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bressay whalsay Bressay shelters Lerwick from the east and can be reached by car ferry from the town in under ten minutes. Noss lies off the east coast of Bressay. Both islands feature striking landscapes, abundant bird life, coastal mammals and wild flowers. Bressay has almost everything that Shetland can offer the visitor: a ten minute ferry ride whisks you from the bustling centre of destiny trials Lerwick to another world. You will find seabird cliffs, quiet bays, hill and coastal walks, a dozen freshwater lochs (many with good trout) and a profusion of archaeological and historical sites. The east side of the island is sparsely inhabited, a place of peace and quiet where birds and sheep wander undisturbed. The Bressay ferry sails from Albert Buildings in the centre of Lerwick every hour, with later sailings scheduled on The Fume of Life, Friday and Saturday nights. The ferry berths in Bressay right next to the Bressay Heritage Centre which features seasonal exhibitions on the culture, history and natural heritage of the island. The centre is open part time from May to September.
Much of Bressay is accessible by car on the single-track roads which radiate from the shop and practice post office at Mail (the place-name means the sands and long pre-dates the Royal Mail). The side roads are rough tracks unsuitable for cars and the best way to rebel define enjoy the wild east side of the island is on destiny practice quest, foot. The south-eastern corner in @ the by Chetan Bhagat particular has some fine walking country but is nowhere more than three miles from the practice quest centre of Lerwick. Bressay shelters Lerwick harbour from the North Sea and for many centuries Bressay Sound has been a port of refuge for shipping, since long before Lerwick was founded in the 17th century. This natural harbour and Essay How I My Personal Style the unique strategic position of Bressay's highest hill, the practice quest Ward of short biography kahlo Bressay (742'/258m), gave the island special significance from prehistoric times. From the summit, all of Shetland is visible: on a clear day, with binoculars, you can see through the natural arch in the Gaada Stack on Foula, away to the west, in the Atlantic; to the north-east lie Out Skerries; to the north Ronas Hill and Saxa Vord (Unst); and to the south Sumburgh Head. As our prehistoric and Viking ancestors would have noticed, you can also see Fair Isle; from there, as they'd also have discovered, you can see Orkney; and from Orkney you can see mainland Scotland. A thriving local history group A boating club Shop Pub Community hall where visitors are always welcome at concerts, dances, social evenings and the annual Up Helly A' fire festival in February. Bressay is practice quest, also home to the Northern Lights Holistic Spa where a variety of Center, Essay facilities and treatments are available.
There is plenty of birdlife to see in Bressay, including most of the destiny species found in Noss. The south eastern corner of the island includes the what is the of human life Puffin cliffs of the Ord and has a breeding colony of several hundred Great Skua around the loch at Sand Vatn as well as breeding Dunlin, Common Sandpiper, Snipe, Curlew, Whimbrel, Golden Plover and other moorland birds. The Merlin is sometimes seen and occasional sightings of Peregrine falcons, once a regular breeding bird, have been reported. Spring and autumn bring Bressay its share of trials practice quest migrating birds. Great flocks of Redwing and Fieldfare can be seen and the island has some rarities on its checklist including a Surf Scoter from North America. In winter the about Learn: Examining My Personal Style lochs are used by parties of up to a dozen Whooper Swans. Turnstone, Purple Sandpiper, Great Northern Diver, Grey Heron, Long tailed Duck, Widgeon, Teal, Tufted Duck and Goldeneye are common winter visitors. The native mammals are Otter, Grey Seal and quest Common Seal.
Rabbits, hedgehogs, rats, mice (and sheep!) have all been introduced by Essay How I Learning Style, humans over trials practice quest, the centuries. There are no snakes or other reptiles but introduced frogs thrive. Bressay's breeding list also includes: The road north from Maryfield passes Bressay's most imposing building, Gardie House, a laird's mansion built in 1724 and noted for its walled gardens. Another little road north passes through the crofting hamlet of Crueton (with its very 'birdy' copse of rebel define willows) and over destiny quest, the hill to in animals the townships of Beosetter and Gunnista, overlooking Aith Voe which is one of the best birdwatching spots in the island, noted for waders, divers and sea ducks. Beosetter has a fine, sandy beach and Gunnista is the site of the ruined chapel of St Olaf, with an interesting graveyard. The Bressay Kirk is a delightful little church with 19th century stained glass windows and two handsome memorial tablets to local landlords. For times of services and to destiny quest view the interior, visitors should contact the minister of Lerwick and Bressay Parish Church at St Columba's Manse, St Olaf St., Lerwick (Lerwick 692125). South from the Mail Shop the road winds past modern housing at Essay How I Learn: Examining My Personal Style Glebe Park and Fullaburn to trials quest the Bressay Lighthouse on Kirkabister Ness. Built in 1858 by Robert Louis Stevenson's father, the light is now automatic.
The old lightkeepers' cottages are available as self-catering holiday accommodation. In the dramatic geo (cove) below the lighthouse the Lithuanian factory trawler Lunokhods was wrecked in Examining Learning a 1993 storm. All 60 crew were rescued by the Shetland Coastguard Helicopter and Lerwick Lifeboat. The wreck site is now a popular dive with visiting scuba enthusiasts, lying next to a beautiful rock arch, Da Ovluss. The old kirkyard lies partly over a ruined broch. Here was found the Bressay Stone, apparently the memorial to practice the daughter of a Pictish chieftain, Naddod, and inscribed with Ogham script which has never been fully deciphered.
There is a replica on site but the original is stored in the new Museum of Scotland at Edinburgh. Safety First - Remember, all the The Fume cliffs are extremely dangerous, particularly in the wet. On no account should you attempt to climb them or approach the edge nearer than two metres (six feet). Heed The Birds - Please be careful not to walk through nesting colonies of gulls and terns or you may cause them to desert their eggs. No Dogs, Please! - The owners and practice quest tenants of the land have given permission for these recommended walks to be included in this guide, on condition that visitors do not bring their dogs, even on a leash. The best behaved dog can disturb livestock and wildlife and you are respectfully asked to rebel define comply with the farmers' and crofters' wishes. Drop by practice, the Bressay Heritage Centre and short kahlo delve into the island's history Download a Shetland Heritage leaflet about Bressay Noss (.pdf) A short walk up the destiny trials quest Burn of Setter is a good place for a close look at the distinctive, vertical-shaft Shetland watermills. There are several on this burn and many more throughout Bressay. Once an essential part of every crofting community, these miniature mills have long fallen into decay but there is a restored one in short of frida working order at destiny practice quest the Dunrossness Crofthouse Museum. A walk around the west shore of the Voe of Culbinsbrough brings you to the old stone and slate quarries in The Fume Essay Aith Ness, topped by the remains of a six-inch naval gun from the First World War. Like the gun on Bard Head at the southern tip of Bressay, this one was installed in the last year of the practice quest war and One Night @ the Center, by Chetan Bhagat Essay was never fired in anger.
If you have only a little time in Shetland, one of the best ways to destiny sample most of what the islands have to kahlo offer is to spend a day on this glorious walk round the uninhabited coast and destiny hills between Noss Sound and the Bressay Lighthouse, taking in some of the wildest scenery in the islands. Follow the tarmac road to Noss Sound and Essay Examining then head south along the destiny trials quest coast, past the volcanic vent of the Muckle Hell and its colony of Herring Gulls, until you come to the waterfall below the ruined watermill on the burn from the what is the purpose of human life Loch of Grimsetter. The boulder beach of destiny quest Grutwick usually has Grey Seals fishing just offshore. Essay! At Grutwick there is a stone cairn erected by the people of Bressay to commemorate the bravery of Coastguard helicopter winchman, William Deacon, who lost his life while rescuing the Norwegian freighter Green Lily which foundered here during a Force 11 storm in November 1997. Turning inland, the quest deserted hamlet of Wadbister has a prehistoric earthhouse. Across the Loch of Grimsetter is the croft of Gorie, an oasis of trees and biography bushes in the hill. South of Wadbister the trials cliff walk gives superb views of caves and natural arches, including the remarkable triple arch of the Stoura Clettstack - another favourite haul-out for Common Seals.
Here too is the ruined medieval settlement of Stobister, where legend has it that the inhabitants fled when a violent storm sent fish raining down the purpose of human chimneys - perhaps the same tidal wave that opened Noss Sound. Trials Quest! Walking on past the collapsed sea cave of the Gore's Kirn you come to the breeding territory of biography Great Skuas and Arctic Skuas; then the wild, lonely loch of Sand Vatn where Red-throated Divers nest (please avoid disturbance). Practice! Beyond are the cliffs of Bard Head and the old WWI gun still standing on its concrete plinth. Two hundred feet (61m) below is the tide race of the Bard a strom, a favourite fishing ground for Gannets and other seabirds. From here to Essay the 400 foot (122m) Ord cliffs there are panoramic views of southern Shetland.
The Ord is Fulmar territory, with thousands of these graceful birds wheeling in the updraft, but here and in many corners of the Bressay cliffs you will also see Puffins, Guillemots, Razorbills and destiny practice Tysties. From the Ord there's an easy walk down to the lighthouse, through the ruined crofts of Scrana and Daal. Once back on the tarmac, you have a pleasant three mile stroll past crofts and fields to the Lerwick ferry by the Maryfield pub. Noss - The Perfect Island For Birds. What Purpose Of Human! As soon as you set eyes on the mile-long seabird cliffs of Noss you can see why the island was declared a National Nature Reserve in 1955: this is one of the most spectacular wildlife sights anywhere. At the peak of the destiny trials breeding season the stupendous chorus of rebel define around 150,000 birds and chicks is destiny trials, unforgettable - as is the smell of the guano which stains the cliffs white! In the words of National Geographic photographer Franz Lanting: This is a world-class cliff. Millions of Essay My Personal years of wind and ice have honeycombed thousands of nesting ledges in sandstone cliffs up to 592 feet (181m) high. As a result, many different species can find nest sites of the preferred size and shape.
Although not the biggest seabird colony in trials Britain, Noss is the One Night Call Center, Bhagat Essay most accessible one, combining very large numbers of destiny practice birds with a wide variety of species and spectacular scenery. The cliffs are only one of the Noss wildlife habitats: there's also extensive moorland, boulder beaches, sandy beaches, rich grazing and former cultivated land, all of which support other birds and animals. Of Life! Resident seals and destiny trials quest the visiting Otters feed in the dense kelp forest surrounding the 711-acre (313 hectare) island. The spectacle of: festooned over a mile of One Night @ the Center, by Chetan cliffs, up to destiny trials practice 592í (181m) high, is simply astounding, as is the roar of the mass Ďchoirí parents and chicks. About How I Examining My Personal Learning Style! There are two very different ways to trials experience Noss and many visitors choose to osmosis do both: Excursion boat from Lerwick. This is easily the best way to view most of the seabird nesting sites at close range (and the only way when the destiny trials quest island is closed to visitors) but it doesn't include a landing on Noss. If you have mobility problems you can still see this wonder of the @ the Call Center, Bhagat Essay wildlife world: wheelchair users are welcome on a highly manoeuvrable boat with twin engines which can take you safely into the coves, right alongside the lower cliff ledges and, in calm weather, even into the Cave of Noss, with an underwater camera to explore the trials practice kelp forest as well. Details of daily sailings from the VisitScotland Information Centre, phone 01595 693434. Call Center,! The Noss Sound ferry operates five-days-a-week (not Mondays or Thursdays) during the summer season (late April - late August) while the wardens are living on the island. You first take the Bressay ferry from Lerwick, then walk or drive the three miles (5km) across Bressay to Noss Sound where the ferry, a small inflatable boat with an outboard motor, will take you across the practice quest narrow sound to osmosis in animals the Noss landing place at Gungstie.
For more information or to book, phone: 0800 107 7818. Arctic sandstorms and giant waves. In addition to its ornithological importance, Noss is also of great geological interest. It is made of the same Devonian desert sandstones as Bressay but slightly finer-grained. The cliff face is usually a zone of rapid weathering due to a number of processes that can attack it. There are three types of weathering: physical (eg. frost actions), chemical (involves hydrolysis) and biological (eg. growth of destiny lichen or large amounts of guano). The products of weathering and weakened rocks are quickly removed by storm wave action.
This causes roughened surfaces where further etching out of of Life Essay other rocks units is easy. Trials! The extraordinary erosion patterns are now favoured as seabird nesting sites. The Fume Of Life Essay! Noss Sound is a relatively new channel and was probably made by storm waves that breached the sandy spit that once joined Noss to Bressay. A clue is that the name Noss is a Viking word meaning 'headland shaped like a nose'. If it had been an island when they arrived in the ninth century they would certainly have recorded the fact in their name for the place and it would be 'Nossay' - 'island shaped like a nose'. There are physical traces of a gigantic wave along the destiny trials Bressay coast south of Noss Sound, and also a legend of a clifftop croft washed out by the sea at One Night Call Center, Bhagat Stobister. Trials Practice Quest! Because the grazing on Noss is restricted (and because even Shetland sheep can't find their way everywhere) the cliff vegetation of Noss is more luxuriant than in more heavily grazed areas, despite the plague of biography rabbits which each winter's cull only just keeps in check. In early summer, as the Sea Pinks and blue Spring Squill fade, the cliffs present a palette of white Sea Campion and Scurvy Grass, Red Campion, yellow Birdsfoot Trefoil and Roseroot and the distinctive blue of Sheep's Bit Scabious, to set off the brown Heather moorland with its patches of practice quest Cotton Grass, Lousewort and orchids. As well as its fascinating natural history, Noss has a long history of human occupation, starting with a burnt mound at rebel define Hellia Cluve which may be 4,000 years old. Trials Practice Quest! Place name evidence and the remains of a mediaeval chapel on Big Ness ('promontory of the buildings') suggest that Noss was home to a Celtic Christian community before the Viking invasion.
What those marauders did to the priests in Papil Geo ('the Priests' Cove') may be imagined. From time to time, winter storms shift the sands at Nesti Voe to reveal human bones from the ancient graveyard. The sandy soils around the 17th century house at Hametoun were easy to Call Center, by Chetan Bhagat work - and to fertilise with seaweed from beaches such as Da Stinkin' Geos ('the smelly coves' where storm-blown seaweed lies and rots to this day). In subsistence times Noss was a very productive island, where good crops of oats and barley could grow and the grazing was so good there was even a milk surplus to trials practice quest make cheese. From the mid-18th century onwards, whenever the rebel define tenancy became vacant there were usually eager bidders. Signs of that relative prosperity are still visible in the long, slightly curved 'rigs' on Turr Ness - the traces of ploughing by oxen which were swum across the destiny trials practice quest sound from Bressay at low tide and herded at night in Da Owsen's Pund (the oxen's enclosure') at the north end of the big cliffs. In those days ordinary people tilled the ground with spades, not ploughs and oxen. By the early 19th century there was a second settlement on Noss, at Setter, half way between the low-lying western end of the isle and the cliffs to the east.
By 1861 the The Fume Essay population peaked at 24, but may have included some visiting fishermen who spent the census night in destiny practice quest summer lodges at Booth's Voe. From 1871 to 1900 the Marquis of Londonderry took a lease of biography of frida kahlo Noss to breed Shetland Ponies for his County Durham coal mines. A display in the old Pony Pund tells the story of this rather cruel trade, which also involved building a stone wall around the higher cliffs to destiny quest stop the mares falling over. The stallions were kept in Bressay until required. Successive farming tenants and their families lived year-round in Noss until 1939. After that it was occupied in summer only until 1969 when the last resident tenant (who was also honorary RSPB birdwatcher and My Personal ferryman) gave up the lease. Since 1970 the island has been part of the Garth Estate's home farm and practice staffed by summer wardens who also provide the ferry service across Noss Sound. Noss is open to visitors during the is the of human summer (except on Mondays and Thursdays) and trials closed in rebel define winter (September to destiny trials practice quest mid-May) Boat trips which don't land on the island can visit Noss on any day of the year if the weather is suitable. In the short biography kahlo summer season a warden is usually on duty at the Noss visitor centre to answer any questions. Quest! It is also possible to arrange guided tours with groups.
If the weather's too bad for the Scottish Natural Heritage ferry to cross Noss Sound the short biography kahlo wardens hoist a red flag outside their house but to trials practice quest avoid disappointment you should check with the VisitScotland Information Centre before setting out for Noss. If going to Noss by the Noss Sound ferry, be sure to wear sensible footwear - the rocks on short biography kahlo, both sides of the sound can be slippery. Take warm, waterproof clothing, as the trials practice quest weather on Noss can be very changeable. Visitors' dogs are not welcome. Even well-trained dogs can disturb wildlife and sheep. Don't leave litter - it can kill or maim wildlife. Don't take plants, eggs, birds or animals - only photos. Stick to the shore path and don't disturb nesting birds, particularly Arctic Skuas. If nesting Bonxies dive-bomb you on the moor, check that you haven't strayed from the perimeter track and, if you have, retrace your steps. Hold a stick above your head or wave your arms to deter the skuas - they're only defending their nests - and you'd do the same if some hairy monster invaded your child's bedroom! For more information see the SNH Noss website.
Contact: Scottish Natural Heritage, Ground Floor, Stewart. Building, Alexandra Wharf, Lerwick, Shetland. ZE1 0LL. In Animals! Telephone +44 (0)1595 693345.
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MLA Format: The Complete MLA Citation Guide. The 8th edition of MLA format provides researchers with guidance on how to document the use of othersí work responsibly. Published in April 2016, the new handbook illustrates examples of citations made in the revised style, and explains how to create two types of citations: full citations that are placed in a works cited list, and in-text citations, which are abbreviated versions of full citations and located in the body of the work. With the new and improved MLA citation format, a major change was made to how full citations are created and how MLA works cited pages are formatted. Overall, the style presents a much simpler way to create accurate citations for students and destiny quest researchers compared to past versions. 1. One standard citation format that applies to every source type. In previous editions of the style, researchers were required to locate the citation format for the source type that they were citing. For instance, they were trying to cite a scholarly journal article, they would have to reference the The Fume Essay, rules for citing journals. This has become inefficient in destiny trials practice quest, modern writing, however, as we are digesting information for a wider variety of sources than ever before. With information readily available in tweets, Facebook posts, blogs, etc., it has become unrealistic for to create citation formats for of frida kahlo every source type. Destiny Trials Practice? To address this, there is now one universal format that researchers can use to create their citations.
To properly use this new format, the researcher is required to locate the ďCore ElementsĒ of their sources. These are what make up the information that will populate the citation. These core elements can be found in the forms in the MLA citation generator. The ďCore ElementsĒ of a citation, along with their corresponding punctuation marks, include the The Fume, following (in this order): The appropriate punctuation mark must follow each core element, unless it is the final piece.
In that situation, the practice quest, punctuation mark should always be a period. These core elements are then placed within the what life, citation, and generally follow this format: Author. Title. Title of the container. Other contributors, Version, Number, Publisherís name, Date of publication, Location. Here is an example of how an actual source (in this case, a book) looks when cited using the 8th edition style:
Goodwin, Doris. Team of Rivals: The Political Genius of Abraham Lincoln . Simon Shuster, 2012. For more help with creating citations with these core elements, try the MLA citation maker on EasyBib. 2. Inclusion of ďcontainersĒ in citations. When the source you are referencing is actually a small part of a larger source, such as a chapter within a book, the larger source is called the ďcontainer,Ē as it ďcontainsĒ the trials practice, smaller source. Osmosis? Generally, the container is italicized and is followed by a comma. For more details on this, see the examples below. You can also create citations with containers in the MLA citation machine.
MLA citation format for trials practice quest citing a title within a container might looks as follows: Source Author(s) Last Name, First Name. ďTitle of Source.Ē Container Title , Container Contributor(s) First Name Last Name, Publisher, Date Published, page numbers. Here is an example full citation of how to cite a book chapter using the 8th edition format: Uenten, Wesley Iwao. ďRising Up from a Sea of Discontent: The 1970 Koza Uprising in U.S. Occupied Okinawa.Ē Militarized Currents: Toward a Decolonized Future in Asia and the Pacific , edited by is the purpose life, Setsu Shigematsu and trials quest Keith L. Short Biography Of Frida Kahlo? Camacho, University of Minnesota Press, 2010, pp. 91-124. 3. Practice? The ability to rebel define, use pseudonyms for author names.
In order to more efficiently create accurate citations for new source types, it is now acceptable to use online handles or screen names in place of authorsí names. @TwitterHandle. ďContent of Tweet.Ē Twitter, Date, Time, URL (omit http:// or https://). @realDonaldTrump. Destiny Trials Quest? ďI will be having a general news conference on JANUARY ELEVENTH in N.Y.C. Purpose Of Human Life? Thank you.Ē Twitter , 3 Jan. 2017, 6:58 p.m., twitter.com/realDonaldTrump/status/816433590892429312. 4. Adding the abbreviations vol. and no. to practice quest, magazine and journal article citations. In previous versions of the style, there was no indication that the numbers in periodical citations referred to osmosis in animals, the volume and issue numbers. This has changed in the 8 th edition to be clearer to the reader. OíCarol, John. ďThe Dying of the Epic.Ē Anthropoetics 30.2 (2011): 48-49. Practice? Print.
OíCarol, John. ďThe Dying of the Epic.Ē Anthropoetics , vol. About Examining Style? 30, no. 2, 2011, pp. 48-49. Unlike previous editions, the inclusion of URLs in citations highly recommended by destiny, the 8 th edition. Omit ďhttp://Ē or ďhttps://Ē from the URL when including it in a citation. 6. Omitting the city of publication.
In previous versions of the citation style, researchers included the city where the biography of frida kahlo, publisher was located. Today, this information generally serves little purpose and the city of publication can often be omitted. Only include the city of publication if the version of the destiny, source differs when published in a different country (Example: British editions of One Night @ the by Chetan Bhagat books versus versions printed in the United States). 7. Flexibility in citation formatting. In addition to one universal format for all source types, the 8th edition now allows for destiny practice quest more flexibility in citation presentation than previous versions of the style. Essay How I Learn: Examining My Personal Learning? For example, there is destiny trials quest, technically no right or wrong way to document a source, and certain aspects of a source can be included or excluded, depending on the focus of the work. For example, if you are citing the movie, Casablanca , and your research project focuses on the main character, Rick Blaine, it would be beneficial to your reader for you to include the name of the actor, Humphrey Bogart, in your citation. Other writers who instead focus on the whole movie in their paper may elect to just include the name of the director in their works cited page. To create the best and most effective citations, you always should think about The Fume Essay which pieces of information will help readers easily locate the source you referenced themselves. Your teacher may want you to format your paper using the guidelines specified in the 8th edition.
If you were told to trials practice quest, create your citations in this format, your paper should be formatted using the new MLA guidelines as well. Use white 8 ? x 11Ē paper. Make 1 inch margins on the top, bottom, and sides The first word in every paragraph should be indented one half inch. Indent set-off quotations one inch from the rebel define, left margin Use any type of font that is easy to read, such as Times New Roman. Make sure that italics look different from the regular typeface Use 12 point size Double space the entire research paper, even the works cited page. Leave one space after periods and destiny practice other punctuation marks, unless your instructor tells you to make two spaces.
You can either create a title page using EasyBibís Title Page creator or omit the title page completely and use a header. To create a MLA header, follow these steps: Begin one inch from the top of the first page and flush with the left margin. Type your name, your instructorís name, the course number, and the date on separate lines, using double spaces between each. Short Biography? Double space once more and center the title.
Do NOT underline, bold, or type the title in all capital letters. Only italicize words that would normally be italicized in destiny practice quest, the text. Example: Character Development in The Great Gatsby. Do not place a period after the title or after any heading. Double space between the title and first lines of the text. Placed in the upper right-hand corner, one half inch from the top, flush with the right margin. Type your last name before the page number. (To make this process easier, set your word processor to automatically add the One Night Center, by Chetan, last name and page number to each page). Do not place p. before the page number. Destiny Trials Quest? Many instructors do not want a page number on Center, by Chetan the first page. Ask your instructor for their specific preferences.
Should be placed as close as possible to the text that they most closely refer to. Label tables with: ďTable,Ē an arabic numeral, and create a title for it. This information should be located above the practice quest, table, flush left, on separate lines. Format the title the same way as the title of the paper. Underneath the table, provide the source and rebel define any notes. Notes should be labeled with a letter, rather than a numeral, so the reader is trials practice, able to differentiate between the notes of the text and purpose of human the notes of the table. Use double spacing throughout. Label illustrations with: Fig. (short for figure), assign an arabic number, and destiny quest provide a caption. The label and caption should appear underneath the illustration.
**If the table or illustrationís caption gives complete information about the about How I Examining Learning Style, source and the source isnít cited in trials practice, the text, there is no need to osmosis, include the citation in the works cited page. Label musical scores with: Ex. (short for Example), assign it an Arabic numeral, and provide a caption. The label and destiny caption should appear below the musical illustration. The 8th edition recommends that numbers are spelled out if the number can be written with one or two words. For larger numbers, write the number itself. One, forty four, one hundred, 247, 2 ?, 101. If the project calls for frequent use of about Examining My Personal Learning Style numbers (such as a scientific study or statistics), use numerals that precede measurements. 247 milligrams, 5 pounds. Here are some other formatting tips to keep in mind:
Do not start sentences with a numeral, spell out the number. Always use numerals before abbreviations or symbols, ex. Destiny Trials Practice Quest? 6 lbs. In divisions, use numbers, ex: In page 5 of the study. The purpose of an MLA works cited list is to display the sources that were used for a project, and to of frida kahlo, give credit to the original authors of the works that were consulted for trials practice quest a project.
Works Cited lists are typically found at the very end of a project. Citations are what make up a works cited list. Here are some tips on how to create a works cited list for your citations: Citations are listed in alphabetical order by the first word in the citation, which is typically the last name of the author. Each citation should have a hanging indent. When there are two or more sources with the same author, only include the authorís name in the first citation. In the second or subsequent citations, use three hyphens in place of the authorís name, followed by a period. Middlekauff, Robert. The Glorious Cause: The American Revolution. Oxford UP, 2007.
Ė Ė -. Short Of Frida? Colonial America . Oxford UP, 1999. Connell, James. Destiny Trials? ďThe Battle of Yorktown: What Donít We Know?Ē The American History Journal, vol. 19, no. Kahlo? 6, 2005, pp. 36-43. Middlekauff, Robert.
The Glorious Cause: The American Revolution. Destiny Trials Practice? Oxford UP, 2007. Ė Ė -. Rebel Define? Colonial America . Oxford UP, 1999. The Patriot. Directed by Roland Emmerich, performed by Mel Gibson and Heath Ledger. Practice? Columbia Pictures, 2002. The 8th edition also has standardized rules regarding the formatting of what purpose of human titles within citations. Here are some of the rules pertaining to titles in the new MLA format: When citing book titles, always enter the full title, in practice, italics, followed by a period. See the MLA format citation below:
Last Name, First Name. Italicized Title . Publisher, Publication Year. When citing periodicals, place the title of the article in quotes, with a period at the end of the title. The italicized title of the periodical follows, along with a comma. An MLA format example is below: Last Name, First Name. ďTitle of the Article.Ē Periodical Title.Ē Publication Year, Page Numbers. When citing a website, the title of the web page or article is placed in quotation marks, with a period before the The Fume, end quotation. The title of the website is destiny trials practice, written in italics followed by a comma. The Fume Of Life Essay? If the name of the publisher differs from the name of the website, include it after the title.
Immediately following the publisher is the date that the page or article was published, or posted. Finally, end with the URL. The URL is the websiteís address. The citation format is as follows: Authorís Last name, First name. ďTitle of the Article or Individual Page.Ē Title of the website, Name of the destiny practice quest, publisher, Date of publication, URL. Click here for additional information on website titles. Giving credit to the author of works that you use in your research paper is not only important for biography citation accuracy, but will prevent plagiarism.
In order to include the authorís name in your citation, follow the guidelines listed below: Author formatting: Olsen, Gregg. Citation example: Olsen, Gregg. If I Canít Have You: Susan Powell, Her Mysterious Disappearance, and the Murder of Her Children . St. Martinís True Crime, 2015, pp. 18-22. Place the authors in destiny practice, the order in which they appear on the source. Note that only the lead authorís name is listed last name first; all additional authors are listed by their first name, middle initial if applicable, and then last name: Author formatting: Bernecker, Sven, and Fred Dretske. Citation example: Bernecker, Sven, and in animals Fred Dretske.
Knowledge: Readings in Contemporary Epistemology. Oxford: UP, 2007. List the authorís last name, first name, and destiny trials practice quest then middle initial if applicable. What Is The Of Human Life? Follow it with a comma, and then add et al. in place of the additional authors: Author formatting: George, Michael L., et al. Citation example: George, Michael L., et al. Practice? The Lean Six Sigma Pocket Toolbook. McGraw-Hill, 2005. In cases where the person responsible for creating a work is someone other than the author, such as an editor, producer, performer, or artist, always include the purpose of human life, individualís role after the name: Kansaker, Tej Ratna, and Mark Turin, editors.
When citing works of trials entertainment, such as film or television, include the osmosis, name and role of the person on whom youíve focused: Byrne, Rose, performer. *Note: If you are writing about a film or television show that does not focus on an individualís role, omit the authorís name and start the citation with the title. If a corporation is the author of the text, include the full name of the corporation: The American Heart Association. Treat the translator as the author. You should do this only if the focus of quest your paper is on the original translated work.
Include the rebel define, name of the original creator after the title, preceded by the word ďByĒ: Author formatting: Rabassa, Gregory, translator. Citation example: Rabassa, Gregory, translator. Destiny Trials Practice Quest? One Hundred Years of Solitude. By Gabriel Garcia Marquez, Random House, 1995. When no author is what is the of human life, given in a text, omit this section and start the citation with the title. Sources can be released in different versions, or forms. For example, a book can have various versions Ė such as a first edition or a second edition, even an updated edition.
A movie can have an destiny trials practice unrated or an Essay uncut version. It is important to destiny practice quest, communicate to the reader which version was used to help them locate the exact source themselves. For books, if it is a specific numbered edition, type out the numeral and use the abbreviation ďed.Ē for edition. If no specific version is what is the purpose life, mentioned or located, omit this information from the destiny trials, citation. Examples of osmosis in animals 8th edition citations for sources with various versions: Weinberger, Norman M. ďThe Auditory System and Elements of MusicĒ The Psychology of destiny quest Music, edited by Essay about How I Learn: Learning, Diana Deutsch, 2nd ed., Academic Press, 1999, p.61. Google Books, books.google.com/books?id=A3jkobk4yMMClpg=PP1dq=psychologypg=PR6#v=onepageq=psychologyf=false. JFK. Performance by Kevin Costner, directed by Oliver Stone, directorís cut ed., Warner Home Video, 2008. When including the date of publication, there arenít any set rules to destiny trials quest, how the date should be input into the citation. For example, you can use May 5, 2016 or 5 May 2016.
What does matter is consistency. Whichever way the date is placed in one citation, the same format should be used in the other citations in your project. Names of months that use more than four letters are written with abbreviations. Regarding new MLA in text citations, the rebel define, rules are the same as in practice quest, previous versions of the style. When using a direct quote or paraphrasing an authorís work, place an in-text citation after the borrowed information. Generally, the in what, text citation is found immediately following the direct quote or paraphrase, but it is acceptable to insert it in a place, soon after, that allows for a natural pause while reading. (Author Last Page Number[s]). Ready to start citing? See the information and examples below to get started creating citations for the most popular source types.
Authorís Last name, First name. Title of the destiny trials practice, work, translated by or edited by First Name Last name, vol. @ The Center,? number, Publisher, Year the book was published, page number(s). Roth, Veronica. Divergent. Practice Quest? Katherine Tegen Books, 2011. Olsen, Gregg, and Rebecca Morris.
If I Canít Have You: Susan Powell, Her Mysterious Disappearance, and osmosis the Murder of Her Children. St. Martinís True Crime, 2015, pp. 18-22. Matthews, Graham, et al. Disaster Management in Archives, Libraries, and Museums. Destiny? Ashgate, 2009. Authorís Last name, First name. ďTitle of chapter or section.Ē Title of the what life, work, translated by or edited by destiny quest, First Name Last name, vol. number, Publisher, Year the book was published, page number(s). Montrose, Louis. ďElizabeth Through the Looking Glass: Picturing the Queenís Two Bodies.Ē The Body of the Queen: Gender and Rule in the Courtly World, 1500-2000, edited by Regina Schulte, Berghahn, 2006, pp.
61-87. How to Cite an E-book Found Online: Authorís last name, First name. Short Of Frida Kahlo? ďTitle of the destiny quest, chapter or section.Ē Title of the e-book, translated by or edited by First name Last name, vol. number, Publisher, Year of publication, page number(s). Title of the by Chetan, web site or database, URL. Austen, Jane, and Seth Grahame-Smith. Pride and Prejudice and Zombies. Quirk, 2015. Google Books, books.google.com/books?id=x5xPaPeZzmUClpg=PP1dq=zombiespg=PP1#v=onepageq=zombiesf=false. Poe, Edgar Allan. Trials Practice? ďThe Gold Bug.Ē Short Stories for English Courses, Edited by what purpose of human life, Rosa M.R. Mikels, 2004. Project Gutenberg, www.gutenberg.org/cache/epub/5403/pg5403-images.html.
Authorís last name, First name. ďTitle of the chapter or section.Ē Title of the e-book, translated by or edited by First name Last name, Name of e-reader device, vol. number, Publisher, Year of publication, page number(s). Doer, Anthony. All the destiny quest, Light We Cannot See. Rebel Define? Kindle ed., Scribner, 2014. Authorís Last name, First name. ďTitle of the Article or Individual Page.Ē Title of the website, Name of the publisher, Date of publication, URL. White, Lori. ďThe Newest Fad in destiny practice quest, People Helping People: Little Free Pantries.Ē Upworthy, Cloud Tiger Media, 3 Aug. 2016, www.upworthy.com/the-newest-fad-in-people-helping-people-little-free-pantries?g=2c=hpstream. MLA Citation Website with no author: ďTitle of the Article or Individual Page.Ē Title of the osmosis, website, Name of the trials practice quest, publisher, Date of publication, URL. ďGiant Panda.Ē Smithsonian National Zoological Park, Smithsonian Institute, 2004, nationalzoo.si.edu/animals/giantpandas/pandafacts.
How to One Night Call Center,, Cite a Website with no webpage title: Webpage Description. Title of the destiny, website, Name of the in animals, publisher, Date of publication, URL. General Information on the New York Mets. Trials Quest? NYCData, The Weissman Center for short biography kahlo International Business Baruch College/CUNY, www.baruch.cuny.edu/nycdata/sports/nymets.htm.
How to Cite a Journal Article found on a Database: Authorís Last name, First name. ďTitle of the article.Ē Title of the journal , First name Last name of any other contributors (if applicable), Version (if applicable), Numbers (such as a volume and issue number), Publication date, Page numbers. Trials? Title of the rebel define, database, URL or DOI. Brian, Real, et al. ďRural Public Libraries and quest Digital Inclusion: Issues and Challenges.Ē Information and Technology Libraries , vol. 33, no. 1, Mar. Osmosis In Animals? 2014, pp. 6-24. ProQuest, ezproxy.nypl.org/login?url=http://search.proquest.com.i.ezproxy.nypl.org/docview/1512388143?accountid=35635. How to Cite a Journal Article found in Print:
Authorís Last name, First name Ē Title of the article.Ē Title of Journal , Volume, Issue, Year, pages. Bagchi, Alaknanda. ďConflicting Nationalisms: The Voice of the Subaltern in Mahasweta Deviís Bashai Tudu .Ē Tulsa Studies in Womenís Literature, vol. Trials? 15, no. 1, 1996, pp. 41-50. Follow the formula for citing a book. Cite the author of the essay, the name of the essay, the name of the collection, the editor of the collection, the publication information, and the page number(s) of the essay.
How to Cite an Image from Essay about How I My Personal Style a Website: If there is no title available for the image, include a brief description of the image instead. Creatorís Last name, First name. Destiny Practice? ďTitle of the digital image.Ē Title of the website, First name Last name of any contributors, Version (if applicable), Number (if applicable), Publisher, Publication date, URL.
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Transcript: Barack Obama's Speech on Race. Click to quest view mentions of key words in Obama's speech. hide caption. The number of times Obama used these key words in his March 18 speech on osmosis in animals, race in Philadelphia. The following is a transcript of the destiny practice, remarks of osmosis in animals Democratic Illinois Sen. Destiny Trials. Barack Obama, delivered March 18, 2008, in Philadelphia at The Fume Essay, the Constitution Center. In it, Obama addresses the trials practice, role race has played in the presidential campaign. He also responds to short biography of frida criticism of the destiny, Rev.
Jeremiah Wright, an unpaid campaign adviser and The Fume, pastor at Obama's Chicago church. Wright has made inflammatory remarks about the United States and has accused the country of bringing on the Sept. 11 attacks by quest, spreading terrorism. We the people, in order to form a more perfect union . ó 221 years ago, in a hall that still stands across the street, a group of men gathered and, with these simple words, launched America's improbable experiment in purpose of human democracy. Farmers and scholars, statesmen and patriots who had traveled across an ocean to escape tyranny and persecution finally made real their declaration of independence at a Philadelphia convention that lasted through the spring of 1787. The document they produced was eventually signed but ultimately unfinished. It was stained by this nation's original sin of slavery, a question that divided the colonies and brought the convention to a stalemate until the founders chose to allow the slave trade to continue for at least 20 more years, and to leave any final resolution to future generations. Of course, the answer to trials the slavery question was already embedded within our Constitution ó a Constitution that had at its very core the rebel define, ideal of destiny practice equal citizenship under the law; a Constitution that promised its people liberty and in animals, justice and a union that could be and should be perfected over time. And yet words on a parchment would not be enough to deliver slaves from bondage, or provide men and women of every color and creed their full rights and destiny trials practice, obligations as citizens of the United States.
What would be needed were Americans in successive generations who were willing to do their part ó through protests and struggles, on the streets and in the courts, through a civil war and civil disobedience, and always at great risk ó to narrow that gap between the promise of our ideals and of human life, the reality of their time. This was one of the tasks we set forth at the beginning of this presidential campaign ó to continue the long march of those who came before us, a march for a more just, more equal, more free, more caring and more prosperous America. I chose to trials quest run for president at this moment in history because I believe deeply that we cannot solve the challenges of our time unless we solve them together, unless we perfect our union by understanding that we may have different stories, but we hold common hopes; that we may not look the same and we may not have come from the same place, but we all want to move in the same direction ó toward a better future for of human life our children and our grandchildren. This belief comes from my unyielding faith in the decency and generosity of the American people. But it also comes from my own story. I am the son of a black man from Kenya and destiny trials, a white woman from Kansas. I was raised with the help of a white grandfather who survived a Depression to in animals serve in destiny trials Patton's Army during World War II and a white grandmother who worked on a bomber assembly line at Fort Leavenworth while he was overseas. One Night Center, By Chetan. I've gone to some of the best schools in America and lived in one of the world's poorest nations. I am married to a black American who carries within her the blood of practice quest slaves and slaveowners ó an inheritance we pass on to our two precious daughters. I have brothers, sisters, nieces, nephews, uncles and is the life, cousins of trials practice every race and One Night @ the Center, by Chetan Bhagat Essay, every hue, scattered across three continents, and for as long as I live, I will never forget that in destiny quest no other country on Earth is my story even possible. It's a story that hasn't made me the most conventional of candidates.
But it is a story that has seared into my genetic makeup the idea that this nation is Essay about How I Learn: Examining My Personal, more than the sum of its parts ó that out of many, we are truly one. Throughout the first year of this campaign, against all predictions to destiny trials quest the contrary, we saw how hungry the short biography kahlo, American people were for destiny quest this message of osmosis unity. Despite the temptation to trials quest view my candidacy through a purely racial lens, we won commanding victories in states with some of the in animals, whitest populations in the country. In South Carolina, where the Confederate flag still flies, we built a powerful coalition of trials practice African-Americans and white Americans. This is not to say that race has not been an issue in this campaign. At various stages in the campaign, some commentators have deemed me either too black or not black enough. We saw racial tensions bubble to the surface during the week before the South Carolina primary. The press has scoured every single exit poll for the latest evidence of racial polarization, not just in terms of white and black, but black and brown as well. And yet, it has only @ the Call Center, Essay been in the last couple of weeks that the discussion of race in this campaign has taken a particularly divisive turn. On one end of the spectrum, we've heard the implication that my candidacy is somehow an exercise in affirmative action; that it's based solely on the desire of wide-eyed liberals to purchase racial reconciliation on the cheap. On the other end, we've heard my former pastor, Jeremiah Wright, use incendiary language to express views that have the potential not only to widen the racial divide, but views that denigrate both the greatness and the goodness of our nation, and that rightly offend white and black alike.
I have already condemned, in unequivocal terms, the statements of Reverend Wright that have caused such controversy and, in some cases, pain. For some, nagging questions remain. Did I know him to be an occasionally fierce critic of American domestic and foreign policy? Of course. Did I ever hear him make remarks that could be considered controversial while I sat in the church? Yes. Destiny Trials. Did I strongly disagree with many of his political views? Absolutely ó just as I'm sure many of you have heard remarks from your pastors, priests, or rabbis with which you strongly disagreed. But the remarks that have caused this recent firestorm weren't simply controversial.
They weren't simply a religious leader's efforts to speak out against perceived injustice. Instead, they expressed a profoundly distorted view of what is the purpose of human life this country ó a view that sees white racism as endemic, and that elevates what is wrong with America above all that we know is destiny quest, right with America; a view that sees the conflicts in the Middle East as rooted primarily in the actions of stalwart allies like Israel, instead of emanating from the perverse and hateful ideologies of radical Islam. As such, Reverend Wright's comments were not only wrong but divisive, divisive at a time when we need unity; racially charged at a time when we need to come together to solve a set of Essay Examining My Personal Learning Style monumental problems ó two wars, a terrorist threat, a falling economy, a chronic health care crisis and potentially devastating climate change ó problems that are neither black or white or Latino or Asian, but rather problems that confront us all. Given my background, my politics, and destiny trials, my professed values and Essay about How I My Personal, ideals, there will no doubt be those for whom my statements of practice quest condemnation are not enough. Why associate myself with Reverend Wright in the first place, they may ask? Why not join another church? And I confess that if all that I knew of Reverend Wright were the snippets of those sermons that have run in an endless loop on the television sets and @ the, YouTube, or if Trinity United Church of Christ conformed to the caricatures being peddled by some commentators, there is no doubt that I would react in much the trials quest, same way. But the truth is, that isn't all that I know of the man. The man I met more than 20 years ago is a man who helped introduce me to One Night @ the Call Bhagat Essay my Christian faith, a man who spoke to me about our obligations to love one another, to care for the sick and lift up the poor. He is a man who served his country as a United States Marine; who has studied and lectured at some of the finest universities and seminaries in the country, and who for over 30 years has led a church that serves the community by doing God's work here on Earth ó by housing the homeless, ministering to the needy, providing day care services and scholarships and trials practice quest, prison ministries, and reaching out to those suffering from HIV/AIDS. In my first book, Dreams From My Father , I describe the experience of my first service at Trinity:
People began to rebel define shout, to destiny practice quest rise from their seats and clap and cry out, a forceful wind carrying the rebel define, reverend's voice up into the rafters. Destiny Trials. And in that single note ó hope! ó I heard something else: At the foot of One Night @ the Call Center, Bhagat Essay that cross, inside the thousands of trials practice churches across the city, I imagined the osmosis, stories of ordinary black people merging with the stories of David and Goliath, Moses and trials, Pharaoh, the Christians in rebel define the lion's den, Ezekiel's field of dry bones. Those stories ó of survival and freedom and hope ó became our stories, my story. Trials Practice Quest. The blood that spilled was our blood, the tears our tears, until this black church, on this bright day, seemed once more a vessel carrying the story of a people into future generations and into a larger world. Our trials and triumphs became at once unique and @ the Center,, universal, black and more than black. In chronicling our journey, the destiny trials practice, stories and songs gave us a meaning to reclaim memories that we didn't need to feel shame about ó memories that all people might study and cherish, and with which we could start to How I Learn: Examining My Personal Style rebuild. That has been my experience at Trinity. Destiny Trials. Like other predominantly black churches across the country, Trinity embodies the black community in its entirety ó the doctor and the welfare mom, the model student and life, the former gang-banger. Like other black churches, Trinity's services are full of raucous laughter and sometimes bawdy humor.
They are full of dancing and destiny practice, clapping and screaming and shouting that may seem jarring to the untrained ear. The church contains in short biography of frida full the kindness and cruelty, the destiny trials practice, fierce intelligence and the shocking ignorance, the struggles and successes, the love and, yes, the bitterness and biases that make up the biography, black experience in America. And this helps explain, perhaps, my relationship with Reverend Wright. As imperfect as he may be, he has been like family to me. He strengthened my faith, officiated my wedding, and destiny practice quest, baptized my children. Not once in my conversations with him have I heard him talk about any ethnic group in derogatory terms, or treat whites with whom he interacted with anything but courtesy and respect. About How I. He contains within him the practice, contradictions ó the Essay about Learn: My Personal Style, good and the bad ó of the community that he has served diligently for so many years. I can no more disown him than I can disown the black community. Destiny. I can no more disown him than I can disown my white grandmother ó a woman who helped raise me, a woman who sacrificed again and again for me, a woman who loves me as much as she loves anything in this world, but a woman who once confessed her fear of black men who passed her by on the street, and who on more than one occasion has uttered racial or ethnic stereotypes that made me cringe.
These people are a part of me. One Night @ The Center, By Chetan Bhagat Essay. And they are part of trials quest America, this country that I love. Some will see this as an attempt to justify or excuse comments that are simply inexcusable. I can assure you it is not. I suppose the politically safe thing to do would be to move on from this episode and just hope that it fades into the woodwork.
We can dismiss Reverend Wright as a crank or a demagogue, just as some have dismissed Geraldine Ferraro, in the aftermath of rebel define her recent statements, as harboring some deep-seated bias. But race is an issue that I believe this nation cannot afford to ignore right now. We would be making the same mistake that Reverend Wright made in his offending sermons about America ó to simplify and destiny trials, stereotype and amplify the negative to the point that it distorts reality. The fact is that the rebel define, comments that have been made and the issues that have surfaced over the last few weeks reflect the complexities of race in this country that we've never really worked through ó a part of our union that we have not yet made perfect. And if we walk away now, if we simply retreat into our respective corners, we will never be able to come together and trials, solve challenges like health care or education or the need to find good jobs for about My Personal Learning Style every American. Understanding this reality requires a reminder of how we arrived at this point. Destiny Trials Quest. As William Faulkner once wrote, The past isn't dead and @ the by Chetan Bhagat, buried. In fact, it isn't even past.
We do not need to destiny trials recite here the history of racial injustice in this country. But we do need to remind ourselves that so many of the disparities that exist between the osmosis in animals, African-American community and the larger American community today can be traced directly to inequalities passed on destiny trials quest, from an earlier generation that suffered under the purpose, brutal legacy of slavery and Jim Crow. Segregated schools were and are inferior schools; we still haven't fixed them, 50 years after Brown v. Board of Education. Trials Practice. And the inferior education they provided, then and now, helps explain the pervasive achievement gap between today's black and white students. Legalized discrimination ó where blacks were prevented, often through violence, from owning property, or loans were not granted to African-American business owners, or black homeowners could not access FHA mortgages, or blacks were excluded from unions or the police force or the what is the life, fire department ó meant that black families could not amass any meaningful wealth to bequeath to future generations. That history helps explain the wealth and income gap between blacks and practice, whites, and the concentrated pockets of short biography of frida poverty that persist in trials practice so many of today's urban and Essay How I Examining Style, rural communities.
A lack of economic opportunity among black men, and the shame and frustration that came from destiny quest, not being able to provide for one's family contributed to the erosion of black families ó a problem that welfare policies for many years may have worsened. And the lack of kahlo basic services in practice quest so many urban black neighborhoods ó parks for kids to play in, police walking the beat, regular garbage pickup, building code enforcement ó all helped create a cycle of violence, blight and neglect that continues to haunt us. This is the reality in which Reverend Wright and other African-Americans of his generation grew up. They came of age in the late '50s and early '60s, a time when segregation was still the law of the land and what is the of human life, opportunity was systematically constricted. What's remarkable is destiny trials, not how many failed in the face of discrimination, but how many men and women overcame the odds; how many were able to make a way out of no way, for those like me who would come after them. For all those who scratched and clawed their way to get a piece of the American Dream, there were many who didn't make it ó those who were ultimately defeated, in one way or another, by discrimination. Essay Examining Learning. That legacy of trials defeat was passed on to future generations ó those young men and, increasingly, young women who we see standing on street corners or languishing in our prisons, without hope or prospects for the future. Even for those blacks who did make it, questions of race and racism continue to define their worldview in fundamental ways. For the men and women of Reverend Wright's generation, the memories of short biography of frida kahlo humiliation and doubt and fear have not gone away; nor has the destiny trials, anger and the bitterness of those years.
That anger may not get expressed in public, in front of rebel define white co-workers or white friends. But it does find voice in the barbershop or the beauty shop or around the kitchen table. At times, that anger is exploited by politicians, to gin up votes along racial lines, or to make up for a politician's own failings. And occasionally it finds voice in trials practice quest the church on Sunday morning, in the pulpit and in the pews. The fact that so many people are surprised to hear that anger in Essay How I My Personal Learning some of destiny practice Reverend Wright's sermons simply reminds us of the old truism that the most segregated hour of American life occurs on Sunday morning. That anger is not always productive; indeed, all too often it distracts attention from solving real problems; it keeps us from squarely facing our own complicity within the African-American community in our condition, and prevents the African-American community from forging the alliances it needs to bring about real change.
But the anger is real; it is powerful. And to simply wish it away, to condemn it without understanding its roots, only serves to rebel define widen the chasm of misunderstanding that exists between the destiny trials quest, races. In fact, a similar anger exists within segments of the white community. Most working- and middle-class white Americans don't feel that they have been particularly privileged by their race. Their experience is the immigrant experience ó as far as they're concerned, no one handed them anything. They built it from scratch. They've worked hard all their lives, many times only to what is the purpose of human life see their jobs shipped overseas or their pensions dumped after a lifetime of labor. Trials Practice Quest. They are anxious about their futures, and they feel their dreams slipping away.
And in an era of stagnant wages and what is the purpose life, global competition, opportunity comes to trials practice be seen as a zero sum game, in rebel define which your dreams come at my expense. So when they are told to bus their children to a school across town; when they hear an practice, African-American is getting an advantage in osmosis landing a good job or a spot in a good college because of an injustice that they themselves never committed; when they're told that their fears about crime in urban neighborhoods are somehow prejudiced, resentment builds over time. Like the destiny quest, anger within the black community, these resentments aren't always expressed in polite company. But they have helped shape the political landscape for at least a generation. Anger over welfare and affirmative action helped forge the Reagan Coalition. Osmosis In Animals. Politicians routinely exploited fears of crime for their own electoral ends. Destiny Quest. Talk show hosts and conservative commentators built entire careers unmasking bogus claims of racism while dismissing legitimate discussions of racial injustice and inequality as mere political correctness or reverse racism.
Just as black anger often proved counterproductive, so have these white resentments distracted attention from the real culprits of the middle class squeeze ó a corporate culture rife with inside dealing, questionable accounting practices and short-term greed; a Washington dominated by lobbyists and special interests; economic policies that favor the few over the many. And yet, to wish away the resentments of of Life white Americans, to label them as misguided or even racist, without recognizing they are grounded in legitimate concerns ó this too widens the racial divide and blocks the path to understanding. This is where we are right now. It's a racial stalemate we've been stuck in for years. Destiny Quest. Contrary to the claims of some of my critics, black and white, I have never been so naive as to believe that we can get beyond our racial divisions in a single election cycle, or with a single candidacy ó particularly a candidacy as imperfect as my own.
But I have asserted a firm conviction ó a conviction rooted in Call Essay my faith in God and my faith in trials practice the American people ó that, working together, we can move beyond some of our old racial wounds, and that in fact we have no choice if we are to continue on the path of Essay a more perfect union. For the African-American community, that path means embracing the burdens of our past without becoming victims of our past. Trials Practice Quest. It means continuing to insist on a full measure of justice in every aspect of what of human life American life. Trials Practice. But it also means binding our particular grievances ó for better health care and One Night Call Center,, better schools and destiny practice, better jobs ó to the larger aspirations of all Americans: the white woman struggling to break the glass ceiling, the white man who has been laid off, the osmosis, immigrant trying to feed his family. And it means taking full responsibility for our own lives ó by demanding more from our fathers, and spending more time with our children, and practice, reading to them, and of human, teaching them that while they may face challenges and discrimination in their own lives, they must never succumb to despair or cynicism; they must always believe that they can write their own destiny. Ironically, this quintessentially American ó and yes, conservative ó notion of self-help found frequent expression in Reverend Wright's sermons. But what my former pastor too often failed to understand is practice, that embarking on The Fume of Life, a program of self-help also requires a belief that society can change. The profound mistake of Reverend Wright's sermons is destiny trials, not that he spoke about racism in our society.
It's that he spoke as if our society was static; as if no progress had been made; as if this country ó a country that has made it possible for one of his own members to run for the highest office in the land and build a coalition of of frida white and black, Latino and Asian, rich and poor, young and old ó is still irrevocably bound to a tragic past. But what we know ó what we have seen ó is that America can change. That is the true genius of this nation. What we have already achieved gives us hope ó the destiny trials, audacity to hope ó for what we can and must achieve tomorrow. In the white community, the path to a more perfect union means acknowledging that what ails the African-American community does not just exist in the minds of black people; that the legacy of discrimination ó and current incidents of discrimination, while less overt than in what of human life the past ó are real and must be addressed, not just with words, but with deeds, by investing in our schools and our communities; by quest, enforcing our civil rights laws and is the purpose, ensuring fairness in our criminal justice system; by providing this generation with ladders of destiny trials practice opportunity that were unavailable for previous generations. @ The Call Center,. It requires all Americans to realize that your dreams do not have to come at the expense of destiny practice my dreams; that investing in the health, welfare and education of black and brown and white children will ultimately help all of America prosper. In the rebel define, end, then, what is called for is nothing more and nothing less than what all the destiny, world's great religions demand ó that we do unto others as we would have them do unto us. Let us be our brother's keeper, scripture tells us. Let us be our sister's keeper.
Let us find that common stake we all have in one another, and let our politics reflect that spirit as well. For we have a choice in this country. We can accept a politics that breeds division and conflict and cynicism. We can tackle race only of Life as spectacle ó as we did in quest the O.J. trial ó or in the wake of tragedy ó as we did in the aftermath of Katrina ó or as fodder for in animals the nightly news. We can play Reverend Wright's sermons on every channel, every day and talk about them from now until the election, and make the only question in trials this campaign whether or not the is the life, American people think that I somehow believe or sympathize with his most offensive words. We can pounce on some gaffe by a Hillary supporter as evidence that she's playing the race card, or we can speculate on whether white men will all flock to John McCain in the general election regardless of destiny trials his policies. But if we do, I can tell you that in the next election, we'll be talking about Essay some other distraction. Destiny Trials Practice Quest. And then another one.
And then another one. And nothing will change. That is short biography of frida, one option. Or, at this moment, in this election, we can come together and say, Not this time. This time, we want to destiny trials practice quest talk about the crumbling schools that are stealing the future of black children and white children and Asian children and Hispanic children and Native American children.
This time, we want to reject the cynicism that tells us that these kids can't learn; that those kids who don't look like us are somebody else's problem. The children of America are not those kids, they are our kids, and we will not let them fall behind in a 21st century economy. Not this time. This time we want to talk about how the lines in the emergency room are filled with whites and blacks and Hispanics who do not have health care, who don't have the power on their own to overcome the of frida kahlo, special interests in Washington, but who can take them on if we do it together. This time, we want to destiny practice quest talk about the shuttered mills that once provided a decent life for men and women of rebel define every race, and the homes for sale that once belonged to Americans from every religion, every region, every walk of life. This time, we want to talk about the fact that the real problem is not that someone who doesn't look like you might take your job; it's that the practice quest, corporation you work for will ship it overseas for what purpose life nothing more than a profit. This time, we want to talk about the men and women of every color and creed who serve together and fight together and bleed together under the same proud flag.
We want to talk about practice how to bring them home from a war that should have never been authorized and of Life Essay, should have never been waged. And we want to talk about how we'll show our patriotism by destiny trials practice, caring for them and their families, and giving them the benefits that they have earned. I would not be running for President if I didn't believe with all my heart that this is what the vast majority of Americans want for Essay about How I Learn: this country. This union may never be perfect, but generation after generation has shown that it can always be perfected. And today, whenever I find myself feeling doubtful or cynical about quest this possibility, what gives me the most hope is the next generation ó the young people whose attitudes and beliefs and openness to change have already made history in this election. There is one story in what is the purpose of human particularly that I'd like to leave you with today ó a story I told when I had the great honor of destiny trials practice speaking on Dr. King's birthday at is the purpose of human life, his home church, Ebenezer Baptist, in Atlanta. There is destiny practice, a young, 23-year-old white woman named Ashley Baia who organized for our campaign in Florence, S.C. She had been working to organize a mostly African-American community since the about Learning Style, beginning of this campaign, and one day she was at a roundtable discussion where everyone went around telling their story and why they were there. And Ashley said that when she was 9 years old, her mother got cancer.
And because she had to miss days of work, she was let go and lost her health care. They had to file for bankruptcy, and that's when Ashley decided that she had to do something to help her mom. She knew that food was one of their most expensive costs, and so Ashley convinced her mother that what she really liked and really wanted to eat more than anything else was mustard and destiny trials practice quest, relish sandwiches ó because that was the One Night Call Center, Bhagat, cheapest way to eat. Practice. That's the mind of a 9-year-old. She did this for @ the Center, Bhagat Essay a year until her mom got better.
So she told everyone at the roundtable that the reason she joined our campaign was so that she could help the millions of other children in the country who want and need to help their parents, too. Now, Ashley might have made a different choice. Perhaps somebody told her along the way that the source of her mother's problems were blacks who were on welfare and practice quest, too lazy to work, or Hispanics who were coming into the country illegally. But she didn't. She sought out allies in her fight against injustice. Anyway, Ashley finishes her story and rebel define, then goes around the room and trials, asks everyone else why they're supporting the campaign. They all have different stories and different reasons. Many bring up a specific issue. And finally they come to this elderly black man who's been sitting there quietly the entire time. And Ashley asks him why he's there.
And he does not bring up a specific issue. He does not say health care or the economy. He does not say education or the war. Essay About How I Examining My Personal Style. He does not say that he was there because of Barack Obama. Destiny Trials. He simply says to everyone in the room, I am here because of Ashley. I'm here because of Ashley. By itself, that single moment of recognition between that young white girl and that old black man is not enough. It is of Life Essay, not enough to give health care to the sick, or jobs to destiny practice the jobless, or education to our children. But it is where we start.
It is where our union grows stronger. Short Biography. And as so many generations have come to trials practice quest realize over the course of the 221 years since a band of patriots signed that document right here in Philadelphia, that is where the Essay about My Personal Style, perfection begins.
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analyzing essays Youíve been staring at your blank computer screen for destiny trials, what feels like hours, trying to figure out how to start your analytical essay. In Animals? You try to choose between writing the introduction first or getting right into the meat of destiny trials practice it. Of Life Essay? But somehow, it seems too difficult to destiny trials quest do either. What you need is is a blueprintóa foolproof way to get your essay structured. Then all you have to do is fill in the blanks. By Anonymous [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons. What an Analytical Essay IsóAnd What It Isnít. Helpful, right? Um, not so much. First, it might be more useful to osmosis explain what an analytical essay isnít before getting to what it is . An analytical essay isnít a summary. Though this may seem obvious in theory, itís more difficult in destiny trials quest practice.
If you read your essay and it sounds a lot like a book report, itís probably only summarizing events or characters. One way to figure out if youíre summarizing instead of analyzing is to look at your support. Are you simply stating what happened, or are you relating it back to your main point? Okay, so what is an analytical essay, exactly ? Usually, itís writing that has a more narrowed focus than a summary. Analytical essays usually concentrate on rebel define, how the book or poem was writtenófor example, how certain themes present themselves in the story, or how the use of metaphor brings a certain meaning to destiny trials practice a poem. In short, this type of essay requires you to look at purpose of human life, the smaller parts of the work to help shed light on the larger picture. An example of a promptóand the example Iím going to use for the rest of destiny this postócould be something like: Analyze the theme of what is the life sacrifice in the Harry Potter series. (Note: there might be some spoilers, but I figured everyone who was planning on reading the books has done so alreadyóor at least has seen the movies.) One Way To Form Your Analytical Essay Outline. There are quite a few ways to organize your analytical essay, but no matter how you choose to destiny quest write it, your essay should always have three main parts: Iíll get into the nitty-gritty of this soon, but for all you visual learners, here is biography of frida, a nice representation of all the components that make a great analytical essay outline.
You can see that Iíve added a few more details than just the introduction, body, and conclusion. But hold your horsesóweíre getting to destiny trials quest those parts right now. Introduction of Your Analytical Essay Outline. The purpose of of human your introduction is to get the reader interested in your analysis. The introduction should include at least three thingsóa hook, your thesis statement, and a sentence or two describing how you intend to prove your thesis statement. 1. You gotta hook Ďem from the start. The first part of destiny practice your introduction should draw the reader in.
This is called the hook. Kahlo? The hook should be interesting or surprising. You can achieve this by asking a rhetorical question, giving some relevant statistics, or making a statement thatís unusual or controversial. For my Harry Potter example, I might say, ďSince the publication of the first book in trials practice quest the Harry Potter series, Harry Potter and the Philosopherís Stone , some Christian groups have attacked the books for promoting witchcraft. Rebel Define? However, one of the main themes of the books draws inspiration from Christianity itselfóthat of sacrifice.Ē
Okay, so thatís two sentences. But itís got a little bit of controversy and relates to what the rest of the essay will discuss. Destiny Trials Quest? 2. Essay About Style? Get to the good stuffówrite a killer thesis statement. Okay, so now that youíve got your reader hooked, you need to start getting to the point. Destiny Trials Practice Quest? This is what purpose life, where the thesis statement comes in.
My thesis might be, ďThe theme of sacrifice is prevalent throughout the series and is embodied as sacrifice for the greater good, sacrifice for an ultimate gain, and sacrifice to keep a promise.Ē 3. Itís time to back up your thesis. Let the trials practice quest reader know how youíre going to One Night @ the Center, prove your claim. For my example, I would let the reader know that I intend to analyze the instances of destiny trials Harryís ďdeath,Ē Voldemortís sacrifice of kahlo his soul in destiny practice quest exchange for immortality, and how Snape sacrifices in Essay about How I Learn: Examining Style order to honor a promise made to Lily Potter. These points will be the building blocks of the practice body paragraphs. Body of Your Analytical Essay Outline. The body is osmosis in animals, where you can start to get really creative and play around with formatting. In the flowchart, there are three body paragraphs. But thatís because I was trained in the 5-paragraph outline. But you can include as many or as few body paragraphs as you wantóas long as you end up thoroughly supporting your thesis. For my outline, each body paragraph includes a topic sentence, followed by three sets of claims, evidence to support those claims, and how that evidence ties back to the topic sentence. Again, three is not necessarily a magic number here.
You could make one claim with a lot of trials practice quest evidence, or five claims to support your topic sentence. But letís get into it, shall we? 1. Develop a strong topic sentence. Each topic sentence in each body paragraph of your analytical essay outline should tell the reader exactly what that section is going to be about. My first body paragraph might start with, ďHarry Potter is willing to fulfill prophecy and make the ultimate sacrificeóthat of his lifeóin order to save the rest of the wizarding world.Ē 2. Make your claim. The claim should dive into a smaller part of the overarching topic sentence.
The topic sentence I gave can be broken down into several smaller claimsóthat Harry knew that he was fulfilling prophecy, that he was actually willing to die, and that his death would be of short biography of frida profound significance. Destiny Practice Quest? 3. Provide evidence from the text to back your claim. You canít just go around making claims without any support. You can use quotes or paraphrase parts of the text to add evidence. For evidence that Harry knew that he was fulfilling prophecy, you could cite the instance in the hall of @ the Call Center, prophecies with the trials quest quote, ďand either must die at rebel define, the hand of the other for trials quest, neither can live while the what is the life other survives.Ē 4. Destiny Trials Practice Quest? Tie that evidence to the topic sentence. You have to make it absolutely clear why you included the is the purpose of human evidence. Trials Quest? If you donít, your analytical essay runs the risk of being a summary. For example, with the citing of the prophecy, I would tell the biography of frida reader that Harry and practice, his friends found said prophecy and figured out that it had to be about what is the purpose life, him (although there are objections that it couldíve been referring to Neville, but weíll leave that out of this example).
They knew that either Voldemort had to die or Harry did, and he had to be willing to destiny trials do that. Theyíre not needed in the outline, but when you write your final essay, be sure you include effective transitions. This will help your essay flow. Conclusion of Your Analytical Essay Outline. After youíve built up all of your body paragraphs, given the appropriate evidence to rebel define back your claims, and tied that evidence to your awesome topic sentences, youíre ready to wrap it all up. The conclusion should be a brief restatement of your main points without being a direct copy. For example, ďThere are many motivations behind sacrificeóto help others, to practice help oneself, or to keep a promise to a loved oneóand J.K. Of Life Essay? Rowling explores several of them through the characters in the Harry Potter book series.Ē This, of course, does not suffice as a full conclusion.
To fill it out and give the reader a sense of closure, you can relate the theme to the real world or end with a final quote from the text or the practice quest author. Short Biography Of Frida? Use This Downloadable Analytical Essay Outline as a Guide. Easy, right? I know youíre pumped to get started, but before you do, I have a template for the analytical essay outline for destiny quest, you to download. Of course, your instructorís directions will trump mine, so if they say to do something a specific way, I wonít be offended if you take their advice over mine.
And donít forget about the Kibin editors. When your analytical essay is about Style, all typed up, they can help you make sure that itís as good as it can get. Psst. 98% of Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over trials, 500,000 example essays. About the Author. Rebel Define? Eden Meirow is a self-employed freelance writer with a passion for English, history and education. You can find her on Google+. dis was absooltelee fantasteec thxc you 4 de owwline. awesome! Glad you liked it. #128578; @naomi_tepper:disqus Oh my Gosh! this was amazing thank you so much!
This helped a lot with my Economics essay for Humanities 6 World Studies! Woot woot! Happy to destiny trials help. Osmosis In Animals? #128578; Thanks for the comment. Destiny? This is undoubtedly very much helpful#8230; Thanks a lot. One Night Call By Chetan Essay? You#8217;re welcome! Thanks for the comment and destiny trials quest, thanks for reading. #128578; Hi#8230;.Eden thank you for orienting me on how to osmosis in animals structure an analytical essay. because of many reasons which i don#8217;t like to name writing an analytical essay has been my Achilies Hill. Your effort in writing this article has thrown much need light as far as I#8217;m concerned.
I look forward to quest your reply on the question of structuring of analytical political essay on issues like say Affirmative Action or Constitutionalism. Thank you for your kind words. In regards to writing a political analytical essay, it varies depending on rebel define, the course and the requirements of your instructor. Destiny Trials Practice? However, you can follow the purpose life same advice in this post. Trials Practice Quest? Introduction with a hook and thesis, body paragraphs that make claims with evidence to support those claims, and The Fume of Life Essay, a conclusion that wraps it all up. The main difference is that you#8217;ll have to do more research than reading just one book. (And make sure to cite your sources.) I hope that helped! Thank you, this will help ? This was really useful I went through so many websites the destiny trials finally got this one. Rebel Define? Sweet! Glad you found it helpful. hi this is great.
Fabulous! Happy to help. How would I write an analytic essay using dramatic conventions? I#8217;m supposed to write an essay on The Tempest from Shakespeare using dramatic conventions and I#8217;m not doing so well at understanding how to do it. basically it#8217;s also asking me #8220;how dramatic conventions make the reader see characters in a certain way. Please respond to this if you can. I think that I would devote one body paragraph to each of the dramatic conventions that you#8217;re covering in your paper. For instance, in destiny one paragraph, if you are writing about the The Fume of Life Essay conventions of soliloquy, the play-within-a-play convention, and asides (these are the first three conventions I thought of #8212; I#8217;m not sure which ones you#8217;ve studied in class), then you could devote one body paragraph to each of these topics and their influence on how the destiny quest audience views the characters. I hope this puts you on the right track! I have two write an essay about Animals by O#8217;Hara and The Fume of Life Essay, how it reflects the innocence and simplicity of childhood. Trials Practice? I don#8217;t know how to start. Could anyone suggest the first sentence of the introduction?
I#8217;ve already got my outline #128578; Hi Lily Awesome that you have your outline ready to go. You might want to start with the quintessential quote from the text that stands out as reflecting these qualities of innocence/childhood simplicity. For more great hook sentence tips visit: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/good-hook-sentences/ This is amazing and extremely helpful! Thank you author. Purpose? Hey, thanks for reading and for the nice comment!
I#8217;ll be sure to show the author. #128578; do you eat pussy? Haha! Awesome. We#8217;re happy to help, but don#8217;t sell yourself short just because of your blonde hair. Destiny? #128578; great site but second para 24th word should be ALWAYS not away. Osmosis? dont take this as offensive but im just trying to improve this site that is all. Thanks for keeping us on our toes, Shayan!
No offense taken #8212; we#8217;ll get that updated #128578; Great blog post ! Just to add my thoughts if you are wanting a Express Evictions 3-Day Notice to Pay Rent or Quit , my secretary came across a blank version here https://goo.gl/nlOqzY. Hi there! Although this was really helpful for literary analysis, I was wondering if you had an idea as to how to apply this to historical analysis. I have to write about the effects of European migration, warfare, and disease on Native Americans, and practice quest, was thinking of finding 3 specific examples of each and explaining the effect that each had on Native Americans. Is this a good plan? You could *definitely* apply this framework to a historical analysis, yes! As Eden mentions, you can have as many body paragraphs as you want, so you could devote a single paragraph to each of rebel define your examples #8212; giving you 9 body paragraphs. Since that would get pretty lengthy, you could add a header before each of your 3-paragraph sections to keep your paper organized. DIOS MIO! this is really helpful.
Woot! That#8217;s awesome. So happy you found this post helpful. Trials Practice? #128578; Thanks for of frida kahlo, the kind comment. This is so helpful, thank you. I have to write an analytical essay about The Killer Angels by Michael Shaara and quest, I#8217;m stuck. This is osmosis in animals, my second essay and on destiny trials, the first I received a C #128577; I don#8217;t know how to start and it isn#8217;t even about the whole book, its only for biography of frida, half the book. Please help. Starting is definitely the hardest part sometimes :/ thanks so much for your blog. Trials Practice? you have made it very easy for me to understand this (horrible) essay. I have to write my first Analytical essay. kind regards to you.
And thanks to you for reading! Good luck with your essay #8212; you#8217;ve got this. I have to @ the Essay write an analytical essay for my college English course, and destiny trials quest, its about an American folk song called #8220;Frankie and biography kahlo, Johnny#8221; and im stuck in how to destiny begin it! my professor gave me an example on how to The Fume of Life Essay start, she said #8220;to summarize a short definition of North American folk music from trials quest Oxford Music Online#8221; please help. A definition is one way to start your essay, sure! This post contains lots more great advice (plus you can sign up for 14 hook types + examples in the bottom right corner): https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/good-hook-sentences/ Damn am I thirsty, any fine white beothches dtf.
NAH MEAN. Of Life? Thank you so much. I was dying a moment ago. Now I think I can manage it. love the example! it got me even more excited! #128516;#128523;#128526; Yesss, you can totally manage it! Thanks for reading #128578; I feel motivated and have been trying my best all these days#8230; Grateful for everything. )
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Essay: Using Humor in the Teaching-Learning Process To Improve the Studentsí Speaking Skill. It is important for English techniques and strategies to help enhance studentsí speaking abilities, among other English skills they also need to develop. Furthermore, realizing that speaking is very important for English learners, it is essential for destiny practice English teachers to encourage the students to speak. They seem to have difficulties in deciding what material must be used and how to teach speaking appropriately. Moreover, they must be able to find out the ways of how to make speaking easier and Essay How I Examining My Personal Style introduce the practice quest, fun activities for the students to learn. In this case, teachers have responsibilities to guide the students during the learning process and to give motivation to them to improve their English especially in the speaking skill. Teachersí effective use of humor is generally viewed as a positive factor in the classroom (Check 1986:5). It may even influence the effectiveness of teacher power and compliance-gaining strategies. Wheeless, Stewart, Keamey, #038; Plax (1987) note that compliance is an enactment of power. Likewise, if teachers exert humor in the classroom, they will be seen as more powerful by their students. Possibly, teachers could gain more compliance from students through the utilization of rebel define, humor.
1.1Statement of the problem. Teachers come in two types: Boss teacher and lead teacher. Quest. Boss teacher is substantially known as authoritative, imposing, demanding, dominant, and short biography of frida kahlo oriented. Undoubtedly, these characteristics lead to learnersí misbehavior, poor self-esteem, and low learning motivation. Practice. Conversely, lead teacher is known as democratic, open-minded, facilitator and most importantly motivator and friendly; He plays up the Examining Style, emotional growth of learners in an effective classroom environment. Students are entirely influenced by classroom setting, the practice, content of the syllabi and especially the is the purpose of human, way they are presented.
This means that the trials practice, more inappropriate learning conditions occur the less enjoyable lessons; and the more bored the students will be. Hence, teachers should be aware of how to harmonize students with EFL learning, and hasten to look for The Fume of Life Essay the suitable strategy that allows them to enhance learning especially speaking skill. Because teachers at Abbes Laghrour university face many obstacles in English language teaching and as for the students, they lack confidence to destiny practice, speak English with their teachers and classmates because most the of them complain about such difficulties in pronunciation, vocabulary, grammar, psychological obstacles as shyness, fears, hesitation They also lack of The Fume Essay, opportunity to use English in their daily lives.for learning and practice quest helps them feel at The Fume Essay ease, secure, increases their sense of The study is a suggestion to use humor as a pedagogical and destiny trials psychological strategy in biography of frida classroom which makes students influenced positively to raise their desire belonging to the class. So that allows them to be engaged and get involved into the lesson, creates friend-ship between teacher and learners; as well as, facilitates communication between them. Students certainly will get rid of anxiety and boredom; they will get ready to receive information and enhance learning in destiny trials quest general and Essay Examining My Personal speaking skill in destiny quest particular. 1.2.
The aim of the study. The researcher aims in this study to interview EFL learners by increasing their level of speaking skill. Admitting the rebel define, fact that students need to enjoy learning to progress, the study attempts to attest to the effectiveness of humor as a pedagogical and psychological strategy through investigating its positive effects on learning. In order to check the validity of the hypothesis, the following questions should be answered: A- Does the use of humor in the English foreign language classroom facilitate the studentsí speaking skill? B- How can teachers use humor in the teaching process? C- What guidelines can be made for the use of humor in English as a foreign language? 1.3. The Hypothesis. This work attempts to test the following hypothesis:
Teaching English by using humor can improve the students -speaking skill. Humor is destiny practice a powerful tool needed by teachers to create a multi-harmony relationship: teacher-teaching, teacher-students, students -students, students-learning. It represents the effectiveness of short biography of frida, communicative classroom since it helps avoid classroom monotony and anxiety as well as it allows studentsí self-esteem and self-confidence to arise. Humor not only establishes studentsí engagement and practice quest involvement in the lesson, but also develops studentsí productivity in is the purpose life EFL through providing positive learning atmosphere. Teachersí mood is one of the major factors that impacts studentsí attitudes toward learning.
Harmer (1998) claims that teachersí characteristics like being fed up and in a bad-humor negatively influence their learners, so they should look for enjoyable and invigorating strategies. Humor, for instance, is a pedagogically effective strategy that can be used to avoid the negative impact of the negative characters of destiny trials, teachers since ďstudents enjoy being entertained and amusedĒ(Harmer, 1998, p.1).In other words, the happier learning students feel; the more successful they will be. Humor is biography kahlo defined by saying what makes the others amused.(Vossler, Sheidlower, 2011)say that in classroom, humor is not only being funny or saying what is destiny trials quest laughable, but also is giving the impression of being friendly and having affinity with learners .Gatt (2000) defines Humor as follows: It is the Ďbreathing-out of the soulí. When during the lesson the students only listen to the teacher, who may be teaching in the same tone, then it is as if they only breathe in and have no opportunity to breathe out. They need humor, which the teacher can find in very different places. Therefore the teacher must bring in humor during his lessons and this humor should result from the vitality and momentum of the lesson. Students prefer being in what is the purpose of human classroom situation that stimulates them to learn.
Leonard (1968) asserts that the best environment for learning is the interactive (as cite in Wrench, 2008, p.46) where students participate rather than being merely receptive (Jones #038; Jones, 1981, as cited in Wrench, 2008, p.46).As for the fundamental role humor plays in classroom, it creates active students in a communicative environment. The smooth running of lessons ensues. Furthermore, (Morrison, 2008) describes humor by tonic for effective teaching. Trials Quest. She states that the purposeful use of rebel define, humor ignites studentsí boredom, stress, depression, shyness, fear, and anger. Humor is the best ďbrain foodĒ. It is the link between brain and learning; it rings the brainís bell to destiny trials practice, activate ďmemoryĒ to start storage to rebel define, push them up for exchange informationí to speak out destiny quest, loud without any fears. So, information presented humorously is extremely memorable. Berk, also, notes that Humor can create an rebel define unforgettable image if it is accompanied by quest, the use ofĒ your words plus your physical expressiveness in @ the Call Essay your eyes, face, hands and arms, and destiny trials the rest of your bodyĒ(2003, p. 64). Sylwester assumes that emotions are considered as the How I Learning Style, stimulus of trials practice quest, learning; they attract the attention which is required to learn (as cited in Morrison, 2008, p.2).Emotions can be presented by humor. When teacher uses humor, students become enthusiastic to attend the class for a long time, and feel interested in what is being said by the teacher. Humor does not only prepare successful learners but also successful speakers whereas, the pronunciation is the most important goals of learning languages.
As for teaching, it is necessary to use humor since it retains studentsí attendance, improves trust between teacher and learners, and provides positive energy. This latter maintains high morale and makes flexible learners; it enables them to be up to different situations and changes by rebel define, evaporating stress when facing obstacles. Humor is trials quest ďcatalyst for rebel define creativityĒ. It allows thinking critically which results producing and combining new ideas. Those ideas are necessarily demanded for managing problems-solving .Correspondingly, Morrison (2008) states that humor gives an ďoptimistic energyĒ that increases confidence so as to respond to destiny trials quest, stress and adapt to difficulties. She distinctly mentions humor is the paramount source of creativity and rebel define imagination. Humor positively affects the brain.
It enables learners create various ideas. Loomans #038; Kolberg #038; Weston #038; Allen go further, arguing that what makes somebody laugh may be is not for destiny practice quest another since humor differs according to gender, generation and of Life Essay culture. Destiny Trials Practice Quest. However, some forms of humor are universal. The Fume Of Life. Therefore, teachers should apply that latter to suit all learners (2002).Moreover, they confirm that teachers necessarily have positive attitudes toward what they do to fulfill their satisfaction and enthusiasm in order to, at the end, lighten the class. Trials Practice. Being humorous as well is one of the essential basics for much more lightened class; it permits learning to be a ďjoyous experience not a dread oneĒ. Loomans categorized humor benefits. Social benefits: it sparks creativity, improves the is the of human, likelihood of belonging to destiny practice, teams, and decreases conflicts.
Physical benefits: it contacts the Essay about Learning, internal organs and sends them messages to reduce stress, as well as regulates blood pressure. And most importantly, benefits for learning: it reinforces many learning skills such as critical thinking skill, communication skill, and cooperative learning skill. 1.5. Research method. In this study, the destiny trials practice, researcher has been looking for a correlation between two variables humor and Essay studentsí speaking skill achievements. In other words, this study examines whether humor is an effective pedagogical, and destiny quest psychological strategy or not; it is Essay about Examining My Personal a studentsí requirement or not. The method adopted has been based on two questionnaires delivered to the first year English LMD students and teachers at Abbes Lagrour University. The studentsí questionnaire results reveal the importance of humor in EFL process as a studentsí requirement and its importance to improve their speaking skill achievements. The second questionnaire delivered to English teachers of the same students. Researcher has been based on students and their teachers requirements, needs and point of view about the research topic as they considered the destiny practice quest, main sides of the teaching- learning process .Analysis and the discussions of the results of both questionnaires to decide whether humor is an effective teaching-learning tool to enhance the One Night @ the by Chetan, speaking skill or not.
1.6. Limitation of the study. It is destiny quest important to indicate some difficulties when collecting background data. Looking for references especially books was the what of human, main obstacle the trials practice, researcher faced. Rebel Define. Gathering information for destiny practice the review of literature took time what hindered the progress of the study conducted. First, this research is conducted through the use of Learn: Style, two questionnaires as one procedure which is oriented toward students and teachers only. Classroom observation procedures needs a long period of time to collect information and to watch thoroughly what is destiny practice going on in the classroom and pay attention to about How I Learn: Examining, the sudden changes that may take place in order to guarantee its reliability. Second, the term humor is very assorted that makes the researcher has been obliged to use the term humor in its general meaning without precise one kind at the expense of destiny practice, another, in some times the researcher use terms as (laugh, amusement), as a synonyms of the osmosis, term humor. Chapter 1 (theoretical part) Section 1 Humor.
Humor is the link between effective teaching and successful learning. A side from being a social behavior and an integral part of our humanity, humor is a powerful teaching tool that promotes non threatening learning environment, and breaks the trials practice quest, ice down between teacher and rebel define students. Then rapport and trust Relationship between them are evolved. In that sense, Tom Davis says: ďThe job of the teacher is to get students laughing, and when their mouths are open, to give them something on which to chewĒ. Destiny Practice. Why humor is solidly related to teaching? ďAttitude and behavior are a key part of your role as a tutor, since they can be so influentialĒ(Morss #038; Murray, 2005, p. Essay How I Learn: My Personal Learning. 141). Being boring is one of the major sins in destiny trials practice quest teaching (powers, 2005) as boredom and dullness can kill students motivation and negate their desire to learn (Deiter, 2000). In addition, content is firmly connected to pedagogy; what is taught is as important as how it is taught(Chickering #038; Gamson, 1987);the teacher should be able to present the lesson in engaging way (Flanagan, 2007) Humor is the demanded strategy. It helps ďto your subject knowledge with influencing social interactions and shaping the climate and motivations of studentsĒ(Morss #038; Murray, 2005, p. One Night @ The Center, By Chetan Bhagat Essay. 141).Appropriate and timely humor in the classroom can foster cognitive processes, affective and emotional processes (Berk, 1996), as well as contribute to trials, over all teaching effectiveness (Kher #038; Molstad #038; Donahue, 1999). Although humor is valuable teaching tool, many teacher underutilize it (Deniere, 1995), and challenge its use in rebel define classroom (Berk, 1998).Gravely said, ??This is a time in school history when humor is vanishing and in some instances has disappeared altogetherĒ (Morisson, 2008, p.71).
Then, a contradiction has arisen between what is discovered, about humor, by destiny trials quest, scholars and what really happens in classroom. In general, humor is saying something or acting in a way that makes the others amused. To Oxford Advanced Learnersí Dictionary, since the late 16th century, humor takes the following definition: Ďthe quality in something that makes it funny or amusing; the ability to laugh at things that are amusingí. In Latin, the term derived from short biography of frida kahlo, Ďumorí which refers to Ďbodily fluidí (control human health and emotion). Similarly, in destiny practice ancient Greek, humor derived from Ďhumorsí that means Ďthe balance of fluids in the human bodyí. Websterís Dictionary defines humor as ďquality of One Night Call Center, by Chetan Essay, imagination quick to perceive the ludicrous or to express itself in trials practice quest an amusing way; fun; caprice; disposition; mood; state of mind.Ē(As cited in One Night @ the by Chetan Essay Shade, 1996, p. 9) Apart from tending to practice, provoke laughter and provide amusement, humor has been differently defined by many authors. According to Levine (1969), Ďhumor is regarded as trifling, destructive and degrading force to morality, religion, and art. Seen differently, it is liberating, socially constructive, and even ennobling artí (p.1).Morrison believes that our cognitive emotional growth is mainly influenced by the use of humor in our lives (2002, p.23).Humor is Ďan amusing communication that produces positive emotions and cognitions in the individual or in the groupí (Romero #038; Cruthirds, 2006, p. 59).However, Hurren thinks that humor is Essay about How I Learn: Examining Style any message, verbal or non verbal, communicated by the teacher and makes the destiny trials, students feel amused (2006). ĎAt its basic level, humor is an intended or unintended message interpreted as funnyí (lynch, 2002, p423).
Vossler #038; Sheidlower go deeper , claiming that humor, at its heart, it is not the behavior of telling jokes, but it is that strategy used to create rapport between teacher and students in The Fume a way makes them feel closer to their instructor (2011) since Ď laughter is the destiny quest, shorter distance between two peopleí (McGhee, 2002 as cited in Role, 2011, p. 4)May ,Humanistic Psychologist states that Humor is the rebel define, capacity to perceive, appreciate, or express what is destiny trials practice quest funny, amusing, incongruous, ludicrous, etc. It is Ďthe healthy wayí that keeps you away from problems; it provides you with the appropriate mood needed to perceive and solve problems (as cited in Lyons, 2005, p. 3). Humor is about How I Learn: My Personal Style a basic part of Ďhumanityís unique capacity for destiny practice languageí. It is considered as a universal human experience (Kruger, 1996). 2- Basic theories about humor. 1.2. Osmosis. Theories of Humor. The different definitions of humor reveal the trials, distinct perspectives the authors rely on when expounding humor and what social function it serves.
Those perspectives respond to diverse theories that facilitate the short biography kahlo, process of explaining humor in more organized way (Martin, 2007) because it is crucial to understand theories of humor rather than erect its definition (Brooks, 1992). Although each theory focuses on a certain area of quest, humor, the pioneers allege that their theory is the most reliable. 1.2.1. Superiority Theory. ďEverything is funny as long as itís happening to someone else!Ē The superiority theory of of Life Essay, humor traces back to Plato and Aristotle. They believe that our feeling of superiority over people we laugh at destiny trials gives us the One Night @ the Call Center,, pleasure of humor.
Cornett (1986) cites that humans feel joy at being superior to others. Destiny. They laugh at inferior people mistakes which they never do and at osmosis in animals their own past follies since they feel superior to who they were in the past. He adds that what may be funny can be represented by clowns, caricatures, puppets, and impersonators. Also, ĎDefects in others are humorous as long as they are not harmful to the victimsí (p. 26). Monro (1988) asserts that Ďhumor is quest derisiveí.
Pleasure derives from feeling superior at those who have Ďfailingí or Ďdefectí; Ďlaugher always looks down at whatever he laughs atí. He claims that the The Fume, originator of destiny trials practice, this theory named ĎThomas Hobbesí (1588- 1679) who states that laughter results from Ďvaingloryí, i.e. we laugh at The Fume Essay others Ďmisfortunesí or Ďinfirmitiesí, at our past mistakes. Monro cites laughter definition according to Bregson (1859-1941), supporter of superiority theory of humor: Ďlaughter is societyí defense against the eccentric who refuses to destiny practice, adjust himself to its requirementsí. In other words, humor is rebel define a reaction to what considered inexplicable. Laughing at destiny quest inferior and ugly people primarily is caused by feeling superior over them. Hill (1988) indicates ĎWe laugh maliciously when we possess superior knowledge over the people we ridicule.
We laugh at people who have an inferior moral character or at people who are uglier or distorted than ourselvesí (p. 40). This type of in animals, humor elevates inequality in society. Differences in trials quest religions, nationalities, races, and occupations lead some people to The Fume, feel superior at others. The superiority is the quest, core of Essay How I Learn: Examining, finding pleasure when laughing at inferior people. 1.2.2. Incongruity Theory.
According to this theory, humor is perceived at the moment of realization of incongruity between what really happen and destiny trials practice what is The Fume expected to happen. Berk (2005) voices that incongruity can be called Ďcontrast resolutioní. Destiny Trials Practice Quest. It is ďthe juxtaposition of the Ďexpectedí with the Ďunexpected'Ē. Deckers #038; Kizers (1975) maintain that the condition for humor takes place is the divergence between what is expected to rebel define, happen and what really happens. Kerr (2001, p. Practice Quest. 2) notes that ďHaving a sense of humor is about having a sense of in animals, balance, perspective and proportion. A sense of humor is the ability to recognize the incongruities and absurdities that confront us on a daily basis. In other words, it is the ability to look at the same thing as everyone else and see something just a little differentĒ. Shade (1996) suggests that successful humor is the destiny, outcome of the abrupt changes which occur incongruously. It mainly derives from of human life, Ďjokesí and Ďriddlesí in destiny trials quest which incongruity may be presented by of frida kahlo, Ďcontradictioní, Ďunderstatementí, Ďexaggerationí, Ďsurpriseí, Ďreversalí, Ďludicrousí. Destiny Practice. He adds that the incongruity in humor results when there is: first a discrepancy between the rebel define, punch line and practice quest the body of a joke, and Essay about How I Learn: Examining Learning second a violation of expectancies.
These may involve: a) Two conflicting sets of rules, b) Two different frames of reference, or c) The reversal of figure and destiny practice quest ground. (p.11) Degrading a value is an short of frida kahlo essential feature of practice, incongruity theory. Monro (1988) states ďhumorous incongruity consists in degrading something exalted by purpose life, bringing it into contact with something trivial or disreputableĒ(p. 351). Destiny Practice Quest. This idea is supported by Spencer (1820-1903) (as cited in Monro, 1988, pp. 352, 353). Spencer defines humor as ďdescending incongruityĒ. Nevertheless, he confirms that incongruity, not degradation, is the paramount source of humor. German philosophers Kant (in 1790) and Schopenhauer (in 1819), the developers of is the purpose life, this theory, proclaim ďThe basis of this theory is that humor is created when we expect one thing and is (sic) suddenly presented with another .Humor, then, is the result of these unexpected connectionsĒ (as cited in Shade, 1996, p. 11). For Schopenhauer (1788-1860) (as cited in Monro, 1988, p.352), humor is the trials practice, pleasure that derives from the ďunexpected connections between ideasĒ.
Kant (1724-1804) (as cited in Monro, 1988, p.351) identifies incongruity by rebel define, ??frustrated expectationĒ. Practice Quest. He believes that humor comes up when the concept you expect would happen ends into is the, nothing i.e. humor derives from your recognition that your expectation have not realized. In his point of view, humor is Ďpenetratingí as long as it connects two completely different attitudes, or it makes a reversal of values. Incongruity encompasses both the intellectual and emotional elements. Quest. Kant #038;Schopenhauer phrase that the mental component of humor realized when the unexpected connections between two things come about.
Differently stated, pleasure arises as a result of ďthe rigors of logic, reason, and thinkingĒ. Osmosis. Shade asserts that humor has another imperative component Ďthe emotional elementí. ĎAttentioní, Ďanticipationí, Ďtensioní, Ďsurpriseí help humor crop up (1996, p. 11). Furthermore, Spencer declares ďlaughter is an overflow of destiny practice, nervous energy, and that the abrupt transition from a solemn thought to a trivial or disreputable one leaves us with a fund of nervous energy which needs to be expended in laughterĒ. It means that emotions we feel as sudden changes take place released by humor. 1.2.3. Relief Theory. In this theory, humor is seen as catharsis. It is the preferable strategy used to challenge pent- up emotions. Seaward (2006) regards humor as a response to stressful situations .Monro (1988) highlights that relief is the short of frida, core of humor. People laugh as strain removed. He defines humor as the temporary way adopted to get released from the restraint of the trials practice quest, conventional social requirements (pp.
353, 354). Freud (1856-1939), the originator of release theory, mentions that through humor, we can trick the Ďcensorí, the internal inhibitions, that handicap the osmosis, achievement of practice quest, our Ďnatural impulsesí. He considers his humor theory and his theory of dreams interpretation similar. Humor, exactly like dreams, can beguile censor. Suppressed wishes then may come true. The Fume Essay. Through humor, we give Ďventí to our Ďrepressed desiresí (as cited in Monro, 1988, pp. 354, 355). For Shade, laughter gives us some temporary freedom from the numerous restrictions, such as constrains of conventionality and the rigidity of logic, under which we live our daily lives. Destiny Practice. This theory focuses on the social and Essay about How I Learn: My Personal Learning behavioral elements of humor. Destiny Trials. Laughter helps elude the dictatorial social conventions .For example ďwhen someone at a meeting uses humor to what is the purpose life, add a little levity to destiny trials quest, a tense situation or discussion.
This allows everyone to laugh for a moment, break away from the topic at hand for a minute or two, regroup their thoughts, and begin addressing the issue, perhaps with a new perspectiveĒ The most noticeable thing about these theories is that each theory has its own perspective and area of My Personal Style, focus which means that no theory can fully explain the destiny practice quest, nature of humor and its social functions. 3-Kinds (types) of humor. Humor is in huge variety of more than 20 types .The research focuses on the famous only as below: Types of humor Definitions Examples. idiom a form of expression peculiar to is the purpose of human, a language, especially one that has significance other than its literal one. He was as mad as a cut snake means that he was angry. irony a figure of speech or literary device in which the literal meaning is the opposite of that intended Exclaiming, ĎWhat a beautiful day for a picnic!í in the middle of a thunderstorm. joke something said or done to excite laughter or amusement; a playful mischievous trick or remark.
What does a storm cloud wear under its coat? parody humorous or satirical imitation of a serious piece of literature or writing; to imitate in such a way as to ridicule. Scieszka , Jon, The true story of the practice quest, three little pigs. Munsch, Robert, The paper bag princess. pun the humorous use of a word in such a manner as to bring out different meanings or applications, or of words alike in in animals sound but different in meaning; a play on words. Police were called to a daycare centre where a three-year-old was resisting a rest. a puzzling question, problem, or matter David was out for a walk when it started to rain. He did not have an umbrella and he wasnít wearing a hat. His clothes were soaked, yet not a single hair on his head got wet. How could this happen? spoonerism a slip of the tongue whereby initial or other sounds of words are transposed My dunny fog is maned Nitsy is a spoonerism for My funny dog is named Mitsy.
4- Forms of Humor in Classroom. Humor in the classroom can take many forms. A study of humor in trials practice quest the college classroom, done by in animals, Bryant, Chomsky, and Zillman (1979), leaks that humor in lectures can be classified as jokes, riddles, puns, funny stories, humorous comments. Cartoons and destiny practice comic verse have been discovered as other creative ways to incorporate humor in classes (Kher et al., 1999). Riddle is rebel define a question that is difficult to understand, and that has a surprising answer, that you ask somebody as a game. The term riddle derives from the old English word ďradelsĒ or ďradelse; it is related to trials practice quest, Dutch ďraadselĒ and German ďratselĒ (Oxford Advanced Learnerís Dictionary, 2008). It is a word game; an of Life enigma; a puzzling fact, it is trials quest similar in nature to a joke but with a specific format (a question- answer format).
For instance, ĎMatt: How do you keep fish from How I Examining Learning, smelling? Jenny: Cut off their nosesí. Riddles are preferably related to subject matter. The main objective for utilizing riddles is to teach students how to analyze and discuss ideas (Shade, 1996). For example, ĎImagine that you are in a boat, in the middle of the sea.
Suddenly you are surrounded by hungry sharks, just waiting to feed on you. How can you put an end to thisí? (The answer is: stop imagining). Trials. Such humorous riddle brings students to use their higher order thinking in order to One Night @ the Call Center,, solve it. Additionally, riddles may aim to teach vocabulary, spelling, even phonology. Shade suggests the use of letter puzzlers: Build on a letter to make a word: What comes after L? Bow (elbow) What comes after E? Z (easy) What comes after B? 4 (before) Pun is the clever or humorous use of a word that has more than one meaning, or words that have different meaning but sound the same (Oxford Advanced Learnerís Dictionary).Partingtone describes pun by the ďcreative use of languageĒ (2006, p. 110). He stresses that pun never play with merely one word but with group of trials quest, words. In the same line of thoughts, Koestler explains ďThe pun is the dissociation of a single phonetic form with two meanings Ď two strings of thought tied together by an acoustic knotĒ(1964, p. Learn: Examining My Personal. 65).
Pun should occur intentionally, Ritchie (2004) holds that spontaneous puns are not very funny and are rarely kept to be used later. According to Partingtone, puns can take the form of: Ď Reversals, such as spoonerism, for example, a half- warmed fish (i.e. half formed wish) Ď Blending (or porte-manteau words) for example; anecdotage (anecdote _dotage, that is, how the destiny, aged ramble on) Ď Anagrams, for example, Mother-in-law Ď Woman Hitler; Election results ĎLies, letís recount. Ď Re segmentation or meta-analysis, for example, four candles Ď fork handles. Ď Reverse Coinages, for example, speakable (from unspeakable), underwhelmed (from overwhelmed) ĎNot-as-They-Seems, for example, a cat burglar (stole our best mouser). He further clarifies that puns can be categorized into homonymy puns and homophony puns. Homonymy puns means words alike in sound and rebel define spelling. For example Ďclubí refers to two homonyms: Ďassociation of peopleí and Ďheavy weaponí. Whereas, homophony puns are words alike in sound only.
For instance, Ďleekí and Ďleakí. The pleasure takes place when one meaning reinterpreted by the other meaning. Joke is something to say or to do to make people laugh. The term Ďjokeí emerged in late seventeenth century. It is originally slang; it derives from Latin Ďjocusí which means Ďjestí or Ďwordplayí (Oxford Advanced Learnerís Dictionary, 2008). It is seen by (Morrison, 2001, p. 160) as ďa short story or short series of words spoken or communicated with the intent of being laughed at practice or found humorous by the listener or readerĒ. To be perceived laughable, jokes need comprehending the multiple meaning of words, idioms, and metaphors; discovering ambiguity, perceiving and The Fume Essay ultimately comprehending the trials practice, incongruity; and appreciating the unexpected or sudden change of perspective (Shade, 1996, p. Of Human Life. 3).According to (Schmitz, 2002, p.93), jokes can be classified into three classes: universal jokes, culture jokes, and linguistic jokes. Universal jokes refer to ďhumor that is trials quest obtained mainly from the context and the general functioning of the osmosis, world; ?? in other words, they are jokes which any one can laugh at.
For example, Teacher: Gwen, come here and point out Africa from this globe. Gwen: here. Teacher: Correct! John, who discovered Africa? Class: Gwen!. Cultural jokes need cultural background knowledge; jokes teller and listener should share the same culture, or at least, the joke- teller should be aware of the listener culture. For instance, ďWhat do you call a dog at the beach?ĒĒA hot dogĒ. Linguistic jokes ďbased on specific features in quest the phonology, morphology or syntax of particular languagesĒ, such as, Grammar teacher: Sam, can you tell me any two pronouns? Sam: Who, me? Teacher: Good answer, Sam! Shade illustrates this class the following examples: Ď Lexical based on about Examining My Personal Learning Style multiple- meanings of words; Dave: What has 18 legs and catches flies.
Lynn: A baseball team. Ď Deep structure involves alternative interpretation for a word or phrase; Sam: What animal can jump higher than a house. Chris: Any animal. Houses canít jump. Ď Metalinguistic focuses on the language form instead of the destiny trials practice quest, language meaning; Kathy: Whatís at the end of everything? Tim: the letter g. Ď The phonological based on the phonological structure of words; Rebecca: What is this? Waiter: itís bean soup. Rebecca: I donít care what itís been.
What is it now? (1996, p. 3.4). Berk (1996; 2002) mentions that teachers may present humor in form of Essay, funny quotations, questions, examples, skits/dramatizations, exercises and problems. Ď Humorous questions: they are often used in all courses. The teacher asks series of serious questions followed by funny questions in destiny order to what is the of human, capture the studentsí attention. For example, a. How many of you think this one is the correct answer? b. How many of you think this one is the correct answer? c. How many of you donít care? d. How many of you want to go back to bedí? Humorous examples: they are the easiest way the teacher uses to illustrate concrete or abstract content in the subject area. Ď Humorous problem sets: they may replace the serious textbook problems and practiced as problem- solving exercises or homework. Ď Skits/ dramatization: they are the best warm- up practice.
They can be presented by music, Masterpiece Theater. Ď Humor forms are sorted into larger groups. (Chee, 2003) identifies four main forms: textual, pictorial, verbal, action/ games. Ė Textual examples: stories, jokes. Ė Pictorial examples: cartoons, comics. Ė Verbal examples: puns, word games, acronyms. Ė Action/ games examples: theater, video, role play, contests. Ď Disparately, (Shade, 1996, p.2) classifies them into distinct forms: verbal, figural, visual and auditory. Ė Verbal humor includes jokes, puns, riddles, anecdotes, wit. Ė Figural humor includes comic, cartoons and caricature. Ė Visual humor includes impersonation, impression.
Ė Auditory humor includes mime, impersonation, practical jokes, and sight gags. 5-Benefits of destiny practice quest, humor. 5.1. What. Psychological benefits. John F. Kennedy was reported to have said, ďThere are three things which are real: God, human folly, and laughter. Destiny Practice Quest. The first two are beyond our comprehension.
So we must do what we can with the thirdĒ (Hunsaker, 1988). One of the things which can be done with humor is to take advantage of its coping mechanism or psychological benefits. Osmosis In Animals. For example, humor is seen as reducing discomfort and easing tension, a way of mitigating failure or coping with defeat (saving face), a way of destiny trials practice, disarming an aggressor, coping with adversity, or to of Life Essay, make the serious and less interesting more palatable (Linstead, 1985).Humor can serve as an outlet (though temporary) for frustration, apathy, resentment, hostility and anger; it can offer an escape from the harshness of reality and lighten the burdens present in the classroom (Weaver, 1987). The psychological benefits of quest, humor are supported by several theories. The Anxiety Reduction Theory purports the level of humor arousal is directly associated with the anxiety level of students which, if true, further buttresses the case for One Night Call Center, Essay the use of humor as a release valve in the classroom (Herbert, 1991). The Psychoanalytic Theory contends that humor is a socially acceptable expression of forbidden impulses, often with a release of tension through laughter (Coleman, 1992). Another theory of humor, the destiny trials practice quest, Arousal Theory, illustrates the The Fume of Life Essay, stress-reducing effects of humor. This theory explains the function or laughter as that of reducing built-up tension and energy (Lefcourt #038; Martin, 1986).
In accordance with this theory is Martin and Lefcourtís ( 1988) and Wilsonís (1979)contention of destiny quest, humor as an effective implementation device for reducing stress, anxieties ,and hostilities encountered in everyday life situations. Martin and Lefcourt (1988) contend that nurturing childrenís sense of humor may arm them with a coping skill to combat the stresses of life. Freud (1960) labeled humor as, ďthe highest of the defensive processes (i.e., defense mechanisms).Ē In his analysis in rebel define 1932, Freud went on to explain humor as a reflection of the confidence to reduce stress to a manageable state (Rains berger, 1994). Practice. Similarly, laughter was seen as a means of burning off extra energy or tension (Martin #038; Lefcourt, 1986). Martin and Lefcourt attribute this stress reducing effect of Essay about How I My Personal Style, humor to destiny practice, its capability of allowing people to put distance between themselves and the problem at rebel define hand. Korobkin, (1988); believes that humor may be a classroom advantage by reducing fears and anxieties of students. Korobkin (1988) also found that humor decreases academic stress and anxiety toward the subject matter. Another related theory relevant to the use of quest, humor in the classroom is the The Fume of Life Essay, Relief Theory.
Meyer (1990), a proponent of the Relief Theory, suggests that reduction of tension and anxiety is its central element. Destiny Practice Quest. Sullivan (1992) contends that by of human, reducing classroom anxiety through the trials quest, use of humor, test anxiety may be reduced simultaneously. There also exists evidence from a study conducted by Sarason (1960) that highly anxious students perform better on tests when humor is introduced into the testing situation (Gibbon, 1988). Another psychological implication of humor is the enhancement of learnersí self-esteem (Pollak #038; Freda, 1997). A successful learning process involves the assumption, ďI can do it.Ē Humor, or taking oneself lightly, can encourage students in the learning process, which often involves risk-taking, temporary setbacks, and embarrassing exposure. Low self-esteem limits a student in the ability to take risks beyond the narrow role of is the purpose of human life, perceived competency (OíConnell, 1996). By using humor and the skill of laughing at oneself, a student can be more self- forgiving, thereby allowing him or herself to practice, become lost in the learning process. 5.2. Sociological benefits. The sociological implications of humor are equally telling. The social theory of about Learn: Style, humor explicates the means both for establishing better group interactions and transmitting cultural mores (Coleman, 1992).
One of the major functions of schools is socialization: To acculturate knowledgeable, understanding, compassionate, and quest empathic new members to society (Callahan, Clark, #038; Kellough, 1992). Effective teachers are individuals, according to Hageseth (1995), who can ďtake themselves lightly, but take their work and life seriously as they encourage others to do likewise.Ē They are individuals who can modulate a tense, difficult situation into an intriguing challenge, who can interject an uplifting gesture into what life, a stressful moment. As such, teachers can encourage students to appreciate the universality of the human condition, that all are here to trials practice, make the world work by rebel define, complementing one another (Pollak #038; Freda, 1997).Teachers can model achieving power through knowledge and equality, not through exploitation, manipulation, and one-up man ship .Through teaching, teachers facilitate learning through enthusiastic, generous sharing, laughing at their own foibles, and their encouragement to take risks in the safe environment of the learning situation. The socialization process involves learning how to be with oneself, with others, and with lifeís adversities and challenges. Students learn this valuable skill by using humor as a tool of growth and wisdom. Humor can be used as a binding force through which group members share common experiences, develop group cohesiveness, and play and work together toward common goals (Duncan, 1984). Destiny. Humor can help bond relationships or be used as the lubricant for healthy competition within or between groups (Herbert, 1991). In general, humor, when used appropriately, can be an effective tool for socialization and @ the Call by Chetan Bhagat Essay interpersonal relations. 5.3. Educational benefits. Humor serves many educational (communication) functions as well.
Maslow, after all, defines humor and laughter as ďeducation in a palatable formĒ (Weaver #038; Cotrell, p. 168).Colwell and Wigle (1984) further believe that humor strengthens teacher-student rapport by enabling students to see teachers have ďwell rounded personalitiesĒ. Other proponents of humor in destiny trials practice the role of fostering a strong, positive rapport between student and teacher are Ackerman and Dummer, (1982); Bryant, (1979); and Wilson (1979). A teacher who shares a warm, genuine sense of rebel define, humor with the class portrays oneself as being human just like the destiny practice, students (Herbert, 1991). Pollak and biography kahlo Freda (1997) ask ďIf a teacher cannot laugh at what he or she does not know, then how can students be expected to recognize their own educational needs and be truly willing, even anxious to learn?Ē For example, if an English teacher puts a sentence on the board to label parts of speech and destiny trials a student points out rebel define, a mistake the teacher has made in labeling one of the more complicated components, that teacher has several options. One is to deny the mistake; another is to pretend the mistake was made on purpose; another is to own the error, thereby revealing his or her humanness and ability to recover. Students are endeared to trials quest, that teacher because of the willingness of the what is the of human life, ďauthority figureĒ to dethrone him or herself to model the trials, learning process in its reality. The reality of learning is that trial and error, stumble and recovery, are not only inevitable but crucial for @ the Center, by Chetan real learning to take place. If a teacher can laugh at himself or herself and laugh with (never at) students, the destiny quest, teacher is well on the way to establishing a positive climate and eliminating much of the stress that is @ the Call Center, by Chetan Bhagat Essay often present in classrooms today. Destiny Quest. Students may never give a teacher the chance to share knowledge or brilliant insights if rapport is not first established. Perhaps Weaver and Cotrell (1987) best summarize the educational role that humor plays in the classroom:
A warm, genuine, sense of by Chetan Essay, humor can reveal humanness- a comfortable, secure attitude with themselves as instructors, with their course material (knowledge), with their students, and with their relationship with students. Certainly, one of the important benefits of humor is that it breeches the broad gap between instructors and students. Practice. It brings them closer together-joining them, in of frida a sense, in a quest for knowledge. When teachers confront negative students with humor, they often find that this use of humor is an effective way to reduce the studentsí anger and hostility (Pollak #038; Freda, 1997). Destiny Practice. Humor is a powerful tool in education and in animals can be used within the classroom to trials, put the students at ease and make the learning process more enjoyable.
As educators become active participants in their studentsí laughter, they will have an opportunity to become engaged with them (Ackerman #038; Dummer, 1982). A humorous response exerts a powerful force over a tense situation. Students, as a result, feel more comfortable in situations in which they are not entirely in control of their own feelings. Weaver and Cotrell (1987) encourage teachers to establish a climate of reciprocal humor. Asking students for biography of frida humorous material encourages class interaction and a more ďgive-and-takeĒ classroom atmosphere. Humor ďÖhas a central place whether as a natural product or as a life-saving response to the exigencies of the institution Ė boredom, ritual, routine, regulations, oppressive authorityĒ (Gibbon, 1988). Essentially, the destiny trials, primary value of humor in the classroom is to ďstimulate, illustrate, motivate, and Essay about How I Learn: Examining My Personal Style ease tensionĒ (Kelly, 1983). The reduced tension affects and trials creates benefits in purpose of human life other areas as well (Rainsberger, 1994). Harris (1989) contends that frequent laughter in a classroom creates an environment in which the students feel safe to try new things.
Students are not bound by the confines of rigorous expectancies, but have freedom from these boundaries to experience true knowledge for its own sake. Kelly (1983) believes that a large reason for increased enjoyment of quest, school is the osmosis in animals, positive attitude and destiny practice learning climate created as a result of the reduced stress level. Classrooms with decreased tension and reduced stress foster greater creativity and imagination and contribute to an enjoyable classroom setting in which students portray a positive attitude conducive to enthusiastic learning. By reducing stress, humor can make learning more enjoyable, which leads to a relaxed atmosphere as well as a positive attitude about school in general. Neu liep, (1991); Korobkin, (1988); Perret, (1984); Long, (1983); Ziv, (1976); Ziv, (1983); and Bergen (1990) propose that creativity, imagination, and ideas are encouraged and enhanced by an enjoyable classroom where the students eagerly await new challenges. Evidence suggests that asking students to use humor in answering test questions improves creativity scores (Ziv, 1983).Creative thinking, a necessary tool for problem solving can also be facilitated by the use of humor. When employing brainstorming techniques, for example, if a teacher offers a thought that is ďincongruous or unexpected or incompatibleĒ (Fry #038; Allen, 1996), that input can help students see a situation in two very rational but drastically different perspectives. Coleman (1992) finds that humor, creativity, and in animals cognition were closely related and destiny trials quest like Fry and Allen (1996) determine that the use of verbal, incongruous humor increases the likelihood of students developing more creative thinking processes. The essence of creative thinking therefore, is that ability to perceive situations from various points of view.
Humor is an effective device in interpersonal communication skills. Victor Borgeonce stated that ďlaughter is the rebel define, shortest distance between two peopleĒ (Sullivan, 1992).One knows that communication and interpersonal skills are extremely important tools in the academic classroom. These tools can be effectively implemented when students feel comfortable or non-threatened. Many scholars argue that the use of humor aids in creating an open communication climate in the classroom (Herbert, 1991; Korobkin, 1988; Perret, 1984; Long, 1983; Ziv, 1983; Mogavero, 1979; Ziv, 1976; Dixon, 1973; Gilland #038; Mauritsen, 1971; and Coser, 1960). Laughter can help ensure a rapturous reception of the instructorís forthcoming prophetic lecture. In addition, laughter is seen to coordinate human interaction as a turn-taking cue, approval and invitation for practice quest the hearer to respond in kind, an invitation to biography kahlo, elaborate, and a resource in affiliation (OíDonnell-Trujillo #038; Adams, 1983).Power struggles often surface in classrooms .When two sides come into conflict, humor can be used to trials practice quest, relieve the pressure to provide both opponents with the opportunity to cool off (Iapoce, 1990).
In such situations, humor provides the teacher with the chance to re think the situation and react with a rational consequence as opposed to One Night @ the Center, by Chetan, a punishment established out of stress and anger (Curwin #038; Mendler, 1990). Such a rational response spares the childís self-esteem. As a result of the ability to practice, diffuse tension in such situations, humor actually enhances relationships and brings people closer together.ĒWhen humor is shared, people feel close and Essay about My Personal warm with each otherĒ (Chenfeld, 1990). Sullivan (1992) believes the bottom line is that utilizing humor to reduce stress makes school a more enjoyable experience for both teachers and students. 6- Guidelines of using humor in teaching process. Humor can be a liberating force, or it can be a destroying one. Some guidelines to ensure that humor has a positive effect may include: beginning class with an amusing thought or joke; the use of practice quest, humorous stories and anecdotes; relating student-oriented activities that often contain comic material; and taking ďcommercial breaksĒ(OíDonnell-Trujillo #038; Adams, 1983). The aim here is to actively involve students on an intellectual and emotional level- to assume an involved, interested stance .Stat (1988) writes, ďTo involve your audience emotionally, you must create a drama- comedy (humor) is of Life Essay often the best tool to use.Ē There are situations in which humor can prove counterproductive. If used at the wrong time, it has the ability to cause distraction.
If used in excess, it may become uncontrollable and transform the practice quest, classroom into a circus. If used inappropriately, it may potentially damage self-esteem, or cause embarrassment (Bariaud, 1988). Considering the in animals, potential of humor to be abused, there is destiny trials practice quest clearly a need for guidelines concerning its use in short of frida kahlo the classroom. Bryant and Zillman (1988) cite that teachersí use of humor must be perceived as natural, or else it may backfire. Teachers who normally feel uncomfortable using humor must be wary of attempting to trials, force it into their classrooms.
If humor is irrelevant to the subject matter, valuable class time may be wasted and the class may become unruly, thereby contributing to short biography of frida kahlo, poor classroom management (Sullivan, 1992). Bryant and Zillman (1983) suggest that teachers of children, especially young children, should refrain from using humor unless they are certain that the children have the faculties and quest knowledge to understand it. For example, irony and other forms of biography of frida, ďdistortion humorĒ can confuse children and create faulty ideas that are difficult to correct. The basic component of some humor is ridicule. Some researchers suggest that sarcasm and other forms of ridicule may be useful as a behavior management technique , although most strongly discourage it .Collins (1986) notes that sarcasm is brutal by nature and can severely damage studentsí self-esteem, as well as teacher-student relationships. Destiny Trials Practice. Bryant and Zillman (1988) suggest that although sarcasm and ridicule may serve a corrective function, the long-term consequence of diminished esteem in the eyes of of Life, students may make the destiny quest, immediate gains in osmosis terms of behavioral correction not worth the costs. In addition to trials practice, the guidelines previously discussed, a number of researchers offer other suggestions. Sullivan (1992) cautions that: (1) teachers must recognize when humor is not appropriate; (2) teachers should never joke about a studentís name because of the potential damage to the studentís self-esteem; and (3) teachers should not simply tell jokes in class, but should keep their humor relevant to the instruction since telling jokes reduces valuable class time and may result in sexist and racist humor that will create problems. The use of Learn:, non-relevant humor, or that which is trials quest not at all related to the subject matter at hand, is shown to be an especially effective aid in information acquisition for younger children, those of preschool to early primary school age (Zillman #038; Bryant, 1983). The effectiveness of non-relevant humor diminishes with age so that by rebel define, adulthood, non-relevant humor is not only acceptable, but can even hinder the trials practice quest, acquirement of How I Learn: Learning, information.
It is also crucial that a student never feels that he or she is trials practice quest being made the rebel define, object of ridicule. Although the teacher may dominate the student for destiny practice quest the moment, often deep and strong resentments result that may last throughout the The Fume Essay, school year (Quina, 1989). Sullivan (1992) and Herbert (1991) contend that teachers should be willing to quest, laugh at themselves and should be careful to match their humor to the level of is the of human life, their students. Destiny Trials. In addition, Herbert (1991) recommends using visual examples of humor, opening class with a joke, and telling humorous anecdotes. However, he suggests that humor should always serve a specific purpose; it should not be aimless. Cornett (1986) presents a list of forty-nine specific ways in which planned humor can be incorporated in the classroom. About Learn: Examining. Her only guidelines are that teachers should adopt a playful mind, think funny, and encourage humor from their students. Although a vast array of trials quest, humor categories exists, one must carefully and of frida cautiously discriminate in the choice of humor being used. Clearly, the misuse or abuse of humor in the classroom may have negative effects. Humor arising from a sexual or racial context should have no place in the classroom and should be avoided at all times.
The victims of quest, such humor may feel that they are being forced to hear a derogatory statement about their heritage or gender. One might assume that the teacher has a prejudice against that particular group of Essay How I Learn: Examining My Personal Learning, people, and destiny practice the classroom environment becomes negative and hostile (Dickmeyer, 1993). Humor may unconsciously allow the person to about How I Learn: Style, get at the target of such humor. The ďtargetĒ is the individual who is placed in one of these situations by humor (Edwards #038; Gibboney, 1992). The target is on the receiving end of the practice quest, humorous comment, whether it be joke, pun, or funny story and is focused on when the humor takes place.
As mentioned earlier, targets of instructorís humor can be self, student, or other. Humor may be ineffectively utilized to promote the superiority of one group or person over another as expressed by the Superiority Theory of humor (Gruner, 1978). This theory focuses upon the heightened sense of self- esteem, confidence, and reduced threat that are coupled with a humorous response to a typically stressful experience or situation (Martin #038; Lefcourt, 1988). It is embodied in the slur, the put down, and the barb in which an rebel define individual or group laughs at another, supposedly inferior individual or group (Pollio, 1983). Examples of destiny practice, this type of humor are the various ethnic, racist, and sexist jokes which are increasingly becoming taboo in a more enlightened, sensitive society (Coleman, 1992). A major premise of this theory is that people laugh when they feel superior to others (Meyer, 1990). Short Of Frida Kahlo. Closely related to the Superiority Theory is the Disparagement Theory of Humor, whereby humor, as disguised aggression, is destiny practice used at the expense of others to garner a small victory in the midst of osmosis, defeat (Rainsberger, 1994). Quest. A final theory of humor, the incongruity theory, emphasizes the occurrence of two or more illogical or incongruent events, often eliciting the double-take or puzzled look before the laughter (Coleman, 1992).At the end and as a resume these types of humor should be remain out of the classroom: Ď Sexual humor: celebrating the fun of sex, mildly flirtatious to outright obscenity and lewdness. Ď Ethnic/Racial -humor: in which a particular ethnic group is what is the life demeaned, ridiculed, or made fun of. Ď Religious -humor: making fun of particular religions or religion in general.
Ď Hostile -humor: in which an attack on someoneís dignity is the practice quest, primary focus. These may be insulting, invective, or involve a put-down of biography of frida kahlo, someone. Ď Demeaning to Men/ Women- humor: in which males/ females are discredited or put-down, often by the opposite gender. Ď Sick-humor: making fun of death, deformity, disease, or handicapping conditions. (1996, p. Destiny Quest. 87). Ď Aggressive humor: by saying, showing or make such allusion may provoke studentsí anger. Through this chapter, it seems to biography kahlo, be clear that humor is advocated as a pedagogical strategy. Many authors recommend the use of humor in practice the academic context.
They argue its significance by a variety of studies conducted to survey its supportive role to enhance learning. No matter how humor has been defined and what principles humor theories are based on, but what worthwhile role it plays in the teaching- learning process. Rebel Define. In addition to its therapeutic function in destiny medicine and psychology, humor has the rebel define, potential to give rise to successful learners and, thus, to successful workers. In order to be effective, teaching strategies require some rules to be obeyed. Practice. The appropriate and timely humor relies on The Fume Essay a set of principles. Following these standards, it will be easy for professors to make humor an integral part of material to destiny trials practice, be learnt, and then their teaching will be conducive to rebel define, optimal learning.
Section 2 Speaking skill. Speaking is one of the most demanding skills in the daily life. Every person needs to communicate with others through speaking. Speaking plays an important role in making a social interaction with another people in order to destiny practice quest, gain information. Thus, it is necessary for every people to have a good speaking skill. As the needs of English increase over the year, people do not only communicate with those who come from the same country, but also with those who come from different countries. Kahlo. In order to be able to convey meaning and talk to people around the world, they must be able to speak English since it is an international language. Practice. Due to its importance, it is very reasonable why the objective of the English teaching as a compulsory subject at what purpose of human university level is to enable students to communicate in both oral and written forms. As the language is a means of communication, students have to be accustomed to trials, speak utterances orally in the classroom even in rebel define the very simplest way, such as greeting, answering, expressing ideas, giving responses, and the like.
The actual situation of studentsí speaking English competencies at Abbes Laghrour University insure that the most of students are at low level, despite teachers use hard efforts and many techniques to enhance their studentsí speaking level. From a daily observation the researcher Ďwhich is a student at the same university Ď has been noticed that the majority of students keep silent during lessens; hesitate in destiny trials the participation, or using humble and individual words or short sentences at most by French or Arabic phonetics and pronunciation. In the oral presentation, students read their projects or just memorize what they want to about Learn:, present word by word neither more nor less. Destiny Practice. Also few of students participate by read the information from of Life, Tablets, Computers, or the Handout of the trials quest, teacher himself. Another observation is that students distinguish between teachers based on their reputation; general personality and behavior .That enable to classify teachers into two sets, beloved and non beloved .these affection toward teachersí impact maybe positively or negatively on studentsí speaking participation and thus their speaking skill achievements. 1-Definition of speaking. Speaking is one of two productive skills in a language teaching. Rebel Define. It is defined as a process of building and sharing meaning through the use of verbal or oral form (Chaney, 1988:13 and Gebhard, 1996:169). Moreover; Nunan (2003:48) defines that speaking consists of producing systematic verbal utterances to convey meaning.
To know deeper what speaking is, Nunan differentiates it from writing. First, in practice spoken language, speaking must be listened by others. About Learn: My Personal Learning Style. It has temporary and immediate reception. When we do listen from other people, it has special prosody some like stress, rhythm, and intonation. It must be there an trials practice quest intermediate feedback for communicating directly. Biography Kahlo. By speaking activity, orator or speaker have to pay attention of planning and editing by channel. Whereas the second,in written language, the activity is done as a visual term.
The time for doing it, is permanent and it is delayed reception. The writer uses punctuation as well to make others clearer in vision or reading the meaning. There is practice no feedback or it is usually delayed or indirectly communicating. The planning is unlimited and about Learn: My Personal there are often editing and revision in any parts of the written language. Based on the utterances above, they can be concluded that the differences between spoken language and the written one as follow: Spoken language Written language. Temporary; immediate reception. Prosody (rhythm, stress intonation. Planning and editing limited by destiny trials, channel Visual.
Permanent; delayed reception. Delayed or no feedback. Unlimited planning, editing, revision. 2-The importance of speaking. Human being as social creature always communicates to one another. Rebel Define. It can be occurred with the process of trials practice quest, interchange of the thought or ideas which include interactions. For examples telling information or some news, asking other helps for their needs, or etc.
All of rebel define, them can be done trough speaking to others directly. It means that the activity of speaking itself has a very important role in human life. Ramelan (1992:13) says that all human being whenever they live always speak language, although they do not have any writing system to record their language. From the statement above it can be concluded that speaking is quest very important in mastering foreign language. Thus speaking capability can be measured whether a foreign language learner in successful in learning or not. But in mastering speaking skill can be seen not only from the performance of learners in spoken, but also we have to see from their competence in using the purpose, language. Speaking competence is not only the theoretical study but also it is daily activities and humanís need for trials growing. As according to Chomsky in Garnham (1985:23) said linguistic performance is the osmosis in animals, actual use of practice, language in Essay concrete situation.
And also according to William OíGrady, et.al (1996:4) states that linguistic competence is the ability in producing and understanding an unlimited number of utterances. From the two definitions above, we can conclude that speaking skill consists of linguistic performance and linguistic competence. Destiny Trials Quest. In other word, we can say that speaking skill is a mental motor skill, it consist of the coordination of sound, mechanism, which is produce by our muscles and it is kahlo also has as a mental aspect .That is the ability in arranging the meaningful words and explain and destiny trials practice quest convey thinking, feeling, and idea. Speaking ability means the ability to think .Based on the explanation above, to measure the studentsí speaking, has five competences as follows: Hornby defines pronunciation as the way in which a language is a spoken, way in which a word is pronounced (Hornby, 1974:669). It means that pronunciation is an important of language, including its aspect like accent, stress, and intonation. Grammar and short pronunciation has a close relationship. In addition to the sound system learners must be taught by using structure system of language.
Learners must be given insight into word order, inflection and derivation into the other meaningful features of the destiny, English language. Of Life Essay. It will help students to speak fluently. Hornby (1974:979) defines vocabulary is practice range of words known or used by a person in trade, profession, etc. Short Biography Of Frida Kahlo. If students have many vocabularies, it will be easier for him to express his idea. d. Fluently Hornby (1974:330) defines fluency as the quality of being able to speak smoothly and easily. It means that someone can speak without any hesitation. Someone can speak fluently even though he makes errors in destiny trials practice quest pronunciation and grammar. Self confidence becomes an important factor in speaking learning process.
A student with good grammatical and vocabulary master usually has a big confidence to express idea, suggestion or answer the question. He feels like that, so he thinks he knows what will he say and how to The Fume Essay, express. 4 -Aspects of speaking. Eventually, aspects of the speaking skill need to be closely scrutinized and trials practice quest put into consideration. These aspects pose some challenges and what is the identify some guidelines for understanding this skill and hence design instructional activities to practice, prepare learners to communicate effectively in what of human life real life situations. A. Speaking is face to face: Most conversations take place face to face which allows speakers to get immediate feedback, i.e. ĎDo listeners understand? Are they in destiny practice agreement? Do they sympathize (Cornbleet #038;Carter, 2001: 16) . Rebel Define. Thus communication through speaking has many assets, such as facial expressions, gestures and even body movements. Speaking also occurs, most of the time, in situations where participants or interlocutors are present. Such factors facilitate communication (Widdowson, 1998 #038; Burns, 1998).
B. Speaking is trials practice interactive: Whether we are speaking face-to Ďface or over rebel define the telephone, to one person or a small group, the wheels of conversation usually turn smoothly, with participants offering contributions at appropriate moments, with no undue gaps or everyone talking over each other (Bygate, 1998: 30 and Cornbleet #038; Carter, 2001: 27) Turn taking, a main feature in interaction, is an unconscious part of normal conversation. Turn takings are handled and signaled differently across different cultures, thus causing possible communication difficulties in conversation between people of different cultures and languages (Mc Donough #038; Mackey, 2000: 84). C. Destiny Trials Quest. Speaking happens in real time: During conversations, responses are unplanned and spontaneous and the speakers think on their feet, producing language which reflects this (Foster et al., 2000: 368).These time constraints affect the osmosis in animals, speakerís ability to trials, plan, to organize the message, and to control the language being used.
Speakers often start to say something and One Night @ the Essay change their mind midway; which is termed a false start. The speakerís sentences also cannot be as long or as complex as in destiny trials quest writing. Similarly, speakers occasionally forget things they intended to say; or they may even forget what they have already said, and so they repeat themselves (Miller, 2001: 27). Biography Kahlo. This implies that the production of speech in real time imposes pressures, but also allows freedoms in terms of trials practice quest, compensating for these difficulties. Biography Kahlo. The use of formulaic expressions, hesitation devices, self correction, rephrasing and repetition can help speakers become more fluent and cope with real time demands (Bygate, 1987: 21; Foster et al., 2000 and Hughes, 2002: 76). Actually, exposing students to these spoken discourse features facilitates their oral production and trials quest helps them compensate for the problems they encounter. What Purpose Of Human Life. It also helps them sound normal in their use of the destiny, foreign language.
5- Purpose of speaking. It was argued that the purpose of speaking can be either transactional or interactional. Apparently, there are some differences between the in animals, spoken language used in destiny trials both transactional and interactional discourse. In transactional discourse, language is used primarily for communicating information. About How I Learn: My Personal Learning Style. Language serving this purpose is trials quest Ďmessageí oriented rather than Ďlistenerí oriented (Nunan, 1989: 27). Clearly, in this type of interaction, accurate and coherent communication of the message is important, as well as confirmation that the message has been understood. Examples of language being used primarily for a transactional purpose are: news broadcasts, descriptions, narrations and instructions (Richards, 1990: 54- 55). Speaking turns serving this purpose tend to be long and involve some prior organization of content and use of linguistic devices to signal either the organization or type of information that will be given (Basturkmen, 2002: 26).
On the other hand, some conversations are interactional with the rebel define, purpose of establishing or maintaining a relationship. This latter kind is sometimes called the practice quest, interpersonal use of language. It plays an important social role in oiling the wheels of about How I Style, social intercourse (Yule, 1989: 169). Examples of interactional uses of language are greetings, small talks, and compliments. Trials. Apparently, the language used in the interactional mode is listener oriented. Speakersí talk in this type tends to be limited to quite short turns (Dornyei #038; Thurrell, 1994: 43 and The Fume of Life Essay Richards, 1990: 54-55). Destiny Practice Quest. However, in Essay My Personal Learning Style spite of the destiny trials practice quest, distinctions between the two types, in short of frida most circumstances, interactional language is combined with transactional language. This helps to ease the transactional tasks to be done by keeping good social relations with others. In, other words, we can say that speakers do one thing by doing another (Brazil, 1995: 29). So both purposes can be viewed as two dimensions of spoken interaction. Analyzing speaking purposes more precisely, Kingen (2000: 218) combines both the transactional and interpersonal purposes of speaking into an extensive list of twelve categories as follows:
1- Personal Ė expressing personal feelings, opinions, beliefs and ideas. 2. Descriptive- describing someone or something, real or imagined. 3. Narrative-creating and telling stories or chronologically sequenced events. 4. Instructive-giving instructions or providing directions designed to produce an outcome. 5. Destiny Trials Practice Quest. Questioning-asking questions to obtain information. 6. Comparative-comparing two or more objects, people, ideas, or opinions to make judgments about them.
7. Imaginative-expressing mental images of people, places, events, and short biography of frida kahlo objects. 8. Practice Quest. Predictive-predicting possible future events. 9. Interpretative-exploring meanings, creating hypothetical deductions, and considering inferences. 10. In Animals. Persuasive-changing othersí opinions, attitudes, or points of quest, view, or influencing the behavior of rebel define, others in some way. 11. Explanatory-explaining, clarifying, and destiny practice quest supporting ideas and opinions.
12. Informative-sharing information with others. This list corresponds closely to the language functions explained by Halliday (1975). 6-Main Factors That Hinder Students from Speaking. It has been mentioned earlier that there are some psychological factor that hinder students from practicing their speaking in English class. Each of them is explained below. 6.1. Fear of mistake. As argued by many theorists, fear of mistake becomes one of the Essay about How I, main factors of studentsí reluctance to speak in English in practice the classroom With respect to the fear of making mistake issue, Aftat, (2008) adds that this fear is linked to the issue of correction and negative evaluation. In addition, this is also much influenced by short, the studentsí fear of being laughed at quest by other students or being criticized by the teacher.
As a result, students commonly stop participating in One Night @ the Bhagat Essay the speaking activity (Hieu, 2011).Therefore, it is trials practice important for teachers to convince their students that making mistakes is not a wrong or bad thing because students can learn from their mistakes. Shyness is an emotional thing that many students suffer from at rebel define some time when they are required to speak in English class. This indicates that shyness could be a source of problem in studentsí learning activities in destiny practice the classroom especially in the class of speaking. Therefore, paying attention on this aspect is also quite important in order to help the students do their best in their speaking performance in the classroom (Gebhard, 2000). In Animals. In line with this, Baldwin (2011) further explains that speaking in front of people is one of the more common phobias that students encounter and practice quest feeling of shyness makes their mind go blank or that they will forget what to say.
This theory is also supported by the result of this research in which most students fail to perform the speaking performance at their best. As they say, their inability to osmosis, show their ability in speaking is also influenced much by their feeling of shyness. In other words, it can be said that shyness plays an important role in speaking performance done by trials quest, the students. Anxiety is a feeling of tension, apprehension and nervousness associated with the situation of rebel define, learning a foreign language (Horwitz et all cited in Nascente, 2001). Further Nascente writes that, among other affective variables, anxiety stands out as one of the main blocking factors for effective language learning. In other words, anxiety influences students in learning language.
Therefore, paying attention to this factor of learning should also be taken into destiny trials, consideration. The fact that anxiety plays an important role in studentsí learning is One Night @ the Call by Chetan Essay also shared by destiny, other researchers like Horwitz (1991) as cited in Sylvia and Tiono (2004). He believes that anxiety about speaking a certain language can affect studentsí performance. It can influence the quality of oral language production and make individuals appear less fluent than they really are. This explanation suggests that teachers should make an attempt to create a learning atmosphere which gives students more comfortable situations in their learning activity. 6.4. Short Biography Of Frida. Lack of Confidence. It is commonly understood that studentsí lack of confidence usually occurs when students realize that their conversation partners have not understood them or when they do not understand other speakers. In this situation, they would rather keep silent while others do talking showing that the students are lack of practice quest, confidence to communicate. In response to this, Tsui cited Nunan (1999) says that student who lack of confidence about themselves and their English necessarily suffer from communication apprehension.
This shows that building studentsí confidence is an important part of osmosis in animals, teacherís focus of attention. This means that the teacher should also learn from both theories and practical experience on how to build the studentsí confidence. 6.5. Lack of Motivation. It is mentioned in the literature that motivation is a key to studentsí learning success (Songsiri, 2007). With regard to the issue of motivation in learning, Nunan (1999) stresses that motivation is trials quest important to notice in that it can affect studentsí reluctance to speak in Essay English. In this sense, motivation is a key consideration in determining the preparedness of learners to communicate.
Zua (2008) further adds that motivation is an inner energy. Trials Practice. She says that no matter what kinds of of Life, motivation the learners possess it will enhance their study interest. It has been proven in many studies that students with a strong motivation to succeed can persist in destiny trials practice quest learning and gain better scores than those who have weaker motivation of success showing that to learn is urgent for every teacher. 7- Ideas about using humor in speaking lessons. Humor as we have seen is an open ended teaching tool , it may be just a small smile with students till make them laughing out loud or giggling; between this and that; the researcher proposes some thoughts to The Fume of Life, introduce humor in trials the teaching process. 7.1. Tongue twisters are a great way to practice and improve pronunciation and fluency.
They can also help to improve accents by using alliteration, which is the repetition of in animals, one sound. Examples: Ď Peter Piper picked a peck of trials quest, pickled peppers. A peck of pickled peppers Peter Piper picked. If Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers. Whereís the peck of pickled peppers Peter Piper pickedí? Betty Botter bought some butter. But she said the butterís bitter. If I put it in my batter, it will make my batter bitter.
But a bit of better butter will make my batter better. So ítwas better Betty Botter bought a bit of better butter. Ď How much wood would a woodchuck chuck if a woodchuck could chuck wood? He would chuck, he would, as much as he could, and chuck as much wood As a woodchuck would if a woodchuck could chuck wood. Ď She sells seashells by the seashore. Ď How can a clam cram in a clean cream caní? I scream, you scream, we all scream for ice cream. Ď I saw Susie sitting in a shoeshine shop. 7.2. Students always have difficulty expressing what they want to One Night @ the by Chetan Bhagat Essay, say, no matter how advanced their vocabulary is .Teacher has to downloaded short jokes from the Internet, cut them into strips, and distribute them randomly. The goal is to express the practice, short joke in biography kahlo studentsí own words, without reading or memorizing.
Teacher should be sure to model how a person tells a joke (like telling a story, with facial expressions or everything).He might need to help them with understanding some jokes, as some are contextual /cultural. A: I have the perfect son. B: Does he smoke? B: Does he drink whiskey? B: Does he ever come home late? B: I guess you really do have the destiny trials practice, perfect son. Essay About Examining Style. How old is he?
A: He will be six months old next Wednesday. Girl: You would be a good dancer except for two things. Boy: What are the practice quest, two things? A family of mice was surprised by rebel define, a big cat. Father mouse jumped and said ĎBow- wow!í The cat runs away. ĎWhat was that fatherí? asked baby mouse. ĎWell, son, thatís why itís important to destiny trials practice quest, learn a second language. 7.3. Create dialogue comic strip. This is a simple worksheet with single comic strips for students to Essay about How I My Personal, use their imagination and fill the trials practice quest, speaking bubbles freely.
There are no conditions except that they have to write at least 2 sentences, but the idea of the exercise is to give them the freedom to find their own words (or ask for osmosis them) and at the same time have fun inventing something crazy to fill the bubbles with. Destiny Trials. There is The Fume Essay no right and wrong in terms of content. This is to check grammar and vocabulary. From: busy teacher .org. 7.4. Psychology quiz. Teachers in ESL classes can practice this fun quiz with studentsí .quiz to practice, make them think about their priorities in life in Essay How I Learn: My Personal a fun way. Nice way to relax the class. It takes 5 minutes to use it. From: busy teacher .org. Teaching and learning English in Abbes Laghrour University have faced many difficulties.
As for practice quest students, they wish to speak English fluently, but face with language barriers such as pronunciation and grammar usage. Moreover, they lack of opportunity to speak or use language in daily lives. They are too shy to speak with their classmates or teachers because they are being passive and have little speaking activities to practice. In addition, all of four skills, teaching and learning of Call Essay, speaking skills seem to be the most crucial part, because in the classroom almost of instructions are given in the university as many as teachers who are non-native speakers, and having no interaction occurs in the classroom. These difficulties in primary and secondary schools, where the English curriculum and environment do not meet the demand of the learners, and do not focus on speaking, have affected on learning English in university level where listening and speaking skills are most used. Therefore, to destiny practice, help the @ the by Chetan Bhagat, learners improves speaking skills, various kinds of strategies should be considered. One of them is probably using pedagogical humor during the teaching learning process because it strengthens the relationship between the education parties in order to create fun, confidence and boldness in practice quest studentsí personalities to enhance all their language kills achievement especially speaking.
Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Linguistics essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on One Night @ the Center, hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to practice, your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Linguistics work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Linguistics essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Essay: Using Humor in the Teaching-Learning Process To Improve the One Night Center, by Chetan Bhagat, Studentsí Speaking Skill . Trials Quest. Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/essays/linguistics/essay-using-humor-in-the-teaching-learning-process-to-improve-the-students-speaking-skill/ [04-10-17]. If you are the original author of this content and no longer wish to biography kahlo, have it published on our website then please click on the link below to request removal:
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