789 form the foundations of the Essay examples United States federal government. The Declaration of Independence establishes the United States as an Personal Reflection Regarding In Oneself Krushnamarti, independent political entity, while the Customs Customs examples Constitution creates the google basic structure of the Business Customs examples federal government. Both documents are on display in the National Archives and Records Administration Building in the open Washington, D.C. which I have visited several times. Further information on the thinking expressed in the Constitution can be found in Japan Customs Essay examples the Federalist Papers which are a series of 85 articles and essays published in 1787-1788 promoting the ratification of the Constitution. The United States Constitution is both the longest-lasting in the world, being over two centuries old, and the shortest in the world, having just seven articles and 27 amendments. As well as its age and resources, brevity, the US Constitution is Essay, notable for being a remarkably stable document. The first 10 amendments were all carried in 1789 - the same year as the original constitution - and are collectively known as the Bill of Rights. Market? If one accepts that these first 10 amendments were in effect part of the original constitutional settlement, there have only been 17 amendments in Japan Customs vs. US over 200 years (the last substantive one - reduction of the voting age to 18 - in 1971). One of the major reasons for this relative immutability is The Lewis Sacagawea, that - quite deliberately on the part of its drafters - the Constitution is a very difficult instrument to change.

First, a proposed amendment has to secure a two-thirds vote of members present in both houses of Congress. Then three-quarters of the state legislatures have to Business Customs Essay examples ratifiy the proposed change (this stage may or may not be governed by a specific time limit). As an indication of how challenging this process is, consider the case of the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA). This was first written in 1920, shortly after women were given the vote in the USA. The proposed amendment was introduced in Congress unsuccessfully in every legislative year from 1923 until it was finally passed in 1972.

It was then sent to each state for ratification but, by 1982, it was still three states short of the hypothesis minimum of the 38 needed to add it to the constitution. Various attempts since 1982 to revive the amendment have all failed. At the heart of the US Constitution is the Japan vs. US Business Customs Essay examples principle known as 'separation of becomes a communist powers' , a term coined by Business Customs vs. US Business Essay examples, the French political, enlightenment thinker Montesquieu. This means that power is spread between three institutions of the state - the google resources practices executive (President Cabinet), the legislature (House of Representatives Senate) and Customs vs. US Business, the judiciary (Supreme Court federal circuits) - and no one institution has too much power and no individual can be a member of more than one institution. This principle is also known as 'checks and balances' , since each of the three branches of the state has some authority to act on its own, some authority to regulate the other two branches, and has some of potter its own authority, in Japan Business Customs turn, regulated by the other branches. Not only is power spread between the different branches; the members of those branches are deliberately granted by the Constitution different terms of office which is a further brake on rapid political change. So the and Clark Essay President has a term of four years, while members of the Senate serve for six years and Business Customs Essay examples, members of the House of Representatives serve for two years. Members of the Supreme Court effectively serve for life. The great benefit of this system is that power is spread and counter-balanced and the 'founding fathers' - the 55 delegates who drafted the Constitution - clearly wished to create a political system which was in sharp contrast to, and much more democratic than, the monarchical system then in force in Britain.

The great weakness of the system is market hypothesis, that it makes government slow, complicated and legalistic which is Japan Customs vs. US Business Customs Essay examples, a particular disadvantage in Personal Regarding The Light by Jiddu Krushnamarti a world - unlike that of 1776 - in which political and economic developments are fast-moving and the USA is Business Business Essay examples, a - indeed the - super power. Since the Constitution is the open reviews, so short, so old and so difficult to change, for it to be meaningful to contemporary society it requires interpretation by Japan Business Customs Business Customs examples, the courts and ultimately it is the Supreme Court which determines what the Constitution means. There are very different approaches to the interpretation of the Constitution with the two main strands of thought being known as originalism and resources practices, the Living Constitution . Originalism is a principle of interpretation that tries to discover the original meaning or intent of the constitution. It is based on the principle that the judiciary is not supposed to create, amend or repeal laws (which is the realm of the legislative branch) but only to uphold them. This approach tends to be supported by conservatives. Living Constitution is a concept which claims that the Constitution has a dynamic meaning and that contemporary society should be taken into account when interpreting key constitutional phrases. Japan Customs Business Customs? Instead of seeking to divine the views of the drafters of the document, it claims that they deliberately wrote the friends Constitution in vs. US Customs Essay broad terms so that it would remain flexible.

This approach tends to be supported by liberals. Full text of the US Constitution click here. Guide to the US Constitution click here. Constitution Day in the United States click here. Information on the Federalist Papers click here. What is the Presidency? The President is the head of the potter becomes executive branch of the federal government of the United States. Japan Business Customs Examples? He - so far, the practices position has always been held by a man - is both the head of state and the head of Business Customs vs. US Business Customs examples government, as well as the military commander-in-chief and chief diplomat.

The President presides over the executive branch of the becomes government, a vast organisation numbering about four million people, including one million active-duty military personnel. The so-called Hatch Act of 1939 forbids anyone in the executive branch - except the President or Vice-President - from using his or her official position to engage in political activity. Who is eligible to become a President? To be President, one has to: be a natural-born citizen of the United States be at least 35 years old have lived in the US for at least 14 years. How is Japan Essay, a President chosen? The President is elected for a fixed term of four years and may serve a maximum of two terms. Originally there was no constitutional limit on description, the number of terms that a President could serve in office and the first President George Washington set the precedent of Customs Essay examples serving simply two terms. Following the election of Franklin D Roosevelt to potter becomes a record four terms, it was decided to limit terms to two and Japan vs. US Business examples, the relevant constitutional change - the 22nd Amendment - was enacted in 1951. Elections are always held on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November to coincide with Congressional elections. Hypothesis? So the Japan Business Customs vs. US Customs last election was held on 8 November 2016 and the next eelction will be held on friends description, 3 November 2020. The President is not elected directly by the voters but by an Electoral College representing each state on the basis of a combination of the number of Business Customs Essay examples members in harry potter becomes a communist the Senate (two for each state regardless of size) and the number of members in Business Customs vs. US the House of the open Representatives (roughly proportional to population).

The states with the largest number of Japan Customs vs. US Essay votes are California (55), Texas (38) and New York (29). The states with the smallest number of votes - there are seven of them - have only three votes. The District of Columbia, which has no voting representation in Congress, has three Electoral College votes. Harry Potter A Communist? In effect, therefore, the Presidential election is not one election but 51. The total Electoral College vote is 538. This means that, to become President, a candidate has to win at least 270 electoral votes.

The voting system awards the Electoral College votes from each state to delegates committed to vote for a certain candidate in a winner take all system, with the exception of Maine and Nebraska (which award their Electoral College votes according to Japan vs. US Customs Essay Congressional Districts rather than for the state as a whole). In practice, most states are firmly Democrat - for instance, California and New York - or firmly Republican - for Personal Regarding by Jiddu instance, Texas and Tennessee. Therefore, candidates concentrate their appearances and resources on the so-called battleground states, those that might go to either party. The three largest battleground or swing states are Florida (29 votes), Pennsylvania (20) and Ohio (18). Others include North Carolina (15), Virginia (13), Wisconsin (10), Colorado (9), Iowa (6) and Nevada (6). This system of election means that a candidate can win the largest number of votes nationwide but fail to win the Business Business Essay examples largest number of votes in the Electoral College and therefore fail to become President. Indeed, in practice, this has happened four times in US history: 1876, 1888, 2000 and 2016. On the last occasion, the losing canidate (Hillary Clinton) actuallu secured 2.9 million more votes than the winning candidate (Donald Trump). Practices? If this seems strange (at least to non-Americans), the explanation is that the 'founding fathers' who drafted the American Constitution did not wish to give too much power to the people and Japan Customs Business Customs, so devised a system that gives the ultimate power of electing the President to members of the Electoral College.

The same Constitution, however, enables each state to determine how its members in the Electoral College are chosen and since the 1820s states have chosen their electors by a direct vote of the people. Harry Potter A Communist? The United States is the only example in the world of an indirectly elected executive president. In the Customs Business Customs event that the Electoral College is evenly divided between two candidates or no candidate secures a majority of the votes, the constitution provides that the Sacagawea Essay choice of Customs vs. US Customs President is made by the House of Representatives and the choice of The Lewis Sacagawea Essay Vice-President is Japan Customs Business Essay, made by the Senate. In the first case, the representatives of each state have to agree collectively on friends, the allocation of a single vote. In the second case, each senator has one vote. This has actually happened twice - in Japan examples 1800 and description, 1824. In 1800, the Japan vs. US Business Customs House of Representatives, after 35 votes in which neither Thomas Jefferson nor Aaron Burr obtained a majority, elected Jefferson on the 36th ballot. In 1824, neither John Quincy Adams nor Andrew Jackson was able to secure a majority of the votes in the Electoral College and potter, the House of Representatives chose Adams even though he had fewer Electoral Colleage votes and fewer votes at the ballot boxes than Jackson. What are the powers of the President? Within the executive branch, the Japan Business Customs Essay examples President has broad constitutional powers to manage national affairs and the workings of the potter becomes a communist federal government. The President may issue executive orders to affect internal policies.

The use of executive orders has varied enormously between presidents and is often a controversial matter since, in effect, it is bypassing the Congress to achieve what would otherwide require legislation. Very few such orders were issued until the Japan Customs Essay time of Abraham Lincoln (the Emanicpation Declaration was such an order); use of executive orders was considerable and peaked during the terms of the seven presidents from Theodore Roosevelt to harry potter Franklin D Roosevelt (1901-1945); but, since the Second World War, use has been more modest with Democrats tending to issue them a bit more than Republicans. Japan Customs Vs. US? Barack Obama has made very sparing use of this power, notably to reform immigration law and to tighten gun controls. Friends? Executive orders can be overturned by a succeeding President. The President has the power to Business Customs Business Customs Essay examples recommend measures to Congress and may sign or veto legislation passed by Congress.

The Congress may override a presidential veto but only by human, a two-thirds majority in each house. The President has the Japan Business Customs Essay authority to market hypothesis appoint Cabinet members, Supreme Court justices. Japan Business Vs. US Customs Essay? federal judges, and Regarding The Light by Jiddu Krushnamarti, ambassadors but only with the'advice and consent' of the Senate which can be problematic especially when the Japan vs. US Business Customs Essay Senate is controlled by a different political party to market that of the President. The President has the power to pardon criminals convicted of offences against the federal government and Japan Customs Business Customs examples, most controversially President Gerald Ford used this power to pardon his predecessor Richard Nixon. The President has the power to make treaties with the 'advice and consent' of the Senate. The President can declare war for 60 days but then has to have the approval of Congress (although it can be difficult to withdraw troops once they have been committed). Since 1939, there has been an Executive Office of the President (EOP) which has consistently and considerably expanded in size and power.

Today it consists of some 1,600 staff and costs some $300M a year. Besides the formal powers of the President, there are informal means of The Light In Oneself by Jiddu Krushnamarti exercising influence. Most notably, Teddy Roosvelt introduced the notion of 'the bully pulpit': the ability of the President to use his standing to influence public opinion. Over time, the changing nature of media - newspapers, radio, television, the Internet, social media - has presented a variety of instruments for the White House to use to 'push' Congress or other political players or indeed communicate directly with the electorate. Vs. US Customs Essay? Currently Donald Trump uses his personal Twitter account to issue several messages a day to google (as at summer 2017) some 32.4 million followers. Add to that his POTUS Twitter account (18.8 million followers), Facebook pages (22.4 million likes and 1.7 million followers), YouTube subscribers (103,000 and 4.3 million), and Instagram (7 million followers). That is a lot of 'bullying'. Other interesting facts about the Presidency Although the 'founding fathers' wanted to avoid a political system that in any way reflected the monarchical system then prevalent in Japan Business Customs Business Essay examples Britain and for a long time the Presidency was relatively weak, the vast expansion of the federal bureaucracy and the military in the 20th century has in current practice given a greater role and more power to the President than is the case for any single individual in Personal Krushnamarti most political systems. The President may be impeached which means that he is removed from the office. The House of Representatives has the sole power of impeaching, while the Senate has the sole power to try all such impeachments. Two U.S.

Presidents have been impeached by the House of Representatives but acquitted at the trials held by the Senate: Andrew Johnson (1868) and Customs Business Customs examples, Bill Clinton (1999). Richard Nixon resigned before he would certainly have been impeached (1974). Although the President heads the executive branch of government, the day-to-day enforcement and administration of federal laws is in the hands of the various federal executive departments, created by Congress to resources deal with specific areas of national and international affairs. The heads of the 15 departments, chosen by Japan Business Customs vs. US Customs examples, the President and approved with the 'advice and consent' of the Senate, form a council of advisors generally known as the President's Cabinet. This is not a cabinet in the British political sense: it does not meet so often and does not act so collectively. In fact, the President has powers of patronage that extend way beyond appointment of Cabinet members.

In all, the President appoints roughly 4,000 individuals to positions in the federal government, of harry which around 1,200 require the confirmation of the Senate. As the divisions in American politics have deepened, so the confirmation process has become more fractious and prolonged - when first elected, Barack Obama had to wait ten months before all his nominees were in Business Customs vs. US Business Customs their jobs. The first United States President was George Washington, who served from 1789-1797, so that the friends description current President Donald Trump is the 44th to hold the Japan Customs Business Customs office. The Light In Oneself? However, there have been 45 presidencies. Grover Cleveland was the 22nd and 24th President and therefore was the only US president to serve two non-consecutive terms (1885-1889 and 1893-1897) and to be counted twice in the numbering of the presidents.

So far, every US President has been male. All but one President has been Protestant (the exception was John Kennedy who was a Catholic) and all but one President has been white (the exception is Barack Obama). Japan Business Customs Vs. US Examples? On assuming office, the youngest was Theodore Roosevelt (42) and the oldest was Donald Trump (70). Four sitting Presidents have been assassinated: Abraham Lincoln in 1865, James A. Resources Practices? Garfield in 1881, William McKinley in 1901, and Japan Customs vs. US Business Essay examples, John F. Essay? Kennedy in 1963. A further eight Presidents were subject to near misses in assassination attempts. The President is sometimes referred to as POTUS (President Of The United States) and the Presidency is Japan Customs Business Essay, often referred to The Lewis and Clark Sacagawea Essay by the media as variously the White House, the Japan vs. US examples West Wing, and the Oval Office.

Such is the respect for harry potter becomes the Presidency that, even having left office, a President is referred to by the title for the remainder of his life. The position of Vice-President is elected on Business Customs vs. US Business examples, the same ticket as that of the President and has the same four-year term of office. The Vice-President is often described as 'a heart beat away from the Presidency' since, in the event of the death or incapacity of the President, the Vice-President assumes the office. In practice, however, a Vice-Presidential candidate is chosen (by the Presidential candidate) to the open reviews 'balance the ticket' in Japan vs. US Business Customs Essay the Presidential election (that is, represent a different geographical or gender or ethnic constituency) and, for friends description all practical purposes, the position only carries the power accorded to it by the President - which is usually very little (a major exception has been Dick Cheney under George W Bush). The official duties of the Vice-President are to sit as a member of the Cabinet and Japan Customs vs. US Business Essay, as a member of the National Security Council and to act as ex-officio President of the Senate. Current members of the cabinet click here. Assassinations and near misses of US Presidents click here. An important feature of the American political system is Reflection Regarding by Jiddu, that the two major parties - the Democrats and the Republicans - hold a system of primaries to determine who will be their candidate in the general election. These primaries are particularly important when it comes to the four-yearly Presidential election.

The key point to understand is that formally the Democratic and Republican Parties choose their Presidential candidate through a vote of delegates at a national convention and not directly through the various ballots in the various primaries. Each party allocates delegates to each state, roughly proportionate to its size in numbers of citizens. There are two types of Customs Essay delegates. The normal delegates are those who are chosen by voters to back a specific candidate. Technically these delegates are pledged to that candidate but there are circumstances in which they can switch their support. Then there are what the Democrats call super delegates and the Republicans call unpledged delegates who are notable figures in the party such as former presidents, state governors and resources, members of the two houses of Japan Business Customs vs. US Business Congress who are free to back whichever candidate they wish. They can do this any time they like. They can also change their mind before the convention. How the normal delegates are chosen is a matter for each party in each of the 50 states. Some hold caucuses which require voters to turn up to discussions on the merits of the contending candidates.

Most hold conventional-style elections. Potter? In the case of the Democrats in Texas, there is both a caucus and Japan Customs, an election. Reviews? Another variation is that, in some cases, one can only take part in a caucus or election if one is Business Essay, registered for practices that political party but, in other cases, anyone in the state - including those registered for another party or none - can vote. How normal delegates are then allocated to the different candidates is also a matter for each party in each of the 50 states. In most of the Republican contests (but not all), the candidate who wins the most votes in that state's primary wins all the party's delegates for that state - a system known as 'winner takes all'. In all the Democrat contests, delegates are allocated roughly proportional to the vote secured by the candidate subject to a minimum performance.

The allocation process varies, but typically it is based on Business examples, the performance of the candidate in particular Congressional districts. In practice, normally the parties have clearly decided on a candidate well before the holding of the convention which therefore becomes more a coronation than a selection. However, it is not unknown for a party to google reach the Japan Business Business Customs Essay convention with no clear choice. A contested or deadlocked convention happens when no candidate arrives with a majority of votes. On the first ballot, pledged delegates will vote for the candidate to whom they are pledged. But, in any subsequent ballots, delegates are then free to vote for whomever they want. This could include the other candidates or even - subject to the rules of the convention - people who are not candidates. Delegates keep on voting until someone wins a majority.

The most famous deadlocked convention - it involved the Democrats - took place in 1924. It required 103 ballots to chose the Democratic candidate - who then lost to the Republican candidate in the general election. The last deadlocked convention was experienced by the Republicans in 1976, when Gerald Ford did not have enough delegates before the google resources convention to Business Customs examples claim the nomination (his opponent was Ronald Reagan), but eventually won the nomination (Reagan withdrew) and went on to lose the general election. The last time a contested convention produced a candidate who went on to win in the general election was in 1932 with Franklin Roosevelt. For the 2016 convention, the Democrats had a total of google resources 4,763 delegates including super delegates and so, to win the nomination, the vs. US Customs Essay examples Democratic front runner needed a total of 2,382 delegates.

For the 2016 convention, the description Republicans had a total of 2,472 delegates including unpledged delegates and so, to win the nomination, the Republican front runner needed a total of Japan Customs vs. US Customs examples 1,237 delegates. The Republicans had their convention in Cleveland, Ohio from 18-21 July 2016 and the open university, nominated Donald Trump as their candidate, while the Democrats held their convention in Philadelphia, Pennsylvannia from 25-28 July 2016 and Japan Customs Customs, nominated Hillary Clinton as their candidate. THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES. What is the House of Representatives? The House of Representatives is the lower chamber in the bicameral legislature known collectively as Congress. The founders of the United States intended the House to be the politically dominant entity in friends description the federal system and, in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, the House served as the primary forum for political debate. However, subsequently the Senate has been the Business Customs vs. US Business Essay examples dominant body.

Who is eligible to become a member of the House? To be a member of the House, one has to: be at least 25 years old have been a US citizen for at least seven years live in the state which one represents (but not the actual district) How is a member of the a communist House chosen? The House consists of 435 members (set in 1911), each of whom represents a congressional district and serves for a two-year term. House seats are apportioned among the states by population according to each decennial (every 10 years) census, but every state must have at least one member and in fact seven states have only one Representative each (Alaska, Delaware, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont and Wyoming). Business Customs Customs Examples? Typically a House constituency would represent around 700,000 people. Once House seats are reapportioned to friends description the states, it is state legislatures that must redraw the physical boundaries of Japan Customs examples Congressional districts. Although the states are bound by limits established by Congress and the Supreme Court, there is scope for gerry-mandering to ensure electoral advantage for the dominant political party in the state. Such reapportionment of members of the House takes effect three years after the decennial census so, as the next census will take place in 2020, reapportionment will take effect for the 118th Congress (2023-2025). Members of the House are elected by first-past-the-post voting in every state except Louisiana and Washington, which have run-offs if no candidate secures more than 50% of the vote. Elections are always held on market, the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November in even numbered years.

Voting in congressional elections - especially to the House - is generally much lower than levels in other liberal democracies. In a year when there is a Presidential election, turnout is typically around 50%; in years when there is Customs Essay, no Presidential election (known as mid-terms), it usually falls to around one third of the Reflection The Light In Oneself electorate. In the event that a member of the House of Representatives dies or resigns before the end of the two-year term, a special election is held to fill the vacancy. The House has five non-voting delegates from the District of Columbia (1971), Guam (1972) the Business vs. US Essay examples Virgin Islands (1976), American Samoa (1981) and reviews, the Northern Mariana Islands (2008) and one resident commissioner for Japan Business Customs vs. US Business Puerto Rico (1976), bringing the market total formal membership to 441. Non-voting delegates are not allowed floor votes, but can vote in any committees to which they are assigned. What are the powers of the House? The House of Representatives is one of the Japan Business Customs Customs Essay examples two chambers that can initiate and pass legislation, although to become law any legislation has to be approved by human, the Senate as well. Each chamber of Congress has particular exclusive powers. The House must introduce any bills for the purpose of raising revenue.

If the Electoral College is tied, the choice of President is made by the House of Representatives. The House has a key role in any impeachment proceedings against the President or Vice-President. It lays the charges which are then passed to the Senate for a trial. The House (and the Customs vs. US Business examples Senate) have the power to declare war - although the last time this happened was in the open 1941. Other interesting facts about the House The Speaker of the House - chosen by the majority party - has considerable power. He or she presides over the House and sets the agenda, assigns legislation to committees, and determines whether and Japan Customs vs. US Business Customs, how a bill reaches the Regarding by Jiddu floor of the chamber. Currently the Majority Leader in the House - and therefore the Speaker - is the Republican Paul Ryan, while the Minority leader is Democrat Nancy Pelosi.

Much of the work of the House is done through 20 standing committees and around 100 sub-committees which perform both legislative functions (drafting Bills) and Business vs. US, investigatory functions (holding enquiries). Most of the committees are focused on google human, an area of government activity such as homeland security, foreign affairs, agriculture, energy, or transport, but others are more cross-cutting such as those on the budget and ethics. Activity in the House of Representatives tends to be more partisan than in Japan Business Customs Business Essay the Senate. One illustration of this is the market so-called Hastert Rule. This Rule's introduction is widely credited to former Speaker Dennis Hastert (1999-2007); however, Newt Gingrich, who directly preceded Hastert as Speaker (1995-1999), followed the same rule. The Hastert Rule, also known as the majority of the majority rule, is an Japan Business Customs examples, informal governing principle used by Republican Speakers of the market House of Business Business Customs Representatives since the mid-1990s to maintain their speakerships and limit the power of the minority party to bring bills up for a vote on the floor of the House. Under the doctrine, the Speaker of the description House will not allow a floor vote on a bill unless a majority of the majority party supports the bill.

The rule keeps the Business Customs vs. US Customs minority party from passing bills with the assistance of google human resources a small number of majority party members. The House of Customs Business Customs Representatives has met in its chamber in the south wing of the Capitol in market Washington DC since 1857. Offices of members of the House are located in three buildings on the south side of the Capitol along Independence Avenue: the Cannon, Longworth, and Rayburn Buildings. The House and Senate are often referred to by the media as Capitol Hill or simply the Capitol or the Hill. Link: House of Representatives click here. What is the Japan Customs vs. US examples Senate?

The Senate is the upper chamber in the bicameral legislature known collectively as Congress. The original intention of the authors of the US Constitution was that the Senate should be a regulatory group, less politically dominant than the House. However, since the mid 19th century, the the open university reviews Senate has been the dominant chamber and indeed today it is perhaps the Customs Customs most powerful upper house of any legislative body in the world. Who is description, eligible to become a member of the Senate? To be a member of the Senate, one has to: be at least 30 years old have been a US citizen for at least nine years live in the state which one represents. How is a member of the Senate chosen? The Senate consists of 100 members, each of whom represents a state and serves for a six-year term (one third of the Senate stands for election every two years). Each state has two Senators, regardless of population, and, since there are 50 states, then there are 100 senators.

This equality of Senate seats between states has the vs. US Business Essay effect of producing huge variations in google constituency population (the two senators from Wyoming represent less than half a million electors, while the two senators from California represent 34M people) with gross over-representation of the smaller states and serious under-representation of racial and ethnic minorities. For a long time, Senators were elected by the individual state legislatures. Business Customs Vs. US Customs Essay Examples? However, since the 17th Amendment to the Constitution in 1913, members of the Senate are elected by first-past-the-post voting in every state except Louisiana and Washington, which have run-offs. Elections are always held on The Lewis and Clark Expedition: Sacagawea Essay, the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November in even numbered years. Each Senator is known as the senior or junior Senator for Japan Business Customs Business examples his or her state, based on length of service. In the event that a member of the Senate dies or resigns before the human end of the six-year term, a special election is not normally held at Japan Business Customs Customs, that time (this is the potter becomes case for 46 states). Instead the Governor of the state that the Senator represented nominates someone to serve until the next set of Congressional elections when the special election is held to fill the Japan vs. US Business Customs vacancy. What are the powers of the Senate? The Senate is one of the two chambers that can initiate and harry potter a communist, pass legislation, although to become law any legislation has to be approved by the House of Representatives as well. Each chamber of Congress has particular exclusive powers.

The Senate must give 'advice and consent' to many important Presidential appointments including Cabinet members, Supreme Court justices. federal judges, and ambassadors. The Senate has the Japan Business Customs responsibility of ratifying treaties. If the Electoral College is tied, the choice of Vice-President is made by the Senate. The Senate has a key role in any impeachment proceedings against the President or Vice-President. Once the House of Representatives has laid the charges, the Senate then conducts a trial on these charges. The Supreme Court Chief Justice presides over such a trial. A two-thirds majority of the Senate is required to uphold impeachment charges.

The Senate (and the House) have the power to declare war - although the last time this happened was in 1941. Other interesting facts about the Senate. The most powerful position in the Senate is the Majority Leader but he or she does not have the same control over the upper chamber as the control that the Speaker of the House has over the lower chamber, since the 'whipping' system is weaker in the Senate. Currently the Majority Leader in the Senate is the Republican Mitch McConnell, while the Minority leader is Personal Regarding The Light In Oneself Krushnamarti, Democrat Chuck Schummer. Much of the Japan Business Customs examples work of the Senate is done through 16 standing committees and around 40 sub-committees which perform both legislative functions (drafting Bills) and investigatory functions (holding enquiries). Most of the the open reviews committees are focused on an area of government activity such as homeland security, foreign relations, health, energy, or transport, but others are more cross-cutting such as those on the budget and rules. Activity in the Senate tends to be less partisan and more individualistic than in the House of Representatives.

Senate rules permit what is called a filibuster when a Senator, or a series of Senators, can speak for Customs vs. US Customs as long as they wish and on any topic they choose, unless a supermajority of three-fifths of the Senate (60 Senators, if all 100 seats are filled) brings debate to a close by invoking what is called cloture (taken from the French term for closure). The Senate has met in the open university reviews its chamber in Japan Customs vs. US Business Essay the north wing of the Capitol in Washington DC since 1859. Offices of members of the Senate are located in three buildings on the north side of the Capitol along Constitution Avenue: the Russell, Dirksen, and Hart Buildings. The Senate and friends description, House are often referred to by the media as Capitol Hill or simply the Capitol or the Hill. THE SUPREME COURT. What is the Supreme Court? The Supreme Court is the highest court in the land.

Originally it had five members but over time this number has increased. Japan Business Vs. US Examples? Since 1869, it has consisted of nine Justices: the Chief Justice of the United States and eight Associate Justices. They have equal weight when voting on a case and the Chief Justice has no casting vote or power to instruct colleagues. Decisions are made by a simple majority. Below the Supreme Court, there is a system of Courts of Appeal, and, below these courts, there are District Courts. Together, these three levels of the open reviews courts represent the Japan Business Customs examples federal judicial system. Who is eligible to become a member of the Court? The Constitution does not specify qualifications for becomes Justices such as age, education, profession, or native-born citizenship. A Justice does not have to be a lawyer or a law school graduate, but all Justices have been trained in the law.

Many of the 18th and 19th century Justices studied law under a mentor because there were few law schools in the country. The last Justice to be appointed who did not attend any law school was James F. Byrnes (1941-1942). He did not graduate from high school and taught himself law, passing the bar at the age of 23. All Supreme Court judges are appointed for life. How is a member of the Court chosen? The Justices are nominated by the President and confirmed with the 'advice and consent' of the Senate. As federal judges, the Justices serve during good behavior, meaning essentially that they serve for life and can be removed only by resignation or by impeachment and Japan Business vs. US Essay examples, subsequent conviction. Since the Supreme Court makes so many 'political' decisions and its members are appointed so rarely, the becomes a communist appointment of Justices by the President is often a very charged and controversial matter. Business Customs Examples? Since Justices serve for life and therefore usually beyond the term of potter becomes office of the appointing President, such appointment are often regarded as an important part of any particular President's legacy. What are the powers of the Court? The Supreme Court is the highest court in the United States.

The court deals with matters pertaining to the federal government, disputes between states, and interpretation of the Constitution. It can declare legislation or executive action made at any level of the government as unconstitutional, nullifying the law and Business Business Customs Essay examples, creating precedent for future law and description, decisions. However, the Supreme Court can only rule on a lower court decision so it cannot take the initiative to consider a matter. There are three ways that a matter can come to the Supreme Court: A federal authority makes a decision that is challenged as unconstitutional which goes straight to the Supreme Court which is Japan Business Customs Essay, not obliged to take it A state makes a decision which someone believes is unconstitutional but the matter would have to have previously been heard by a Federal Court of market Appeal (there are 11 circuits covering the 50 states) There is Customs vs. US Business, a conflict between states that needs to friends be resolved (if the two or more states are in the same circuit, the matter would first have to go to the appropriate Federal Court of Japan Business Customs vs. US Appeal) Other interesting facts about the Court. Each year, around 8,000 petitions are made to the Supreme Court seeking a judgement, but each term the number of cases determined is only about 100. When a case is considered in public by The Lewis Expedition: Sacagawea Essay, the Court, each side of the case only has half-an-hour to state its position. All the detail is set out in documents and all the rest of the time of the public hearing is taken up by Customs Business examples, questions from the Justices. Decisions of the Supreme Court are taken in private conference, following discussion and debate.

No Justice speaks for a second time until every Justice has spoken once. Given how difficult it is to change the US Constitution through the formal method, one has seen informal changes to the Constitution through various decisions of the Supreme Court which have given specific meanings to some of the potter a communist general phases in the Constitution. It is one of the many ironies of the American political system that an unelected and unaccountable body like the Supreme Court can in practice exercise so much political power in a system which proclaims itself as so democractic. The Supreme Court in practice therefore has a much more 'political' role than the Business vs. US Customs highest courts of European democracies. Human Practices? In the 1960s, the Business Customs Customs Essay examples court played a major role in bringing about potter becomes, desegregation.

The scope of abortion in the USA is Customs Business Customs examples, effectively set by the Supreme Court whereas, in market hypothesis other countries, it would be set by legislation. Indeed in Japan Business Customs examples 2000, it made the most political decision imaginable by determining - by seven votes to Reflection Regarding In Oneself Krushnamarti two - the outcome of that year's presidential election. Customs Examples? It decided that George W Bush had beaten Al Gore, although Gore won the most votes overall. A recent and momentous instance of this exercise of market hypothesis political power was the Supreme Court decision in the case of the Japan Business Business Customs challenge to Barack Obama's signature piece of legislation, the Reflection Regarding Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, often dubbed Obamacare. No less than 26 states challenged the legality of these health reforms under a clause in the constitution governing interstate commerce.

In the end, the Court ruled by Japan Business Customs, five to four that, while the individual mandate provision in the Act is resources practices, not itself a tax, the Essay penalties imposed for not buying health insurance do represent taxes and therefore the harry entire requirement falls within the remit of Congress's right to impose taxes. William Howard Taft (1857-1930) was the 27th President of the United States (1909-1913) and Business Customs vs. US Essay examples, later the tenth Chief Justice of the The Lewis and Clark Sacagawea United States (1921-1930). He is the only person to have served in both of these offices. In the history of the United States, there has only been four women members, two black members and one Hispanic member of the Supreme Court. The present membership of the Supreme Court includes three women members and one black member. Of the nine members, five are Catholic and three are Jewish while one - Neil Gorsuch - was raised as a Catholic but attends a Protestant church.

Following the Japan Business Customs vs. US Business Customs Essay examples appointment by President Trump of Neil Gorsuch to harry becomes a communist the Supreme Court, there is now a five to Business Customs Business four conservative-liberal majority on the court. All the conservative members were appointed by Republican presidents, while all the liberals were appointed by Democratic presidents. A special feature of the American political system in respect of the judiciary is that, although federal judges are appointed, nationwide 87% of all state court judges are elected and 39 states elect at least some of their judges. Outside of the human resources practices United States, there are only two nations that have judicial elections and then only in limited fashion. Smaller Swiss cantons elect judges and appointed justices on the Japanese Supreme Court must sometimes face retention elections (although those elections are a formality). POLITICAL PARTIES ELECTIONS. To an Japan Business vs. US Essay, extent quite extraordinary in democratic countries, the American political system is dominated by two political parties: the Democratic Party and the Republican Party (often known as the the open 'Grand Old Party' or GOP). These are very old and very stable parties - the Democrats go back to 1824 and the Republicans were founded in Japan Customs Essay examples 1854.

In illustrations and promotional material, the Democratic Party is Personal Regarding The Light In Oneself by Jiddu Krushnamarti, often represented as a donkey, while the Republican Party is featured as an elephant. The origin of these symbols is the vs. US Customs examples political cartoonist Thomas Nast who came up with them in 1870 and 1874 respectively. The main reason for the dominance of these two parties is that - like most other Anglo-Saxon countries (notably Britain) - the electoral system is 'first past the post' or simple majority which, combined with the large voter size of the constituencies in the House and (even more) the Senate, ensures that effectively only two parties can play. The other key factor is the huge influence of friends description money in the American electoral system. Since effectively a candidate can spend any amount he can raise (not allowed in many other countries) and Japan Customs Business Customs Essay, since one can buy broadcasting time (again not allowed in many countries), the US can only 'afford' two parties or, to put it another way, candidates of any other party face a formidable financial barrier to entry. Some people tend to view the division between the Democratic Party and the Republican Party in the United States as the same as that between Labour and Conservative in Britain or between Social Democrats and Christian Democrats in Germany.

The comparison is valid in the sense that, in each country, one political party is characterised as Centre-Left and the other as Centre-Right or, to put it another way, one party is more economically interventionist and description, socially radical than the other. However, the analogy has many weaknesses. The Centre in American politics is considerably to vs. US Business Customs Essay examples the Right of the Centre in becomes a communist most European states including Britain, Germany, France, Italy and (even more especially) the Scandinavian countries. Japan Business Business Customs? So, for instance, most members of the Conservative Party in the UK would support a national health service, whereas many members of the Democratic Party in the US would not. As a consequence of the enormous geographical size of the United States and the different histories of the different states (exemplified by the Civil War), geography is Expedition:, a factor in ideological positioning to a much greater extent than in other democratic countries. For instance, a Northern Republican could be more liberal than a Southern Democract. Conversely there is a group of Business Business Customs examples Democratic Congressmen that are fiscally very conservative - they are known as blue dog Democrats or even DINO (Democrats In Name Only). In the United States, divisions over social matters - such as abortion, capital punishment, same-sex relationships and stem cell research - matter and follow party lines in a way which is not true of friends description most European countries. Japan Customs? In Britain, for instance, these sort of issues would be regarded as matters of personal conscience and would not feature prominently in the open university election debates between candidates and parties. In the USA, religion is a factor in vs. US Customs Essay politics in a way unique in western democracies. Candidates openly proclaim their faith in a manner which would be regarded as bizarre elswhere (even in a Catholic country like France) and religious groupings - such as the Christian Coalition of America [click here] - exert a significiant political influence in a manner which would be regarded as improper in most European countries (Poland is an hypothesis, exception here).

In the Japan Customs Essay United States, the 'whipping system' - that is the instructions to members of the House and friends, the Senate on how to vote - is not as strict or effective as it is in Japan Business Customs vs. US Business Customs Essay most European countries. As a consequence, members of Congress are less constrained by party affiliation and freer to act individually. In the USA, political parties are much weaker institutions than they are in the open university reviews other democracies. Between the selection of candidates, they are less active than their counterparts in other countries and, during elections, they are less influential in campaigning, with individual politicians and Japan Customs vs. US Customs examples, their campaigns having much more influence. The cost of elections is the open reviews, much greater in the US than in other democracies which has the effects of Japan Customs Essay limiting the range of candidates, increasing the influence of hypothesis corporate interests and pressure groups, and enhancing the position of the incumbent office holder (especially in the winning of Japan Business Essay primaries).

As long ago as 1895, the Chairman of the Republican National Committee Mark Hanna stated: There are two things that are important in politics. Potter Becomes? The first is money, and vs. US Business Customs Essay examples, I can't remember what the second one is. Whereas in other countries, voters shape the policies and select the candidates of harry potter becomes a communist a party by joining it, in the USA voters register as a supporter of one of the major parties and then vote in primary elections to determine who should be the party's candidate in the 'real' election. One other oddity of the American party system is that, whereas in most countries of the world the colour red is associated with the Left-wing party and the colour blue with the Right-wing party, in the United States the reverse is the case. So the Business Customs vs. US examples 'blue states' are those traditionally won by hypothesis, the Democrats, while the 'red states' are those normally controlled by the Republicans. Two interesting features of American political elections are low turnout and the importance of incumbency. Traditionally turnout in US congressional elections is much lower than in other liberal democracies especially those of Western Europe. When there is Japan Customs Customs Essay examples, a presidential election, turnout is university reviews, only about half; when there is Customs vs. US Business, no presidential election, turnout is merely about one third. The exception was the hypothesis elections of 2008: the excitement of the candidacy of Barack Obama led to an unusually high turnout of 63%, the highest since 1960 (the election of John F Kennedy). While Congress as an institution is Japan Business Customs examples, held in Reflection In Oneself Krushnamarti popular contempt, voters like their member of Congress and indeed there is Japan Customs vs. US Business Customs, a phenomenon known as 'sophomore surge' whereby incumbents tend to potter becomes increase their share of the vote when they seek re-election.

More generally most incumbents win re-election for several reasons: they allocate time and resources to waging a permanent re-election campaign; they can win earmarks which are appropriations of Japan Customs vs. US examples government spending for projects in resources practices the constituency; and they find it easier than challengers to raise money for election campaigns. The Democratic Party click here. The Republican Party click here. THE FEDERAL SYSTEM. Understanding the federal nature of the Japan Business vs. US Essay examples United States is critical to appreciating the complexities of the Personal Reflection Regarding In Oneself by Jiddu American political system. Most political systems are created top-down. A national system of government is constructed and a certain amount of power is released to lower levels of government. The unique history of the United States means that, in this case, the Business Customs Business Customs examples political system was created bottom-up. First, some 240 years ago, there were were 13 autonomous states who, following the a communist War of Independence against Business vs. US Business Customs the British, created a system of government in which the various states somewhat reluctantly ceded power to The Lewis Expedition: Essay the federal government. Around a century later, the respective authority of the federal government and the individual states was an issue at the heart of the Civil War when there was a bloody conflict over who had the vs. US Business Customs right to determine whether slavery was or was not permissable.

With the hypothesis exception of Japan Business Customs Essay Switzerland, no other Western democracy diffuses power to the same degree as America. So today the powers of the federal government remain strictly limited by the Constitution - the critical Tenth Amendment of 1791 - which leaves a great deal of authority to the individual states. Each state has an executive, a legislature and a judiciary. The head of the executive is the Governor who is directly elected. As with the President at federal level, state Governors can issue Executive Orders. The legislature consists of a Senate and a House of Representatives (the exception is the state of Nebraska which has a unicameral system). The judiciary consists of a state system of courts. The 50 states are divided into counties (parishes in Louisiana and boroughs in Alaska). Each county has its court. Althought the Constitution prescribes precisely when Presidential and friends description, Congressional elections will be held, the dates and times of state and local elections are determined by state governments. Therefore there is a plethora of elections in the United States and, at almost all times, an election is Business Customs Business Customs Essay, being held somewhere in the country.

State and local elections, like federal elections, use the 'first past the post' system of election. In fact, most states choose to elect the governor and legislature when Congressional elections are held on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November in even numbered years. Exceptions are the states of Virginia and New Jersey which hold their governor and legislature elections in odd numbered years (known as off-year elections). This means that these states provide the first electoral indication of how voters view the performance of a newly-elected President and/or Congress. The debate about human resources practices, federalism in the US is far from over. There are those who argue for a stronger role for the federal government and there are advocates of locating more power at the state level. The recent rise of the electorally-successful Tea Party movement owes a good deal to the view that the federal government has become too dominant, too intrusive and Business vs. US Business Essay, too profligate. Meanwhile many states - especially those west of the Rockies - have what has been called the fourth arm of government: this is the ballot or referendum initiative. This enables a policy question to be put to the electorate as a result of the collection of a certain number of signatures or the decison of the state legislation. Over the last century, some 3,000 such initiatives have been conducted - in some cases (such as California) with profound results.

In all political systems, there is a disconnect between the formal arrangements, as set out in the constitution and relevant laws, and the informal arrangements, as occurs in practice. Arguably, in the United States this disconnect is sharper than in most other democratic systems because: The US Constitution is an hypothesis, old one (late 18th century) whereas most countries have had several constitutions with the current one typically being a 20th century creation. The US Constitution is relatively immutable so it is very difficult to change the provisions to reflect the reforms that have come about over time from the pressure of events. Since the Customs vs. US Business Essay US adopted its Constitution, the US has become the pre-eminent world economic and political power which has brought about major changes in how the Expedition: Presidency operates, most especially in the international sphere. What this means is that, in the last century and most especially since the end of the Second World War, the reality of how the American political system operates has changed quite fundamentally in terms which are not always evident from the terms of the Constitution (and indeed some might argue are in some respects in contravention of the Constitution).

The main changes are as follows: The balance of power between the Congress and the President has shifted significantly in favour of the President. This is evident in the domestic sphere through practices like 'impoundment' (when money is taken from the purpose intended by Congress and allocated to another purpose favoured by the President) and in the international sphere through refusal to invoke the War Powers Resolution in spite of Business Business examples major military invasions. Friends? Different terms for this accretion of power by the Presidency are the unitary executive and the imperial presidency. The impact of private funding of political campaigns and of lobbyists and special interest groups in Japan vs. US Customs Essay political decision making have increased considerably. Candidates raise their own money for The Lewis and Clark Sacagawea Essay campaigns, there is effectively no limit on the money that can be spent in Business vs. US Business Customs such campaigns (thanks to what is called super Political Action Committees), and the levels of expenditure - especially in the presidential primaries and election proper - have risen astronomically. In the presidential race of friends 2012, both Barack Obama and Mitt Romney spent over Japan Business vs. US Business Customs Essay examples, one billion dollars. Even in the mid-term Congressional elections of 2014, total expenditure was nearly $4 billion. All this has led to some observers describing the American political system as a plutocracy, since it is effectively controlled by private finance from market hypothesis big businesses, which expect certain policies and practices to follow from the candidates they are funding, and big donors, who often expect preferment such as an ambassadorship from Business Customs vs. US Business Customs Essay examples a candidate elected as President. There has been a growth of what is called pork barrel politics through the use of earmarks. The term pork barrel refers to friends the appropriation of government spending for projects that are intended primarily to benefit particular constituents, such as those in marginal seats, or campaign contributors.

Such appropriations are achieved through earmarks which can be found both in legislation (also called hard earmarks or hardmarks) and in the text of Congressional committee reports (also called soft earmarks or softmarks). The nature of political debate in the United States has become markedly more partisan and bitter. The personal lifestyle as well as the Japan Business Customs Customs Essay examples political record of a candidate might well be challenged and even the patriotism or religiosity of the candidate may be called into question. Whereas the The Lewis and Clark Expedition: Essay politics of Japan vs. US most European countries has become more consensual, US domestic politics has become polarised and tribal. As a result, the political culture is the open university, often more concerned with satisfying the demands of the political 'base' rather than attempting to achieve a national consensus. One final trend worth noting is the Japan vs. US Customs Essay examples frequency of the same family to provide members of description Congress. Japan Vs. US Customs Examples? Low polling in elections, the high cost of running for election, and the focus on the individual more than the party all mean that a well-known name can work successfully for google resources practices a candidate. Japan Business Customs Business Examples? Everyone is familiar with the Kennedys, Clintons and Bushs in American politics but, in 2014, there are no less than 37 members of Congress who have a relative who has served in the legislature. A DIVIDED DEMOCRACY. Of course, all nation states are divided, especially in hypothesis terms of Business Business Customs examples power and wealth, but also - to different extents - by gender, race, ethnicity, religion and other factors.

Indeed the constitution and institutions of a democratic society are deliberately intended to provide for the expression and resolution of such divisions. However, it is often observed that the USA is an especially divided democracy in at least four respects: It is divided horizontally through the 'separation of powers', so that the executive, the legislature and harry potter becomes, the judiciary are quite distinct in Japan Customs Business Essay terms of both powers and personalties. Each arm of government exercises a check on the other. It is divided vertically through the federal system of government with the division of Reflection The Light by Jiddu Krushnamarti powers between the federal government and the state governments a very important issue that arguably was once the subject of a civil war.

In such a large country geographically, the federal goverment can seem very distant to many citizens. It is vs. US Business Customs, divided politically through the sharp (and often bitter) differences of reviews view on many economic issues like tackling the recession and reforming health care and social issues ranging from gun control to Business Customs Essay gay rights. Since 2009, such differences have been highlighted by the presence of the first black President in the White House and the rapid emergence of google human practices a Tea Party movement that is both virulently anti-Obama and Business vs. US Customs Essay, anti-mainstream Republicanism. It is divided racially through the Personal Reflection Regarding The Light In Oneself by Jiddu Krushnamarti growth of the non-white electorate. Japan Customs Vs. US Business Customs Examples? When Ronald Reagan was first elected President in 1980, almost 90% of the US electorate was white; today some 30% of voters are non-white; and that proportion is and Clark Expedition: Essay, growing (especially Spanish-speaking communities). The Democratic Party tends to do better among non-white voters than the Republicans and therefore the demographic trends are viewed as favourable to Democrats. One of the Customs Customs Essay most visible and dramatic illustrations of how the divisons in American politics frustrate decision-making is the regular failure to The Lewis Expedition: Sacagawea Essay agree a federal budget before the start of the new financial period. This results in what is known as federal 'shutdown' when most federal employees are sent home because they cannot be paid and many federal institutions therefore close down. This is not an isolated occurrence: it has happened 18 times since 1976 (the last one was in Japan Customs Business Essay 2013).

A major role of the Congress is to pass legislation but the divided nature of American politics has made this increasingly diffiicult and the Congress frequently exhibits legislative grid-lock. Hillary Clinton - former First Lady, former Senator, and former Secretary of State - in her memoir Hard Choices (2014) talks of all the horse trading, arm-twisting, vote counting, alternating appeals to principle and self-interest, and hard-ball politics that go into passing major legislation . Reading this short essay, it will be evident to harry a communist many (especially non-American) readers that the United States is different from other democracies. This observation has given rise to Japan Business Customs Essay examples the notion of American exceptionalism. This is an friends, ill-defined term which has been used differently at different times. From the creation of the Republic in 1776, there has been a sense that the United States has been exceptional in its commitment to freedom as expressed in the US Constitution and Business, the Bill of Rights. Even though today there are many challenges to freedom in the USA, many Americans still feel that their attachment to freedom - however defined - is a distinguishing feature of their nation as compared to all others. Another important version of American exceptionalism revolves around the lack of a clear ideological or class-based division between the two major political parties. The USA has never had a credible socialist or anti-capitalist party; both the main parties are pro-capital and pro-business and google practices, speak largely to the 'middle class'. Other versions of the concept revolve around the Japan Customs examples alleged 'superiority' of the United States because of its history, size, wealth and global dominance plus the 'sophistication' of its constitution and power of its values such as individualism, innovation and entrepreneurship.

In perhaps its most extreme form, the concept has a religious dimension with the google resources practices belief that God has especially chosen or blessed the country. Of course, it is easy to view the Business vs. US Essay American political system as exceptional in negative terms such as the unusual influence of race, religion and money as compared to other liberal democracies. In truth, for all its special features, the American political system needs to be seen as one among many models of The Light In Oneself democracy with its own strenghs and weaknesses that need to be assessed in comparison to those of other democracies. discussion of American exceptionalism click here. how to critique a political system click here. Americans are losing faith in the American political system as people around the world are questioning the continued pre-eminence of the Customs examples United States as the dominant global power. Since 2004, a clear majority of Americans have told Gallup that they are dissatisfied with the way they are governed. The numbers of those has several times climbed above 80% which is market hypothesis, higher than at Business Customs vs. US Business Essay examples, the time of the Watergate scandal. This disillusionment is reflected in friends the falling number of Americans who even bother to vote. In The World In 2015, John Micklethwait, editor-in-chief of The Economist, wrote: In America, there is nothing particularly democratic about the ascent of money politics, the arcane blocking procedures of Congress or the gerrymandering of district boundaries.

Indeed they are all reminiscent of the rotten boroughs of 18th century England that infuriated the Founding Fathers. The debate about the vs. US Business Customs Essay effectiveness of the US political system is a part of the wider debate about whether or not the United States is in market hypothesis relative decline on the world stage. In his book Time To Start Thinking: America And The Spectre Of Decline [for my review click here], Edward Luce writes: Sometimes it seems Americans are engaged in some kind of collusion in which voters pretend to elect their lawmakers and lawmakers pretend to govern. This, in some ways, is America's core problem: the more America postpones any coherent response to the onset of relative decline, the more difficult the politics are likely to get. These issues have been highlighted by the recent election as US President of Donald Trump, someone who ran for election as the anti-establishment candidate who was going todrain the swamp, who has never previously held political office, and who is governing in a most unconventional style. His insistence that he will Make America Great Again and his intention to boost dramatically defence expenditure address directly the position of the US as global player. Last modified on 30 August 2017.

If you would like to Customs Essay examples comment on this essay e-mail me. If you would like me to speak on this subject contact me. For a comparison of the American and British political systems click here. For guides to the political systems of market hypothesis other nations click here.