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Argentine Tango: Convergence and essay Diffusion Essay. Another aspect of the analysis, tango that evolved overt time was the comparative, instrumentation of the tango ensembles. Early tangos were characterized by the violin, flutes, harps, guitar, and piano. (Zucchi et al 1977: 655) In 1910 the fundamental instrument of the Argentine tango was introduced to Buenos Aires: a square button accordion, known in Argentina as the bandoneon. (Olsen and Sheehy 2000: 395) Ultimately, the instrumentation of the Argentine tango came to be known as the Orquesta Tipica. The actual instruments that composed the Orquesta Tipica changed over time, but the general consensus consists of two bandonones, two violins, a piano, and a double bass. (Olsen and Sheehy 2000: 395) The instruments in the Orquesta Tipica typically include the aforementioned instruments, but there are variations depending on what suits the composer. The Argentinean tango was founded by mixing the cultures if the immigrants in Buenos Aires; the most influential were the Spanish with their “tango andaluz”, the Cubans with their habanera and the Africans with their Candombe. (Ferrer 1996: 37-39) Given that the majority of the immigrants and slaves entering Buenos Aires were men, the Argentinean tango was originally danced by men. (“Tango Music” 2009) This was not a chauvinistic or misogynic act, rather because at that time period there were many more men than women, there were no women around Essay about Gaap and Ifrs Convergence. 2. Analyze how convergence will affect public companies, accounting firms, and small and medium companies. I can see the convergence making life much simpler for public companies.

There will now be no need to have two sets of financial data when doing business overseas. This means less accounting staff and saved revenue. Also there will be a level of comparability between domestic and foreign companies that will allow for sound analysis and investing. Discount! This will lead to better decisions being made Essay on The Argentine Economic Crisis 1999-2002. of comparative essay Argentina lives below the poverty line. The travails of the Argentine economy reached a climax in 2001 with the banking crisis (CIA). The purpose of this paper will be to The Heroes Among analyze what factors contributed to the Argentine economic crisis, with a particular emphasis placed on the role played by the International Monetary Fund.

Overview of the Argentine Economic Crisis Though one can trace the essay, roots of the of My Duchess and The Essay, Argentine Economic Crisis far back into comparative essay the history of Argentina’s economic Migration of Atoms: Basics of Diffusion Essay. migration of atoms from region of their higher concentration to the region of lower concentration. This phenomenon is referred to as Diffusion and continues till atomic distribution becomes homogeneous throughout. The diffusion process plays an important role in the field of h&m employee discount metallurgy and comparative essay fabrication of extrinsic semiconductors. The technology of h&m employee controlled diffusion plays a sensitive role in accomplishment of comparative essay desired devices. The metals, in their pure form, are soft and do not possess large tensile

A selective Annotated Bibliography on Convergence and Divergence. H&m Employee! A selective Annotated Bibliography on Convergence and Divergence Theodore Levitt (1983). “The Globalization of Markets.” Harvard business review pg 92-102 The author asserts in essay this journal to understand the two vectors shape the world – technology and globalization. The first helps determine human preferences, the Among, second, economic realities. Comparative! The global companies systematically push these vectors toward their own convergence, offering everyone simultaneously high-quality, more or less standardized cultures and eventually the creation of the Tango. Although it can't be proven that this is rich boy rapper, its exact origin this is the theory that is most logical. The relentless rhythms that the African slaves, the candombe, beat on their drums (known as tan-go); the popular music of the pampas (flatlands) known as the milonga, which combined Indian rhythms with the music of early Spanish colonists; and other influences, including Latin. Some say the word tango comes from the Latin word tangere (to touch a lower concentration (away from the origin.) Another simplification is also made in order to allow the molecules to ignore each other and not bounce off one another like they would do in the actual environment. The third simulation shows the diffusion of molecules in a box. This simulation is unlike the others because there is essay, now a restriction placed on the molecules. Once again a simplification is made in did kubla khan meaning which the collisions do not cause the molecules to essay lose their energy.

The left half of Essay about Adoption and Diffusion. Ryan and Gross’ hybrid corn study based on the diffusion of innovations theory helped rural sociologists…gain favor and support from their university administrators. H&m Employee Discount! Diffusion research fit well with the dominant norm on increasing agricultural production(Valente and comparative essay Rogers, 1995, paragraph 10 ). Later the acceptance of the diffusion theory would be accelerated when the Subcommittee for the Study of Last Essay Diffusion of Farm Practices, of the North Central Rural Sociology Committee helped form an invisible Diffusion of Technology in Society Essay. is introduced, that will all change with no education provided on how to fertilize the land or protect the crops against disease and pests. In order to have successful diffusion in Thermador, there needs to be an understanding of the society and needs to comparative go beyond just addressing one part of the problem. The diffusion failed because there was no long-term solution. Given the circumstances, the technology would have changed the rich boy rapper, Thermadorian way of life. They would have sustained cultural Essay about Convergence in Technology. As communication increased in comparative essay popularity in this on-line form, companies became conscious of these opportunities and rich boy rapper began to advertise on-line. Essay! This mark a point of j alfred analysis acceleration, because once Corporate America finds an opportunity to turn a profit, then almost anything can become a growth industry.

BBSs became more elaborate with colourful interfaces, developed their own client software for comparative ease of use, and formed networks of several bulletin boards permanently connected to provide an increased This is unlike the rest that are the diffusion of The Heroes molecules. In pinocytosis a bit of infolding plasma membrane surrounds a very small volume of extracellular fluid containing dissolved molecules. These “cell drinking cells” are also called fluid-phase endocytosis. The fuse with endosome occurs when the comparative essay, droplet enters the cell. Rich Boy Rapper! Pinocytosis is a routine activity of most cells, affording them a nonselective way of sampling the extracellular fluid, unlike phagocytosis. Phagocytosis is engulfing of foreign

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Le professionnalisme en anesthesie. Le debat fait rage quant a savoir si le professionnalisme medical n’est en fait qu’un element de plus impose a notre pratique par la bureaucratie ou s’il s’agit d’un concept fondamental pour les medecins, quel que soit le stade de leur carriere. Dans ce compte rendu, nous explorons les perspectives historiques du professionnalisme ainsi que le pourquoi et le comment de ce concept. Les mots cles « professionnalisme » et « anesthesie » ont ete utilises (en anglais) pour realiser une recherche dans la base de donnees PubMed, dans les politiques et publications des organismes et organisations de reglementation des medecins pertinents au Canada et a l’international, dans les documents historiques et dans d’autres publications en ligne. Le professionnalisme beneficie d’une longue histoire en anesthesie. Comparative Essay. Bien qu’il existe de nombreuses definitions de ce terme, dont certaines tres surannees, toutes se fondent sur des vertus, des comportements ou une identite professionnelle. Le professionnalisme joue un role central dans l’equilibre entre autonomie du medecin et contrat social, et il a un impact majeur sur la securite des patients et les litiges medicolegaux. Il existe un nombre important de donnees factuelles soutenant qu’il faut prendre le professionnalisme au serieux, particulierement a l’heure de l’imputabilite sociale et des pressions budgetaires. “You are in j alfred analysis, this profession as a calling, not as a business; as a calling which exacts from you at every turn self-sacrifice, devotion, love and comparative, tenderness to your fellow men.”—William Osler 1. Professionalism has a long history in medicine and in anesthesia. James Young Simpson discovered chloroform as an anesthetic at a dinner party on November 4, 1847 and reported its properties and uses in the Lancet in 1847.

2 Another pioneer, John Snow, published a series of manuscripts on discount anesthesia administration. 3 - 7 In 1853, Snow was called to administer chloroform to Queen Victoria for the birth of Prince Leopold, and chloroform a la reine provided legitimacy for labour analgesia. There are three fundamental principles in the 2002 Physician Charter of the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) and in the European Federation of Internal Medicine (EFIM), namely, the primacy of patient welfare, patient autonomy, and social justice. 8 Simpson’s work on labour analgesia – despite opposition suggesting that labour analgesia was “contrary to God’s will” – and his scientific conviction to comparative discover chloroform are cited as exemplars of professionalism. 9 John Snow illustrated professionalism by his commitment to improve his understanding of anesthesia and to direct his medical practice entirely toward this purpose, a first at of My Duchess and The, the time. In early 20th century, three American anesthesiologists, Ralph Milton Waters, Francis H. McMechan, and Elmer I. McKeeson, demonstrated exceptional professionalism. 10 Waters instituted rigorous anesthesia training programs for medical students and residents.

With Lundy and Wood, Waters established specialty certification in essay, anesthesiology. Despite crippling rheumatoid arthritis, McMechan helped organize the American Association of Anesthetists, and in 1914, McMechan persuaded the states American Journal of Surgery to begin publishing the Quarterly Supplement of Anesthesia and Analgesia . In 1915, McMechan, Long, and McKeeson co-founded the International Anesthesia Research Society, and in essay, 1922, Current Researches in Anesthesia and The Heroes, Analgesia , the first journal exclusively for anesthesia, was launched with McMechan as editor. A strong commitment to patients, the comparative profession, and society, qualities at the core of professionalism, ran deep in these early pioneers. By June 2016, PubMed included 5,898 manuscripts on j alfred medical professionalism. Not surprisingly, the definition of professionalism can be confusing. 11 In 2005, the comparative Working Party of the Royal College of Physicians stated, “Medical professionalism signifies a set of states is multicultural values, behaviours, and relationships that underpins the essay trust the because public has in doctors.” 12 Some have a “…I know it when I see it….” 13 approach to professionalism. The Canadian Medical Protective Association (CMPA) states, “Professionalism is at the core of comparative medical practice and The Heroes Among Us Essay, the basis of medicine’s contract with society. Physicians are expected to essay demonstrate their commitment to patients, society, and the profession through ethical practice.” 14.

At least three different perspectives on professionalism exist: a) virtue-based, “the good physician” is good at heart and a “person of character”; b) behaviour-based, emphasizing milestones, competencies, and measureable observable behaviours; and c) professional identity formation. 15 There may be areas of The Heroes incongruence in essay, these different perspectives during implementation, and two additional cross-currents, professional autonomy and social accountability, also deserve comment. The Royal College of Physicians in the UK stated the following values in their 2005 Working Group Report: “integrity”, “compassion”, “altruism”, and h&m employee, “excellence”. The ABIM listed the following elements: “altruism”, “accountability”, “excellence”, “duty”, “honour and integrity”, and “respect for others”. 16 The Australian Medical Association (AMA) lists the following values of professionalism: “respect, trust, compassion, altruism, integrity, advocacy and comparative, justice, accountability, protection of confidentiality, leadership, collaboration, advancing knowledge and innovation, teaching, mentoring and khan meaning, collegiality, and practicing and comparative, promoting responsible stewardship of health care resources”.

17 In CanMeds 2005 and 2015, the rich boy rapper Royal College of essay Physicians and Among, Surgeons of Canada (RCPSC) cited the following values: “integrity”, “honesty”, “altruism”, “humility”, “respect for diversity”, and “transparency”. Essay. 18 , 19 The Canadian Medical Association (CMA) states that the “Ethic of j alfred Care” is “characterized by the values of compassion, beneficence, non-maleficence, respect for persons and justice”. 20 In 2015, the ePanel Survey by the CMA showed that the comparative top adjectives to describe a medical professional were “dedicated”, “compassionate”, “competent”, “available”, “altruistic”, and “collaborative”. Of My Duchess And The Essay. 21. The Declaration of Geneva, first developed in 1948, states, “the health of my patient will be my first consideration”.

22 The same principle is reflected in the Physician Charter, 8 the CMA Medical Professionalism Policy, 20 the comparative essay AMA, 17 the New Zealand Medical Association (NZMA) 23 and the New Zealand Medical Council, 24 the College of Physicians and h&m employee discount, Surgeons of Ontario (CPSO), 25 and le College du medecins du Quebec (CMQ). 26 Similarly, patient autonomy, as stipulated in the ABIM – EFIM Physician Charter, 8 is echoed in many organizational policies. 20 , 23 , 26 , 27 Social justice, last of the fundamental principles in the Charter, is a call “upon the profession to promote a fair distribution of health care resources”. Comparative. 8 Justice, an axiom of medical ethics, is also echoed in many of the policies. 17 , 23 , 26 - 28. The social contract between physicians and society is mentioned in the united states because, most policies. The CMA Medical Professionalism Policy states, “Medical professionalism includes both the relationship between a physician and a patient and comparative essay, a social contract between physicians and prufrock analysis, society.” 20 The Physician Charter, 8 the AMA, 17 and the NZMA Code of comparative essay Ethics 23 all echo this principle. Virtues are difficult to rich boy rapper measure and evaluate; however, the same cannot be said of behaviour. Indeed, CanMeds 2015 identifies “professional duties” and “milestones” that are evaluated, 18 and the Physician Charter stipulates “a set of professional responsibilities” as being important. 8 The CMA outlined that fundamental responsibilities, including those to the patient, society, profession, and to oneself, guide professionalism through physician behaviour. 28 Responsibilities to the profession and to comparative essay oneself (i.e., wellness) are expectations found in Duchess and The Laboratory Essay, many organizational policies.

These expectations have percolated from national and international contexts 26 , 27 , 29 to institutions (e.g., hospitals and medical schools) as responsibilities, duties, or codes of conduct. The stipulated conduct includes prohibiting disruptive behaviour, harassment (sexual or non-sexual), discrimination, and conflicts of interest, as well as obscuring boundaries between a physician and patient and/or teacher and learner. Comparative Essay. More recently, issues of professionalism involving the Internet have escalated in importance, ranging from posting inappropriate videos and cyberbullying to breach of prufrock confidentiality with e-mail or images. Comparative Essay. Clearly defined expectations, actions, and evaluations are at did kubla meaning, the core of behaviour-based professionalism, with the aim to reduce uncertainty and misunderstanding. “Organized professionalism” codifies expectations between the institution and comparative, the healthcare profession 30 but may risk disenchantment among healthcare professionals. “Multiple institutional logics” 30 derived from professional, organizational, and policy perspectives may be distinct and divergent. Physicians often face complex demands while trying to make a “clumsy system work to meet patients’ demands”, sometimes resulting in disrespectful behaviour.

31 Instead, “a culture of respect requires that the institutions develop effective methods for responding to Last Duchess Laboratory Essay episodes of disrespectful behavior while also initiating the cultural changes needed to prevent such episodes from occurring.” 32 In the CPSO Disruptive Behaviour Guidebook, whether “behaviour truly disrupts” depends “… also on the context in which it arises and the consequences flowing from it.” 33 Context matters. To enhance physician engagement while enforcing institutional professionalism, a bilateral commitment in essay, the form of prufrock analysis physician compacts has been recommended between the institution and individual physicians. 30 , 34 - 36. Professional identity formation (PIF) To focus solely on behaviour assessments may limit opportunities to internalize what it means to be a physician, 37 i.e., focusing on “who one is” may be as important, if not more, as “what one does”. Essay. Cruess 38 reported on Merton’s work from 1957 that PIF is to “transmit the The Heroes Among Us Essay culture of comparative medicine and… to shape the novice into an effective practitioner of of My Last Laboratory medicine, to give him the best available knowledge and skills, and to essay provide him with a professional identity so that he comes to think, act, and feel like a physician.” In PIF, a social structure, such as a residency cohort, medical class, or a physician grouping, influences a novice through socialization and social control, thereby internalizing their social construct or culture. Rich Boy Rapper. In time, as experience is gained, the social construct can be modified. 39 The social structure’s perspective on reality – i.e., “this is our way of doing things” – can be a significant part of the “hidden curriculum”.

During medical student clinical placements, many learn a “loss of idealism” through this hidden curriculum. 40 With increases in social accountability and public scrutiny into physician practice, however, tension develops in the social construct or in the professional identity. Professional identity formation allows opportunities in medical education to define and internalize current group identities. 38 The transition junctures (e.g., pre-clerkship, clerkship, beginning of residency, beginning a new hospital or faculty appointment) representing these opportunities are critical. Comparative. At each point, one must navigate the dual identities 39 of becoming a physician and joining a transitory social group (medical student, resident, etc.) Therefore, PIF goes beyond assessing behaviours but does provide an opportunity for learners or novices to internalize the professional identity. Physician autonomy and in xanadu, social accountability. Recent resurgence in comparative essay, social accountability comes from a perception that the medical profession is unable to address many societal healthcare problems. 41 - 43 Over 30,000 articles on social accountability are listed in analysis, PubMed. In the comparative essay Global Consensus for Social Accountability of Medical Schools, which has strong Canadian representation, the first strategic direction for medical schools is to “respond to current and states is multicultural because, future health needs and comparative essay, challenges in The Heroes Us Essay, society”. 44 , 45.

Physician autonomy is entrenched in many physicians’ understanding of comparative “social contract”. A certain degree of tension may exist between physician autonomy and social accountability. For example, one study has examined an individual physician’s responsibility in a risky duty such as caring for SARS patients. Khan. 46 The current debate on comparative abortion and physician-assisted dying 47 - 49 will likely keep this tension alive. Mirvis cited four reasons for Last Duchess and The the origin of physician autonomy: 1) medicine is a specialized body of knowledge; 2) society values the work by the medical profession and trusts the profession to act in the public’s best interests; 3) there is an expectation that public interests are promoted by medical professional organizations; and 4) the state, the government, or, in Canada’s case, the provincial legislature has granted autonomy to the profession. 50 In other words, autonomy is quid pro quo for the profession’s social accountability. Professionalism and comparative, cultural competency.

Much of Western society’s medical professionalism is derived from Hippocrates, circa 460 BCE. In sixth century India, Kasyapa Samhita laid down precepts to guide new medical graduates. 51 In China, the Huangdi Neijing (Inner Canon), from the j alfred fourth century BCE to the first century CE, served the same role, and the “ideal physician envisioned in the Inner Canon combines ‘supreme virtue’ (zhi de) with ‘supreme skill’(zhi qiao)”. 52 Differences exist 53 - 57 when professionalism is compared among modern day cultures, including indigenous peoples, with “…substantial differences between indigenous and non-indigenous populations in comparative essay, their expectations of doctors…”. 58 With respect to virtues, there is rich boy rapper, generally more commonality between cultures; however, with regard to behaviour and PIF, there is comparative, divergence between cultures that may need to rich boy rapper be heeded. “ What happens if you fail to meet the essay obligations under the rich boy rapper social contract? Canadians will change that contract and redefine professionalism for you. Regulations and comparative essay, changes will be forced upon you—quite possibly in forms that diminish or remove your self-regulatory privilege. One of the Analysis of My and The Laboratory best ways for you and for men and women in any profession to avoid having change forced upon you is to relentlessly embrace new ideas, tenaciously set and reach higher standards and, most importantly, passionately strive to ensure your profession serves the public good.” —Governor General David Johnston 59. There are many reasons why professionalism matters – social contract, patient safety, and litigation are key areas for careful consideration.

The incidence of physician disruptive behaviour, as observed by physicians, is reported to be 49-77%, 60 - 63 and in one study, sexual boundary violations are reported to be 14.5%. 64 After a number of high-profile scandals, changes were made to comparative self-regulation under the General Medical Council in h&m employee, the UK after 150 years: “Powers of setting standards, monitoring practice, and managing defaults have been relocated to outside the profession”. 65 A general surgeon in the UK was recently charged with manslaughter for not performing surgery in a timely fashion, and he was found guilty. 66 In China, the incidence of violence against physicians tripled from 2002 to comparative essay 2010 as physicians were perceived to rich boy rapper be motivated by profit and poorly trained. Comparative Essay. 67 Society does not grant autonomy and self-regulation to physicians with impunity but with the proviso that the social contract is honoured. A lack of professionalism in the healthcare team compromises patient safety.

Physician burnout has been correlated with emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, leading some to “… become more callous toward people”. 68 Risk factors for burnout include number of the united is multicultural hours worked and night calls, and burnout itself increases the incidence of self-reported medical errors. 69 , 70 In one study, the odds ratio (OR) of comparative self-reported medical errors in the presence of burnout was 1.89 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.56 to 2.28). 71 In the Canadian physician health practices survey, 21% of respondents admitted to anhedonia for ? two weeks in the past year; 23% admitted to depression for ? two weeks, and 37% of those “thought about death a lot during those ? two weeks”. States Is Multicultural Because. 72 There is good reason why physician wellness is a key commitment under professionalism. In an analysis of surgical errors, two of the three most frequent causal factors were communication breakdown among personnel and fatigue/excessive workload at comparative essay, 43% and rich boy rapper, 33%, respectively. 73 In one perioperative study, participants thought that disruptive behaviour caused loss of concentration (84%), reduced collaboration (89%), reduced information transfer (86%), and reduced communication (89%) at the time. 63 In the Institute of Medicine report, To Err is Human, it is stated that “health care organizations [must] develop a ‘culture of safety’ such that their workforce and processes are focused on improving the comparative reliability and safety of care for patients.” 74 The TeamSTEPPS program, an initiative resulting from the report, focuses on h&m employee discount “medical teamwork … to comparative ensure that the RIGHT INFORMATION is provided to meaning the RIGHT PERSON(S) at comparative essay, the RIGHT TIME resulting in the RIGHT ACTION(S).” 75 Teamwork and communication, another essential part of professionalism, has been confirmed as a key ingredient of patient safety.

76 - 83. A lack of The Heroes professionalism in dealing with our patients may increase the risk of comparative essay litigation. In one study, mothers of infants with permanent injuries or deaths were interviewed by prufrock, telephone using a structured questionnaire and open-ended questions. Among the families who initiated lawsuits, the essay reasons they cited were physicians who “would not listen” (13%), “would not talk openly” (32%), or “attempted to mislead them” (48%). The United Is Multicultural Because. 84 Negative communication behaviour by physicians has also been shown to increase the risk of malpractice lawsuits. Comparative. 85 Patients who were left “feeling rushed”, “never receiving explanations for Analysis of My Last Duchess Laboratory tests”, or “were ignored” were more likely to file complaints against physicians. Comparative Essay. 86 Similarly, physicians with the most unsolicited patient complaints have been shown to have the most “risk management files” which possibly lead to legal action. 87. Professionalism may be defined based on rich boy rapper virtues, codified expectations and essay, conduct, or professional identity. These are broad issues; hence, to improve professionalism necessitates system-wide strategies as well as changes on an individual level.

Accordingly, the following broad categories provide a framework for improving professionalism, although admittedly, each category alone could represent a review topic. Without clear expectations, it is difficult for the united is multicultural because individual physicians or an comparative essay, organization to develop a coherent professional identity. Of My Last And The Essay. Policies, charters, codes of conduct, or declarations are some of the existing means to formalize those expectations. Many medical schools have instituted white coat ceremonies to make the commitment to comparative professionalism clear to their students. Elsewhere, institutions have implemented physician compacts that are reviewed at annual reappointments. 34. Studies have also shown that physicians whose licences are suspended by Analysis Laboratory Essay, State Medical Boards have a higher prevalence of prior unprofessional behaviour in medical schools (OR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.9 to 4.8) 88 and in residency (hazard ratio, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.3 to 2.2). Comparative. 89 This affirms the rich boy rapper imperative that medical schools must introduce professionalism with defined expectations and strategies.

In a few cases, individuals may be identified who may not benefit from continuing in the profession. Developing professionalism policies or charters often does not translate into understanding such policies or how they directly affect individuals. This is the essay “knowledge translation” aspect of professionalism policies. Also, times change and Analysis Last Duchess and The Essay, expectations evolve. For example, the convenience of storing research or patient care information on a USB drive without the capability to encrypt was relatively common, but these days, it is absolutely inappropriate. For medical students, awareness of professionalism may involve a formal curriculum, case-based learning, portfolios, and role models. Formal curricula may include delineating professional identity at critical transition points in comparative, one’s career. For physicians, this may take the form of physician engagement initiatives, individual feedback, orientation sessions, or continuing professional development venues which may or may not be mandatory.

“Physician wellness is states is multicultural, a critical component of the professional practice of essay medicine. Wellness is defined as the condition of good physical and mental health necessary to provide high quality care to patients and to fulfill the duties…” 29. The association between a lack of wellness and the united, disruptive behaviour and patient safety events has already been discussed. 69 - 72 The Ontario Medical Association has a Physician Health Program to assess at-risk physicians as well as physician wellness. Many institutions have established workplace wellness offices to comparative essay provide support and guidance to physicians. Feedback on professionalism concerns is essential. Many physicians are unaware that their behaviour may be a concern unless direct feedback is provided. The feedback may take the form of annual reappointment assessments, peer assessments, 360° evaluations, professionalism concern report forms, or other similar procedures. For feedback/awareness to be effective, a consistent and transparent process must be in place, even though the feedback itself remains confidential.

For some medical schools, teaching hospitals are affiliated institutions and the appointment and credentialling process is separate from the school. Due to privacy legislation, professionalism concerns may not necessarily be shared between a hospital and the medical school. For example, a physician who may be close to being suspended by a hospital for disruptive behaviour may be close to being promoted at the faculty of medicine, or a clinician teacher found harassing a female medical student is also harassing a female hospital employee. Physicians with professionalism concerns have also moved from one institution to another or from one province to another without the receiving institution gaining knowledge of the prior concerns. There is always a balance between privacy, a “fresh start”, and analysis, medical professionalism as a social contract with social accountability. While controversial, it is necessary to have the conversation and to find the balance to share that information. Undoubtedly, to maintain physician autonomy and comparative, self-regulation, serious professionalism concerns deserve proper redress and accountability. Many models have been developed to advance professionalism, 38 , 42 , 90 - 93 and I encourage the rich boy rapper reader to peruse the abundant literature. A staged or tiered approach to professionalism concerns has been described. 94 The CMPA, 95 the comparative essay CPSO, 33 the University of Ottawa, 96 and others have adopted a tiered approach. Us Essay. Early discussions at stages 1 and comparative essay, 2 are generally opportunities for khan formative interventions.

Measures at stage 3 tend to comparative be for meaning egregious or persistent behaviour despite formative intervention and can involve disciplinary action. “The times have changed, [conditions] of practice have altered and comparative essay, are altering rapidly, but when such a celebration takes us back to your origin in simpler days and ways, we find that the ideals which inspired them are ours to-day — ideals which are ever old, yet always fresh and prufrock, new” — William Osler 97. This submission was handled by Dr. Comparative. Hilary P. The United States Is Multicultural. Grocott, Editor-in-Chief, Canadian Journal of Anesthesia. /media/Files/Report%20Files/1999/To-Err-is-Human/To%20Err%20is%20Human%201999%20%20report%20brief.pdf (accessed June 2016). Homer Yang 1 Email authorView author's OrcID profile 1. Department of comparative essay Anesthesiology The Ottawa Hospital Ottawa Canada. Published in cooperation with. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley.

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The History of African Village Chickens: an comparative essay, Archaeological and Molecular Perspective. The history of the rich boy rapper, introduction and dispersal of village chickens across the African continent is a subject of intense debate and speculation among scholars. Here, we synthesize and summarise the current scientific genetic and comparative, nongenetic knowledge in relation to h&m employee discount the history of the species on comparative essay, the continent. Sociocultural, linguistic, archaeological and historic data all suggest a complex history for the species in Africa, characterized by multiple maritime and/or terrestrial introductions over time and several dispersal routes towards and within Africa. Molecular genetics information supports these observations and in addition suggests possible Asian centers of Us Essay origin for comparative, African domestic chickens, including South Asia and j alfred analysis, Island Southeast Asia. Essay. However, both sets of data were until now too limited in their geographic scope, both within Africa and in comparison with chickens from Asia, to unravel the history of the species in detail. We anticipate that further continent-wide studies combining archaeological, ancient and/or modern genetic information may shed new insights on the history of the species. These will contribute to a deeper understanding of the history of trading networks and human interactions within Africa and between African and Asian societies, at the root of the development and expansion of African civilizations. The online version of this article (doi: 10.1007/s10437-013-9128-1 ) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. L’histoire des introductions et des dispersions des poulets de village sur le continent africain reste un sujet fortement debattu et plein de speculations parmi les experts.

Ici, nous synthetisons et resumons nos connaissances genetiques et autres en rapport avec l’histoire de cette espece domestique sur le continent. Les evidences socio-culturelles, linguistiques, archeologiques et historiques suggerent toutes une histoire complexe de l’espece en Afrique caracterisee par de multiples introductions maritimes et/ou terrestres, ainsi que plusieurs routes de dispersions vers l’Afrique et sur le continent. J Alfred Analysis. Les informations de la genetique moleculaire supportent ces observations et en plus, elles identifient les centres possibles d’origines, lesquels incluent le Sud de l’Asie et les iles de l’Asie du Sud-Est. Cependant, toutes ces evidences sont jusqu’a presentes trop limitees au niveau geographique, au sein du continent Africain et en Asie, pour reveler en details l’histoire de l’espece. Nous anticipons que de nouvelles etudes sur une grande echelle geographique associant des informations archeologiques et genetiques (ADN ancien et moderne) pourraient apporter de nouvelles lumieres sur l’histoire de l’espece. Celles-ci contribueront a une comprehension plus profonde de l’histoire des reseaux commerciaux et des interactions entre societes africaines, ainsi ainsi qu'entre societes africaines et asiatiques. Interactions qui sont a la base du developpement et de l’expansion des civilisations africaines. Domestic chickens are closely associated with humans, and comparative essay, they rely entirely upon humans for the united states because, their dispersal and indirectly for comparative essay, their survival. States. The species are therefore important biological markers of agricultural, trade and cultural contacts between societies and comparative essay, civilizations. They are present across the African continent where free-range, scavenging village chickens are found in all agroecological zones, ranging from Analysis of My Last Duchess and The Laboratory Essay villages in the humid and comparative, subhumid tropical rain forests of West and Central Africa to h&m employee discount the temperate highlands of East Africa and the arid and semi-arid regions of the Sahel and Kalahari deserts ( ; DAGRIS 2007 ). With an essay, estimated total population of 1.6 billion at the end of in xanadu khan meaning 2010 (FAOSTAT 2012 ), they are the most abundant livestock species in Africa, contributing to comparative a significant part of the continent's agricultural economy.

Although the African continent is rich in galliform species, the recognized main wild ancestor of domestic chickens, the khan meaning, red junglefowl Gallus gallus , is endemic to sub-Himalayan northern India, southern China and Southeast Asia (Delacour 1977 ), where the putative centers of domestication of the species are present (Tixier-Boichard et al . 2011 ). Therefore, domestic chickens, though abundant on the continent, are an introduced species from essay Asia. Whether or not the because, species was domesticated in a single geographic area in Southeast Asia (Fumihito et al . 1994 , 1996 ) or across the geographic range of the wild ancestor in both South and essay, Southeast Asia (Liu et al . 2006 , Kanginakudru et al . Rich Boy Rapper. 2008 ) is still disputed today. Opinions among scholars are divided concerning when the essay, species arrived and the routes by rich boy rapper which chickens entered and dispersed across the continent (Gifford-Gonzalez and Hanotte 2011 ). Archaeological data are patchy (Fuller et al . 2011 ) while molecular genetic information is just starting to emerge (Gifford-Gonzalez and Hanotte 2011 ). In this paper, we review the information available today (sociocultural, linguistic, archaeological and comparative, molecular genetic) on the arrival and movement of h&m employee chickens across the African continent, providing a proxy for our understanding of comparative ancient and The Heroes Among Us Essay, modern human interactions and migrations, including trading routes within Africa and essay, between the African continent and civilizations across Asia. Sociocultural and Duchess and The Laboratory Essay, Linguistic Evidence. Published dates and evidence for the occurrence of domestic chickens across Africa. Horton and Mudida ( 1993 ) Archaeological remains a.

Archaeological remains a. Tomb of Iretirou/Yeturow at Nuri, North Sudan. Boessneck and Von den Driesch ( 1982 ); Boessneck ( 1986 ); Katzmann ( 1990 ) MacDonald and Edwards ( 1993 ) MacDonald and Edwards ( 1993 ) MacDonald and Edwards ( 1993 ) MacDonald and Edwards ( 1993 ) Tomb of Ramesses IX. Houlihan and Goodman ( 1986 ) Textual/graphic/pictorial representation (earliest) Carter ( 1923 ); Houlihan and comparative, Goodman ( 1986 ) Tomb of Petosiris. Annals of King Thutmose III at Karnak.

Third Dynasty of Ur. Houlihan and Goodman ( 1986 ) Houlihan and Goodman ( 1986 ) Tomb of Petosiris at The Heroes Us Essay, Tuna el-Gebel. Houlihan and Goodman ( 1986 ) c. 323–316 BC or later. Houlihan and Goodman ( 1986 ) Archaeological remains a. Ibn Battuta (Lewicki 1974 ; Levtzion and Hopkins 1981 ) Literary evidence (first) Manning and MacDonald ( 2005 ) Rivallain and van Neer ( 1983 ) Archaeological remains a. Shinnie and Kense ( 1989 ) Oursi, Saouga, Kissi.

The initial trigger for the adoption of domestic chickens by comparative essay African communities could have been sociocultural and/or recreational ( e . g ., cockfighting) rather than as a new source of food. Textual records indicate that chickens were already present in Egypt by the time of the Third Dynasty of Ur ( c. 2,113–2,006 BC), and the oldest recognizable occurrence of the bird in art dates from the second half of the fourteenth century BC (Haller 1954 ; Smith 1965 ). Houlihan and Goodman ( 1986 ) suggest, however, that the states because, first evidence for its consumption comes from the tomb of Petosiris, which dates to the fourth century BC, though this suggestion has been challenged by MacDonald and Edwards ( 1993 ). Houlihan and Goodman ( 1986 ) further suggest that chickens were probably brought to Egypt as creatures of comparative curiosity and admiration because of their unusualness and in xanadu did kubla khan, that they did not become a regular feature of the Egyptian farmyard until the Ptolemaic period (304–330 BC). Comparative Essay. Domestic chickens could have been introduced to the African continent several times, fulfilling different societal needs at different time periods. Linguistic evidence not only supports a deep embedding of chickens in African cultures and traditions, but also agrees with an early introduction and a complex history of arrival and dispersion of the rich boy rapper, species. Comparative. More particularly, Williamson ( 2000 ) suggests that different geographic distributions, and spread of the three major roots of the word “fowl” across three language phyla, represent at least three separate introductions of domestic chickens to h&m employee discount West Africa: two across Central Africa from the East Coast of Africa and one from comparative North Africa across the Sahara. Blench ( 2008 ) noted that the origin of the common Malagasy name for chicken, akoho , cannot be assigned definitively to a Bantu or Austronesian language group. H&m Employee. Rather, from his analysis, he concludes that all the terminologies relating to domestic animals in Madagascar appear to be derived from languages of the Swahili, with the Comoros Islands being a possible original source of chickens found in comparative, Madagascar. Archaeological and Historic Evidence. Summary of archaeological dates for the presence of chicken in different regions across the African continent.

The fourth to third millennia BC have been advanced as the h&m employee discount, period for essay, the first arrival of domestic chickens in Africa (Chami 2001 , 2007 ). However, these dates have been disputed as the osteological remains used in their calibration are nondiagnostic according to the recommended criteria (MacDonald 1992 ; Dueppen 2011 ). In North Africa, domestic chickens are depicted in Egypt from the second millennium BC (Houlihan and Analysis Duchess Essay, Goodman 1986 ). In sub-Saharan Africa, the earliest widely accepted evidence of domestic chickens dates to the mid-first millennium AD in Nubia and the late first millennium AD in East and South Africa ( e . g ., Horton and Mudida, 1993 ; Plug 1996a , b ). In West Africa, several sites attest to the presence of chickens in the late first millennium AD (Table 1 ). Essay. More particularly, while in the Voltaic region evidence for chickens is scarce, researchers working at Daboya (Ghana) have suggested the presence of chickens throughout the h&m employee discount, first millennium AD (Shinnie and Kense 1989 ). Comparative. Until recently, the oldest known, securely identified remains in the western part of the continent were dated to AD 500–850 from Jenne-Jeno in Mali (MacDonald 1995b ). Prufrock. New evidence from Kirikongo (Burkina Faso) and Daboya indicates that chickens were already a significant component of the Iron Age economy in West Africa by the sixth century AD at the latest and probably several centuries earlier (Dueppen 2011 ) (Fig. Comparative Essay. 1 ). Using geographic distribution and dating of the purportedly most ancient, undisputed archaeological evidence in the form of j alfred prufrock analysis skeletal remains ( c. 1,567–1,320 BC), pictorial/artistic representations ( c. Comparative Essay. 1,425–1,123 BC) and literary evidence ( c. 1,504–1,450 BC), a commonly held argument is that chickens may have first entered Africa overland through the North of Africa (Egypt), with subsequent dispersion southwards along the Nile valley to discount Nubia and then in comparative, West Africa along the Sudano-Sahelian corridor (MacDonald and j alfred analysis, Edwards 1993 ; Fuller et al . 2011 ). Coltherd ( 1966 ) argues that this introduction brought chickens from the Harappan culture of the Indus Valley civilization ( c. 2,500–2,100 BC) into Egypt via Mesopotamia. Essay. In addition to the Nile corridor, MacDonald and Edwards ( 1993 ) further suggest an independent diffusion of chickens into West Africa through the Sudano-Sahelian belt from the East African coast occurring much later, perhaps related to Indian Ocean trade networks. However, increasing evidence for in xanadu khan, greater antiquity than previously thought for the Indian Ocean trading network, based largely on the presence of comparative Asian plant domesticates in in xanadu did kubla, Africa and essay, of African domesticated plants in South and Southeast Asia, support an The Heroes Among, early possible entry point of domestic species along the East African coast (Fuller et al . 2011 ). These findings challenge the presumption of North African anteriority for the origin of comparative sub-Saharan African chickens. A component of this early maritime trading network has been described in some detail in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea from the early first century AD (Casson 1989 ; Cappers 2006 ). That work mentioned African port centres along the coast of Somalia, Tanzania or even possibly Madagascar (Casson 1989 ; Cappers 2006 ). In Xanadu Did Kubla Khan. Chami ( 1999 ) has also reported evidence confirming the comparative essay, great antiquity of trading networks in the Indian Ocean interaction sphere, lending support to did kubla khan meaning the observations of the Periplus . As summarised in Blench ( 2010 ), it is likely that there were regular contacts between Island Southeast Asia and essay, the East African coast prior to the first centuries AD, independent from the establishment of Austronesians in Madagascar around the fifth century AD (Blench 2010 ). Lastly, the inclusion of in xanadu khan East Africa into a maritime trading network extending eastward to comparative essay Southwestern China is illustrated by in xanadu did kubla khan meaning the visit of Chinese fleets under the command of Cheng Ho off the coast of East Africa, although at a much more recent date, the beginning of the fifteenth century AD (Duyvendak 1939 ). Undoubtedly, the complex and ancient interactions resulting from the Indian Ocean trading networks must have facilitated maritime and terrestrial intercontinental translocations of comparative several domestic and nondomestic plant and animal species among Africa, the Middle East and South, Southeast and East Asia (Boivin and Fuller 2009 ; Fuller and Boivin 2009 ; Fuller et al . J Alfred Analysis. 2011 ). It would not be surprising that domestic chickens would have been an intrinsic part of these translocation packages in historic times and possibly much earlier than the introductions via the north of the comparative essay, continent. The arrival of European settlers as part of the development of the terrestrial and maritime empires of several European nations across Africa and Asia (Portugal, Britain, etc .) from the fifteenth century AD onwards provided further opportunities for in xanadu did kubla khan, the arrival and comparative, movement of chickens within Africa.

Also, since the second half of the twentieth century, the African continent, as other parts of the The Heroes Us Essay, world, has witnessed the arrival of comparative exotic chicken breeds developed for higher productivity (Kitalyi 1997 ), including for crossbreeding purposes with local flocks to improve meat and egg production. These developments might have had an impact on the genetic make-up of some African village chicken populations. Microsatellite studies on indigenous African chicken populations. Number of birds per Us Essay population. Number of microsatellite loci. Overlapping markers with FAO/ISAG f. Kingdom of Morocco.

a Jimma, Debre Berhan. b Tilili, Horro, Chefe, Jarso, Tepi. c South Gondar, Awi, West and East Gojam. d North-Mekele, Gonder-Zuria, Haremaya, Dodota, Arbaminch-Zuria. e Konso, Sheka, Horro, Mandura, Farta. f Location of the sampling within the country unknown. Mitochondrial DNA studies on essay, ondigenous African chicken populations.

Number of samples. Haplogroup frequency (%) a. a Nomenclature according to Mwacharo et al . ( 2011 ) b Field populations only. c Observed in The Heroes Us Essay, a single bird. d Observed in two birds. The genetic diversity and relationships between chicken populations from several African countries have now been investigated using autosomal microsatellite markers (Table 2 ). The studies have included chicken populations from Tanzania, Nigeria and Cameroon (Wimmers et al . Comparative Essay. 2000 ); Kenya and East Africa (Sudan, Ethiopia, Uganda) (Mwacharo et al . 2007 ); Zimbabwe, Malawi and rich boy rapper, Sudan (Muchadeyi et al . Comparative. 2007 ); Ethiopia (Dessie 2007 ; Hassan et al . 2009 ; Dana 2011 ; Goraga et al . 2011 ); South Africa (Mtileni et al. 2010 ); Benin (Youssao et al . 2010 ); Ghana (Osei-Amponsah et al.

2010 ); Egypt (Eltanany et al. 2011 ); and Benin, Cote dIvoire, Ghana, Morocco and Cameroon (Leroy et al. 2012 ). Although the j alfred analysis, markers used in comparative, these studies overlap to a large extent, with the recommended set of ISAG–FAO microsatellite markers (FAO 2011 ), no common samples or populations have been used across studies, and this constrains continent-wide analysis. However, a few important general findings are emerging. African indigenous chickens are closely related genetically but are clearly distinct from commercial breeds (Mwacharo et al. 2007 ; Leroy et al. J Alfred Prufrock. 2012 ). Their genetic diversities are roughly comparable across studies/populations and comparative essay, correspond to the values usually observed in other free-range scavenging chicken populations worldwide, but they are much higher than those observed in commercial breeds ( e.g. , Wimmers et al. 2000 ; Osei-Amponsah et al. 2010 ; Leroy et al.

2012 ). This diversity may indicate a higher effective population size for introduced African village chickens compared to commercial chickens, and/or ancient population admixture following multiple introductions. Of My Last And The Laboratory Essay. Genetic divergence between chicken populations is generally weak ( e.g. , Osei-Amponsah et al. 2010 ; Youssao et al. 2010 ), and comparative, it seems to reflect geographic distances between populations (see Mwacharo et al. 2007 ). However, Goraga et al . ( 2011 ) report genetic distinctions between groups of chicken populations from Ethiopia and Mwacharo et al . ( 2007 ) genetic distinctions between Kenyan - Ugandese and Ethiopian - Sudanese populations.

Also, Leroy et al. ( 2012 ) report greater similarity of genetic structure between chicken populations living in the same major farming systems across West African countries than between farming systems within countries. These observations are compatible with a history of multiple introductions of different genetic pools of the species into the regions, chicken movement along specific trading routes, and/or long-term geographic isolation of these populations. Evidence of genetic introgression between commercial and local populations has recently been demonstrated using microsatellites for rich boy rapper, populations from comparative Morocco and Cameroon, but not for The Heroes Among, populations from Benin, Ghana and Cote d’Ivoire (Leroy et al. Comparative. 2012 ). Such introgression could be related to the long-term breeding improvement programmes that involve the supply of commercial breeds to local farmers for crossbreeding purposes. However, the impact of such introgressions is limited, possibly due to poor adaptation of states is multicultural exotic birds to comparative essay village conditions and the preference of consumers for local chickens. Only a few molecular genetics studies have now been published on African chickens using maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) (Razafindraibe et al.

2008 ; Adebambo et al. 2010 ; Muchadeyi et al. States. 2008 ; Mtileni et al. 2011 ; Mwacharo et al. 2011 ) (Table 3 ). Fortunately, these studies have all analysed a hypervariable region of the molecule, the D-loop, which allows comparison across studies. Essay. Unfortunately, there is no standardized nomenclature for the chicken mtDNA haplogroups identified across the African studies. So far, the largest study is the one by Mwacharo et al. ( 2011 ). It includes mtDNA sequences from 512 domestic chickens from khan meaning four East African countries (Kenya, Ethiopia, Sudan and Uganda). For the sake of comparison, we have therefore adopted the nomenclature of Mwacharo et al . Comparative Essay. ( 2011 ) (Table 3 ), with its equivalence in other African studies as well as in the reference broad-scale Eurasian study of Liu et al . ( 2006 ) presented in supplementary Table S 1 . While we observe on the African continent five of the nine divergent haplogroups identified across Europe and Asia by Liu et al . ( 2006 ), two haplogroups, A and D, dominate the states is multicultural, continent (Table 3 ). Haplogroup D clearly is found in all the African countries studied and is the most common in all countries with the exception of Madagascar, Zimbabwe and eastern Kenya. It is the essay, only haplogroup so far identified in West Africa, represented there by Nigeria (Adebambo et al. 2010 ). The United Is Multicultural Because. The next commonest haplogroup is A, which is absent from Uganda, Sudan, Nigeria and essay, Ethiopia but is the commonest in Madagascar, Malawi, Zimbabwe and h&m employee, eastern Kenya. The other haplogroups are observed at very low frequencies in all studies, being present in only one or two birds.

Through a detailed analysis of the geographic distribution of comparative essay haplogroup A and D across East Africa, Mwacharo et al. ( 2011 ) have provided evidence revealing that these two haplogroup likely have a different history on the continent. It has been proposed that African haplogroup A originates from Southeast and/or East Asia (Muchadeyi et al. 2008 ; Mtileni et al. 2011 ; Mwacharo et al. 2011 ) and that it would have been the result of a maritime introduction along the East African coastline (Mwacharo et al. 2011 ) including Madagascar (Razafindraibe et al. 2008 ). Following the known history of the peopling of Madagascar, Razafindraibe et al. Us Essay. ( 2008 ) have suggested that its origin might be the Indonesian islands. It is essay therefore possible that haplogroup A would be a legacy of the Austronesian expansion in Africa. However, so far, no studies have attempted to address the relationship between African haplogroup A and the haplogroups observed in local chickens from the Indonesian islands. Using phylogeographic information on the modern geographic distribution across Europe and Asia (Liu et al. J Alfred Prufrock. 2006 ), the Indian subcontinent has been proposed as the initial center of origin for the haplogroup D found in essay, Africa (Muchadeyi et al.

2008 ; Mtileni et al. 2011 ; Mwacharo et al. Did Kubla. 2011 ). Interestingly, a possible Indian subcontinent origin of some African chickens is further supported by the commonly observed yellow skin phenotype across African village chickens ( e.g. , FAO 2009 ; Dana et al. Essay. 2010a ; Youssao et al. The Heroes. 2010 ; Daikwo et al. 2011 ; Melesse and comparative, Negesse 2011 ; El-Safty 2012 ). This phenotype has recently been shown at Among, the molecular level to essay be a legacy of successful introgression of the grey junglefowl Gallus sonneratii , a yet-to-be-domesticated Gallus species with restricted geographic range on the Indian subcontinent, into Analysis of My Duchess Laboratory Essay, domestic chicken (Eriksson et al.

2008 ). However, whether or not these “crossbred” chickens of comparative Indian origin reached the African continent through a maritime and/or terrestrial route remains unknown. The possible center(s) of origin for chickens harbouring the mitochondrial DNA of haplogroups B, C and discount, E, observed so far at low frequencies on essay, the African continent (Table 3 ), is more speculative. Haplogroup B and analysis, C may have reached Africa following recent introductions of improved commercial chickens (Mwacharo et al. 2011 ). Essay. This suggestion is supported by the presence of identical or closely related haplotypes belonging to these haplogroups in European and Analysis Last Duchess Laboratory, commercial chickens (Muchadeyi et al. 2008 ; Dana et al. 2010b ). Essay. Using microsatellite markers, Leroy et al. ( 2012 ) also demonstrated gene flow between commercial and h&m employee, local chickens in some sub-Saharan African countries. Essay. However, a more ancient and direct introduction of these two haplogroups from their centers of the united states origins in comparative essay, Asia also remains possible. More data are required to further clarify the origin(s) of the united is multicultural these two haplogroups on the African continent. Haplogroup E is comparative not observed in Duchess Essay, commercial chickens (Muchadeyi et al. 2008 ; Dana et al.

2010b ). Comparative Essay. Both Muchadeyi et al. ( 2008 ) and Mwacharo et al. ( 2011 ), using the study of Liu et al. ( 2006 ) as a reference, have proposed that the center of origin of haplogroup E might be South China and, more particularly, the Yunnan province and/or adjacent geographic regions such as Myanmar (Mwacharo et al. 2011 ). The routes of introduction of h&m employee this haplogroup into the African continent remain unknown, but its worldwide geographic distribution today (Liu et al. 2006 ) suggests that it was likely the consequence of a maritime introduction to the African continent. It raises the interesting hypothesis that its arrival might have followed the Chinese maritime trading expeditions across the Indian Ocean (Duyvendak 1939 ; Beaujard 2005 ; Mwacharo et al. 2011 ). Sociocultural, linguistic, archaeological, historic and molecular genetic evidence are all in agreement in revealing a complex history of domestic chickens on the African continent, which may include multiple origins from the geographic range of the wild ancestor in Asia, multiple entry points and multiple routes of dispersion. Archaeological data support a relatively ancient presence of this domesticate in essay, Africa, although several thousand years more recent than the earliest evidence of domesticated ruminants on The Heroes Among, the continent (Gifford-Gonzalez and Hanotte 2011 ). Terrestrial as well as maritime introductions likely brought chickens to Africa. However, our knowledge of the history of African village chickens is still in its infancy with several important unknowns. We still do not know when domestic chickens were first adopted by African societies and for comparative essay, what purposes.

We have, so far, little information on h&m employee discount, the likely number of waves that brought chickens into the continent and their time sequence. Also, the essay, terrestrial and h&m employee discount, maritime dispersal routes of domestic chickens from their centers of origin in Asia to Africa remain largely speculative. Comparative Essay. Last but not least, our knowledge of the putative entry points and movements of chickens within the African continent is similarly incomplete. We believe that the answers to these questions will rely on new archaeological and genetic information generated from inside and Analysis Last Laboratory Essay, outside the African continent, with the most promising studies combining calibrated dating of archaeological bones, ancient DNA sequence information and joint analysis of archaeological and molecular genetic diversity data across Africa, Europe and Asia. Comparative Essay. New genetic marker analysis (autosomal markers, full genome and mitochondrial DNA sequences) will undoubtedly provide further information, as has now been illustrated for in xanadu, other African livestock species ( e.g. Essay. , cattle; see Gifford-Gonzalez and Hanotte 2011 ). In this context, it is important to take note of the fact that we do have at best incomplete molecular genetic information on the modern genetic diversity of indigenous chickens from the Arabian Peninsula, the Middle and the Near East, most of the Indian subcontinent, and Last Duchess and The Essay, large geographic areas in mainland and comparative essay, island Southeast Asia ( e.g. , Laos, Cambodia, the Philippines, Indonesia). Also, within the African continent, information on the genetic diversity of indigenous chickens is still too fragmentary to in xanadu did kubla meaning allow a comprehensive genetic analysis throughout the comparative, continent. The United States. Lastly, as reviewed in detail by others (Blench 2003 ; Boivin and comparative, Fuller 2009 ; Fuller and Boivin 2009 ; Fuller et al. 2011 ), chickens were only one of the prufrock, agricultural species being voluntarily traded between Africa and Asia.

Combining different lines of information from other agricultural and comparative, nonagricultural organisms that may have travelled as companion species will likely provide new insights and hypotheses about the history of African domestic village chickens. We would like to thank Diane Gifford-Gonzalez as well as two anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments on an earlier version of in xanadu did kubla this manuscript. This article was produced as part of ongoing research aiming to essay better understand and characterize the unique animal genetic resources of the African continent. The research activity is Analysis Laboratory supported by comparative multilateral donor agencies to in xanadu did kubla the International Livestock Research Institute and BBSRC-UK (Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council—UK) funding (BB/H009051/1) to the corresponding authors. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits any use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and the source are credited. J. M. Comparative Essay. Mwacharo 1 Email author G. Bjornstad 2 3 J. L. Han 2 4 O. Hanotte 2 1 Email author 1. Centre for Genetics and Genomics, School of Biology University of Nottingham Nottingham UK 2. International Livestock Research Institute Nairobi Kenya 3. Department of Archaeology, Conservation and History University of Oslo Oslo Norway 4. CAAS-ILRI Joint Laboratory on Livestock and Forage Genetic Resources, Institute of Animal Science Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS) Beijing China.

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Albert Bandura - Social Cognitive Theory. By: Tommy • Research Paper • 2,757 Words • April 27, 2010 • 522 Views. Albert Bandura - Social Cognitive Theory. Essay. Origins of Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory 5. Explantion of Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory 6. H&m Employee. Applications of Bandura's Theory Social Cognitive Theory 9. Albert Bandura has been one of the most productive and influential psychologists of modern times. Beginning with his social learning theory in 1977 and refining it to introduce social cognitive theory in 1986, Bandura has had a major influence on modern psychology. Not stopping there, Bandura then applied his theory to everything from psychotherapy to essay television violence to the impact of the mass media. The range of applications of the theory is a reflection of how central it is to the human experience. Bandura focuses on how we learn, how we think and discount, how the combination of these and the environment impacts on behavior. This has also resulted in comparative, the theory being applied to many other areas and merging into various other ideas on the human experience.

To consider the theories and the impact Bandura has had, his contributions are looked at in more detail in this paper. This begins with an overview of the discount, origins of social cognitive theory, placing the theory in its proper context. This is followed with an explanation of the theory, including the comparative, major ideas presented in it. Finally, the applications of the The Heroes Among Us Essay, theory are presented to show the importance of the comparative essay, theory in the study of psychology and in Duchess and The Essay, the difficult process of trying to understand human behavior. Albert Bandura has been one of the most productive and one of the most influential psychologists of modern times. Beginning with his social learning theory in 1977, and refining it to introduce social cognitive theory in 1986, Bandura has had a major influence on modern psychology. Not stopping there, Bandura has then applied his theory to everything from essay, psychotherapy to in xanadu did kubla meaning television violence to the impact of the mass media.

The range of applications of the theory is a reflection of how central it is to the human experience. Bandura focuses on how we learn, how we think, and how the combination of these and the environment impacts on behavior. This has also resulted in the theory being applied to essay many other areas and merging into various other ideas on the human experience. Discount. To consider the theories and the impact Bandura has had, his contributions will now be looked at in more detail. This will begin with an comparative essay, overview of the origins of social cognitive theory, placing the theory in its proper context. This will be followed with an explanation of the Analysis Duchess Laboratory Essay, theory, including the major ideas presented in it. Finally, the applications of the theory will be presented to show the importance of the theory in essay, the study of psychology and in the difficult process of trying to understand human behavior. Discount. Origins of Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory. A full explanation of Bandura’s theory first requires a consideration of essay where it emerged from.

This explanation begins in 1913 with the introduction of the approach to understanding human actions known as behaviorism. The Heroes Among Us Essay. John B. Watson, also known as the comparative, father of j alfred behaviorism, introduced the approach when he argued that human behavior could be explained by environmental pressures. Comparative. The major factor of this approach that turned it into a new category of psychological thinking was that it was based on observable behaviors. As one text describes, “adherents to the behavioral perspective believe that psychology should focus only on observable behaviors and their relationships to events that can be objectively measured” (Seamon Kenrick, 1994, p. 10). This includes that inner processes are rejected as part of the study of psychology. This does not mean that behavioral psychologists believe that inner processes are not occurring. Instead, it simply means that while they may be occurring, they are not an Analysis of My Last, effective way to study psychology since inner processes cannot be objectively measured.

Without inner processes as part of the study of psychology, behaviorism concentrated on the area of learning behavior. This involved considering how actions and the results of comparative essay those actions impacted on the future behaviors of individuals. Social learning theory then emerged as a subset of the behavioral approach. This approach remained focused on observable behaviors, but it also added a cognitive component. Application of Social Psychological Theories to the Problem of Forgiveness. Application of Social Psychological Theories to the problem of Forgiveness Forgiveness has been considered as primarily a religious concept till about 1985 when there has.

The Trait Theory and the Social Cognitive Theory. The Trait Theory and the Social - Cognitive Theory differ in several ways. The Trait Theory suggests that people are who they are born with certain. Social Learning Theory of Albert Bandura. SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY of Albert Bandura If you've taken an introductory course in economics, you're already familiar with the policy planner's dilemma of Among deciding whether. Comparative. Ted Bundy: A Personality Comparison with the Theories Od Rollo May and of My Last Duchess and The, Albert Bandura. Ted Bundy 2 Ted Bundy: A Personality Comparison With The Theories Of Rollo May and Albert Bandura The objective of this case study is to.

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Essay: English language teachers’ perceptions of an activity to elicit beliefs. In this small-scale study six English teachers working at comparative essay a Turkish private middle school elicited their own teacher beliefs using an adapted version of a repertory grid as proposed by Donaghue (2003). Among. The repertory grid was introduced and used in a session in which the participants individually generated their constructs and compared them with another teacher. The participants were asked to write an essay evaluation of the activity as an instrument to meaning elicit beliefs. Furthermore a semi-structured interview was conducted which aimed to detect the participant’s perceptions of the activity and to essay shed further light on is multicultural because the value of comparative essay this instrument.

Conclusions about the applicability of the repertory grid technique and, in particular, the instrument used in this study in second language teacher education and teacher development are drawn. Key words: Teacher beliefs, ELT, Elicitation Technique, Teacher Education, Professional Development. It is widely accepted that people’s beliefs have an impact on their behaviour. Thought and action are interactively related: ‘What people think, believe, and feel affects how they behave’ (Bandura, 1986, p. 25). Reviewing the relevant literature, Gabillon (2012) has recently explicated the of nature foreign language teacher beliefs and their influence on teaching practice in a set of five dichotomies: (1) teacher beliefs are personal as they represent an individual understanding and interpretation of teaching practice and social, as the understanding and interpretation is shaped in a social and cultural context; (2) teacher beliefs are practical and rich boy rapper, theoretical in comparative essay a way that theoretical knowledge (e.g. teaching methods or learning theories) is interpreted and modified in the light of practical knowledge (i.e. experienced knowledge) to fit it to j alfred analysis teacher beliefs; (3) there are teacher beliefs that are implicit, i.e. unconscious and difficult to verbalise, and those ones being explicit, i.e. Comparative Essay. teachers are able to verbalize them, to provide a rationale and to relate them to previous experience (professional or life experience); (4) teacher beliefs are dynamic, i.e. open to change; however, it is uncontested that teacher beliefs are not easily changed and deep-rooted key beliefs or core beliefs might be resistant; (5) teacher beliefs are systematic, i.e. there are belief factors that are organised around themes rather systematically so that practice is linked to Among the belief system, while other belief factors are complex organised and indeed contain conflicting perceptions which cause a mismatch between beliefs and practice. Borg (2006; 2003) has coined the term teacher cognition referring to the ‘unobservable cognitive dimension of teaching ‘ what teachers know, believe and think’ (ibid, p. 81). As such, teacher cognition plays an comparative essential role in the practice of teaching and teacher education. It is shaped by schooling (the teacher’s experience gained when she was a pupil/student) and The Heroes Us Essay, professional coursework (the teacher’s experience gained in teacher education programs). Furthermore, teacher cognition is in essay dependence to contextual factors (physical conditions, material, curriculum etc. faced in the institutional context the teacher is employed in), and own classroom practice (which shapes cognition unconsciously, or consciously through reflection). Teacher cognition stands in an interactional relation to teacher learning and rich boy rapper, practice as it both informs them and essay, is informed through them.

It is important to uncover teachers’ beliefs in order to initiate reflection on own teaching and, consequently, to facilitate professional development. When teacher beliefs remain undetected or are ignored, teacher training and h&m employee, professional development programs are likely to be ineffective because input (e.g. new approaches or techniques) cannot be connected to comparative essay existing teacher beliefs; consequently, new content is unlikely to be transferred into Among classroom practice (Freeman, 2002; V??lez-Rend??n, 2002). Uncovering beliefs and assumptions is, however, difficult since they might be subconscious or it might be challenging to articulate them (Donaghue, 2003). Furthermore teacher beliefs might consist of espoused theories which are in contrast to theories in action (Williams Burden, 1997). Among other instruments, the use of comparative belief inventories (e.g. Richards Lockhart, 1996, pp. 48-51) or awareness raising activities (e.g. Analysis. Taggart Wilson, 2005; Roberts, 1998; Wallace, 1991) have been suggested to explore teacher beliefs. Donaghue (2003) has introduced an adapted version of the repertory grid technique to elicit teacher beliefs and essay, assumptions (see Appendix A).

Instead of using given constructs (as in questionnaires), in discount repertory grids participants develop and comparative essay, articulate their own, personal constructs. The instrument developed by h&m employee, Donaghue is loosely based on Kelly’s (1991) theory of personal construct, according to which an individual makes sense of the world by comparative essay, generating constructs which shape an individual’s personal theory. Constructs are viewed as ‘dichotomous abstractions’ (ibid., p. 75), i.e. individuals perceive elements of their experience in such a way that they ‘never affirm anything without simultaneously denying something’ (Fransella, Bell Bannister, 2004, p.7). For example, an h&m employee effective teacher might be considered as someone who motivates students, while an ineffective teacher might be considered to be teaching without motivating students (example taken from Roberts, 1998, p. Comparative Essay. 31). Accordingly, in the repertory grid activity proposed by Donaghue (2003) the participants are asked to compare three different people and to affirm a construct in which two persons are alike, and the third is different.

The adapted version of the did kubla meaning repertory grid was developed as an instrument to be used as an awareness-raising activity at the beginning of courses in teacher training or professional development. It aims at informing participants about essay, their (often covert) beliefs and analysis, assumptions about language teaching. Differently from other repertory grids it does not contain a scale through which participants indicate how near a construct is comparative essay related to an element. For this reason, conclusion from results of the instrument must be drawn with caution. It is rather ‘a catalyst to rich boy rapper thought and essay, reflection’ (Donaghue, 2003, p. 350) than a research tool to gain generalisable results. Consequently, this study is concerned with the the united states because applicability of the instruments and not with the gained beliefs themselves.

The study sought to find out how the adapted repertory grid by Donaghue (2003) was perceived as an instrument to elicit teacher beliefs by six teachers at a Turkish middle school. For this reason, the participants were asked to evaluate the instrument and comparative, it was intended to find out to what dimensions of teacher cognition the participants related their own beliefs to. It was assumed that the participants’ comments might be understood as an indicator for evaluating in how far the instrument is h&m employee capable of initiating reflective thinking. Comparative Essay. No less importantly, the participants’ perceptions might contribute to developing the instrument. Following these considerations the study sought to answer the following questions: 1. How do the participants evaluate the elicitation technique used in rich boy rapper this study? 2. How do the participants perceive the elicitation technique for their professional development? The participants in this study were six teachers at a private middle school in a southeastern city in Turkey. The pupils attending the school come from families belonging to the middle and upper middle class. Comparative Essay. In order to get some background information, the participants were asked to The Heroes Among Us Essay fill in repertory grid evaluation form (Appendix B), which requested besides an evaluation of the comparative activity some biographical information.

Background of the Participants in the Study. Participant Sex Age Qualification Teaching experience. 1 female 33 bachelor 11 years. 2 male 45 bachelor 17 years. 3 female 27 bachelor 4 years. 4 female 29 bachelor 7 years.

5 female 29 bachelor 4 years. 6 male 32 bachelor 6 years. Table 1 shows that all participants have a bachelor’s degree in ELT and vary in in xanadu khan meaning teaching experience as evidenced by the years of teaching. Participants 1, 3 and 5 have had exclusively worked at private schools while participant 4 had worked at a private teaching institution (dershane) for five years and participant 6 at a public school for three years before they started their current job at the private school. Participant 2 is of Syrian nationality. He had worked at state schools abroad (e.g. Kuwait), and has been working at the private school for two years.

Data Collection Procedures and Tools. The participants were invited to comparative a session in which the activity was carried out. The activity procedure followed these steps (cf. Donaghue, 2003, p. 347f.): 1. States Is Multicultural. The researcher introduces the aim of the essay study and explains all steps. He also introduces the repertory grid activity and khan, explains the concept of personal constructs. 2. Participants are divided into pairs. Each pair receives one set of cards containing the elements of the grid (cf.

Appendix A). They think of comparative a real person that matches the element best. Participant A writes the j alfred prufrock analysis name of the person at the top of the card, participant B writes it at the bottom. For confidentiality, the participants are allowed to comparative essay write a pseudonym if the The Heroes Among partner knows the person. An example is comparative essay given in Figure 1. A teacher you learned well with. Figure 1. Card used in rich boy rapper repertory grid activity (sample) 3. Cards are shuffled. Comparative. Each participant is given a grid (Appendix A). Pairs choose three cards at random, and individually think how two persons are similar and one is different writing their personal constructs in the ‘construct’ column. Participants put a tick to the elements that are the same and the united states because, a cross to the one that is different.

4. Pairs compare their constructs and discuss. 5. Pairs return the cards, shuffle them and repeat steps 3 and 4 (Donaghue, 2003, suggests 6 turns). Repertory Grid Evaluation. At the comparative essay end of the session, the participants were asked to evaluate the repertory grid by completing the Repertory Grid Evaluation Form (see Appendix B). Each participant was interviewed separately. The aim of the prufrock analysis semi-structured interview was to find out comparative essay, if the repertory grid activity had initiated a reflective process in each of the participants.

For this purpose, the participants were invited to comment on their beliefs (see questions in Appendix C). The interviews were hold in English and audio-recorded. The interviews were then transcribed to prepare them for the data analysis. During the repertory grid activity the researcher took field notes in order to document how the participants responded to the activity. Four types of data were collected during the study: the khan meaning repertory grids, the field notes, the repertory grid evaluation and the transcription of the semi-structured interview. Comparative. The repertory grids were not analysed in order to detect the participants’ beliefs; it was not assumed that they were valid tools to h&m employee research the participants’ teacher beliefs (cf. the related remarks in the introduction of this paper). The data gained from the other data collection tools were analysed through content analysis in order to answer the research questions. For this purpose, coding categories were established after initial coding (Saldana, 2009). The coding categories were attributed to essay six themes: repertory grid evaluation, schooling, professional coursework, contextual factors, classroom practice and suggestions. This section is in xanadu did kubla meaning organised as follows: It starts with the comparative participants’ general evaluation of the repertory grid activity using data both from the repertory grid evaluation form and the interview as there were overlaps in of My Last Duchess and The Laboratory the data coming from both collection tools. Then, it is reported how the essay teachers related the activity to their learning experience (schooling and professional coursework) as well as past and in xanadu khan, current contexts and classroom practices.

The participants’ views on how to use the elicited beliefs and suggestions on how to develop the instrument conclude this section. How did the participants evaluate the repertory grid activity in general? All the participants gave positive comments on the activity in essay the repertory grid evaluation form, and these perceptions were repeated and accentuated in the interviews. The evaluations can be summarised under three categories: its usefulness as an elicitation tool, its (potential) value as part of professional development, and its quality as an enjoyable activity. The activity as an Elicitation Tool. The participants regarded the tool as a powerful instrument to elicit beliefs as the Among elicitation process is based on real people the participants are familiar with. Participant 1, for example, stated that she was not aware of the importance of social skills for teaching before the activity: I didn’t think about some of the comparative qualities of my teachers, my colleagues (…) I didn’t think that my colleagues are cheerful persons or friendly persons. (…) For teaching being helpful, being kind to rich boy rapper the students, listening to them carefully [are important] (Interview, participant 1).

Two participants emphasised that that the procedure helped them to formulate honest answers; a teacher noted: I felt that I was giving away my experiences about my job (Repertory Grid Evaluation Form, participant 6). Two participants pointed to the part during the activity when the teachers shared their constructs with a partner. They recognised sharing beliefs as a central point of the activity as the comparative following excerpt from the interview illustrates: I learned much from the activity because one of my colleagues wrote interesting constructs and by j alfred analysis, the way I learned them and comparative essay, I think this activity is something like a psychological test, but not individual-psychological, it’s just prepared for the profession and rich boy rapper, our experiences (Interview, participant 6). While the responses in comparative essay the previous paragraph indicate the usefulness of the activity as an elicitation tool, the Among activity was also perceived as incentive to reflection, i.e. it was perceived as going beyond a mere verbalisation of beliefs and, thus, as potentially contributing to professional development:

You think, you remember and you evaluate yourself and essay, the other person (Interview, participant 3). Since the elicitation of h&m employee constructs is combined with comparison of three teachers (the elements), the activity forced the participants to challenge ideas. Participant 2 illustrates this by discussing a personality trait that is negatively connoted, but in fact might be valuable as a quality of a teacher: In my point of view I think I have to think again and comparative essay, again of so many things; for example one of the characteristics of the teacher I ticked ‘ a strict teacher, for rich boy rapper, example, I learned a lot from a strict teacher in comparative essay the past; he never laughed, but really I loved him very much, although he was not so friendly with the students, but as a teacher he was a good teacher. So, sometimes like parents, I think there doesn’t have to be laughing all the time with the kids in prufrock analysis order to teach them. Sometimes we have to comparative essay be strict a little bit. Of course, we have to The Heroes be patient, kind, friendly and comparative essay, so on.

But some of the characteristics we will consider as bad characteristics, they are very useful for h&m employee, us teachers (Interview, participant 2). Participant 1 pointed to a further advantage of the activity: She said that she had difficulties to criticise other people or to be criticised. Comparative. As the Analysis Last Essay activity helped her to find own weaknesses, she concluded that it might be suitable for people having problems with criticism. Two participants perceived the activity as enjoyable, as expressed in this excerpt: Also it was enjoyable because it made me think of the essay past and j alfred, sometimes I laughed at those days (Repertory Grid Evaluation Form, participant 1). The enjoyment the comparative participants found can be confirmed by Among Us Essay, the researcher’s observations of the teachers’ active participation in the activity and the willingness to comparative elaborate on their constructs in the interviews; the following comment indicates that the feeling of j alfred prufrock analysis enjoyment was linked to the perception of contributing to essay professional development: It was enjoyable. The Heroes Among. I liked being a participant in comparative such an activity. I want to of My Duchess and The Laboratory Essay make another one, not just repertory grid, another scientific one. I want to be a participant for my profession (Interview, participant 6).

What did the participants relate their beliefs to? A major aim of the interview was to find out to what areas in their past experience and/or current situation the participants would relate their beliefs to. It was assumed that areas mentioned by the participants would match those in the framework suggested by comparative essay, Borg (2003, p. 82), who sees teacher beliefs (as a subcategory in the all-embracing notion of teacher cognition) generated through schooling, professional coursework, contextual factors and classroom practice. The second question of the interview asked for the sources of the beliefs, but did not direct the participants to any of the areas teacher cognitions are located in. Analysis. Table 2 displays to what areas the comparative participants attributed their beliefs of their own accord. Participant’s Initial Attribution of Beliefs to Areas. participant area mentioned initially.

1 professional coursework. 2 contextual factors. 3 contextual factors. 5 contextual factors. 6 professional coursework. Table 2 shows that different teachers came up with different references for their beliefs when asked initially. This does not mean that there were not any other sources for their beliefs, but those ones were asked directly in the course of the interview; it can be assumed that particularly contextual factors mentioned by prufrock, participants 2, 3 and comparative, 5 were foregrounded for these teachers as they focused on them extensively during the interview.

The participants’ perceptions are reported in more detail in the following sections. Schooling was mentioned by using a concrete example by participant 4, who said that her belief that teachers should be friendly was generated by her 7th grade English teacher who made her like learning English. She also talked about one of her teachers who the pupils made fun of because of her glasses. The participant concluded that physical appearance played a role in teaching. The United States Is Multicultural. Two participants argued that the view of schooling experience had been changed as they now appreciated teacher practice (observed in their teachers in childhood) they had not appreciated when they were children. These responses suggest that schooling experience can be modified through teaching experience; in a way, the teachers critically reflected their own beliefs they had when they were younger. Even though mentioned, professional coursework was not highlighted in the interviews; on enquiry, the comparative participants did not deny an influence of teacher education on their beliefs but they did not exemplify it, for example by referring to rich boy rapper their constructs in comparative the repertory grid. Participant 4 mentioned the name of one of her academic teachers at university who. taught a lot of things, he taught me to teach, he taught me how to behave towards the rich boy rapper students.

We learned by living, by acting (Interview, participant 3). This response, particularly the last sentence, indicates the importance of not only content but also of method in comparative essay teacher education. In the interviews, contextual factors were most prominently elaborated on. The participants claimed that their beliefs and assumptions were shaped by cultural norms and their immediate environment (parents, friends, colleagues), and discount, that the context of private school had an influence on teacher behaviour and, consequently, teaching practice. Two participants addressed the impact of culture; in their explanations they did not only refer to the teacher profession.

The following excerpt summarises the responses: I think our beliefs come from our experiences, this is comparative essay one of the sources ‘ one of them is our home. J Alfred Prufrock Analysis. That is comparative essay very important: How did our parents teach us in because the past? The morals, the ethics and essay, something like that; one source is The Heroes Among our experience in life in general; one of them is our culture. For example, we are Muslims, our culture is different from that of others, from Jews or Christians or other people; one of comparative them comes from our close friends ‘ the people we love. Sometimes we find good beliefs we didn’t believe in did kubla khan meaning the past (Interview, participant 2). The excerpt illustrates that the emergence of teacher beliefs is perceived as not restricted to the immediate school context.

Virtually all areas of life can contribute to professional beliefs. A further contextual factor mentioned by the participants was the context of private school which was contrasted with public schools. Participant 5 said that state school teachers were sometimes ineffective, and she linked her belief to a variety of conditions. According to her, public school teachers do not care about their students’ success as they rather transmit knowledge, i.e. grammar, than teaching the four language skills; they are not supervised by principals and parents do not come to school and ask about their children’s progress; additionally, public school teachers are ‘relaxed’ as concerns salary, which contributed to their attitude of indifference towards their profession. In a similar vein participant 3 pointed to the reduced amount of class hours and restricted use of material in public schools on the one hand and the willingness of comparative essay private school students to learn English on rich boy rapper the other hand. Participant 1 said that she tried to do her best because she worked at a private school. What all these voices have in common is the comparative essay conviction that contextual factors influence teacher beliefs and it can be concluded that beliefs generated through contextual factors affect teaching practice. Similar as for schooling and professional coursework, the participants did not come up with concrete examples how their beliefs interacted with their own classroom practice. In Xanadu Meaning. From a general perspective, participant 1 (a rather experienced teacher) described classroom practice as having an ongoing impact on comparative essay beliefs and assumptions and Among Us Essay, consequently on teaching practice. She claimed she adapted her beliefs as a response to change in comparative essay student behaviour: I change my ideas because every generation is different (…) I have to change my style, my ideas, my behaviour almost every year.

So I have to h&m employee discount be careful about essay, everything during the lesson, after lesson and before lesson. So, they change my ideas, I can say day by day (Interview, participant 1). What suggestions did the participants make on how to use the elicited beliefs and to develop the activity? The participants did not come up with ideas on how to use the elicited beliefs in a separate follow-up activity; however, they stated that this activity would help them as a reminder of what to do and how to behave in the teacher profession. The participants mainly saw the activity as a starter to reflect and to challenge own teacher beliefs. Some of the suggestions to develop the activity in the next section can also be understood as follow-up activities to be carried out in in xanadu did kubla the session. Participant 1 suggested adding a task in which the participants summarise their strengths and weaknesses after the activity in a sentence. As mentioned above she perceived herself as a person that has difficulties in criticising and being criticised, and essay, she linked her suggestion to that perception. She also suggested applying an instrument to elicit learner beliefs to get the view from the other side of the classroom. Similarly, participant 4 suggested finding out about beliefs of public school teachers and even people from The Heroes Among other than school contexts to get outsider views.

To elicit beliefs of teachers coming from different contexts was also suggested by participant 3 who held strong beliefs that the contextual factors at public school had the potential to ‘produce’ ineffective teachers. Participant 2 reflected how outcomes of the activity could be utilised in the classroom: Maybe we could add something to it [the activity], for comparative, example how to make your students better, how to make them better students every day (…). You can improve yourself, but you also have to think of the other part, I mean the students. How can we attract our students more? Sometimes some teachers are excellent teachers, but unfortunately they cannot attract the attention of all of their students, so maybe the suggestions of the colleagues can help us to j alfred do this (Interview, participant 2). Obviously, he referred to the part of the activity in comparative essay which the partners share their beliefs. His comment indicates the need to j alfred work with the beliefs, not only by confirming or questioning them but also by transforming reflection on teacher beliefs into instructional practice.

As regards the procedure, participant 6 suggested carrying out the activity not in written form by writing down constructs and putting ticks and crosses, but orally as interviews. Comparative Essay. That means teachers research their colleagues’ beliefs and elicit beliefs in dialogic form, and write their constructs afterwards. In Xanadu Did Kubla Meaning. This suggestion is remarkable as the participant recognised the repertory grid technique as a form of interview (cf. Fransella et al, 2004, p. 5: ‘The grid is perhaps best regarded as a particular form of structured interview’). So far the participants’ perceptions of the repertory grid have been reported. In the following section, conclusions are drawn and implications for second language teacher education are discussed. This study was carried out to explore the elicitation process six middle school teachers at a Turkish private school went through. Comparative Essay. The participants evaluated the elicitation tool and the united is multicultural, reflected on their beliefs and the elicitation process. The elicitation tool, which was an adapted version of the repertory grid, was positively evaluated as the participants perceived it as capable of eliciting beliefs and comparative, acting as incentive to reflection about own beliefs. This is in Analysis Last Duchess and The line with the participant feedback reported in the study by Donaghue (2003).

It qualifies the instrument for further application, e.g. in pre-service or in-service. Comparative. The fact that the states because activity was perceived as enjoyable is of particular relevance as the willingness of teachers to participate in professional development is not a matter of course (Karaaslan, 2003). It was seen that the participants in this study gave a variety of comparative essay explanations and references while they were talking about the activity and their beliefs. However, some participants had more to say than others and different participants focused on different issues. This is not surprising when the ‘inconsistency’ of teacher beliefs as a personal construct (that is e.g. strongly linked to an experienced anecdote or mentally presented as an abstract idea) is taken under consideration, and it is also not surprising that, independently from each other, participants related their beliefs to the same issues (e.g. culture or private school context) as beliefs do not emerge in a void but in a context that teachers share (Pajares, 1992; Gabillon, 2012). Donaghue (2003) addresses the question of what to the united do with the elicited beliefs as a crucial point. She reports that a trainer in her study had the participants sort the comparative essay constructs into positive and negative ones. One of the participants in the current study suggested writing in a sentence what own strengths and weaknesses emerged from the prufrock activity.

From my own considerations, which however emerged not before the data analysis, participants could classify beliefs and label the emerging categories (labels might be ‘interpersonal traits’, ‘classroom management’, ‘approaches’. These labels, or themes, then, can be operationalised in a following course to comparative trace changes in constructs under a theme or, for rich boy rapper, instance, in order to research in how far beliefs match teaching practices (cf. Farell Bennis, 2013, who summarise statement beliefs under themes). Comparative Essay. From my personal experience I have gained in this study, I believe it is inevitable to the united contrast the comparative beliefs with what research has to say about them. There has been an ongoing discussion on to what extent second language teacher education should provide a theoretical knowledge basis and to what extent it should be guided by rich boy rapper, reflective practice (Thompson Pascal, 2013; Lawes, 2003; Day, 1993). In fact, reflective practice is necessary to make theoretical knowledge accessible and theoretical knowledge is necessary to evaluate practical reflection.

The instrument dealt with in this study can contribute to bring reflection and theory together. Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Borg, S. (2003). Teacher cognition in language teaching: A review of research on what language teachers think, know, believe and do. Language Teaching 36(2), 81-109. Borg, S. Essay. (2006). Teacher cognition and language education. Essay. Research and practice. London: Continuum.

Day, R. (1993). Models and the knowledge base of second language teacher education. Comparative Essay. University of Hawaii’s Working Papers in ESL, 11(2), 1’13. Donaghue, H. (2003). An instrument to The Heroes elicit teachers’ beliefs and assumptions. Essay. ELT Journal 57(4), 344-351. Fransella, F. Bell, R., Bannister, D. (2004).

A manual for repertory grid technique. Analysis Of My Last Duchess And The. (2nd ed.), West Sussex: John Wiley Sons, Ltd. Freeman, D. (2002). The hidden side of the work: Teacher knowledge and learning to teach. Language Teacher 35(1), 1-13. Gabillon, Z. (2012).

Revisiting foreign language teacher beliefs. Frontiers of comparative essay Language and Teaching 3, 190-203. Karaaslan, A. D. (2003). Teachers’ perceptions of self-initiated professional development: a case study on Ba??kent University English language teachers (Unpublished MA dissertation.) Ba??kent University, Ankara. Retrieved 21 January, 2014 from: Kelly, G. A. (1991). Discount. The psychology of personal constructs (Vol. Comparative Essay. 1: A theory of personality).

London: Routledge. Lawes, S. Analysis. (2003). What, when, how and why? Theory and comparative, foreign language teaching. Language Learning Journal 28, 22-28. Pajares, M. F. (1992). In Xanadu. Teachers’ beliefs and educational research: cleaning up a messy construct. Comparative Essay. Review of Educational Research 62(3), 307-332. Roberts, J. (1998). Language teacher education. New York: Arnold.

Saldana, J. (2009). The coding manual for the united states is multicultural because, qualitative researchers. Los Angeles, CA: Sage. Taggart, G.L., Wilson A.P. (2005). Promoting reflective thinking in teachers. 50 action strategies. Thousand Oaks, California: Corwin Press.

Thompson, N. Comparative Essay. Pascal, J. (2012). Developing critically reflective practice. Reflective Practice: International and Multidisciplinary Perspectives 13(2), 311-325. V??lez-Rend??n, G. (2002). Rich Boy Rapper. Second language teacher education: A review of the literature. Foreign Language Annals 35(4), 457-467. Wallace, M. J. (1991). Comparative. Training foreign language teachers. A reflective approach.

Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. William, M., Burden, R.L. (1997). The Heroes Among. Psychology for comparative, language teachers: a social constructivist approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Appendix A: Repertory Grid. Construct A colleague you consider a good teacher A colleague you consider ineffective A teacher you learned well with A teacher you didn’t learn well with Your present self as a teacher Your ideal self as a teacher. Appendix B: Repertory Grid Evaluation. Repertory Grid Evaluation.

The aim of this study is to have you evaluate a tool to elicit your beliefs and assumptions. Please fill in the requested information. Your responses and biographical information will remain anonymous and rich boy rapper, they will be used for comparative, this research only. Thank you for your cooperation. Academic qualification: …..

Bachelor’s degree ….. Master’s degree. ….. Doctorate degree Other; please specify. Number of years of teaching experience: ….. Of My Laboratory. years. Number of years teaching at private/state school: ….. years. Please evaluate the repertory grid activity by answering this question: What do you think of comparative essay this activity’?

Appendix C: Semi-structured interview. 1. Did this activity help you uncover and reflect on your attitude and beliefs about teaching? 2. Do you have an idea where your beliefs come from?/What are the sources for your beliefs? 2.1. Can you identify beliefs coming from your own experience as a pupil/student? 2.2. Can you identify beliefs coming from your teacher education? 2.3. Analysis. Can you identify beliefs coming from your own classroom experience? 2.4. Essay. Can you identify beliefs coming from of My Last Essay your experience as a teacher at (name of the school)?

3. Essay. What do we do with the constructs after they have been elicited? (Explanation: The activity was originally developed to elicit teacher beliefs at the beginning of a development course) 4. Do you have any suggestions on how the activity could be changed or modified? Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Education essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to the united is multicultural help you. Each of comparative us is qualified to a high level in our area of of My Last and The Laboratory Essay expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Education work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours.

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Essay: A Stranger Look to #039;The Stranger#039; of essay Albert Camus. Albert Camus. The French- Algerian writer of The Stranger or otherwise known as The Outsider, presents the book from the point of view of the protagonist that lives and performs the main action of killing a person, that the book revolves around in the French-Algeria. Gives the reader a glimpse on of My Duchess the scenery and the state of mind of the protagonist that maybe Camus himself experienced in a lap of his life. Of course Camus had to add some extra, alias the murder, to make this story interesting for the reader.

Some academics that kept their mind out of the box whilst the lecture of the book catches a tender Mediterranean breeze that originates from the comparative essay land that is the extreme end of the h&m employee discount Dark Continent and finds its way to the home of the wine and cheese. Camus that is the very son of comparative a generation created by that breeze made it recognisable to the attentive eyes that travel through the pages of The Stranger. The story starts with Camus presenting the protagonist, Merusault. This man, which will commit a murder later on the story, is presented to the reader as quasi banal, a standard man with standard tastes and j alfred, surroundings. Meursault has some issues like disconnection with family, issue that consists the beginning of the book when Meursault is informed of his mother’s death, that most of the people have on different levels and comparative, aspects. Meursault lives as another young man in the French ‘Algeria; he works, meets with friends and even involves himself in a sentimental level with a female acquaintance. The murder, mentioned previously, is not something planned or envied, it happens out of nothing, well not exactly nothing to be honest but not the reasons that a healthy mind would consider as a justification as the thread of dying or protection of a loved one, but Meursault is not an unhealthy man either. So why did he do that? Why kill a man over a petty thievery of a simple quarrel? The answer to that may be heartbreaking or even disturbing.

Hid did it because hi felt so. Just that simple, a simplicity that leaves the reader hanging until the suite of the story where Meursault stands trial. Camus was able to illustrate with The Stanger his experiments about the absurd nature of life and existence. Coldly follows the The Heroes Us Essay protagonist Meursault, who lives his life abroad, who is essay, like out of himself and totally disinterested in his own fate. Nothing interests him; he is spiritually empty; no thought no desire or no passion. Meursault is a flat man killed before its time by the weakness of his mind.

In fact, Meursault, it’s a little like the death of what was human in the human being, that is to say, all his curiosity, his desire to know, fades and disappears. Meursault’s life is prufrock analysis, simple for himself as hi has no interest to whatever happens to him but it is comparative essay, most interesting to the reader who tries to decipher the meaning of this indifference. To give a brief example about Among, this incapacity to feel, this emptiness of emotions and passions, psycopathy would be near accurate to essay, be mentioned. Psycopathy is basically the deficiency of emotions in the part of the brain, the thalamus, which generates the sensations, emotions. The psychopathic individuals are the most of the serial killers known in the last century, they murder without any emotion of remorse or fright.

These aspects may remind a certain character that was mentioned earlier, Meursault. Meursault murders the young Arab without any thought or emotion. Analysis Duchess Essay! This opens the door to a new kind of comparative essay thinking. Did Camus meet a psychopath in his life and rich boy rapper, blended his or her attributes to his to create his protagonist? The psycopathy were defined as a deficiency only after the half of the last century after the discovery of advanced medical material.

At the time when Camus wrote his book there was no way to identify such people. Camus may have seen an interesting man and even somehow listened to his or her story or maybe a part of it and after analysing it on his own decided to create a new character. Of course these thoughts are all on hypothetical basis but who knows? The novel is a success itself in mainly France and after the whole world. Camus wrote a book that the story happens in the colonised Algeria by France.

This aspect of the book resembles very much with the novels that have been written about and on the colonised India of the British Colonial Empire. This kind of books became most popular in France with the era of comparative essay Jules Verne; Verne invented a new line of Analysis Last Laboratory Essay literature about the comparative exploration of the world and the adventures of the characters in them. Later on Camus did a similar thing but this time with the exploration of a crossed cultures young man who lost his senses, and as mentioned before the story of Meursault, who is the narrator of the book itself, may be banal to himself but it most certainly isn’t to rich boy rapper, the reader, and in this spot Camus satisfies with his inner exploration of Meursault during the trial, the comparative time hi passes in prison and even at the very beginning of the book when the reader isn’t even aware of anything yet. What made the success of Analysis of My and The Essay this novel is the first character who is also the narrator. Often the reader empathises when a narrative is in first person.

The other side of success is that this novel seems simple. It tells a story altogether banal, that of a man who comes to the funeral of comparative essay his mother, who falls in states is multicultural, love with Marie, whose next door neighbour has problems with one of comparative essay his mistresses. This neighbour, Raymond, invites Mary and Meursault in a shed belonging to h&m employee, one of his friends on the beach. The group then meets young people who include brothers of the comparative essay scorned mistress. Of course, a fight ensues, in which Raymond is h&m employee, injured. Comparative! Later, while he was walking on the beach, Meursault meets again one of the protagonists of the fight. Blinded by the sun, no longer, therefore, all his senses, the narrator takes the analysis revolver that was found in his pocket and shoots blindly, killing the young. This could be in the various facts. Yes Meursault does not stop there. A bullet could have on the border pass for comparative, an accident, but certainly not the j alfred prufrock four that followed!

And then tell the trial? Meursault does not show an ounce of regret of his actions. This lack of comparative essay emotions may again refer to the hypothetical pshypathic theory. This book also makes the audience think about death, but not the death as we know it, the death that is easy, and the united states because, the action of killing seen in a different day light. The killing of the young Arab that may have been an essay, accident and easily justified, furthermore the lack of remorse that worsens the situation leading to the own death of the narrator- protagonist.

Meursault makes it seem nearly as casual as drinking coffee in the morning, by rich boy rapper, calling it casual let’s not forget that this is the point of view of the essay narrator, so simple and merely boring even. In Xanadu Khan Meaning! The fact that he welcomes his own death isn’t because his felt he was getting what he deserved no, he is going to be relieved of comparative essay his prison of h&m employee discount life from the comparative hand of another and won’t have to the united states is multicultural, deal with the action of self killing itself makes the comparative reader think of him in a poor way in this part of the story. The death sentence given to the narrator at the end of the the united because trial that relives him is another subject to essay, be talked on. Rich Boy Rapper! Albert Camus indirectly gives us the sense of the death penalty. Why it is comparative, done and of My Last Duchess Laboratory, that it has nothing to do with punishment or a public safety measure. The death penalty restores social unity; it subtracts the one that corrupts the community and does not want to essay, comply with its laws.

Not just the security laws – those that ban blood crimes – but also all the others, those unspoken on the united states is multicultural because how to behave, what he is doing and what is not good. So this trial is the comparative essay revenge of the proper thinking, social cohesion is getting around that foreigner who refuses the codes and the laws. It is made and directed to restore the balance of the society. It is not about the punishment or revenge of the death. It is the revenge of the system that is hold deer by the society to organise and prufrock analysis, rule over. This novel contains a mystery that continues to fascinate the readers. Indeed, every detail helps to know better the Meursault personality but in return intensifies the impression of confusion for their interpretation. In this novel the death is the key element of awareness of the absurdity of life.

Life is absurd because it dies. Death, however, is to Meursault, tamed to some extent. “To die at thirty or seventy doesn’t matter because, of course, in both cases, other men and other women live, and that, for comparative essay, thousands of years.” The awareness of death generates a revolt that expresses violently in meaning, Meursault. This revolt is metaphysical because it opposes the idea of essay God. States Is Multicultural Because! A good God could have created an absurd world where not only injustice and misery reign. Meursault does not want to lose what little time he has left to live to talk with the chaplain of a God whom he does not believe. But when the comparative essay chaplain told him that he will pray for him, Meursault rebels, he bursts: there is something popped in him and began to shout aloud and insult the chaplain saying not to pray. Discovering himself as his master suite to this event has brought him a kind of inner peace that will hold him calm until his execution and will provide him a not so noticeable vanity. The Stranger is a very good novel to fit into the work of Camus; it is fast to read, the writing is clear, the character is The Heroes Us Essay, intriguing. Sure, it does not breathe the joy of living and daisies in the spring but there is almost suspense to know what the next action, which is unusual, the accepted norm that will make a Meursault spared emotions. The emotions find a little creek when Meursault is waiting his execution in his cell.

After the visit of the chaplain he feels happy again, thinks about Marie, and is satisfied that his execution will be public; he won’t be alone anymore. This state of mind that the comparative essay narrator shows at the mere end of his life may be disturbing. A man who is about to h&m employee discount, die is happy because he won’t be alone whilst dying, even that the crowd that will be there for him won’t be for essay, his sake but to watch a monster deprived of all humanly attitude and sensation, by j alfred analysis, their thinking, die and see a rebel that refuses to submit to the laws and rules written or spoken, by the hand of the enforcers of these laws. Albert Camus presents the book from the essay point of states view of the protagonist that lives and performs the main action of the book the killing a person, that the comparative book revolves around in the French-Algeria. Gives the reader a glimpse on prufrock analysis the scenery and comparative, the state of mind of the protagonist that maybe Camus himself experienced in a lap of states his life. By giving this prose in the hands of the reader Camus achieves to make the reader think of the death without fearing it and showing the ideas of killing and dying from another point of view than the comparative essay reader’s. To conclude, this novel made lots of rocks move around in its own domain and presented a new horizon to prufrock analysis, the ones that like to achieve the story with their own versions and fill the gaps with their own imaginative products. Works Cited and/or Consulted. Scherr, Arthur. “Meursault’s Dinner with Raymond: A Christian Theme in Albert Camus’s L’Etranger.” Christianity and comparative, Literature 2009.

Print. Lowen, Jeanette. “How Can We Live in the World of the the united states Absurd? the Humanism of Albert Camus.” Free Inquiry 22 Sept. 1994. Print. “Albert Camus, The Stranger.” Choice Reviews Online (1988): 26-0821. Print. Simon, Ernest. “Palais De Justice and Poetic Justice in Albert Camus’ “The Stranger”” Cardozo Studies in comparative, Law and Literature: 111-25. Did Kubla Meaning! Print. Morisi, Eve ‘To Kill a Human Being: Camus and Capital Punishment’

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