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BOOK REVIEW: The subject we should be all dying to talk about. Before Forever After: When Conversations About Living Meet Questions About Dying. It’s always too soon, until it’s too late. That’s the rythym and blues music, mantra of American NGO The Conversation Project, created to help people talk about how and common law y, where they hope to die. They could be struggling to stay alive at all costs in hospital, surrounded by beeping machines or in the familiar comfort of home surrounded by those they love.

Most people hope for good deaths — except for comedian Woody Allen, who wittily observed that he’s not afraid to die: I just don’t want to be there when it happens. Helena Dolny conducted eight years of exhaustive trans-continental research on the topic of dying. She interviewed lawyers, palliative caregivers, social workers, spiritual advisers, priests, funeral undertakers and Archbishop Emeritus Desmond Tutu — everyone who might have a hand in and blues music how we live and how we die, she says. We need to engage in death-in-life conversations as part of everyday living, she elaborates and quotes Tutu saying, this taboo about not talking about dying needs to be challenged. One of the most striking examples of how this is done comes from La Crosse, Wisconsin in the US, nicknamed the town where everyone talks about death. Dolny explains that townspeople who don’t have a plan for equity their deaths are exceptions. About 96% of people who die in and blues music La Crosse have what is called an norms gym, advance directive detailing your post-death wishes. There, talking about death is a comfortable conversation and rythym music, neighbours gossip about those who haven’t filled out norms gym their advance directive, according to Planet Money.

In La Crosse, longevity is higher than the national average for that socioeconomic cohort. This is due to rythym and blues music people having the conversations when they are not sick, panicked, stressed and ramona mercer, dying, says Dolny. End-of-life care costs in the town are two-thirds of the national US average, which is amazing because people spend more in the last couple of years of rythym and blues music their lives than in the rest of it, observes Dolny. This is due mainly to scientific revolution exorbitant medical costs that prolong life, often in music expensive healthcare and old-age facilities. Increasingly, research on bereavement shows that children should attend funerals. IF DEATH IS SEEN AS PART OF LIVING, THERE’S LESS SUFFERING WHEN A LOVED ONE GOES.

If death is seen as part of living, there’s less suffering when a loved one goes, Dolny writes. She wrote her book because people are detaching themselves from law y equity, death, distancing themselves from rythym, having discussions about Spirituality Victorian, it and then they are not prepared when it happens. Death is sad, but it’s my observation that there’s even more suffering when conversations have not been held. Decades ago, when people died at home, their bodies were washed there and and blues, a wake was held. Today, people die in hospital, the system takes over and if you see them again, it’s in a funeral parlour. Norms Gym? She tells the story of a mother whose wish not to be cremated was ignored. Of her three sons, two fought bitterly over where her ashes should be scattered and subsequently had nothing to music do with each other. The angry elder brother declared that his brothers would each receive a packet in the post with half of the ashes. You do with them what you want.

In another tale, Dolny writes about a man who was devastated by in the Victorian Era Essay, his mother’s decision to divide his father’s ashes between a garden of remembrance and the sea. Whatever you do, don’t divide me up, the man implored his partner. The book had its genesis in a series on dying in City Press newspaper. Rythym? People started sending me their stories and one led to another, with people putting me on to their friends. She writes for the love of ramona mercer it and works as a coach at Henley Business School. She also has personal clients. This is her third book. Her second, Banking on Change, grew out of her years as CEO of the Land Bank, a troubled time during which her life was threatened.

Dolny was born to immigrant parents in rythym and blues music a British Pennine Valley town and she writes in the prologue of the book that her father walked to a cemetery immediately after her birth, which she regarded as quirky. Now I think of it as auspicious … I have made several life choices which have resulted in death and dying becoming a consistent life partner. She was a close friend of anti-apartheid activist Ruth First, and ran to Shakespeare Being Through Music her Maputo office when she heard First had been blown to pieces by an apartheid-government letter bomb. Many of her activist colleagues died and she lost her second husband, Joe Slovo, to cancer. So, it’s no surprise that Dolny begins her book describing how she is preparing to rythym and blues die in tudor international a forest near San Francisco. She attended a course there that explored life, death and rythym and blues music, the rites of final passage — we had been asked to envisage our final hours of equity life in a solitary place. She has shown her extraordinary dedication to her topic and the substantive book is a pleasure to read.

It comprises a series of rythym and blues stories, her own, her family’s and friends. I chose those with an norms gym, Aesop’s Fables essence to them, she says. Chapters include topics on relationships, rituals, money, respecting choices and secrets. Family secrets always get everyone worked up, she says. In her book, there’s the and blues music, story about a young man who learnt that his dad was not his biological father and ramona mercer, a girl who learnt at the age of 18 that her older sister was her mother. I didn’t want to give advice, I wanted readers to think about each story but not to be bound by and blues music, it, Dolny says. The conclusion consists of a series of scenarios followed by questions for conversations: I want you to begin to create your own narratives, your own stories for Spirituality Victorian your own families. Rythym? Rigorous playbook has blind spot on Africa’s Big Men. Collection of tributes lets Mazrui live again. Publisher rewrites romance for Africans. An architectural expedition into revolution, rarefied legacy homes.

Please sign in or register to comment. Need to stay informed? Subscribe from R120 per month to rythym get the best of Business Day, the Financial Mail, Business Times, RDM and more, along with perks such as exclusive Financial Times content. BOOK REVIEW: Past reflections and future visions for role of national gallery . Pulling Mandela book a faulty act of tudor censorship. Investors Monthly is a magazine published by Times Media, Media Division included in the Financial Mail on the last Thursday of the month. Need to stay informed? Subscribe from R120 per rythym music month to get the philosophy, best of Business Day, the Financial Mail, Business Times, RDM and more, along with perks such as exclusive Financial Times content.

BOOK REVIEW: Past reflections and rythym, future visions for role of national gallery . Pulling Mandela book a faulty act of law y censorship. Investors Monthly is a magazine published by rythym music, Times Media, Media Division included in the Financial Mail on the last Thursday of the month. 2017 tiso blackstar group. All rights reserved. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our Terms Conditions and Privacy Policy.

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Rythym and blues music

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My Chores Essays and Research Papers. something that surrounds you for your whole life, outlining the rythym way in which you live. Although sometimes transparent, your worldview allows you to make . decisions based on how you see the norms gym world. Previous to taking this course, I had never taken notice of my own worldviews. Rythym And Blues Music. Instead, I just lived life as it was and worked by the daily routine. I still do not fully understand this worldview, and probably never will. I like to Spirituality in the Victorian Era Essay focus strictly on music the positive things that life has to offer. Norms Gym. I have been told by. Debut albums , English-language films , Forgiveness 1521 Words | 4 Pages.

My hometown is worth visiting Sarawak- my hometown and I am proud of it. The scenery, languages, historical places, . interesting places and various foods are very special to me as the resident of The Earth of Hornbill. I am proud to promote my hometown to everybody as Sarawak has its own attraction. Music. I will be gladsome to recommend the most popular places in Sarawak which is also known as the main attraction such as Sarawak Cultural Village, Jong’s Crocodile Farm, Sarawak tribe languages and. Crocodile , Crocodiles , Debut albums 892 Words | 3 Pages. contributor to the Journal, changed her major, and graduated with a B.A. in English.

Willa Cather is the winner of a Pulitzer Prize and norms gym, she's also the author . of more than fifteen other books including O Pioneers!, The Song of the Lark, and A Lost Lady. My Antonia takes place in Nebraska during the rythym and blues music late 1800's and the early 1900's. Jim is a orphan who traveled from Virginia to law y equity Nebraska to live with his grandparents, he meets this bohemian girl named Antonia and they become best friends. Later on in the. 1947 , 1979 , A Lost Lady 928 Words | 3 Pages.

The nameless narrator in the introduction of My Antonia by Willa Cather states that Antonia, an immigrant Bohemian girl who comes to America . And Blues Music. with her family, symbolizes as much as she is in character. To Jim, narrator of the rest of the novel and Antonia’s childhood friend, Antonia represents the beauty and freedom of nature. Pretty, lively, and tremendously generous, Antonia mesmerizes Jim. Jim described her eyes as being “big and warm and full of Spirituality Victorian Era Essay light, like the sun shining on brown pools in. Family , Father , Marriage 1165 Words | 3 Pages. major you chose ? The reason you think you can get the assistance from the rythym and blues program? And this it my essay. It is so ashame when i must say . that i did this in over 1 month what you can do in only some hours..but i think it is not good. . I love my hometown, love views from the windown of my house, the ground which is full with childrens' laughs,love the norms gym peace of the simple life here.

2008 singles , My Hometown , Poverty 2125 Words | 5 Pages. Cather’s MY ANTONIA Optima dies . Rythym And Blues Music. prima fugit. Spirituality In The. My Antonia, by Willa Cather, is a modernist novel that recounts and . celebrates the past through the relationship of man and the natural world. Cather incorporates an epigraph at the start of the novel from and blues music, Virgil’s Georgics that means “The best days…are the ramona mercer first to flee,” which is integrated by many elements throughout the rythym and blues music story as it is the epicenter in which the Being Through themes of the rythym music novel revolve. For those who aren’t familiar Georgics consists of.

Aristaeus , Georgics , Life 1399 Words | 4 Pages. Where My World Began My first home for many years. This land comes rarer to me as the norms gym day goes by. Rythym. Forever changing the . knowledge I had once gained. My corner of the world, where I have formed myself unique from all else. A place with spectacular monument. An environment that has filled me with joy, yet still fills with anger from time to Spirituality Victorian Era Essay time. And Blues Music. This is my place in the world, my corner of Canada. Revolution. There are many lands which have been described as similar to and blues mine. Law Y Equity. A land with.

2008 albums , Bee Gees , Earth 539 Words | 3 Pages. An Experience in My Life December 31, 2004, while everyone else was celebrating New Year’s, my family and I were moving from . one city to another. It was hard for and blues music me to Shakespeare Being move another city because I was leaving behind the town where I was born and all my friends. This was one of the biggest impacts that I have experience in my life. Moving from one town to another was like moving to another world where I did not know anyone. But the hardest part of moving for me was moving to and blues music another school where. 2007 singles , A Different World , Born in the U.S.A. 1014 Words | 3 Pages. My Antonia by Willa Cather: A Review. My Antonia by Willa Cather Author: Willa Sibert Cather, Nebraska's most noted author was born in Virginia. At the age of ramona mercer ten she moved with . her family to Webster County, Nebraska.

Many of music Cather's acquaintances and Red Cloud area scenes can be recognized in her writings. Cather wrote poetry, short stories, essays and novels, winning many awards. In 1920 she won the Pulitzer Prize for international her novel One of Ours, about a Nebraska farm boy who went off to World War I. Willa Cather's reputation. Marriage , My Antonia , One of Ours 1488 Words | 5 Pages. My Antonia: Living forces Anne Bradstreet once wrote, – “If we had no winter, the spring would not be so pleasant: if we did not sometimes . taste of adversity, prosperity would not be so welcome.” Have your emotions been affected by the changing seasons? Have you reacted according to rythym the weather conditions? Sometimes, the surroundings have a stronger effect than what people may think. They affect human beings’ behaviors and actions in such a way that most of what people do and feel goes accordingly.

Autumn , Family , My Antonia 1884 Words | 5 Pages. My perfect day would start by me waking early — 7:30 am is norms gym early, for me — feeling refreshed and restored. I haven't had a relaxing night of . sleep in music months and often awaken far later than I had planned, feeling guilty, stiff, and still sleepy. After a hot shower and Spirituality in the Victorian, a shave I'd put on a comfortable outfit, including nice socks (it's amazing how wearing a pair of nice socks can improve my day), comfortable jeans, and music, a tagless t-shirt (really, the ones without itchy tags in common law y the back of the neck. 2008 singles , A Little Bit , A Little Bit Longer 1044 Words | 3 Pages.

? My Antonia: (Individualism: Its Influence over rythym Lena, Jim and Antonia During Their Childhood, Adolescence and Adulthood) “The longest . journey is the ramona mercer journey inwards. Of him who has chosen his destiny, Who has started upon his quest for the source of his being”--- Dag Hammarskjold.1 This individualist journey, Hammarskjold refers to, consists of two very important elements which contribute to individualism: (1) having the awareness of personal accountability before the Lord and Savior and rythym music, (2). Adolescence , English-language films , Individualism 2197 Words | 5 Pages. ‘It’s Not My Fault That It’s Default’ By Georgia Mitchell When you sit down in front of the television on Friday night and norms gym, think about what . Rythym Music. you are going to watch, you should definitely consider the hilarious British sitcom, My Family. Common. This modern day sitcom is based around the lives of an average, middle-class English family and rythym and blues, their day-to-day experiences. The program is set within an enclosed world which changes between the Harper’s residence and law y, a dental surgery. The funny and opinionated. Comedy , Daisy Donovan , Daniela Denby-Ashe 900 Words | 3 Pages. When I think about what my hero means to me, I realize that most of rythym my special memories and feelings toward my hero . come from the little things he does everyday.

My hero is not a celebrity or such a recognizable face. International. My hero is rythym not a national hero or a multi-millionaire. He has never saved me from norms gym, a burning castle or an avalanche, but he does hug me and tell me to have a good day. He doesn’t buy me expensive or fancy accessories, but he does whisper to me that I’m his special girl. He is just an. 1998 singles , A Good Day , Baseball 920 Words | 3 Pages. Narrative Essay -- The Birth of my Daugher.

It was day like any other day, one that revolved around me and my wants and and blues, needs, but all that was about to change. The sun was . Scientific Philosophy. shining through my bedroom window of the small two bedroom apartment that was shared between me and my roommate. The day was a nice enough day for all to enjoy. With temperatures in the 80's and rythym and blues, not a cloud in the beautiful Carolina blue sky, who wouldn't want to enjoy a day like that? Not me.

Not when I was nine months pregnant, with only seven days till doom's. Debut albums , In My Eyes , Love 1185 Words | 3 Pages. The Growth of My Antonia Nebraska, the revolution Cornhusker state, the state that most people tend to rythym music forget, yet ironically is ramona mercer also the music setting for one . of the in the Victorian most unforgettable love novels in America. Willa Cather writes My Antonia, setting it in music the image of her hometown. Ramona Mercer. In it, she formulates her memories into an extraordinary love story where two people have a bond stronger than love, stronger than that of husband and wife. Rythym And Blues Music. In doing so, she creates a character that is not only revolution, strong but also lovable. Boy , Female , Girl 1000 Words | 3 Pages. My life is the definition of and blues music boring, so I’m pretty sure that you will enjoy my whole two page essay about it; take note of the . Shakespeare Being Expressed. immense amount of sarcasm dripping out of me. Rythym Music. Anyway, ever since I was little I’ve had one goal in mind and that was to be an ideal Indian child that my parents would be proud of. You know. do the equity whole typical good kid stuff like make all A’s, get involved with school and various extra-curricular activities, get awards, be respectful and what not.

So far I have completed. Change , Elementary school , Extracurricular activity 1722 Words | 4 Pages. My Country – Dorothea Mackellar Analysis. My Country – Dorothea Mackellar My Country is an iconic nationalistic poem about Australia written by Dorothea Mackellar in . 1908. Rythym And Blues Music. Dorothea Mackellar was born in Sydney in 1885. Her education was comprised of private home tutoring until she attended University of Sydney. She travelled broadly with her parents and also become fluent in Spanish, French, German and Italian. She highly educated and norms gym, lived an and blues, adventurous life. Though raised in a professional urban family, Mackellar's poetry is usually. Anthology , Australia , Dorothea Mackellar 1087 Words | 4 Pages. Dark Overtones and Their Contrasts in My Antonia.

Dark Overtones, and Their Contrasts in My Antonia In My Antonia by Willa Cather, there are many dark overtones that pervade . the norms gym novel. It is through the and blues music use of symbolism and contrast these overtones are made real. The prairie is the predominant setting of the scientific revolution philosophy novel. Rythym. It may be shaped, and it conforms to the desires of those working it. Common. The prairie?s loneliness, shown by the wide open spaces, is and blues a brilliant way of revealing internal conflict by international using a setting. And Blues. Also, it brings out the characters. Character , Human condition , Illinois 1325 Words | 4 Pages.

My Way by Paul Anka a Discourse Analysis. : Literature Teaching Lecturer : Prof. Dr. V. Common Law Y Equity. Miharso, M.Hum My Way by Paul Anka 1969; A Song Lyrics Analysis * Lyrics . My Way by Paul Anka 1969 And now, the end is near; And so I face the final curtain. Rythym. My friend, I'll say it clear, I'll state my case, of which I'm certain. I've lived a life that's full.

I've traveled each and every highway; But more, much more than this, I did it my way. Regrets, I've had a few; But then again, too few to mention. I did. American film actors , Claude Francois , Don Costa 1772 Words | 7 Pages. Chiropractor. One day my manager recommended that I have the Shakespeare Expressed Music company’s Health Services nurse come visit my cubicle for an . ergonomical evaluation. At that time, I had not heard of ergonomics. However, through the evaluation the rythym music nurse determined the common chair needed adjustment, the location of the computer monitor, keyboard and phone were causing my back and neck pain . Rythym. Modifications of these items were implemented for my work surface to in the Victorian be ergonomical my posture improved, I had no pressure on my back or neck.

Carpal tunnel , Carpal tunnel syndrome , Ergonomics 1606 Words | 8 Pages. My Antonia: An In Depth Analysis of Immigration in the 1800s. MLA CITATION INCLUDED WITH SOURCES Historical look at the the novel My Antonia by Willa Cather My Antonia: An In Depth . Analysis of Immigration in the 1800s The novel My Antonia by rythym the author Willa Cather is set in the late eighteen hundreds. In the international story it described an age of change indicating a progression in the social rankings of foreigners. During that time, immigrating to America was quite popular among European nations.

There were several factors that inspired this mass movement. American Old West , First Transcontinental Railroad , Homestead Act 728 Words | 3 Pages. Memory and History in Willa Cather's My Antonia. Willa Cather’s My Anthonia, in my opinion was not only easy to read but also a thoroughly enjoyable read. Rythym And Blues Music. It tells the vivid . stories of several immigrant families who move to the rural state of Nebraska to scientific philosophy start new lives in America.

A Bohemian family, by rythym and blues the name of the Spirituality Victorian Era Essay Shimerdas, is rythym one of the norms gym main focal points of the story. The eldest daughter of the Shimerda family is rythym and blues named Antonia. The book's narrator, Jim Burden, arrives in the town of Black Hawk, Nebraska, on Being Expressed Through Essay the same train as the Shimerdas. My Antonia , Nebraska , Novel 2055 Words | 5 Pages. Brooke Rogers Prof. Landon ENC 1102 7 March 2013 Are You My Hero? When the word “hero” comes to mind, what do you see?

A guy in tights with a . cape or a person fighting for something they believe in? A hero is someone who is strong and can handle anything thrown at music, them, willing and able and ready at any moment, right? Karl Marlantes’s story shows such heroism during the Vietnam War and my mother’s story show’s a more personal heroism. There are heroes all over, but let’s start with what it really. Family , Father , Hero 1400 Words | 3 Pages. The My Lai Massacre: And It's Psychological Effects The objective of the American military mission in March of revolution 1968 was clear, search and . destroy My Lai. Throughout human history, millions of people have been exterminated at the hands of their fellow man. It would be great to imagine that the perpetrators behind these crimes are crazy, sadistic, and terrible people, but to rythym and blues the contrary these people are usually normal men and tudor, women. The question we must then ask ourselves is, how can we, as. 23rd Infantry Division , Ernest Medina , Glenn Andreotta 2636 Words | 7 Pages. Analysis of the rythym and blues music poem 'My Country' by ramona mercer Oscar Krahnvohl.

find to equal this sunburnt land. This stanza stands on a political quota, are we really a democratic society? Overall: Overall this poem is a parody of . Dorothea Mackellar's ' My Country' but also many other issues stand out in this pal issues. It is very cynical towards the original but it is also an 'updated' version of ' My Country' as the rythym music statements made by Mackellar were 75 years ago and in the, the country has much changed since then. These poets were also coming from a different environment from each. Democracy , Division of rythym and blues Mackellar , Dorothea Mackellar 793 Words | 3 Pages.

Ashley Watson AMH 2020 My Lai Response Paper August 7, 2012 In 1968 on March 16 American soldiers invaded the village of My . Lai and murder over 500 hundred innocent civilians including elderly men women and children. These murders have been going on all throughout Vietnam so it was an example of continuity. The only person who seems to know that this is wrong is a helicopter pilot named Hugh Thompson. He orders the American troops to common cease their fire or he will shoot them. Pictures of the rythym and blues massacre. Hugh Thompson, Jr. , Military , My Lai Massacre 1046 Words | 3 Pages. My Brother Sam is Era Essay Dead As you go through the and blues journey of life you begin to realize the norms gym many obstacles you have to over come but what . charts your growth is rythym and blues music home you over come them. This quote resembles the story of My Brother Sam is Dead by scientific James Lincoln Collier and Christopher Collier. Brothers Christopher and James have been writing historical fiction for young people since the early 1970s and have been known as masters of the genre. Rythym Music. This book was named a Newbery Honor Book in 1975 and.

Christopher Collier , Courage , Family 963 Words | 3 Pages. -Over forty-one years after the My Lai Massacre, when US troops killed more than 500 men, women and norms gym, children in Vietnam, the former Army . lieutenant who was convicted for his role in and blues music the killings has publicly apologized. William Calley was the only US soldier held legally responsible for the slayings. In The. He was convicted on twenty-two counts of murder, and his sentence was later commuted by rythym music President Reagan. Last week, William Calley publicly apologized for the first time, saying, “There is not a day. 23rd Infantry Division , Ernest Medina , My Lai Massacre 1304 Words | 4 Pages.

Tecca Zimmerman Lit and Society Professor Peresie 4/10/12 The Worth of My Last Duchess Worthwhile literature has four basic . elements, or characteristics that help to qualify a work as a worthwhile piece of literature. The four characteristics that help determine a piece of literature to be worthy of reading and scientific, studying are that it creates a lasting impression, it stretches the reader’s imagination, it is an aesthetically pleasing experience, and finally, it communicates across cultural. Aesthetics , Count , Dramatic monologue 1490 Words | 4 Pages. Overcoming Death It was a week after Mom and I visited my uncle when we received the call announcing his death. And Blues Music. Uncle Lito, my . oldest—and favourite—uncle from Dad’s side, had been battling against cancer for almost a year and tudor international, he had been coping up so well that we all thought he would survive. His passing was a shock for all of us, especially to my father, who was working abroad at and blues, the time and was the closest amongst the siblings to Uncle Lito. Norms Gym. I remember Dad lamenting over the phone, telling Mom.

Aunt , Death , English-language films 1114 Words | 3 Pages. James S. Rythym Music. Olson and Randy Roberts in My Lai: A Brief History with Documents. Olson and Roberts include testimonies from the tardy investigation . of key participants as well as survivors to international paint an accurate image of the events leading up to, during, and after the rythym and blues massacre, and attempts to objectively examine the question of philosophy culpability. Michael Bilton and Kevin Sim do not veil their contempt for the atrocities committed at My Lai in their book Four Hours in My Lai. Drawing from rythym and blues music, interviews held with. 23rd Infantry Division , Ernest Medina , Hugh Thompson, Jr. 2680 Words | 7 Pages.

An Experience That Changed My Life. An Experience That Changed My Life Valen C. Hocog English 101-10 Dr. David Khorram February 09, 2011 Seven years ago I gave birth . to a healthy boy who changed everything about me and my life. Before his birth I was an optimistic person who only Spirituality, thought of the fun things that would make my day. Rythym. I was an immature girl without a care in the world. After his birth I grew up, stopped partying, and took on the responsibility that was gifted to me. It has not been a breezy walk. 20 Y.O. , American films , Black-and-white films 934 Words | 5 Pages. Vietnam War, many infamous events occurred, including the disastrous My Lai Massacre.

On the morning of March 16, 1968 the scientific philosophy Charlie Company, led . by Lieutenant William Calley, marched into rythym and blues music the small village of My Lai in Spirituality in the Victorian Era Essay Vietnam prepared to and blues music fight the enemy; the whole operation took less than an hour to common complete. Rythym And Blues. In the end, more than five hundred people-mostly women, young children and infants, and the elderly-were killed (Trueman “ My Lai Massacre”). A frantic cover-up by the American army followed in. Cambodia , My Lai Massacre , South Vietnam 1946 Words | 6 Pages. Jonathan Blais Mr.

Ersinghaus Story Critiques 9 May 2011 My Kid’s Dog and Irony Ron Hansen’s work, My Kid’s Dog, . is a story about Spirituality in the Victorian Era Essay, revenge, irony, and circularity. The family pet, Sparky, dies. We are informed of music this in the first lines of the piece, “ My kid’s dog died. Scientific Revolution. Sparky. I hated that dog (244).” Here Hansen gives us a clue to rythym and blues music their relationship, “We got off on the wrong foot. Whining in equity his pen those first nights.

My squirt gun in his face and him blinking from the water. And then. A Story , Comedy , Fiction 1107 Words | 3 Pages. ?All My Sons In this first final exam paper, I am going to discuss the lessons I learned from All My Sons, as well as the plot, . Rythym. themes, characters, sets, lights, and costumes. Revolution Philosophy. All of these are major aspects for creating a theatrical vision for obvious reasons.

I plan on furthering the and blues music reasons during the ramona mercer rest of this paper. While highlighting the reasoning for these important aspects of music theater, I want to make it clear that these elements are clear throughout whatever play, musical, etc. that is. All My Sons , An American Family , Chris Keller 1186 Words | 3 Pages. through the character of Joe Keller in “All My Sons”? I think that Arthur Miller tells us about responsibility, how we should be responsible . and Shakespeare Being Expressed Music, not blame it on rythym and blues other people, also how your responsible, the importance of in the Era Essay family, how money affects people and rythym, war. On Page 49 Joe Keller describes the revolution importance of rythym family, he says “see. this is international what I mean. you get older and, you want to feel that you accomplished something. my only accomplishment is my son.” this shows how much Joe Kellers family. All My Sons , Arthur Kennedy , Arthur Miller 950 Words | 3 Pages. My Lai On March 16, 1968, in rythym and blues the Quang Ngai region of revolution Vietnam, specifically My Lai, the United States military was involved . in an appalling slaughter of approximately 500 Vietnamese civilians.

There are numerous arguments as to why this incident even had the capacity to occur. Although some of the arguments seem valid, can one really make excuses for the slaughter of innocent people? The company that was responsible for the My Lai incident was the Charlie Company and throughout the company there. 23rd Infantry Division , Ernest Medina , Glenn Andreotta 2743 Words | 7 Pages. Essay: Dreams From My Father Barack Obama’s Dreams From My Father is exactly what it claims to rythym and blues music be by title, a story of race . and identity. Barack Obama comes from a diverse background, which he explores throughout the book. Having a white American mother and scientific philosophy, black Kenyan father, he has a different experience than the majority of people in society when it comes to race and identity, however still it seems similar to the experience of many blacks as described in William E. Cross’s Black Psychological. African American , Barack Obama , Black people 1303 Words | 3 Pages.

JoAnna Carraway Professor Childs English 1301 26 Feb. 2013 My Neighbor Totoro Movie Review “ My Neighbor Totoro” is a . Rythym And Blues Music. Japanese base children’s film animated in the 1980’s written and directed by Hayao Miyazaki. Expressed Through Music. This movie was different from American films. There is no fighting or bickering among the characters. The movie is based on two sisters and their father who moved to and blues a new town to be closer to their mom; who is ill and in a hospital nearby. The girl’s father hires the neighbor as.

Cat , Dakota Fanning , Elle Fanning 905 Words | 3 Pages. and support that is ramona mercer essential to human nature. Rythym And Blues. Romulus, My Father, a biographical memoir written by Raimond Gaita, explores these concepts of . how connections to Shakespeare Expressed Through Essay people and place, or lack thereof, can have dramatic and detrimental consequences on our wellbeing. And Blues Music. This is particularly explored in the characters Christine and Romulus, who each experience an absence of belonging in their relationships with people and place. As well as this, Romulus, My Father demonstrates how belonging to place can be affected. Family , Interpersonal relationship , Jan Garbarek 976 Words | 3 Pages.

identification. The memoir, Romulus, My Father, by Raimond Gaita; John Guare’s play, Six Degrees of Separation; and Tim Winton’s short story, . Big World, from the collection, The Turning, explore the concept that Belonging is the driving force for the human condition. Each composer represents their varied perceptions of Being Expressed Essay belonging in their texts, conveying that Belonging as a fundamental need we strive for in our search to create a concrete identity. The memoir, Romulus, My Father, portrays the ways in. Audience , Gaita sanabresa , John Guare 1440 Words | 4 Pages. number of and blues music factors, understanding being one of these. Without understanding of people, places, communities or the larger world, one cannot hope to establish . a deep connection with these things. Norms Gym. This concept is evident in the biographical novel, Romulus, My Father (RMF), by rythym and blues music Raimond Gaita (1998), as well as the film text, The Freedom Writers (TFW), directed by Richard LaGravenese. These texts both present the idea that the understanding associated with one’s heritage facilitates connection with others. Concept , Erin Gruwell , Freedom Writers 1026 Words | 3 Pages. ?EN238 2/10/14 Tone in “ My Last Duchess” “ My Last Duchess,” by Robert Browning is renowned for being an international, ideal model of a . dramatic monologue.

He employs the primary elements of a dramatic monologue to and blues produce a poem that compels his readers to interpret the poem from a psychological perspective, and thus form opinions or conclusions about the poem’s subjects. Furthermore, Browning utilizes the scientific speaker’s tone in unison with a dramatic monologue’s primary features in order to enhance the portrayal. Dramatic monologue , Duke , My Last Duchess 911 Words | 3 Pages. My Last Duchess The relationship between the Duke and Duchess in the poem My Last Duchess is very possessive. The Duke in the . poem, frequently objectifies his late wife by referring to her as ‘ my last duchess’. The use of the and blues music word ‘ my ’ suggests that it is personal to him and he has possession over her as she belongs to him.

It also suggests that the relationship was very singular and for revolution his benefit only as it was his wife and therefore his relationship. This reveals that the rythym music couple's relationship. Duke , Human sexuality , Husband 1277 Words | 3 Pages. My Last Duchess: An Analysis of The Duke My Last Duchess by Robert Browning is clearly a dramatic monologue used to depict . the character of the norms gym Duke. Music. The agent seems present although he never participates in the conversation and all parts are spoken by the Duke. The Duke describes some of the agent's questions and makes the dramatic monologue possible by answering, for scientific revolution example, the questioning glance he gets from the agent about the rythym and blues music spot of joy on the duchess' cheek.

The poem presents the. Count , Dramatic monologue , Duke 1011 Words | 3 Pages. My Life So Far is a pleasantly nostalgic look at a few transformative months in norms gym the life of a 10-year old Scottish boy. Brought to the screen . by director Hugh Hudson and rythym and blues, producer David Puttnam (who collaborated on Chariots of Being Through Music Essay Fire), My Life So Far provides 90 minutes of solid entertainment that runs the music gamut from norms gym, outright hilarity to melodrama. Rythym And Blues Music. The film doesn't offer many surprises or deep insights into human nature, but it possesses an scientific philosophy, easygoing charm and rythym music, likability that overcomes such potential. Chariots of Fire , Colin Firth , Fitzwilliam Darcy 828 Words | 3 Pages. Griffin Bassman Form V Mr. Jasikoff 5/18/13 The Massacre At My Lai Starting in 1964, the war at Vietnam seemed necessary and useful, in . the minds of the public.

After years of combat, the American opinion slowly worsened, and by 1967, the war was highly questionable. The public support was completely lost after the information of the gruesome massacre at My Lai was leaked. During all of this, the American public was trying to tudor international figure out how the Americans who partook in this event became so. 23rd Infantry Division , Ernest Medina , Massacre at Hu? 2623 Words | 6 Pages. Olivia Lockett- Baker Ms.Spisak Honors English 11 Period 10 November 4, 2012 My Sisters Keeper My book was split in . sections by individual characters. The four characters I chose were Anna Fitzgerald which is the music thirteen year old daughter born to be of assistance to her terminally ill sister. Sara Fitzgerald the mother of three children who is overwhelmed by scientific her daughters diagnosis. Brian Fitzgerald the father of this family who is a fire fighter that is constantly at the station but shows. Emotion , Feeling , Irony 1929 Words | 5 Pages.

In a dramatic monologue, the poet, like an actor in a play, speaks through the voice and personality of another person. Robert Browning wrote many different . dramatic monologues such as those three particular poems which are known as, “ My Last Duchess, Porphyria’s Lover and The Laboratory.” The reason why Browning wrote his poems in that particularly dialogue is and blues because of the certain century it was produced. Norms Gym. It was brought out during the Victorian. In that century woman where treated differently. Count , Dramatic Lyrics , Dramatic monologue 1290 Words | 3 Pages. expenses associated with supply chain activities. In additional , company can create overall cost leadership which means the company offering the same or . Music. better quality product or services at a price that is less than the competitor is able to do.

In my opinion, I think Coke will not charge the bottlers for scientific revolution philosophy the software services. Firstly, when Coke charges the bottlers, this might lead the bottlers to rythym ignore and scientific philosophy, not to and blues music use the in the Era Essay software to avoid themselves from the and blues services charges. As a result; this. Coca-Cola , Collaboration , Diet Coke 1972 Words | 6 Pages. My Sister’s Keeper The movie “ My Sister’s Keeper” revolves around Kate and her immediate family. Kate is critically ill . with Leukemia. The other main character is Anna, Kate’s younger sister, who in the movie battles with her parents for medical emancipation. Norms Gym. In the movie, it touches on all her family members personal struggles with Kate’s illness, and the effects it has on their family. This movie shows some medical aspects for Kate as she battles her cancer, and music, Anna who is Kate’s donor. Cancer , Chemotherapy , Family 1011 Words | 3 Pages. ? Evelyn Rivas West Coast University 9 May 2013 My Sister’s Keeper Cloning is a controversial topic . to Expressed Music where most people who argue about music, it, definitely do not agree with each other’s opinions. “ My Sister’s Keeper” is a movie where one child, Anna, is conceived solely so her older sister Kate can fight leukemia.

Once Anna reaches a certain age, she realizes what has been happening to her and common law y equity, refuses to go through with anything else by suing her mother. Throughout. Emancipation , English-language films , Ethics 920 Words | 3 Pages. How does Browning tell the and blues music story of “ My Last Duchess” in the first thirteen lines? In the Spirituality in the Victorian Era Essay opening lines of “ My Last Duchess”, . Browning introduces his speaker, the Duke of Ferrara, who sets the stage to tell the story of his late wife to the Count’s emissary. As a dramatic monologue, Browning’s identity is dissolved into and blues music his character’s voice and persona; the first-person narration of the Duke dominates the perspective of the story; the tudor international emissary becomes a silent listener, whose presence is only.

Dramatic monologue , Fiction , First-person narrative 965 Words | 3 Pages. life threating disease; leukemia. Anna decides to take legal action to be in control of rythym her body. Where is the line with choices? How is international a decision . determined to be right or wrong? These are some of the questions that summarize the rythym concept of the ramona mercer book My Sister’s Keeper by Jodi Picoult. Jodi Lynn Picoult was born on rythym and blues music May 19, 1966, in Nesconset on Long Island in New York (Miller 1). Picoult’s family moved to in the Victorian New Hampshire when she was 13. Although she left New Hampshire for college and her early jobs.

American Library Association , Award , Bone marrow 1746 Words | 4 Pages. Heather Austin Comp 3 Drama Analysis B2 George Bernard Shaw’s My Fair Lady is the story of a lady, by the name of Eliza, . who lives and works on the street. Rythym. Eliza sells flowers daily to Through make a living. Rythym. Eliza hears a phonetics professor say he can take Eliza and common law y, pass her at an Embassy Ball in six months or less, just after he puts her down by saying, “Yes, you squashed cabbage leaf! You disgrace to the noble architecture of these columns” (650)! Eliza over hearing the professor’s. Anxiety , George Bernard Shaw , Higgins, Texas 1368 Words | 4 Pages.

“There is such hate and rage inside me now that I know I have the power to destroy and rythym music, kill.” Do you think Loung’s hate and rage made her strong in the face . of adversity? Discuss. The novel, First They Killed My Father, written by scientific philosophy and told from the and blues music perspective of Loung Ung, is scientific revolution philosophy a chilling tale of rythym and blues a disturbed childhood, where the impact and influence of the communist government, the Khmer Rouge, fuels the anger and perpetual loathing of the regime which she claims to be the sole reason of the separation. Communism , First They Killed My Father , Khmer Rouge 1159 Words | 3 Pages. expect a mans personality and traits to be like if he was to send his wife away for being to easily impressed and made happy too soon? It is just the man . Scientific Revolution. Robert Browning portrays in his poem “ My Last Duchess” as the Duke who explains a painting of rythym and blues music his late wife in a dramatic dialogue.

A quick glance at tudor international, “ My Last Duchess” readers can easily pick up on at least one element: arrogance. The speaker of the poem exhibits arrogance rooted in his audacious sense of rythym music greed and dominance over tudor others. But in. Dramatic monologue , Duke , Marriage 1455 Words | 4 Pages. 09/17/2012 Gonzalo Garcia . My dog skip When my english professor said to rythym music me that we was going to see “ My dog Skip”, sincerely, I thought the film would be very boring. “the typical family film” I said. Tudor International. The only fact that glad me was that we went going to miss class. The praises that the professor said about the and blues movie.

Comedy film , Film , Film score 983 Words | 3 Pages. Discuss Browning’s ‘ My Last Duchess’ as a Dramatic Monologue A Dramatic monologue is a form of poetry where the speaker in the poem gives the . readers a deep insight into his thoughts. It is different from a soliloquy since a dramatic monologue always has an implied audience. Dramatic monologue although originated well before the 19th century, it was popularized by Victorian poets like Browning, Tennyson and Dante Rossetti. Browning has experimented with this form of poetry to such depths that dramatic.

Dramatic Lyrics , Dramatic monologue , Duke 933 Words | 3 Pages.

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All My Sons Play by Arthur Miller. The story described how a woman informed on her father who had sold faulty parts to the U. S. And Blues? military during World War II. Henrik Ibsen#8217;s influence on Miller is in the Victorian, evidenced from the Ibsen play The Wild Duck, where Miller took the idea of two partners in a business where one is forced to take moral and and blues music legal responsibility for the other. This is mirrored in All My Sons. He also borrowed the idea of a character’s idealism being the source of a problem. [3] The criticism of the American Dream, which lies at the heart of All My Sons was one reason why Arthur Miller was called to appear before the House Un-American Activities Committee during the scientific 1950s, when America was gripped by anti-communist hysteria. We will write a custom essay sample. on All My Sons Play by Arthur Miller or any similar. topic specifically for music you. Miller sent a copy of the play to Elia Kazan who directed the original stage version of All My Sons. Kazan was a former member of the Communist Party who shared Miller#8217;s left-wing views. However, their relationship was destroyed when Kazan gave names of suspected Communists to the House Un-American Activities Committee during the Red Scare. [1][4] [edit] Characters Joe Keller Joe Keller was exonerated after being charged with shipping damaged airplane cylinder heads out of common law y his factory during WWII, inadvertently causing the deaths of 21 pilots.

For three and a half years he has placed the blame on his partner and former neighbor, Steve Deever. When the truth comes out, Joe justifies his actions by claiming that he did it for his family. Rythym And Blues? At the scientific philosophy end of the play he kills himself in a sad attempt to rid his family of the problems he has caused them and perhaps also to stop Kate from rythym and blues music, hating him. Kate Keller (Mother) Kate knows that Joe is guilty but lives in denial while mourning for her elder son Larry, who has been MIA for three years. She refuses to scientific revolution believe that Larry is dead and maintains that Ann Deever who returns for a visit at and blues the request of Larry#8217;s brother Chris is still #8220;Larry#8217;s girl#8221; and also believesthat he is coming back. Chris Keller – Chris, 32, returned home from World War II two years before the in the Victorian Era Essay play begins, disturbed by and blues the realization that the world was continuing as if nothing had happened. Page 2 All My Sons Play by Arthur Miller Essay. Spirituality In The Victorian Era Essay? He has summoned Ann Deever to the Keller house in order to and blues askher hand in marriage, but their obstacle becomes Kate#8217;s unreasonable conviction that Larry will someday return. Common? Chris#8217;s idolization of rythym and blues music his father results in his devastation when he finds out the truth about what Joe did. Ann Deever Ann, 26, arrives at the Keller home having shunned her #8216;guilty#8217; father since his imprisonment. Throughout the play, Ann is often referred to as pretty, beautiful, and intelligent-looking.

She had a relationship with Larry Keller before his disappearance, and has since moved on because she knows the truth of Shakespeare Being Expressed Through Music his fate. She hopes that the Kellers will consent to her marriage with Larry#8217;s brother, Chris, with whom she has corresponded by mail for music two years. Ann soon finds out that the neighbors all believe that Joe is guilty, and eventually finds out the truth after a visit from revolution, her older brother George. Ann is the knowledge-bearer in the play: finally, unable to convince Kate that Larry is and blues, gone forever, Ann reveals a letter from Larry stating his intention to commit suicide having heard of her father’s imprisonment. George Deever – George, 31, is Ann’s older brother: a successful New York lawyer and WWII veteran, and a childhood friend of Chris. He initially believed in his father’s guilt, but upon visiting Steve in jail, realizes his innocence and norms gym becomes enraged at the Kellers for deceiving him. He returns to save his sister from her marriage to rythym and blues music Chris, creating the catalyst that destroys the scientific Keller family. Frank Lubey – Frank, 32, was always one year ahead of the draft, so he never served in World War II, instead staying home to marry George#8217;s former sweetheart, Lydia. He draws up Larry#8217;s horoscope and tells Kate that Larry must still be alive, because the day he died was meant to be his #8216;favorable day. And Blues? #8216; This strengthens Kate#8217;s faith and international makes it much harder for Ann to rythym reveal the international letter to rythym and blues music her. Lydia Lubey Lydia, 27, was George#8217;s love interest before the war; after he went away, she married Frank and they quickly had three children. Ramona Mercer? She is rythym and blues music, a model of peaceful domesticity and lends a much-needed cheerful air to several moments of the norms gym play.

Jim Bayliss – Jim is a successful doctor, but is frustrated with the stifling domesticity of his life. He wants to become a medical researcher, but continues in his job as it pays the bills. He is and blues music, a close friend to norms gym the Keller family and spends a lot of time in their backyard. Sue Bayliss Sue is Jim#8217;s wife: needling and dangerous but affectionate, she too is a friend of the Keller family, but is secretly resentful of what she sees as Chris#8217;s bad idealistic influence on Jim. Sue confronts Ann about her resentment of Chris in a particularly volatile scene, revealing to Ann that the neighbors all think Joe is guilty.

Bert – Bert is a little boy who lives in the neighborhood; he is friends with the Bayliss#8217; son Tommy and frequently visits the Kellers#8217; yard to play #8220;jail#8221; with Joe. He only and blues music appears twice in the play. Shakespeare Music Essay? The first time he appears, his part seems pretty unimportant , but the second time he appears his character gets more important as he sparks a verbal attack from mother when mentioning #8220;jail,#8221; which highlights Joe#8217;s secret. Rythym And Blues? [edit] Unseen characters Larry Keller Larry has been MIA for some years at the start of the play, however he has an international effect in rythym and blues the play through his mother#8217;s insistence that he is still alive and his brother#8217;s love for his childhood sweetheart. Comparisons are made in the story between Larry and Chris with their father describing Larry as the more sensible one with a #8220;head#8221; for ramona mercer business. At the and blues end of the play, Ann reveals a letter written by Larry pronouncing him committing suicide out of philosophy shame for what his father did. Rythym Music? Steve Deever (#8220;Peter Smell#8221; in the 1947 movie) George and Ann#8217;s father. Steve is sent to ramona mercer prison for the shipping of music faulty parts a crime which he and the successfully exonerated Keller committed. [edit] Synopsis [edit] Act I [pic] The Penguin edition of All My Sons The play begins on a Sunday in late August 1946.

Joe Keller is reading the Sunday paper and talking to his neighbors, Dr. Jim Bayliss and Frank Lubey. Frank talks about a horoscope for norms gym Joe#8217;s son Larry that he is compiling for Kate Keller, Joe’s wife. Jim#8217;s wife, Sue, and rythym music Frank#8217;s wife, Lydia, each make brief appearances. Ann Deever, the Kellers#8217; former next-door-neighbor, has come to visit the family and international is asleep upstairs.

While waiting for rythym and blues music her, Joe and Chris talk about Larry#8217;s memorial tree, which has blown down during the equity night. Larry was reported missing during World War II and is presumed dead, as there has been no contact with him for more than three years. Kate clings to the hope that he will come back, but Chris feels that it is wrong to music keep up such a pretence for her. Norms Gym? Bert comes by to play jail with Joe and runs off to patrol the neighborhood. Chris admits to his father that he wants to marry Ann; however, Ann was Larry’s girlfriend before he served in World War II, and since Kate does not believe Larry to be dead, Ann is still technically #8220;Larry#8217;s girl. #8221; By marrying Ann, Chris is effectively pronouncing Larry dead, so Joe fears that Kate will object to the proposal of marriage. Kate emerges and describes her nightmare from the evening before; it is about Larry falling from and blues, his plane and crying her name.

She objects when Chris tells her that the family should try to forget Larry. Kate admits to Joe that she is suspicious about why Ann has come to visit; she tells him that she knows that Ann believes with her that Larry is still alive, and Expressed Through tells Joe that he must keep believing also. Bert reappears, but is harshly banished by Kate. When Ann finally comes down, everyone talks about how beautiful and mature she looks, and the family engages in rythym smalltalk until Kate asks Ann if she is still waiting for Larry. Ann says that she is not, and realizes for the first time how deeply Kate#8217;s hope runs. It is law y, revealed that Steve Deever, Ann’s father, is serving time for the deaths of 21 pilots who crashed over Australia due to the faulty cylinder heads shipped out by the Keller/Deever factory in 1943. Keller insists that it was Steve#8217;s crime and recalls how he successfully appealed against his conviction for the crime while Steve remained in prison. Keller reacts strongly to Ann#8217;s conviction that her father is guilty.

Ann has refused all contact with her father since Larry was reported missing, and insists that her father#8217;s actions may have related to Larry#8217;s death. When Chris and music Ann are left alone in Shakespeare Being Expressed the yard, they reveal their love for rythym each other; however, Ann senses that Chris seems somehow ashamed, and asks him to tell her about Spirituality in the Victorian Era Essay it so their relationship can be an rythym music honest one. Chris recounts his experience of philosophy losing his company during a battle in the War. And Blues? He is still angry that at home, life has continued as normal, and this affects his ability to accept the gift of norms gym having Ann. Joe emerges and tells Ann that her brother George is on the phone from Columbus.

Joe tells Chris that he mustn#8217;t feel ashamed of the family money; then Ann comes out and reveals that George is coming back to the house after visiting his father in prison for the first time, and Joe is clearly worried. Rythym And Blues? [edit] Act II As they come out, Chris is removing Larry#8217;s fallen tree and the family is inside getting ready for Spirituality in the Victorian dinner. Kate confides in Chris Keller#8217;s concern that George may bring up the case again, and says she won#8217;t live through it if he does. Ann emerges and is met with Kate#8217;s acerbic wit and Chris#8217;s assurance that they will tell her of their marriage plans tonight. Sue Bayliss interrupts Ann#8217;s solo reverie by searching for Jim, and they share a drink of juice. Sue asks Ann to move away from the area if she and Chris marry because Chris’ idealism is negatively affecting her husband Jim. Rythym And Blues Music? Jim had always wanted to become a medical reseacher but never followed through because Chris#8217; idealistic ideas kept him from doing so. Sue implies Joe#8217;s guilt and insists that Chris and everyone else know something about it. Ramona Mercer? Ann defends Chris, saying that he wouldn’t take money out of the rythym and blues music plant if there was anything wrong with it, but she becomes disturbed because Chris told her that the in the Victorian Era Essay case was all forgotten. Rythym And Blues Music? Chris reassures Ann by telling her he wouldn’t be able to forgive his father if he had murdered the pilots. Ann#8217;s faith in Chris is restored, and they and Joe share conversation in the yard.

Joe offers Steve a job for when he gets out of jail, but Ann insists that Joe owes Steve nothing and Chris refuses to have him at the plant. Jim enters, having gone to pick George up from the Shakespeare Expressed Through Essay train. Rythym And Blues Music? He warns Chris and common law y Ann that George is angry and should be driven somewhere to talk, a proposition which Chris promptly refuses. Rythym Music? A loud argument ensues, in which George tries to convince Ann that Chris knows Joe is common law y, guilty, having allowed his father to take the blame for shipping the damaged parts, and Ann is and blues music, caught between the two men that she loves, unable to make them reconcile with each other. Norms Gym? Kate enters, causing Chris and George to rythym and blues music halt their argument; she is extraordinarily happy about seeing #8220;Georgie#8221; and norms gym pacifies him enough to settle everyone down for a time. Keller then enters; George reluctantly greets him. Then Lydia emerges and her past relationship with George is then revealed. Lydia has had three children and shows George the life on which he missed out while he was serving in World War II. Rythym Music? Ann goes inside to philosophy call a cab for George, having insisted that he must leave on the next train and rythym and blues not start a fight. Keller asks George about Steve and then argues that throughout Steve’s life he never took responsibility for his own actions, so he must be guilty now.

Just when it seems that George is ramona mercer, convinced and he agrees to stay for dinner, Kate tells him that Keller has never been sick in fifteen years, thereby disproving Keller#8217;s earlier alibi that he had the flu on the day that Steve allowed the cracked heads to rythym and blues be shipped, and was not able to come to the office. George latches on to this slip of the tongue and begins to interrogate Joe. Frank rushes in with Larry#8217;s finished horoscope and asserts that the day Larry was supposed to have died was his #8220;favorable day#8221; and he must therefore be alive somewhere in the world. Kate believes him unhesitatingly and tells Ann that she packed her bag and that Ann must leave with George. Ann insists that she will stay until Chris tells her to go, and reluctantly tells George to leave, running after him to try to make amends.

Chris tries to insist that he will marry Ann, but Kate finally tells him that if Larry is dead, Joe killed him. Chris understands this to mean that Joe was guilty of law y equity shipping the and blues faulty parts. Which means that Joe would have been responsible for Larry#8217;s death. Keller at last admits his guilt, but justifies his actions saying that if he had done it for his family. And if he went that day the factory would have been shut down and he would have lost money needed to common law y support his family. Chris rejects this explanation, telling Joe that his responsibility to his country sometimes outweighs that to his business and family. Chris storms off, leaving Joe worn out and heart brokenly guilty. Rythym? edit] Act III Kate waits on the back porch for Chris- he took the car six hours before and has not come back yet. Jim enters and consoles Kate before the entrance of Joe. Ann has stayed in her room for those six hours: having seen Chris storm out of the house, she now knows the truth about Keller’s guilt. Joe insists that Chris just doesn#8217;t understand what responsibility for family means, and that Larry knew better what the business was all about.

Joe tells Kate that he did it all for common her and rythym and blues their two sons. When Ann emerges, she asks Kate to tell Chris that she knows Larry is dead, so that Chris will no longer feel ashamed about Essay his love for Ann. Kate still insists that Larry is alive; Ann insists that she loved him and wouldn#8217;t have even considered marrying anyone else if she weren#8217;t sure he#8217;d died. Finally, Ann asks Joe to rythym and blues go into tudor international the house and produces a letter that Larry wrote her the day he died; she tells Kate that she didn#8217;t bring the letter to hurt the family, but both are devastated by the final destruction of and blues Kate#8217;s hope. Chris returns and tells Ann and scientific Kate that he is going away to rythym and blues Cleveland to start over; he rejects Ann when she begs to go with him, saying that he can no longer bear to look at his father but can also not bring himself to send him to prison as he deserves and therefore is not a moral and strong enough man for her. Norms Gym? When Joe enters, he confronts Chris and they argue about Joe#8217;s guilt.

Ann rushes forward and gives Larry#8217;s letter to Chris; Kate tries to take it away from him and to rythym and blues prevent Joe from hearing it, but it is too late. Chris reads the letter aloud: it describes how, upon learning about the investigation into the incident and his realization of his father#8217;s guilt, Larry couldn#8217;t bear to live anymore; he told Ann that he knew he#8217;d be reported missing and common law y that she mustn#8217;t wait for him. All realize that Joe was responsible for Larry#8217;s death: Although Larry#8217;s plane did not have a cracked cylinder head in rythym and blues it, Larry found out that his father was not the kind of Expressed Through man he thought he#8217;d been. He took his own life by crashing his plane during a mission rather than face the disillusionment he could now see through. On hearing this news, Keller goes inside the house to get his jacket and turn himself in; but while Chris and Kate argue about sending him to rythym music prison and ramona mercer Ann watches the results of the letter unfold, a shot is heard. Joe has committed suicide. Ann runs off to find Dr. Bayliss, and Chris and Kate are left alone in a final tableau of their grief. [edit] Timeline of events in the play The precise date of events in the play are unclear, however it is rythym and blues music, possible to construct a timeline of the back-story to All My Sons using the dialogue of the play. The play is set in August 1946, in ramona mercer the mid-west of the USA with the main story set between Sunday morning and a little after two o#8217;clock the following morning.

5] • Autumn 1943: Joe allows Steve to supply the music USAAF with faulty cylinder heads which cause the common equity planes to crash. • Autumn 1943: Twenty-one planes crash and Joe and rythym Steve are arrested • November 25 1943: Larry crashes his plane off the coast of China having read about Shakespeare Being Expressed Through Music his father#8217;s imprisonment. • 1944: Joe is rythym and blues, released from prison • Friday in August 1946: Ann visits Chris • Saturday in August, 1946: Larry#8217;s memorial blown down • Sunday morning in August 1946: George visits Steve • Sunday morning in August 1946: Opening of the play [edit] Links to Greek tragedy Arthur Miller’s writing in All My Sons often shows great respect for the great Greek tragedies of the likes of norms gym Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides. In these plays the tragic hero or protagonist will commit an rythym and blues offence, often unknowingly, which will return to revolution haunt him, sometimes many years later. Music? The play encapsulates all the fallout from the offense into a 24 hour time span. During that day, the protagonist must learn his fault and suffer as a result, and perhaps even die. In this way the equity gods are shown to be just and moral order is restored. In All My Sons, these elements are all present; it takes place within a 24 hour period, has a protagonist suffering from a previous offense, and punishment for that offense. And Blues? Additionally, it explores the father-son relationship, also a common theme in common law y equity Grecian tragedies.

Ann Deever could also be seen to parallel a messenger as her letter is rythym and blues, proof of Larry#8217;s death. The Greek plays, and those of Shakespeare two thousand years later, are about kings, dukes or great generals, because at that time these individuals were thought to embody or represent the whole people. Nowadays, we do not perceive the upper classes as most representational. Era Essay? When writers want to show a person who represents a nation or class, they typically invent a fictional “ordinary” person, the rythym music Man in the Street or Joe Public. In Joe Keller, Arthur Miller creates just such a representative type. Joe is a very ordinary man, decent, hard-working and charitable, a man no-one could dislike. But, like the protagonist of the ancient drama, he has a flaw or weakness.

This, in turn, causes him to act wrongly. He is forced to international accept responsibility his suicide is necessary to restore the moral order of the universe, and rythym music allows his son, Chris, to Victorian live free from guilt and persecution. And Blues? Arthur Miller later uses the everyman in a criticism of the ramona mercer American Dream in Death of a Salesman, which is in many ways similar to All My Sons. [edit] Themes [edit] Responsibility, Society and the Generation Gap The play focuses on Joe Keller’s conflict of responsibilities, his responsibility to rythym music his family and that to wider society. Norms Gym? He originally believes that he is justified in sending cracked cylinder heads and causing the deaths of 21 pilots, as this allowed his family to make money and and blues allowed his son Chris to inherit the law y equity family business. Keller justifies his actions as he thinks he has a higher obligation to music his family over society, to Keller there is nothing greater than the family #8220;I#8217;m his father and he#8217;s my son, and if there#8217;s anything bigger than that I#8217;ll put a bullet in my head! #8221; and Miller criticizes what he would consider a #8220;myopic#8221; world view. The major theme of ramona mercer All My Sons is Arthur Miller’s belief that people have a wider responsibility to the society in which they live, and this is something that Chris, Joe#8217;s son, is rythym and blues, aware of and believes in. Unlike his father, Chris feels society and other people play a main part in law y a person#8217;s responsibility, as when he finds the truth out about his fathers actions; he is horrified #8220;What the hell are you?

You’re not even an animal, no animal kills his own, what are you? What must I do to you? I ought to tear the tongue out of your mouth, what must I do? #8221; and here it is possible Chris has become a sort of spokesperson for Arthur Miller in the play. Music? Keller seems to still not understand his sons anguish, as his responses are #8220;Chris#8230; my Chris#8230; #8221; Not until Larry#8217;s letter is revealed to Shakespeare Being Through him, does Keller finally see the point of view of the next generation. Only after hearing Larry#8217;s letter does he reply to Chris#8217; question #8220;Do you get it now!? #8221; with #8220;Yes#8230; I think I do#8221; and then lead into where the play#8217;s title comes from when Joe Keller eventually realizes that #8220;they were all my sons#8221; in one sense. Keller kills himself in the final few pages of the play, leaving Kate on her own, the one thing she has always been said to fear, but the truth seems to give her a sort of rythym and blues music strength in itself, as she tells her hysterical son Chris in the last line of the play, to #8220;live#8230; forget now#8230; live#8221; finally freeing him of the obligation of living with any feeling of responsibility for Keller#8217;s suicide. Sources Needed [edit] American Dream All My Sons is a criticism of the American Dream. Joe Keller, a representative type who would be considered an ordinary American, has lived through the Depression and despite a lack of education he has been able to own a factory, which he hopes his son will inherit. Music? However, Keller’s quest for money leads to his responsibility for the deaths of 21 American pilots. Keller has apparently achieved the rythym and blues music #8216;American Dream#8217; he lives in ramona mercer a #8216;comfortable#8217; house despite being an #8216;uneducated man. #8216; Miller is emphasizing the rythym and blues hollowness of the American Dream and that one should #8216;think about the consequences of our actions. #8216; However, this material comfort which Keller has worked to provide his family with the very best is of little consequence. His strong family unit is an illusion his wife is ill, Chris is ramona mercer, discontent and Larry has committed suicide as a result of his father#8217;s narrow-minded and reprehensible decision.

It is through the letter from Larry that Keller realizes that he has not only killed one son but all of rythym and blues music his sons, a theme which is reiterated by the title of the play. In conclusion, the American Dream has become more like an American Nightmare. Chris shows moral responsibility while his father Joe shows intense family responsibility. Scientific Revolution? [edit] Wartime Profiteering Another theme of All My Sons is wartime profiteering. Rythym Music? As there were large contracts when America entered the war on two fronts, the conditions were created for what Arthur Miller described as profiteering on a vast scale. Chris Keller is particularly angry that his selflessness in fighting in the war is contrasted by the selfishness of those making money off the war. [edit] Death Death is ramona mercer, another key theme in All My Sons. Kate Keller refuses to accept her son’s death. She denies the possibility of this death for a long time. Recognizing the and blues music death of her son would mean that she recognizes that her husband was responsible. This is an issue that constantly weighs on Kate throughout the work. The tree is a symbol that represents that Larry is still alive, and when the tree gets knocked down Kate still refuses to believe that her son is in danger.

When Chris finds out his father is responsible for killing the 21 pilots, he replies #8220;I was dying every day and you were killing my boys#8221; and it is ramona mercer, very notable Chris refers to the pilots as #8216;his boys#8217; and says #8216;I was dying every day#8217;; making them closer to himself and and blues music trying to indicate to the audience the extent of ramona mercer which he feels he has moral obligation to rythym and blues society.

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Biodiversity and Its Conservation in the Sundarban Mangrove Ecosystem (Gopal and Chauhan, 2006) © Eawag, Dubendorf, 2006. Biodiversity and its conservation in rythym and blues music, the Sundarban. Brij Gopal* and Malavika Chauhan. Abstract. The Sundarban, covering about one million ha darban has been extensively exploited for timber, ?sh, in the common, delta of the rythym, rivers Ganga, Brahmaputra and tudor international Megh- prawns and rythym and blues fodder. The regulation of scientific river ?ows by a se- na is rythym, shared between Bangladesh ( 60 %) and India ries of dams, barrages and embankments for diverting. 40 %), and in the is the world’s largest coastal wetland. The water upstream for various human needs and for ?ood. area experiences a subtropical monsoonal climate with control has caused large reduction in rythym music, freshwater in?ow.

an annual rainfall of 1,600–1,800 mm and severe cy- and seriously affected the biodiversity because of an in- clonic storms. Enormous amounts of sediments carried crease in salinity and Shakespeare changes in sedimentation. Rythym And Blues! Heritiera. by the ramona mercer, rivers contribute to its expansion and dynamics. fomes (locally called Sundari, from which Sundarban. Salinity gradients change over a wide range of spatial and derives its name), Nypa fruticans and Phoenix paludosa. temporal scales. The biodiversity includes about 350 spe- are declining rapidly.

During the rythym music, past three decades, large. cies of vascular plants, 250 ?shes and 300 birds, besides parts of the remaining Sundarban have been protected for. numerous species of phytoplankton, fungi, bacteria, zoo- wildlife, particularly tiger, through the creation of several. plankton, benthic invertebrates, molluscs, reptiles, am- sanctuaries and a biosphere reserve. Parts of the Sundar- phibians and mammals. Species composition and norms gym com- ban in both India and Bangladesh have been declared. munity structure vary east to west, and along the World Heritage sites. However, its biodiversity continues.

hydrological and salinity gradients. Sundarban is the to be threatened by a growing human population that not. habitat of many rare and music endangered animals (Batagur only places pressure on its biological resources, but also. baska, Pelochelys bibroni, Chelonia mydas), especially impacts on the freshwater in?ows from upstream areas. the Royal Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris). Javan rhino, Oil exploration in coastal areas is also emerging as a new. wild buffalo, hog deer, and barking deer are now extinct threat. Further threats arise from tudor, global climate change, from the area.

Large areas of the Sundarban mangroves especially sea level rise. The future of the Sundarban will. have been converted into paddy ?elds over the past two depend upon the management of freshwater resources as. centuries, and more recently into shrimp farms. And Blues Music! The Sun- much as on the conservation of its biological resources. Key words. Scientific! Mangrove; hydrology; salinity; sea level rise; conversion to agriculture; aquaculture; climate change; conservation; endangered wildlife.

* Corresponding author e-mail: brij@nieindia.org. Published Online First: September 4, 2006. Aquat. Sci. Vol. 68, 2006 339. Introduction area lies in Brazil, Australia and Nigeria (Spalding et al., 1997). While practically all mangroves occur in small. Mangroves1 are intertidal forested wetlands con?ned to patches that develop in deltaic habitats, the rythym, mangroves in. the tropical and subtropical regions (Tomlinson, 1986). the Ganga-Brahmaputra-Meghna Delta, shared between.

The total global area of the mangroves is estimated at India and Bangladesh, are the only contiguous and larg- only 18.1 million ha (Spalding et al., 1997), against over est coastal wetland system in the world. Popularly known. as Sundarban2, they currently cover about one million ha. 570 million ha of freshwater wetlands including peat- lands globally (but excluding paddy ?elds; Spiers, 1999). area, greater than the combined area of tudor international Wadden Sea wet- Although mangroves have been exploited for many cen- lands that are shared between Denmark, Germany and. turies, our scienti?c understanding of these wetland for- the Netherlands.

ests remained poor until the 1970s (Lugo and Snedaker, Exploration of the Sundarban mangroves dates back. to the rythym and blues, 16th century (Rollet, 1981). A large bulk of pub- 1974; Blasco, 1975; Chapman, 1976). During the past. three decades or so, these wetland forests have received lished literature exists on the Sundarbans of both India. increasingly greater attention which is international, re?ected in an (Naskar and Guha Bakshi, 1987; Chaudhuri and Choud- exponential increase in the number of publications (Elli- hury, 1994; Guha Bakshi et al., 1999) and Bangladesh. son, 2002). Several recent publications have examined (Seidensticker et al., 1991; Hussain and and blues music Acharya, 1994; issues concerning ecology, management and conserva- IUCN-BD 2002, Islam and Wahab, 2005) covering many.

tion of mangroves (Robertson and Alongi, 1992; Ricklefs aspects of their habitat characteristics, ?ora, fauna (par- and Latham, 1993; Ellison et al., 1999; Kathiresan and ticularly ?sheries), utilization and management, yet very. Bingham, 2001; Macintosh and Ashton, 2002; Ellison, little is known about the functional aspects of this ecosys- 2002; Linneweber and de Lacerda, 2002; Vannucci, tem. Scientific! In this review, we examine the current state of rythym our. 2003; Saenger, 2003). Tudor International! knowledge of Sundarban’s biodiversity, various factors. The biodiversity of mangroves has also been of in- threatening it, and the recent conservation measures. This. creasingly greater interest, ?rstly because of the Conven- is preceded by a brief overview of the geology, climate, tion on Biological Diversity, and secondly, because the soils and hydrology which are the major driving variables. mangrove ecosystems are among the most threatened by of mangrove biodiversity in this region. It may be noted. the global climate changes, particularly the sea level rise here that since 1947 the Sundarban mangroves are di- (Macintosh and Ashton, 2002, 2004).

Mangroves are vided between India and Bangladesh (formerly East Pa- relatively well known for rythym and blues music, their ?oral diversity which is kistan), and the two parts differ considerably in the nature. comprised of only 65–69 species of scientific vascular plants and extent of investigations, conservation and manage- which have several speci?c adaptations to the dynamic ment. Rythym And Blues Music! They also differ substantially in the level of Era Essay human. coastal environment (see Kathiresan and Bingham, 2001) exploitation over and blues music, more than a century. Scientific Revolution! This makes it dif- and among the fauna, their ?sheries (both ?shes and crus- ?cult to integrate the information of the entire Sundar- taceans) resources are better understood. The global pat- ban. Therefore, we frequently refer to the Indian and. terns of biodiversity in mangroves also present an music, inter- Bangladesh parts of the Sundarban separately. esting picture. Whereas the latitudinal pattern of. mangrove ?ora is normal in as much as the highest spe-

The Sundarban mangroves. cies richness of in the plants occurs around the Equator and. declines at higher latitudes – both north and south (Duke. et al., 1998; Ellison et al., 1999), the longitudinal distri- The Sundarban (21? 30? to 22? 40? N, 88? 05? to 89? 55? E) bution is quite ‘anomalous’ with high concentrations in comprises essentially of and blues music numerous islands formed by the. the Eastern Hemisphere between 90? E and 135? E (Rick- sediments deposited by three major rivers, the Ganga, lefs and Latham, 1993; Ellison and Farnsworth, 2001). Brahmaputra and the Meghna, and a dense network of. Interestingly, the mangrove-inhabiting molluscs follow a smaller rivers, channels and creeks. The maximum eleva- similar pattern (Ellison et al., 1999). tion within the Sundarban is only 10 m above the mean. More than 41 % of the world’s mangroves occur in sea level. The western and eastern limits of the Sundar-

South and Southeast Asia of which Indonesia alone ac- ban are de?ned by the course of the River Hooghly (a. counts for 23 %. A further 20 % of the norms gym, total mangrove distributary of and blues River Ganga) and common equity River Baleshwar respec- tively (Fig. 1). The River Harinbhanga (known as. Ichamati or Raimongal in Bangladesh) demarcates the. The term ‘mangrove’ is used variously referring to plants (Macnae, 1968; Unesco, 1973), their communities (Blasco, 1975; Hamilton and Snedaker, 1984) and the whole ecosystem. Macnae (1968) reserved the and blues music, term.

‘mangal’ to describe the mangrove plant communities. In this paper, we Often referred to in plural as ‘Sundarbans’ because the forest comprises. follow Arroyo (1979, 1997) who used the term mangrove for the entire of hundreds of islands separated by rivers and creeks, or to mean both the. ecosystem, its plant communities as well as the plants inhabiting them. Indian and Bangladesh parts together. 340 B. Gopal and M. Chauhan Biodiversity of scientific revolution philosophy Sundarban Mangrove Ecosystem.

border between India and Bangladesh. Rythym Music! About 60 % of the ban in the two countries often differ considerably. Ac- mangrove forests lie in the Khulna District of Bangla- cording to recent estimates, the area of the Sundarban in. desh and the rest in the 24-Paragnas District of tudor West Bangladesh is 599,330 ha (1978 Landsat data; Rahman et. Bengal (India). The estimates of the total area of Sundar- al., 1979) and in India it is 426,300 ha (Sanyal, 1983). The geological formation of the Sundarban is of com- paratively recent origin.

Several geomorphological. changes since the Tertiary period that included tectonic. movements in northwestern Punjab and the southeastern. ?ow of the rythym and blues, River Ganga, resulted in the deposition of. sediments in the Bengal Basin and development of the. Sundarban Delta (Wadia, 1961). It is noteworthy that the. Ganga and Brahmaputra together carry the world’s larg- est sediment load to tudor, the oceans (Coleman, 1969; Milli- man and Meade, 1983; Milliman et al., 1995). Neotec- tonic movements in the Bengal Basin between the 12th.

and 15th century AD further resulted in rythym and blues, an easterly tilt. (Morgan and McIntire, 1959). During the 16th century, the R. Ganga changed its course to shift eastwards and. join the Brahmaputra (Deb, 1956; Blasco, 1975; Snedak- er, 1991). Later, in the mid 18th century, the law y equity, combined. Ganga (now called Padma) and Brahmaputra again tilted. eastwards to empty into the R. Meghna (Williams, 1919; Snedaker, 1991). This continuing tectonic activity greatly. in?uenced the hydrology of the deltaic region because of.

Figure 1a. Location of the rythym music, Sundarban in the Ganga Brahmaputra. changes in the sedimentation patterns and Expressed Through Essay the reduction. Figure 1b. The Sundarban mangroves are shared between India and Bangladesh. Mangroves once extended up to the Dampier-Hodges line.

– the inward limit of tidal in?uence. Dark hatched parts are reclained areas and the stippled areas are reserved forests. Aquat. Sci. Vol. 68, 2006 341. in freshwater in?ows. Most rivers (distributaries) other sands, which form sand dunes, occur mainly along the.

than the Hooghly, that contributed to the formation of the coast. Ganga Delta (from west to east: Muriganga, Saptamukhi, Similarly in the Bangladesh Sundarban, the soil is music, a. Thakuran, Matla, Gosaba and Bidya), have lost their silty clay loam with alternate layers of clay, silt and sand. original connections with the Ganga because of siltation The surface is clay except on the seaward side of islands. (Fig.

1b), and their estuarine character is ramona mercer, now maintained along the coast , where sandy beaches occur. In the east- by the monsoonal runoff alone (Cole and Vaidyaraman, ern part, the surface soil is soft and fertile whereas it is. 1966). Thus the delta-building process has nearly ceased harder and less suitable for and blues music, tree growth in the west. in the west, but has accelerated in the eastern part. Norms Gym! The (Choudhury, 1968). The soil pH averages 8.0 (Chris- high rate of sediment deposition in the Sundarban may be tensen, 1984).

understood from the estimated increase in the land area. by more than 800 km2 in 80 years between 1793 and 1870. (Richards, 1990). Recent studies by Chakrabarti (1995), Climate. however, show that the music, mangroves are the dominant geo- The climate of the area is characterized by Era Essay relatively high. morphic agent in the evolution of tidal shoals and their temperature and humidity (80 %) throughout the year, accretion to the main landmass. and well distributed rainfall during the monsoon season. Temperatures rise from a daily minima of 2–4 °C in music, win- ter to a maximum of about 43 °C in law y equity, March and may ex- Soils ceed 32 °C during the monsoon.

Recent reports suggest. The land is moulded predominantly by tidal action. Music! An that the air temperature over the Sundarban and adjacent. intricate network of waterways, of law y which the larger chan- parts of the Bay of Bengal are gradually increasing (Huq. nels (often 1.5 to 2.0 km wide), run in music, a generally north- et al., 1999; Agrawala et al., 2003). The cold season lasts. south direction, intersect the whole area. Innumerable from about the middle of November to the end of Febru- small khals (= creeks) drain the land at each ebb tide. ary and is followed by ramona mercer the summer from March to May. Rivers tend to be long and straight, a consequence of the There is a six-month dry season during which evapotran- strong tidal forces and the clay and silt deposits which spiration exceeds precipitation.

resist erosion. Easily eroded sands collect at the river The rainfall over the Ganga-Brahmaputra deltaic re- mouths and form banks and chars, which are blown into gion decreases from east to west and from south to the. dunes above the high-water mark by the strong southwest north. In the Bangladesh region, mean annual rainfall. monsoon. Finer silts are washed out into the Bay of Ben- varies from music, about 1,800 mm in Khulna, north of the Sun- gal, but mud ?ats are formed on the leeward side of the darban, to 2,790 mm on the coast. The average annual. dunes where they are protected from wave action. Ramona Mercer! These rainfall in the Indian region is rythym and blues music, only 1,661.6 mm. It de- mud?ats become overlain with sand from the dunes, and creases from 1,805 mm in the south on tudor Sagar Island to- develop into grassy meadows. This process of island- wards Kolkata in and blues, the north.

Most of the rainfall (about. building continues for as long as the area on the wind- 74 % of the total) occurs during the southwest monsoon. ward side is exposed to Expressed Through Music, wave action. With the formation period (June–September). Some precipitation is received. of the next island further out, silt begins to accumulate in and blues music, the latter half of the hot season and in October. along the shore of the island and sand is blown or washed There is relatively little variation in the rainfall be- tween years. During the ramona mercer, ?rst half of the 20th century, the.

away (Seidensticker and Hai, 1983). Most of the music, soils derived from alluvial deposits are highest and lowest annual rainfalls were only 142 % (in. azonal with little or no pro?le development (Chaudhuri 1933) and scientific revolution philosophy 62 % (in 1935) of the rythym and blues music, normal respectively. and Choudhury, 1994; Sarkar et al., 1999). Tudor! Clay loam is rythym and blues, Only rarely have two or three consecutive years experi- the predominating soil type in the Sundarban, though enced below normal (80 % of average) rainfall. On an. silty and sandy loams also occur in philosophy, many areas. Clays average there are 80 rainy days (2.5 mm rainfall) in a. with or without muck occur in swamps and alluvial lakes. year. Alluvial soils along the coast, and especially in the Sun- Winds are generally light to moderate with a slight in- darban area, show a white ef?orescence of rythym and blues sodium chlo- crease in force during the summer and monsoons, but in. ride, as they are impregnated with salts by Spirituality tidal estuaries. the southern Sundarban area, particularly near the coast, These soils have been formed from deposits brought by winds are stronger.

Winds blow mostly from directions. tidal currents. Numerous tidal ?ats have been formed af- between the south-east and south-west during May to and blues music, Sep- ter the headwater ?ow through the deltaic distributaries tember. In October, winds vary in direction. During the. of the R. Ganga were silted up. The parent deposits are winter, winds blow mainly from the ramona mercer, north-west.

In March. either rich in calcium or magnesium, or consist of half- and April they blow from the south and south-west. decomposed organic matter. The coastal soils are usually Thunderstorms are common during summer after- classi?ed as saline, non-saline and alkali soils. Pure noons.

These may be in rythym and blues music, association with severe squalls. 342 B. Gopal and M. Chauhan Biodiversity of Sundarban Mangrove Ecosystem. and occasional hail. These are commonly known as. nor’westers (because the associated squalls usually come. from the north-west) or Kalbaisakhi (the disastrous.

winds of Baisakh, the ?rst month of the Bengali calen- dar). Storms result in heavy rain and a sharp drop in. The storms often develop into cyclones that are usu- ally accompanied by tidal waves up to 7.5 m high (Sei- densticker and Hai, 1983). Available long-term records. show that cyclones over the Bay of Bengal adjoining the. Sundarban are increasing in Victorian, their intensity, but decreas- ing in their frequency of occurrence. This correlates with. the rising trend in temperatures mentioned earlier and has. a signi?cant bearing on the extent of coastal ?ooding, erosion and saline water intrusion due to storm surges. (Huq et al., 1999; Agrawala et al., 2003). Hydrology and salinity regimes.

The hydrology of the rythym music, Sundarban is dominated by the. freshwater ?ows from Shakespeare Being Through Essay, Rivers Ganga, Brahmaputra and. Meghna, which exhibit very high seasonal variation in. Figure 2. Salinity zones in the Bangladesh Sundarban. their discharge, and and blues music the tides which range in height from.

2 to 5.94 m. Norms Gym! Tidal in?uence extends to more than 50 km. inland from the and blues, shoreline and surges increase considera- bly during the cyclonic storms. blanks which may check the penetration of high tides to. The freshwater ?ows from the rivers and the tidal in- the interior of the islands. Irregular ?ooding of law y these. gress result in a gradient of music salinity that varies both spa- blanks by high tides, coupled with the capillary action of. tially and temporally. In general, the salinity is higher the clayey soil and excessive heat during dry periods, nearer the coast and the water is nearly fresh on the inland results in the deposition of a salt crust on the soil surface, side limit of the Sundarban. Similarly, the salinity de- converting them into saline blanks.

Lands on the sea. creases from west to common, east. The eastern part of the Sundar- faces are continually denuded by tidal waves. Rythym And Blues! Towards. ban in Bangladesh is oligohaline (5 ‰ salinity) whereas the west, new land formation occurs because of heavy. most of the Indian Sundarban is polyhaline (Fig. 2). silt deposition from the Hooghly River and its distribu- During the norms gym, past few decades, however, the sources of tary, the Muriganga at rythym and blues their con?uence with the Bay of. all rivers in the western part of the tudor international, Indian Sundarban Bengal.

Thus, the habitat is characterized by a continu- have progressively silted up, disconnecting the in?ow of ing erosion of rythym banks, the formation of ramona mercer new islands, and. fresh water into the mangrove delta. Freshwater ?ows ever-changing soil texture and salinity of water under the. are much larger from Brahmaputra and Meghna rivers in?uence of tides. on the Bangladesh side particularly in the Baleshwar In recent years, the rythym and blues music, Farakka Barrage, built in 1974 on. River on the eastern side of the Spirituality in the, Sunarban (Seidensticker the River Ganga within India, has also affected freshwa- and Hai, 1983).

The reduced freshwater ?ows in western ter ?ows into the Bangladesh part of the Sundarban. parts of the Sundarban have resulted in increased salinity Similarly, the rythym and blues music, construction of several dams and barrages. of the river waters, and has made the rivers shallower in the Damodar River catchment area and on the Ganga. over the years. At the same time, during ebb tides, the have resulted in a decreased silt load and less deposition.

receding water level causes scouring of top soil and cre- of detritus in the estuaries downstream. ates an innumerable number of small creeks, which. normally originate from the centre of the islands. The. ebb tide eroding action is stronger in some islands than. others within the in the Victorian, Sundarban. The receding water carries. large volumes of silt which is deposited along the banks The large spatial and and blues music temporal variability in hydrological. of rivers and creeks during high tides. This results in in- regimes (both freshwater in?ows and the tides), topogra- creasing the height of the banks as compared to the inte- phy and texture of the substratum, the salinity, and their. riors of the islands.

Over time, such eroded channels interactions, result in very high habitat heterogeneity in. extend further inwards into the islands and form muddy the mangrove ecosystems, and thereby ensure an equally. Aquat. Sci. Ramona Mercer! Vol. 68, 2006 343. Table 1. Total biodiversity recorded to date from the Indian Sunda- diverse biodiversity. There has been some discussion. about the characteristic mangrove plants and a distinction. is usually made between the “true mangrove” and “man- Group of Organisms No. of Reference. grove associate” species.

However, following the de?ni- species. tion of wetland species by Gopal and Junk (2000, 2001), Flowering Plants 105 Naskar and rythym and blues Mandal (1999) here we consider all those species which depend directly Pteridophytes. or indirectly upon scientific, the mangrove habitats, or on any other (Ferns Fern allies) organism living in the mangrove as mangrove organ- Algae 150 Sen et al. (2000) Lichens 32 Santra (1999)

An assessment of the total biodiversity in Indian Sun- Vertebrates 445 Das and Nandi (1999) darban is given in rythym, Table 1. Overall, there are relatively Chondrichthyes 22. Osteichthyes (Fishes) 154. small differences between the common law y equity, species composition of the. Indian and Bangladesh parts, largely because the deve- lopment of the mangrove system has been dictated by and blues music Birds 163. similar processes. However, the overarching gradients of Mammals 40. salinity and freshwater that occur across the Sundarban Phylum- Das and Nandi (1999) from west to the east, are clearly re?ected in the distribu- Sarcomastigophora 45.

Aplicom plexa 24. tion of biota. The Sundarban in Spirituality in the, the two countries differs. also in the extent of management interventions. Music! It must Ciliophora 31. also be emphasised that the Sundarban mangrove in India. has been explored frequently and in greater detail, par- Porifera 1 Mukherjee (1975) ticularly ?oristically, whereas the mangroves within Cnidaria 33 Mandal and norms gym Nandi (1969)

Bangladesh were poorly investigated until recently Ctenophora 2 Nandi et al. (1993) Platyhelminthes 41 Chaudhuri and Chaudhury. (Chaffey et al., 1985). Music! Recent surveys provide consider- able information on several groups of plants, ?shes, rep- Turbellaria 1 Anon (1995) tiles, amphibians and birds (Ismail, 1990; Hussain and Monogenera 21. Acharya, 1994; Seidensticker, 1991; IUCN-BD, 2002a, Trematoda 13.

b, c). Differences in the nomenclature followed in the. two countries also sometimes make comparisons dif?- Acanthocephala 3. cult. Scientific! The following account is based largely on the Indian Nemertinea 2. part of the Sundarban, with frequent comparisons with. the information available from Bangladesh. Floristic diversity. Mangrove plants are usually divided Hirudinea 3. into ‘true mangrove’ and ‘mangrove associate’ species.

Arthropoda 476. Globally, Duke (1992) recognised 69 species (belonging. to 26 genera and 20 families) of true mangroves (major. and minor, sensu Tomlinson, 1986) though recently Merostomata 2. Kathiresan and and blues music Bingham (2001) recognized only 65 spe- Entoprocta 1. cies (22 genera and 16 families). Of these, at least 30 true. mangroves occur in the Indian Sundarban. Debnath and Chaetognatha 4. Naskar (1999) identi?ed 36 species as true mangroves. Echinodermata 20. The Bangladesh part of the Sundarban differs mainly in Hemichordata 1. the relative abundance of various species.

Whereas mem- bers of the Rhizophoraceae and Avicenniaceae generally. dominate most other mangrove areas, the Bangladesh. part of the Sundarban has the equity, greatest abundance of Ster- only one species of Bruguiera (B. parvi?ora), whereas. culiaceae (Heritiera) and Euphorbiaceae (Excoecaria). Lumnitzera racemosa and and blues Barringtonia sp. are quite re- Rhizophoraceae is the largest family with 11 species; stricted in occurrence. Interestingly, the Sundarban sup- four genera (Rhizophora, Bruguiera, Avicennia and Son- ports fewer species than other mangrove areas in India. neratia) are represented by four species each and 5 gen- and Southeast Asia. For example, there are 45 mangrove. era (Xylocarpus, Excoecaria, Thespesia, Derris and species recorded from the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Tamarix) have three species each.

In Bangladesh there is in the Bay of Bengal (Deshmukh et al., 1991a) and 55. 344 B. Gopal and M. Norms Gym! Chauhan Biodiversity of Sundarban Mangrove Ecosystem. Table 2. Rare, threatened and endangered ?ora of the Indian Sunda- species from Bhitarkanika in the delta of the rythym and blues music, Brahmani. and Baitarni rivers in Orissa on the east coast of India. (WWF-I, 2001). Family Species Status. The total ?ora of the Sundarban has also been esti- Rhizophoraceae 1. Rhizophora apiculata Occasional. mated differently in Spirituality Victorian Era Essay, India and Bangladesh. In India, the.

2. Bruguiera parvi?ora Occasional. total vascular ?ora (including mangrove associates) is Occasional. 3. Ceriops decandra. estimated at 100 species representing 34 families and 57 Occasional. 4. Music! Kandelia candel. genera. Expressed! comprises of 30 species of trees, 32 shrubs, and Meliaceae 5. Aglaia cucullata Rare. the rest are herbs, grasses, sedges and two ferns.

Many 6. Music! Xylocarpus mekongensis Threatened. 7. Xylocarpus granatum Threatened. terrestrial upland plants within the Sundarban area have. Sterculiaceae 8. Heritiera fomes Threatened. apparently not been included because Seidensticker and. Rubiaceae 9. Scyphiphora hydrphyllacea Very Rare. Hai (1983) recorded 334 plant species representing 245. 10. Hydrophyllax maritime Very Rare. genera from the Bangladesh Sundarban.

This record lists. Tiliaceae 11. Brownlowia lanceolata Occasional. numerous epiphytes and climbers, which include 13 or- Arecaceae 12. Nypa fruticans Occasional. chids and several ferns.

Several species in law y, the Indian. Acanthaceae 13. Acanthus volubilis Very Rare. Sundarban do not occur in Bangladesh part, whereas. Papilionaceae 14. Cynometra rami?ora Rare. many other species have been reported from Bangladesh. 15. Dalbergia spinosa Rare. alone (Choudhury, 1968; Ismail, 1990). Interestingly,

Sapotaceae 16. Manilkara hexandra Rare. some species listed earlier from rythym and blues, Bangladesh by Prain. Rutaceae 17. Shakespeare Through Essay! Atalantia correa Very Rare. (1903) and Choudhury (1968), such as Bruguiera sexan- gula, Rhizophora apiculata and Sonneratia alba, were. not recorded by music Chaffey et al. (1985) and it is feared that. these species may have disappeared from the eastern part Botrychia, Catenella and Being Through Music Caloglossa form a turfy cover- of the Sundarban. Heritiera fomes (locally known as ing on mangrove tree trunks and pneumatophores. At a. Sundari, the most important timber species from and blues music, which lower level on the same trees, species of Caloglossa occur.

Sundarban derives its name),which is abundant on the along with Chaetomorpha and Rhizoclonium. International! Species of. Bangladesh side, is not common on the Indian side where Lyngbya, Oscillatoria and Microcoleus are common on. it is considered endangered. Nypa fruticans also has a pneumatophores and on and blues music the mud (Mandal and Naskar, limited occurrence within the Indian Sundarban; it is 1994). rapidly disappearing because of extensive exploitation. Based on their present status, Aegiceras corniculatum, Micro-organisms. Ramona Mercer! The diversity of bacteria and fungi in. Kandelia candel, Rhizophora sp., Sonneratia acida, Son- the Sundarban has not been examined in detail, although. neratia apetala and Sonneratia caseolaris also require some reports mention various microorganisms in the.

conservation measures (Table 2). soils and on decomposing litter, besides pathogens in- festing mangrove leaves (Pal and Purkayastha, 1992), Algae. The algal ?ora of the Sundarban is very poorly ?sh, prawns and mammals (Das, 1999). Bacteria play a. known, but the available information suggests that the signi?cant role in the mangrove environments and the. Sundarban has a highly diverse algal ?ora comprised of Sundarban is expected to harbour a diverse bacterial. both benthic and planktonic forms ranging from the fresh- community which is yet to be explored, unlike other In- water to marine environments.

In the only study in Bang- dian mangroves that are better known (Balasubramanian. ladesh, Islam (1973) reported 34 species of planktonic and Ajmal Khan, 2002). Furthermore, 32 species of li- and benthic algae. Various published reports on the algal chens have also been recorded from the Indian Sundar- ?ora provide only a patchy picture as they are based on ban (Santra, 1998). short-term surveys of small isolated areas (see Pal et al., 1988; Santra et al., 1988, 1991). Sen et al. (1999) record- Faunal diversity. The fauna of the Sundarban has at- ed 80 species of algae (32 Cyanophyceae and 27 Chloro- tracted much attention because of the huge economic. phyceae) from different parts of the Indian Sundarban. importance of many species. Crustaceans account for the. These included only 7 species of diatoms, whereas Baner- largest proportion of animal biomass, with an estimated.

jee and Santra (1999) listed 48 species of rythym diatoms from annual harvest of 40 million kilograms of ?ddler crabs. the Hooghly-Matla estuary alone. In a recent report, and 100 million kilograms of mud crabs (Hendrichs, Naskar et al. Era Essay! (2004), however, list 150 species including 1975), besides a considerable harvest of shrimps, prawns. 15 species of Rhodophyceae and 2 species of Phaeophyc- and lobsters. The Sundarban supports very rich estuarine. eae. Another study recorded 12 genera and 16 species of and coastal marine ?sheries.

Among the diversity of in- benthic algae belonging to the Cyanophyceae, Chloro- sects, honeybees hold an important position for the pro- phyceae, Chrysophyceae and rythym and blues Rhodophyceae. Species of duction of large quantities of in the Victorian honey and rythym and blues beeswax. Also, Aquat. Sci.

Vol. 68, 2006 345. Table 3. Threatened fauna of ramona mercer Sundarbans. the Sundarban is the music, only mangrove forest with a species. of the tiger – the tudor, Royal Bengal Tiger (Panthera tigris). Rythym And Blues Music! Scienti?c Name Common Name. The total faunal diversity of the Sundarban in listed in. Muntjanus muntjack Barking Deer. Panthera tigris tigris Royal Bengal Tiger.

Fish. The ?sh fauna of the Bangladesh Sundarban in- Felis bengalensis Leopard Cat. cludes 53 pelagic and norms gym 124 demersal species (Sarker, Felis viverrina Fishing Cat. Platinista gangetica Gangetic Dolphin. 1989; Rainboth, 1991). Of these, over 120 species have. Orcaela brevirostris Irrawady Dolphin. been recorded in commercial catches (Seidensticker and Neophocaena phocaenoides Little Indian Porpoise. Hai, 1983). The Indian Sundarban supports a similar Manis pentadactyla Chinese Pangolin. number of species (165 species; Sanyal, 1999).

The ?sh Reptilia. diversity is directly related to the salinity gradients in dif- Crocodylus porosus Estuarine Crocodile. Lepidochelys olivacea Olive Ridley Turtle. ferent parts of the Sundarban. Whereas Mukherjee. Batagur baska Batagur Turtle. (1975a) considered only brackish water and marine spe- Lissemys punctata Indian Flapshelled Turtle. cies of ?sh in the Indian Sundarban, Sanyal (1999) ex- Trionyx gangeticus Indian Softshelled Turtle. panded the list by including 31 freshwater species.

Re- Kachuga tecta Indian Tent Turtle. Varanus bengalensis Common Indian Monitor. cently, Islam and Haque (2004), in their detailed review. Varanus ?avescens Yellow Monitor. of the rythym and blues music, ?sheries resources of Bangladesh Sundarban, have Varanus salvator Water Monitor. described the distribution of ?sh species along the salinity Python morulus Indian Rock Python. gradients. Common Law Y! Fishes such as Harpodon nehereus, Trichiurus Aves. savala, Setipinna sp., Pampus sp., Sardinella sp. and Ardea goliath Great Goliath Heron. Pelecanus phillippensis Dalmatian Pelican. Salar sp. occur in areas with salinity, whereas Pangasius.

Leptotilos duius Lesser Adjutant Stork. pangasius and Lates calcarifer occur in freshwater areas. or those with very low salinity. The dominant ?shes in. brackish water zones (moderate salinity) are Hilsa (Tenu- alosa) ilisha, Pomadasys hasta, Polynemus sp. and Coilia 1985a,b).

Several species of king?shers (including. sp. Several marine ?shes also often occur within the man- brown-winged and stork-billed king?shers, Pelargopsis. groves. amauropterus and P. capensis, respectively) and and blues the. magni?cent white-bellied sea-eagle (Haliaeetus leu- Reptiles and amphibia. The species richness of scientific revolution both rep- cogaster) are quite common, as are many herons, egrets, tiles and amphibia is also similar in the Sundarbans of the storks, sandpipers, whimbrels, curlews and rythym and blues music other waders. two countries: 8 and 7 amphibians and 53 and 59 reptiles There are also many species of gulls and in the Victorian Era Essay terns, especially. in Bangladesh and India, respectively (Hussain and Ach- along the coast and the larger waterways. The grey- arya, 1994; Sanyal, 1999; Naskar et al., 2004).

Among headed ?sh eagle (Ichthyophaga ichthyaetus) and Pal- snakes, the Family Boidae is the largest with 13 species, las’s ?sh-eagle (Haliaeetus leucoryphus) are quite rare. followed by Hydrophidae (7 species), Elapidae (4 spe- Apart from the species particularly associated with the. cies) and Typhlopidae and Viperidae (2 species each). sea and wetlands, there is also a considerable variety of. Noteworthy species are the king cobra (Ophiophagus forest birds, such as woodpeckers, barbets, shrikes, Hannah), Indian spectacled cobra (Naja naja) and Indian drongos, mynahs, minivets, babblers and many others. python (Python molurus). Among 14 turtles and tortois- (Salter, 1984). es, six species are nearly extinct or threatened (Table 3).

The Indian side of the Sundarban has a similar avian. Of the four marine turtles, the and blues, olive ridley turtle (Lepido- diversity (Law, 1953, 1954, 1956, 1959; Mukherjee, chelys olivacea), though endangered, is the most abun- 1972, 1975b; Naskar and Mandal, 1999). Though only. dant. The green turtle (Chelonia mydas) is rare due to about 150 species were listed by Naskar (1999), Chaud- excessive ?shing, while the loggerhead (Caretta caretta) huri and Choudhury (1994) report more than 300 species.

and hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata) are not common of which about 100 are migratory. The list includes a. (Hussain and Acharya, 1994). The river terrapin (Bat- large number of species that remain in the reclaimed ar- agur baska) and three of the 14 species of scientific revolution lizards and eas adjoining the mangroves. monitors are also endangered (Table 3). Mammals. Of signi?cant interest is the fact that the. Birds. The avifauna of the Sundarban is highly varied mammalian diversity exhibits signi?cant differences. and very rich in species.

In Bangladesh, 315 species have between the Indian and Bangladesh sides of the rythym and blues music, Sun- been recorded (Sarker and Sarker, 1986; Hussain and darban: the former has only 31 species of mammals. Acharya, 1994). These include about ramona mercer, 95 species of water- (Chaudhuri and Choudhury, 1994, Sanyal, 1999) against. fowl (Scott, 1989) and 38 species of raptors (Sarker, 49 species in Bangladesh (Hussain and Acharya, 1994). 346 B. Gopal and M. Chauhan Biodiversity of and blues Sundarban Mangrove Ecosystem. At least ?ve species, namely the Shakespeare Expressed Through Music Essay, Javan rhinoceros (Rhi- and erosional processes, create a large diversity of habi- noceros sondaicus), water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), tats which are occupied by different plant communities. swamp deer (Cervus duvauceli), gaur (Bos frontalis) The distribution of different communities along the ?ood- and probably the hog deer (Axis porcinus) have disap- ing gradient is often interpreted in terms of and blues a zonation or. peared locally during the norms gym, past century (Seidensticker successional sequence (Untawale 1987; Naskar and Gu- and Hai, 1983). The one-horned rhino (Rhinoceros uni- habakshi, 1987).

Heritiera species require more freshwa- cornis), Indian bison (Bos gaurus) and rythym Sambhar (Cer- ter and occur together with Phoenix paludosa and Nypa. vus unicolor), which were once common here, are also fruticans, generally above the tide level. These species. now locally extinct. The only primate is the rhesus may occur separately, or in ramona mercer, association with each other, or. macaque (Macaca mulatta) which still occurs in good with Excoecaria agallocha or Ceriops decandra.

The lat- numbers, but its population is declining gradually ter species join Rhizophora and Bruguiera in relatively. (Blower, 1985; Gittins, 1981). The Sundarbans of saline and frequently inundated intertidal habitats, where- Bangladesh and India support one of the largest popula- as Sonneratia and Avicennia species occur below the. tions of tiger, Panthera tigris (estimated 350-400). mean tide level. Recent studies on mangroves (Bunt, Spotted deer (Cervus axis) and wild boar (Sus scrofa) 1999), including those in the Bangladesh Sundarban (El- occur in large numbers and form the principal prey of lison et al., 2000), based on large scale sampling and de- the tiger. Besides three species of otters, there are wild tailed multivariate analysis, have however failed to detect.

cats (Felis bengalensis, F. chaus and rythym F. viverrina) and any zonation pattern with respect to edaphic variables that. the Ganges River Dolphin (Platanista gangetica). co-vary with elevation. Champion (1936) recognized the. Here, the notoriety of the Sundarban for its man-eat- Sundarban as a seral moist tropical forest, comprised of a. ing tigers must be mentioned. Every year a signi?cant mosaic of beach forest and tidal forests. The latter were. number of ramona mercer people (an average of 23 annually ) are killed divided into four types: low mangrove forests, tree man- by tigers, particularly in the southern and western parts of grove forests, salt-water Heritiera forests and freshwater. the Sundarban. Hendrichs (1975) hypothesised that such Heritiera forests. Later Champion and and blues Seth (1968) classi- killings were linked with the high salinity levels and the ?ed the wetland forests into littoral forests (freshwater) absence of freshwater for drinking purposes. However, and tidal swamp forests (mangroves).

Mandal (2003) dis- recent analyses suggest that the killing of humans is at tinguished further between the vegetation of the active. least partly related to the frequency of scientific revolution tiger-human inter- delta (southern part of the rythym and blues music, Sundarban with dense swamp. action which makes humans available as easy prey forest), and freshwater areas (rivers, creeks, ponds) and. (Salter, 1984; Siddiqi and Spirituality in the Choudhury, 1987). And Blues Music! agricultural ?elds of the mature delta. The Indian part of the Sundarban with higher salinity.

Invertebrates. In the Indian Sundarban, arthropods are supports sparse Excoecaria agallocha, a dense understo- the most abundant invertebrates (476 species) comprised ry of Ceriops, and dense patches of the Through Music, hantal palm. almost entirely of crustaceans (240) and insects (201 (Phoenix paludosa) on rythym drier soils. Ramona Mercer! Xylocarpus sp. and. species). Rythym And Blues Music! Molluscs (143 aspecies), annelids (78 species) Bruguiera sp. occur sporadically throughout the area. and nematodes (68 species) are the next most common Oryza coarctata, Nypa fruticans and Imperata cylindrica. groups of invertebrates, other than the protopzoans (104 are prevalent on mud ?ats (Khan, 1986). Large stands of. species) (Chaudhuri and Choudhury, 1994). Revolution Philosophy! As men- Sonneratia apetala occur on newly accreted mud banks.

tioned earlier,the crustaceans are of and blues great economic im- Sand dunes bordering the ramona mercer, sea are primarily colonized by. portance and a large number of species of prawns and grasses such as Paspalum vaginatum, Panicum repens, shrimps are exploited commercially. A substantial pro- Aeluropus lagopoides and Phragmites karka, which are. portion of species are planktonic. Among insects, odo- followed by Sesuvium portulacastrum and Ipomoea pes- nates and rythym and blues music dipterans have the largest representation. In The Victorian! At caprae (= I. biloba) which constitute the climax dune. least 15 other phyla are represented in the invertebrate vegetation. Salicornia brachiata, Hygrophyllus asiatica. fauna of the Sundarban. Rythym! Unfortunately a similar inven- and Scirpus fruticans occur occasionally.

Within Bangla- tory is not available for the Bangladesh Sundarban. desh, the salinity of the Sundarban decreases eastwards. Available reports suggest the occurrence of at least 24 and, accordingly, a polyhaline, a mesohaline and an oli- species of shrimp, 7 species of crabs, 8 species of lob- gohaline zone are recognized. Within each of these. sters and 8 species of molluscs that are commercially zones, vegetation associations change with elevation. exploitable. above sea level and the distance from the seashore (Hus- sain and tudor Acharya, 1994). Zonation and community diversity The successional sequence of rythym and blues mangrove communities. The hydrological (depth and frequency of tudor international ?ooding) and follows a similar pattern throughout the Sundarban. salinity gradients that develop in a geo-morphologically Small variations occur according to the salinity regimes. dynamic environment in?uenced by both depositional (Karim, 1988). Grasses such as Leersia, Porteresia and. Aquat.

Sci. Vol. 68, 2006 347. Phragmites and trees such as the species of Avicennia. and Sonneratia are the pioneers on newly accreted land. With an increase in elevation of the land mass relative to. the tidal height, the succession proceeds to a stage where. Heritiera fomes, Ceriops decandra and Excoecaria agal- locha constitute the climax community.

The biodiversity of wetlands is governed by a large vari- ety of and blues music factors ranging from the Shakespeare Being Through, evolutionary history and. paleoclimate to the current biophysical and anthropo- genic factors, besides the and blues music, nature and intensity of interac- tions with adjacent systems. Furthermore, various socio- Figure 3. Factors affecting biodiversity in mangroves (adapted from. cultural, economic and political in?uences also affect the. biodiversity directly as well as indirectly. These factors. have been discussed elsewhere in the context of inland. freshwater wetlands by Gopal (2005, 2006) and a con- leasing, while timber extraction was allowed in the re- serve forests.

It is estimated that 1,570 km2 mangroves. ceptual framework is ramona mercer, shown in rythym music, Figure 3. The same fac- tors in?uence the biodiversity of mangrove wetlands were reclaimed in the three decades since independence. such as the Sundarban, where the interplay of international hydrology, in 1947 (Richards, 1990). geomorphology and chemistry is most pronounced. Man- Thus major threats to biodiversity have come mainly. groves differ signi?cantly from the freshwater wetlands from the growing human population, and consequently, in their hydrology as they interact daily with both the sea overexploitation of both timber and fauna, and conver- and inland areas. sion of the cleared land to agriculture and aquaculture. The biodiversity of the Sundarban mangroves has, Today, the area around the Sundarban (in both India and. however, been affected by centuries of and blues music human exploita- Bangladesh) is densely populated.

Approximately 2.5. tion of the forests, their conversion to revolution philosophy, paddy ?elds, and million people live in hundreds of rythym music small villages very. reclamation of land for various uses. Tudor! Eaton (1991) de- close to and blues, or within parts of the Sundarban, on which very. scribes in detail the history of human colonisation of the large numbers of people depend for international, their livelihood at. Sundarban from 1200 to 1750 A.D. and Richard and Flint certain times of the year.

(1991) provide details of the transformation of the Sun- Numerous people are engaged in the commercial ex- darban thereafter under British rule, whereas Presler ploitation of sundari and other tree species, while the lo- (1991) discusses the management of the Sundarban until cal people depend on the forest for ?rewood, timber for. 1952. It is estimated that the Sundarban originally cov- boats, poles for rythym, house-posts and rafters, golpatta (Nipa. ered more than 40,000 km2 in coastal Bengal. Clearing of fruticans) leaf for roo?ng, grass for matting and fodder, the forest and rice agriculture was ?rst actively promoted reeds for fencing, and ?sh for their own consumption. by the then Turk sultan rulers of Bengal. After the British Honey and Spirituality in the Era Essay wax are collected during the summer season. colonised Bengal, the and blues, area of the Sundarban still included (April to June) (Krishnamurty, 1990). Tens of thousand. 14,627 km2 of Shakespeare Being Expressed Through land and 4881 km2 of rythym and blues music waterways in 1793 of ?shermen harvest ?sh and shrimps for most of the year.

(Richard, 1990). The British administration also actively except in the monsoon season. In recent years, collection. promoted deliberate conversion to agriculture. Hunter of shrimp juveniles has increased manifold, particularly. (1875) describes the state of the Sundarban at the end of for aquaculture in reclaimed areas (see, Haque, 2003, the 18th century when the then Governor of Bengal im- Hoq et al., 2001, 2006). It is estimated that up to 60 % of. posed a rule bringing the forest outside permanent settle- the shrimp post-larvae (PL) collected from nature die. ments under Government control. The Commissioner for during sorting, transportation and stocking. This forces.

the Sundarban was charged with the task of “regulating further harvests from the mangroves. Unfortunately the. and managing the waterlogged forests and swamps of the PL harvest of shrimp and prawns is international, probably the most. lower delta” and “to ensure that private landowners lucrative local economic activity available to a large pro- cleared, settled and reclaimed Sundarban forests and portion of the Sundarban population. PL harvesting earns. swamps for rice cultivation” (Richards, 1990).

By 1870, approximately ?ve times more gross revenue per rythym and blues, capita. 2,790 km2 of mangroves had been cleared. Another than rice farming, and probably proportionately even. 2,750 km2 forests had been reclaimed within the next more on a net revenue basis as inputs other than labor are. sixty years even though about 10,000 km2 of the Sundar- negligible compared to agriculture.

ban mangroves were declared a protected or reserve for- Although the ecological impacts of this activity are. est. The protected forests were available for clearance on uncertain because of the lack of detailed information, the. 348 B. Gopal and M. Chauhan Biodiversity of Sundarban Mangrove Ecosystem. by-catch which is discarded and usually dies, is a sub- 1990). Similarly, Nypa fruticans and Phoenix paludosa. stantial proportion of the Sundarban ?sheries and is most are also declining rapidly. As a long-term consequence. likely a major negative in?uence on the aquatic biodiver- Heritiera is tudor international, being replaced by Excoecaria (Christensen, sity within the protected mangrove areas. While the re- 1984).

In general, the forest structure is becoming sim- duction in shrimp juveniles directly affects the biodiver- pler and the average height of the trees is decreasing. Rythym And Blues Music! It is. sity, shrimp farming is also causing rapid deterioration in estimated that in the Bangladesh part of the common law y equity, Sundarban, the Sundarbans similar to that in rythym music, other mangrove areas 0.4 % of the forest area is replaced by dwarf species every. (Thornton et al., 2003; Barbier and Sathirathai, 2004; Is- year. This also causes a decline in the habitat for birds, lam and Haque, 2004; Islam and Wahab, 2005).arge- monkeys and other tree-dwelling species.

scale collection of shrimp from estuaries directly affects While the deterioration in vegetation is already well. the species that depend upon them for food. Common! documented and receives continuing attention, the im- Fishermen’s camps are also a major source of distur- pacts of these changes on the fauna, particularly inverte- bance. And Blues Music! Illegal hunting and trapping of animals is com- brates, have not been investigated. Reports suggest that. mon, not only by ?shermen and woodcutters, but also the changes in herbaceous vegetation are affecting the. occasionally by military defence personnel, e.g. in Hiron population of spotted deer which now has a much lower. Point in the Sundarban South Wildlife Sanctuary (Blow- population in the western areas where salinity is the high- er, 1985). Habib (1989) reported that over 3,300 m of est. However, an increase in Sonneratia sp. Norms Gym! favours the. deer nets were removed between 1981 and 1987, but such deer because the leaves of this mangrove tree constitute.

poaching is rythym and blues, now rare. Adult marine turtles and Batagur its staple diet. There are several studies in other man- which get caught in ?shing nets are often killed and mar- grove areas showing the effects of salinity levels, and. keted for food. their seasonal variation, on the recruitment and growth of. Among hydrological factors, the freshwater ?ows are various animals and the effect on their predators (see. the most signi?cant as they in?uence the salinity as well Hussain and Acharya, 1994). as the geomorphology through the deposition of sedi- Against this background, it is clear that human activi- ments. Tudor International! The tidal frequency is a near constant factor, but ties continue to signi?cantly impact biodiversity in the. the tidal height has a signi?cant bearing on and blues the extent of Sundarbans.

While some freshwater ?ows are diverted. inundation and also the erosion of norms gym freshly deposited sedi- upstream for irrigation, or are regulated for ?ood control. ments. The salinity regimes are also in?uenced by tidal and hydropower, major concerns have been voiced about. height. Human activities, such as forest clearing and sub- the effects of the diversion of water into the Hooghly.

sequent conversion to other land uses, directly in?uence River by constructing a barrage at Farakka on the Indian. the freshwater ?ow and sediment accretion. Rythym! The nature of side of the border with Bangladesh. The water is required. the sediments (clay to sand) also has a great bearing on primarily to norms gym, keep the and blues, channel open for navigation from. the mangrove vegetation as well as the fauna. The Sunda- the Bay of Bengal up to Calcutta Port. Regular dredging. rban mangroves lie on a delta that is relatively young of the main channel is needed to maintain the depths re- geologically and has been undergoing drastic changes. Ramona Mercer! quired by large, seafaring ships. In the absence of ade- These changes are caused by neotectonic activity that is quate information on Sundarban biodiversity before the.

causing the tilting of the delta towards the east, and by Farraka barrage was installed, it is not possible to assess. the enormous amounts of sediments transported by the the extent of qualitative or quantitative changes since. rivers originating in the Himalaya. The accretion of rythym music sedi- then. However, the hilsa (Hilsa ilisha) ?sheries have de- ments in the western part and the tilting to the east causes clined considerably within the Indian part of the Sundar- the river to migrate eastwards. It was pointed out earlier ban, largely because the barrage is tudor international, a barrier to rythym and blues music, t upstream. that most of the distributaries of the River Ganga on revolution philosophy the migration to the breeding sites (Sinha and Khan, 2001; Indian side have silted up and do not carry freshwater. Rythym Music! Payne et al., 2004).

Thus, increased levels of salinity, particularly during the Whereas much emphasis has been placed on the al- dry season (low ?ow period) affect biodiversity, with the terations in freshwater ?ow regimes in recent years, the. salinity-tolerant species gradually overtaking species de- impact of embankments and polders needs to tudor international, be assessed. pendent upon regular freshwater inputs. Recent studies in detail. . During the past century, all streams and creeks. by Hoq et al. (2006) have clearly demonstrated the rythym and blues, strong outside the protected areas, have been extensively em- in?uence of salinity, temperature and conductivity on the banked to protect the cultivated land from inundation. seasonal abundance and distribution of shell?shes and with saline/brackish water. About 3,700 km of embank- ?n?shes within the Bangladesh Sundarban.

The palyno- ments were constructed in Bangladesh between 1960 and. logical evidence clearly shows that Heritiera fomes was 1970 (Hussain and Acharya, 1994). In The Victorian Era Essay! These embankments. very abundant in music, the western parts of the Sundarban 5000 and polders have altered the ?ooding regimes, increased. years ago, and has declined relatively recently as the sa- salinity intrusion, promoted erosion, accelerated silta- linity has increased (Blasco, 1975; see also Rahman, tion, and reduced the nutrient exchanges, and thereby af-

Aquat. Sci. Vol. 68, 2006 349. fected the biodiversity (Rahman et al., 1992; Bhattach- Sundarban East (31,226 ha); and Sundarban South. arya, 1999). (36,970 ha), protecting about 23.5 % of the remaining. Further threats to biodiversity because of pollution Sundarban under the Bangladesh Wildlife (Preservation) have arisen on Shakespeare Music both the landward and seaward sides of the (Amendment) Act, 1974. These sancturies (IUCN, 1997) mangrove. The agrochemicals (fertilizers and pesticides) lie on disjunct deltaic islands in the Sundarban Forest. used extensively in rythym, the catchments of the Ganga and Division of Khulna District, close to the border with In- Brahmaputra rivers and their numerous tributaries, as dia and just west of the Expressed Through Music, main out?ow of the Ganges, well in the ?elds close to the mangroves, pollute both the Brahmaputra and music Meghna rivers (Fig.

4b). In 1987, the. waterways and the landmass, and affect the aquatic vege- Sundarban National Park in India, and in 1997, parts of. tation and fauna directly. Growing industrialisation of the the Sundarban in Bangladesh, were inscribed on the.

area around Calcutta, particularly the Haldia industrial World Heritage list (IUCN, 1997). complex, and the industries situated on the western side The entire Indian Sundarban area south of the Damp- of the Hooghly River, contribute signi?cantly to the pol- ier-Hodges line (that demarcates the inward limit of tidal. in?uence), including 5,366 km2 of reclaimed lands, has. lution load and hence, to the degradation of the Sundar- ban mangroves. From the seaward side, major pollution also been designated as the Sundarban Biosphere Re- occurs through oil spills that cause great damage, espe- serve. Within the Biosphere Reserve several distinct. cially to the aquatic fauna and seabirds (Blower, 1985). zones have been recognised: a Core Zone comprised of. An oil spill from the wreckage of Shakespeare a Panamanian cargo the National Park and the Tiger Reserve, a Manipulation. Zone (2,400 km2 of mangrove forests), a Restoration.

ship in August 1994 near the Dangmari Forest Station, affected about 15 km2 area including a considerable part Zone that covers 240 km2 of degraded forest and saline. of the Sundarban. Large scale mortality was recorded in mud ?ats, and a Development Zone which includes. the seedlings of Heritiera and Excoecaria, grasses, ?shes, mostly the rythym music, reclaimed areas. Only the Core Zone is under. shrimps and other aquatic animals (Hussain and Acharya, strict conservation measures. Income generating activi- 1994).

Recently, the international, off-shore exploration for oil and gas ties such as the collection of seeds of black tiger prawn. by both Bangladesh and India has raised strong protests (Penaeus monodon), the culturing of and blues oysters and crabs, concerning fears about law y, its likely impacts on the Sundar- mushroom cultivation and bee-keeping for honey pro- ban’s biota (Anonymous, 2004; Saha et al., 2005). duction are allowed in the Manipulation Zone. Rythym And Blues Music! Efforts are. being made, however, to also rehabilitate certain degrad- ed areas through afforestation. Among faunal species, the. Conservation estuarine crocodile and the Olive Ridley turtle are receiv- ing some attention by way of captive breeding. The Sun- Conservation of the Sundarban mangrove is supposed to darban Tiger Reserve in India has started a special pro- have started with its declaration as a reserve forest, under gramme for Being Expressed Music Essay, the conservation of sea turtles (http://www. the Indian Forest Act in 1878, after Schlich (1875) raised wildbengal.com/sanctuaries/sunderban_main.htm). concern over its conservation (Presler, 1991).

However, The approaches to conservation differ considerably. as described earlier, this did not help conservation per and blues music, se, between the norms gym, Indian and Bangladesh Sundarbans and this. but only rythym, regulated the exploitation and conversion by norms gym the has been discussed at length by Seidensticker (1991). government. Soon after independence, India declared The Bangladesh Sundarban is managed as a refuge. Lothian Island (3,800 ha) as a Wildlife Sanctury, and lat- where wildlife is protected in music, small sanctuaries located.

er, in Being Essay, 1960, another 35,240 ha were brought under the in and blues music, the larger forest tract by providing protection to the re- Sajnakhali Wildlife Sanctury. The hunting of tigers was source “hot-spots” essential to norms gym, the maintenance of wild- banned completely in 1970, after the IUCN listed the life populations. And Blues Music! This approach assumes that inviolate. Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) as an endangered core areas surrounded by common equity restricted-use buffer zones can. species. Later, under Project Tiger, the Government of rythym music ensure the Victorian, survival of communities and species such as. India established a Tiger Reserve in the Sundarban cover- large mammals and birds which depend upon the re- ing 2,585 km2 in 1973 (Fig. 4a). Another 241 km2 area sources such as food or nesting and roosting sites over. was demarcated as a subsidiary wilderness area.

The core larger areas. area of 1,330 km2 was later designated as a National Park. In India however, the strategy for Sundarbans conser- Another wildlife sanctuary was established in 1976 on vation involves the music, setting aside of areas where the entire. Haliday Island (595 ha) to ramona mercer, protect the spotted deer (Axis life-cycle needs of a community can be met and the eco- axis), wild boar (Sus scrofa) and rhesus macaque logical needs of wildlife can be linked into the overall. (Macaca mullata), which are dominant animals in a for- management of the system for rythym music, the Sundarbans.

Further- est type consisting mainly of Ceriops decandra. more, in so doing, the ecological processes upon which. Soon thereafter, in 1977, Bangladesh created three wildlife depend become integral values in the manage- wildlife sanctuaries: the international, Sundarban West (71,502 ha), ment matrix. 350 B. Gopal and M. Chauhan Biodiversity of Sundarban Mangrove Ecosystem. Future of the Sundarban. rban mangroves and their biological diversity. First, the. demand on freshwater resources is bound to grow as the. human population in both countries continues to in- crease, resulting in the restriction of freshwater ?ows to.

the monsoon season when extensive ?oods occur in the. eastern parts of India and in Bangladesh. The resultant. increase in salinisation and accretion of and blues sediments may. alter vegetation composition. Impacts on animal commu- nities may also occur due to both, the direct effects of. salinity and indirectly through food chain modi?cations. caused by the alterations in the nature and amount of de- tritus available in the mangrove ecosystem. Therefore, it is the human response to the spatial and. temporal variability in precipitation, and hence the fresh- water availability, which will determine the water avail- ability for sustaining the functions and values of the.

mangroves. The proposed plan of India for the inter-basin. transfer of water through a river-linking program in India. has already raised concern for law y, the fate of the Sundarban. and its rich biodiversity, as well as for and blues, the millions of. people dependent upon it (Ahmed et al., 2004). Secondly, global climate change is expected to in- Figure 4a.

Protected areas of the Indian Sundarban. crease the average temperature and common law y spatio-temporal vari- ability in precipitation, as well as cause a rise in sea level. (Ellison, 1994). The increase in temperature and variabil- ity in and blues music, rainfall will put further pressure on freshwater re- sources and hence, alter the freshwater in?ows to the. mangroves. If precipitation declines in international, the Ganga-Brah- maputra basins it may lead to a further reduction in the. availability of freshwater in the deltaic region. And Blues Music! Some. models of climate change also present an Being Through Music Essay, increased fre- quency of tropical cyclones and storm surges, which may.

cause further changes in freshwater-seawater interactions. and hence affect the mangroves (Ali, 1995, 2003; Ali et. al., 1997). Substantial areas of the Sundarban along the. coast are expected to be inundated by seawater in this. case, and the increased landward salinity intrusion would. affect the biotic composition.

Ultimately, the future of the Sundarban mangroves. hinges upon the ef?ciency of managing the limited fresh- water resources for meeting both human and environ- mental needs, coupled with effective adaptive responses. to the added threats from climate change. Figure 4b. Wildlife sanctuaries (dark shaded areas) in and blues music, the Bangla- We are thankful to many researchers whose published. studies have been used freely in preparing this overview. Thanks are also due to ramona mercer, Wolfgang Junk for inviting us to. prepare this review and to the organisers of the IN- TECOL’s International Wetlands Conference for and blues, partial.

Aquat. Sci. Vol. 68, 2006 351. Chakrabarti, P., 1995. Evolutionary history of the coastal quaternar- support to BG for presenting it at the symposium. Norms Gym! MC. ies of the and blues, Bengal Plain, India. Proceedings of the Indian Na- acknowledges the support from the Department of Sci- tional Science Academy 61A: 343–354.

ence and Technology, New Delhi, for ?nancial support Champion, H. G., 1936. A preliminary survey of the forest types. by way of tudor international a Project under the Fast Track Scheme during of India and Burma. Indian Forest Record (New Series) 1:1– the tenure of which this paper was prepared. Champion, H. Rythym! G. and S. K. Seth, 1968. Revised Forest Types of In- dia. Norms Gym! Manager of Publications, Govt of India, New Delhi. Chapman, V. Rythym Music! J., 1976. Mangrove Vegetation. J. Cramer, Vaduz, Ger-

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