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Category Archives: The Bloody Chamber essays. One of the shortest, yet useful stories in the collection #128578; cold;temptest;wild beasts in the forest.It Is a hard life. wreaths of garlic on the doors to orsino, keep out the vampires [when they find a witch#8217;s nipple on theories the hand] they soon find it, they then stone her to death take her the oatcakes I#8217;ve baked for her on the hearthstone The good child does as her mother bids Here, take your father#8217;s hunting knife; you know how to use it. She knew the forest too well, but she must always be on her guard She dropped her gifts, seized her knife and turned on the beast any but a mountaineers child would have died of fright at the sight of it she made a great swipe at it with her father#8217;s knife and slashed of its right forepaw the wolf let out a gulp, almost a sob, when it saw what happened to it; wolves are less brave than they seem [the wolf] went lolloping off(..) as well as it could on three legs the orsino, child wiped the meaning of cry, blade of her knife clean on her apron by the wart, she know it for her grandmother#8217;s hand beating her old carcass pelted her with stones until she fell down dead now the child lived in her grandmother#8217;s house; she prospered. In Twelfth. Lady of the delivery, house of love top quotes Angela carter the bloody chamber litb3. In Twelfth. Probably the most Gothic of them all. I would really recommend having this to talk about in the exam #128578; now you are at the place of annihilation fie fie fo fum I smell the blood of an Englishman A single kiss woke up the university reviews, Sleeping Beauty in the Wood wisdom, death and dissolution this ornate and night rotting place the bicycle is the product of pure reason applied to motion her beauty is an abnormality hunger always overcomes her white lace negligee stained a little with blood the fangs and essay talons of in twelfth night a beast of prey the fragility of the skeleton of a moth pentacle of theories his virginity youth, strength and blonde beauty symbol of rationality (bike) nxt day, his regiment embarked for France Wearing an antique bridal gown, the beautiful queen of the vampires sits all alone in her dark high horse under the eyes of the portraits of her demented and atrocious ancestors the walls of her bedroom are hung with black satin, embroidered with tears of pearl on moonless nights, her keeper lets her out into the garden an orsino in twelfth night old mute looks after her, to make sure she never sees the the open university reviews, sun, that all day she stays in her coffin to keep mirrosr and all reflective surfaces away from her Everything about this beautiful and ghastly lady is as it should be, queen of night, queen of terrorexcept her horrible reluctance for the role. The lack of imagination gives heroism to the hero in death she looked far older, less beautiful and so, for orsino the first time , fully human. Hi, the English exam is on Friday so it#8217;s back to the Gothic posts.. I#8217;ll start with my top quotes for The Bloody Chamber.
Somebody emailed me asking how many stories/quotes they should learn for the bloody chamber; it#8217;s hard to give a set number because some will just come to descriptive, you automatically in orsino night the exam from knowing the text pretty well, but have an aim of around 50 for the entire Bloody Chamber section. Oh and as for the part about how many stories, the mc donalds, examiners#8217; reports suggest knowing all texts so that you aren#8217;t stuck in the exam and orsino force yourself to use a story, but, to university reviews, me it seems like far too many too learn in depth and therefore I#8217;m focusing mainly on orsino in twelfth 5: The Bloody Chamber, Lady of the House of Love(gothic elements mostly), The Erl King(entrapment),The Werewolf(animals) and Wolf Alice (liminality). The Open University Reviews. I tried to choose a handful of different texts that cover different aspects of the Gothic. So, here#8217;s my analysis and top quotes for each of them. The Bloody Chamber;there are 20. #8220;my little nun has found the prayer books, has she#8221;- here, as readers, we are able to see what the Marquis views as emhis /emreligion in orsino in twelfth night contrast to the usual connotations of God. It becomes clear that the Marquis worships taboos such a pornography and sadism. #8220;I#8217;m sure I want to marry him#8221;- after continually asking her daughter if she loves the Marquis, the young girl replies that she is sure she wans to marry him, making readers question why she is marrying him, if not for love. Therefore it provides an meaning of cry AO4 point about context; perhaps she is marrying for wealth and orsino in twelfth security. #8220;All the better to meaning of cry, see you with#8221;- alludes to orsino night, Red Riding Hood, voyeurism. #8220;funeral lilies#8221; certainly it reveals a lot that the Marquis reminds his wife of funeral lilies due to illegal immigration essay, the strong relationship with himself and death. #8220;inspecting cuts on the slabs#8221;/#8221;connoisseur inspecting horseflesh#8221;-objectifies women#8221; #8220;it must have been my innocence that captivated him#8221;-she is no longer naive and recognises why he wanted her. Orsino In Twelfth. #8220;away from Paris, away from girlhood#8221;- allows for a point about setting. It becomes clear that Paris=civilisation, whilst the Marquis #8220;faery solitude#8221; of the castle is uncanny. #8220;ceased to be her child in becoming is wife#8221; she Is aware that by meaning of cry, marrying the Marquis, she will lose the bond between her mother. #8220;the dead lips smiled#8221;/#8221;could see the blue imprint of his strangler#8217;s fingers#8221;- shows the brutality of the Marquis using his very hands, but also that the sadomasochistic nature of #8216;smiling#8217; suggests she liked the pain whilst being murdered. #8220;her black skirts tucked up around her waist#8221;- the mother seems valiant and orsino brave, Carter translating her feminist. Mary. #8220;leaving his wife and child a legacy of tears#8221; already sets up the negative interpretation of orsino in twelfth men. #8220;there were streaks of pure silver in his dark mane#8221; / #8220;he moved as softly as if all his shoes had soles of descriptive noise velvet#8221; the marquis appears abhuman and night supernatural- perhaps she should have expected this surprise. #8220;into marriage, into exile, I sensed it, I knew it-that henceforth, I would always be lonely. #8220;give it me back, Whore#8221;- the young girl has become a whore after her virginity has been conquered. #8220;He was blind of course; but young, with a gentle mouth and grey eyes#8221; Jean Yves although the love of her life, in the end, appears feminine and noise submissive. #8220;I had to be content with that#8221; when the Marquis leaves, she has no choice but to accept it=recognises the orsino, female role in meaning of cry relationships.
#8220;key after key, a key, he said for every lock in the house#8221;- the night, repetition of the key suggests he is setting her up for temptation. #8220;he dangled the key, tantalizingly above my head#8221;= he tempts her with the key, she becomes damned for curiosity. Meaning Of Cry. #8220;[the Marquis will not hang the stained sheets to in twelfth night, prove to Brittany] you are a virgin, not in the open university these civilised times#8221;- #8220;my eagle featured, indomitable mother#8221;/#8221;put a bullet through my husband#8217;s head#8221;- shows the mother as brave and orsino night courageous and leaves a lasting impression that females will ultimately succeed. I#8217;ll be doing another post on critics for the Bloody Chamber soon. The Erl King key quotes The Bloody Chamber. #8220;vertical bars of mary uk a brass coloured distillation of light#8221;- point for setting narrative perspective: third when describing the word, second by orsino in twelfth, #8220;you#8221;, third by #8220;her#8221; then back to first person by using #8220;me#8221; #8220;perfect transparency must be impenetrable#8221; #8220;you step between the first trees and then you are no longer in the open air; the woods swallow you up#8221; #8220;the woods swallow you up#8221; #8220;I am not afraid; only, afraid of vertigo, of the vertigo with which he seizes me. afraid of university falling of falling down#8221; #8220;I shall strangle him with them#8221; #8220;then she will open all the cages and let the birds free; they will change back into young girls#8221; #8220;everyone, each with the crimson imprint of his love-bite on their throats#8221; Erl-King will do you grievous harm white pointed teeth all its strings are broken he could thrust me into the seebed of next year#8217;s generation he strips me to my last nakedness his touch both consoles and devastates me I know the birds don#8217;t sing, they only cry because they can#8217;t find their way out of the wood mother mother, you have murdered me I lie at the mercy of his huge hands everything in the wood seem exactly as it seems// easy to lose yourself description 21 to 25 is of the orsino in twelfth night, Erl King: an excellent housewife came alive from the desire of the woods tender butcher skin the rabbit, he says! eyes as green as apples, green as dead sea fruit. The Erl-King brief analysis and key quotes. Good morning everyone!
I have a short class test today that will require me to use The Erl King and The Bloody Chamber in my answer so Ive created a few notes and quotes to help me on The Erl King. The traditional folklore legend Erlking lends our protagonist the name The Erl-King. The Erl-king was an elf known to lure young people (in this instance, young girls) in to their impending death. Narrative perspective is constantly shifting in The Erl-King. Initially, The story begins to describe the sociocultural, woods in third person. The sudden shift then transforms in to second person, recognised by the pronoun #8220;you.#8221; Again, the narrative perspective shifts back in to third person, recognised by the pronoun #8220;her#8221; and in twelfth night then shifts again seen by the first person use of the word #8220;me.#8221; and so on.
Could the shift in narrative perspective reflect the fractured fragments of the woods?: the wood is inevitably a place to get, and also feel lost. Some critics also argue that the change in narrative voice resembles the the open university reviews, protagonist#8217;s lost voice and integrity. In Twelfth. Additionally, this brings about a disorientating and unsettled atmosphere for uk unnatural events to in twelfth, occur. Thus, Carter is using narrative perspective not only to reflect character state of mind (feeling lost, feelinig of the sublime taking over) but also to foreshadow and set the tone for future events to take place. The Erl-King #8220;came alive from desire of the woods.#8221; Briefly, The Erl-King completely engulfs the woods, and inevitably is nature. Expectedly, the meaning of cry, Erl King goes on to encapsulate nature too, and seeks to capture young girls and keep them with him.
The Erl King#8217;s eyes also reflect this utterly emphasised depiction of nature within the King: his eyes #8220;as green as apples#8221; and #8220;as green as dead sea fruit.#8221; Furthermore, Carter may be expressing how male nature has the power to dominate women and bring. about in twelfth night, their destruction. Meaning Of Cry. What role does the night, protagonist play? To well the narrator of the Erl King, also is aware of the danger of the wood, and descriptive ultimately sets up her own peril. Inevitably, the female protagonist is damned for confinement. By recognising the light had #8220;vertical bars of a brass coloured distillation#8221;- even the setting of the wood begins to echo the powerful imagery of confinement and entrapment. Certainly, she is in twelfth aware of the danger she faces. However, she sees the Erl-King as merely a #8220;tender butcher.#8221; She feels as though the illegal essay, #8216;vertigo#8217; takes over when she is around the Erl-King: #8220;afraid of vertigo, of the orsino night, vertigo with which he seizes me.#8221; Additionally, the #8220;young girl would go in to the woods as trustingly as Red Riding Hood to university reviews, her granny#8217;s house#8221; adds to the idea of the female narrator knowing the night, extent of sociocultural her own peril.
Key quotes for orsino in twelfth night this text. #8220;vertical bars of a brass coloured distillation#8221; damned to confinement. Uk. #8220;come alive from desire of the orsino in twelfth, woods#8221; #8220;green as dead see fruit#8221; Narrative perspective: third when describing the wood, second by #8220;you#8221;, third by #8220;her#8221; then back to first person by using #8220;me#8221;#8221; #8220;his white teeth pointed#8221; #8220;an air of impending death#8221; #8220;a young girl would go in to the woods as trustingly as Red Riding Hood to her granny#8217;s house#8221; #8220;Erl King will do you grievous harm#8221; #8220;A young girl would go into the wood as trustingly as Red Riding Hood to her granny#8217;s house but this light admits of no ambiguities and, here, she will be trapped in meaning of cry her own illusion because everything in the wood is exactly as it seems. Orsino In Twelfth. #8221; Angela Carter, The Bloody Chamber and other short stories. Uk. This is just a quick post to say Happy World Book Day everyone! I hope that everybody is dressed in their best Gothic atire, I certainly am! I am dressed in in twelfth a Red Riding Hood cape and mc donalds basket, while classmates of mine came in in twelfth night as Lady Macbeth, Lady of The House of Love and immigration essay even the narrator from The Bloody Chamber! What a wonderful way to celebrate literature! ESSENTIAL QUOTES TO LEARN FOR THE BLOODY CHAMBER ANALYSIS.
Hello everyone! I hope everyone had a wonderful break. I haven#8217;t posted in in twelfth a while, but with exams being so close- I will be posting revision resources rather than essays such as revision mats/key quotes for each of the theories, texts. I hope they prove useful to you, and if you would like anything done in particular, please let me know in the comments below #128578; Finally, I thank you for all the support I have gained on my blog. These are my top key quotes to learn for the first short story in the book The Bloody Chamber: #8220;Are you sure you want to marry him#8221; said by the Mother -This shows the doubtful tone of the mother- presents readers with mother daughter bonds and in twelfth night females intuition? #8220;Alway from Paris, away from civilisation#8221;- said by the narrator -here, setting also helps foreshadow future events. Paris symbolises civilisation. Meaning Of Cry. #8220;Ceased to night, be her child in mary becoming his wife#8221; -said by the narrator- The narrator believes that by marrying the Marquis she will lose her relationship with her mother, but also lose the orsino, innocence that is associated with being a #8220;child#8221; she realises her loss of purity in marrying the meaning of cry, Marquis. Additionally, what does this tell us about family relationships after marriage? #8220;..bullet through [her] husband#8217;s head..#8221; -said by orsino night, the narrator when the meaning of cry, mother shoots the Marquis. #8220;there was a Marquis once, who used to orsino in twelfth, hunt young girls#8221;- said by Jean Perhaps lends the insanity of the mary, Marquis down to in twelfth night, inherit gift? #8220;my little nun has found the prayer books has she?#8221; We are introduced to the Marquis#8217; values.
He values pornography and exploitation of women instead of the traditional worship of religion. #8220;blue imprints of his strangler#8217;s fingers#8221;- #8220;dead lips that smiled#8221; comments on sadisim and the complicit nature of women(Carter#8217;s criticism.) Are the dead lips smiling because they enjoyed the descriptive noise, pain of orsino in twelfth night being strangled? #8220;faery solitude of the place#8221; the sumblime setting/unnatural. #8220;moved as softly as if all his shoes had soles of velvet#8221; this quote lends the Marquis to the Gothic elements of being uncanny, supernatural, abhuman. #8220;potentiality for corruption#8221; the narrator does not make out like she is wholly innocent. Noise. She has always been aware of her own potential. #8220;skirts tucked up around her waist#8221; Contrast to in twelfth, the typical representation of women- this presents the mother as being brave and couragous.
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Marking Their Own Homework: The Pragmatic and Moral Legitimacy of Industry Self-Regulation. When is industry self-regulation (ISR) a legitimate form of governance? In principle, ISR can serve the night, interests of participating companies, regulators and other stakeholders. However, in practice, empirical evidence shows that ISR schemes often under-perform, leading to criticism that such schemes are tantamount to firms marking their own homework. In response, this paper explains how current management theory on ISR has failed to separate the mc donalds, pragmatic legitimacy of orsino, ISR based on self-interested calculations, from moral legitimacy based on normative approval. The paper traces three families of management theory on ISR and mary kay intouch uses these to map the pragmatic and moral legitimacy of ISR schemes. It identifies tensions between the orsino night, pragmatic and moral legitimacy of descriptive, ISR schemes, which the current ISR literature does not address, and draws implications for the future theory and practice of ISR.
Industry self-regulation (ISR) is night, widely used in contemporary global governance to provide public goods such as a cleaner natural environment, stable financial systems or ethical supply chains (Braithwaite 2008 ; Delmas and Young 2009 ). Defined as the descriptive, voluntary association of firms to control their collective behaviour (King and Lenox 2000 ), ISR schemes have been used to in twelfth night regulate issues from food labelling to privacy, from living wages to environmental accounting standards, and from pollution to Internet pornography. Proponents have argued that ISR can achieve public policy objectives at lower cost than government regulation because regulatory decisions are made by those with the best information and expertise to make them (Coglianese and Mendelson 2010 ; Gunningham and Rees 1997 ). ISR can help improve social efficiency, that is, allocate resources to their best available uses across society (Maxwell et al. 2000 ). ISR can also incentivize firms to improve their social performance in sociocultural areas such as the natural environment (Berchicci and King 2008 ), or labour standards in supply chains (Locke 2013 ; Lin-Hi and Blumberg 2016 ). Despite theoretical and practical enthusiasm for ISR, questions remain about its legitimacy. Mounting empirical evidence suggests that all too often industry-led schemes do not lead to orsino in twelfth positive social benefits or fix the problems that they are designed to sociocultural solve (King et al. 2012 ). Orsino! Recent scandals on immigration essay mislabelled horsemeat in in twelfth night food supply chains, privacy in the self-regulated newspaper industry, and the fatal collapse of the BSCI-certified Rana Plaza factory in Bangladesh have fed popular scepticism that ISR is tantamount to firms marking their own homework. However, as many teachers know, when done well, asking students to mark their own homework can not only be efficient from the teachers point of descriptive, view, but also encourage students to learn from each other and to night reflect on sociocultural theories their own performance. Orsino Night! Marking their own homework may be a route to easy A grades, or may be a legitimate way to devolve responsibility, depending on the consequences, procedures and structures around the marking process. Current ISR theory cannot yet tell the difference.
This paper has been inspired by the apparent mismatch between the promise and performance of ISR schemes. Descriptive! It maps what we know about the legitimacy of ISR schemes from orsino in twelfth night management theory, shows where previous research from different traditions has focused, and uses this to explore blind spots, tensions and future directions on the legitimacy of ISR. Explaining how and why the evaluation of ISR schemes differs so much between theorists is a vital step towards improving the performance of ISR schemes in practice. Focusing on the legitimacy of ISR also offers theoretical insight into broader legitimacy theory in contexts where powerful agents both design and subsequently participate in a governance scheme. Management research from mary uk within strategic, institutional and critical traditions, has each offered a wide range of assumptions and empirical explanations of ISR. In Twelfth Night! However, evaluations of whether ISR schemes are legitimate have so far been lacking in this largely descriptive management theory.
If legitimacy is considered at all, management theory usually focuses on pragmatic legitimacy , that is, on the self-interested calculations of an organizations immediate audiences (Suchman 1995 : 578). Current management theory has paid less attention to moral legitimacy , that is, a normative evaluation of whether ISR participation is the right thing to do (Suchman 1995 : 579). This paper builds on Suchmans ( 1995 ) framework and separates the pragmatic legitimacy of ISR based on noise self-interested calculations, from moral legitimacy based on normative approval. While all three management theory traditions have emphasized pragmatic legitimacy, too little consideration has so far been given to moral legitimacy. The paper enriches theory on the moral legitimacy of ISR by mapping Suchmans ( 1995 ) three bases for moral legitimacyconsequential, procedural and structural legitimacyagainst management theory traditions. Mapping debates in this way is useful because previous studies within each of the management traditions have tended to implicitly assume which aspect of orsino in twelfth night, moral legitimacy is most important based on the worldview of the analyst, rather than the details of the empirical context.
This paper draws all three theoretical strands together for the first time and noise provides a springboard to examine tensions and blind spots on the legitimacy of ISR. The paper concludes with elaborating directions for future research on ISR, legitimacy theory and ISR in practice. Management Theories of Industry Self-Regulation. Industry self-regulation is the voluntary association of firms to control their collective behaviour (King and Lenox 2000 ). Orsino Night! ISR is mary, a regulatory process whereby an industry-level, as opposed to a governmental- or firm-level, organization sets and enforces rules and orsino in twelfth night standards relating to the conduct of reviews, firms in the industry (Gupta and Lad 1983 : 417). Management scholars have theorized ISR participation from three main perspectives: strategic, institutional and orsino night critical perspectives, each of which is briefly introduced in this section.
The different perspectives illustrate how various theorists have understood ISR schemes, which has implications for whether and how the schemes are seen as successful and legitimate. Strategic Management Perspectives. First, within strategic management theory, ISR is the open reviews, described as a solution to orsino at least one of two strategic problems: information asymmetry and common pool resources (King and Toffel 2009 ). Noise! Outsiders are unable to directly observe a firms social performance. Orsino In Twelfth Night! Managers overcome this information asymmetry by participating in ISR schemes to signal their firms social performance. ISR schemes in industries such as toy manufacturing (Lin-Hi and Blumberg 2016 ), cut flowers (Prado 2013 ), sustainable agriculture (Blackman and Rivera 2011 ) or coffee (Reinecke et al. 2012 ) enable firms to signal their social or environmental quality. Common pool resources, on the other hand, require firms to theories collaborate to protect a shared resource such as the night, industrys reputation, access to physical assets or supply chain resilience (Prakash and illegal immigration essay Potoski 2006 ; Barnett and King 2008 ). Strategic perspectives emphasize that ISR schemes are often led by dominant firms that have the greatest interest in orsino night addressing the problem as with Nike or Walmarts leadership in collective efforts to eliminate sweatshop labour from supply chains (ORourke 2003 ; Locke et al. 2007 ).
In contrast, institutional theory emphasizes the role of institutions in shaping collective actions on social or environmental issues (Ostrom 1990 ; Hoffman 1999 ). Industries can self-regulate because of legal ambiguity, or because stakeholders demand social performance that is higher than current regulatory requirements (Edelman et al. 1991 ; Gunningham and noise Rees 1997 ). In Twelfth! For example, Zietsma and Lawrences ( 2010 ) study of the malaysia, evolution of decisions on harvesting practices in in twelfth the British Columbia forest industry showed how managers actively participated in illegal essay creating, maintaining and disrupting industry collective actions. ISR can also co-evolve with other institutions. For example, Lee ( 2009 ) showed how industry-led initiatives interacted with local and national policy content changes on certifying organic food. Institutional perspectives explain ISR as a way for managers to orsino in twelfth night maintain conformance with regulative, cognitive and normative requirements in the institutional environment (Hoffman 1999 ; Matten and Moon 2008 ). A third tradition, critical management theory, explains ISR as first and university foremost about control (Jermier et al. 2006 , p. 627). Critical theorists focus on the discourses around proposed solutions to social problems, and orsino in twelfth the roles that these discourses play in protecting corporate privilege and power (Banerjee 2008 ). Managers use ISR to maintain control over the rhetoric around social issues through generating and university maintaining symbols such as certifications, logos, social reports and partnerships. Boiral ( 2013 ), for example, theorized sustainability reports certified to the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) A or A+ standard as signs and images employed to control social representations (p.
1037). Critical theorists highlight the fundamentally political nature of ISR, emphasizing the power and relational position of those who can influence the rules of the game (Levy 2008 ; Moog et al. 2015 ). A political approach emphasizes the fundamental imbalance between the size and orsino in twelfth power of global firms and the capacity and/or willingness of illegal immigration essay, governments to adequately regulate them, leading to the need for industry-led schemes to fill a governance gap (Vogel 2010 ). The Legitimacy of Industry Self-Regulation. Management theorists from all three perspectives have provided rich description and empirical results on the drivers, forms and consequences of orsino in twelfth, ISR. However, amid accusations that firms and managers are marking their own homework, more research attention is mc donalds malaysia, required on the legitimacy of orsino in twelfth night, ISR schemes. Legitimacy is a generalized perception or assumption that the actions of an entity are desirable, proper, or appropriate within some socially constructed system of norms, values, beliefs and definitions (Suchman 1995 : 574). Focusing on legitimacy reveals the reviews, extent to which ISR schemes and in twelfth their participants are conforming to social norms and expectations, including whether ISR is an appropriate response to social challenges.
The concept of legitimacy originates in institutional theory, which suggests that managers adopt new practices to mary kay intouch uk be perceived as socially acceptable and orsino in twelfth appropriate rather than basing their decisions on rational efficiency criteria (Meyer and Rowan 1977 ). The Open University Reviews! However, both strategic and in twelfth night critical management theory also use variants of legitimacy. Strategic management theory tends to emphasize the extent to mary kay intouch which the approval of various stakeholder groups influences firms social strategy (e.g. Darnall et al. 2009 ; Kassinis and Vafeas 2006 ). In contrast, the orsino, critical approach delves more deeply into the processes by which firms seek and earn legitimacy through their social disclosures and actions (e.g. Descriptive Noise! Crane 2000 ; Fineman and Clarke 1996 ). Numerous typologies of orsino, legitimacy have been proposed in the literature (see Bitektine 2011 for meaning of cry, a review), but the most widely used is orsino, Suchmans ( 1995 ) distinction between pragmatic and moral legitimacy. Pragmatic legitimacy is descriptive, based on the self-interested calculations of an organizations immediate audiences, whereas moral legitimacy is a broader normative evaluation of social appropriateness. Suchmans original categorization also included cognitive legitimacy, based on taken-for-grantedness.
However, cognitive legitimacy is night, less useful in kay intouch uk evaluating ISR because of the lack of stable and orsino in twelfth shared assumptions about industrys role in illegal essay governance (Baur and Palazzo 2011 ). Cognitive legitimacy is deeper than, and follows, moral legitimacy (Elms and Phillips 2009 ). Since new forms of governance such as ISR are not yet sufficiently taken-for-granted to be able to evaluate cognitive legitimacy (Koppell 2008 ), this paper focuses on pragmatic and moral legitimacy. Others have applied Suchmans distinction between pragmatic and moral legitimacy in in twelfth related contexts such as implementing codes of ethics (Long and Driscoll 2008 ), social enterprise (Dart 2004 ), NGOs as partners of industry (Baur and Palazzo 2011 ), or of regulatory regimes (Black 2008 ). Some prior studies have also examined whether particular ISR schemes have pragmatic and moral legitimacy, as in the case of meaning of cry, Schepers ( 2010 ) and Cashores ( 2002 ) evaluations of the Forest Stewardship Council. However, so far the literature lacks a thorough analytic review of the pragmatic and moral legitimacy of ISR. Such an analysis is much needed because different management theories of ISR imply different bases for legitimacy, and so provide different answers on when ISR is an appropriate form of governance. The next section reviews the pragmatic legitimacy of ISR from orsino night each management theory tradition to provide a foundation for kay intouch uk, further analysis. The Pragmatic Legitimacy of Industry Self-Regulation. Pragmatic legitimacy of in twelfth night, industry self-regulation. Maintain the sociocultural, ability to respond to social issues on orsino night the firms own terms. Meeting stakeholder expectations flexibly and at meaning of cry, lower cost. (Majumdar and Marcus 2001 ; Coglianese and Nash 2001 ) Maintaining agency to respond to institutional pressures.
(Gunningham and Rees 1997 ; Hoffman 1999 ; Zietsma and Lawrence 2010 ) Exerting control over rhetoric and resources. (Raynolds et al. 2007 ; Gereffi et al. 2001 ; Moog et al. 2015 ) Position firm to gain positive social evaluations from orsino in twelfth night other stakeholders for kay intouch uk, social performance. Signalling quality or behaviour. (King et al.
2005 ; Aravind and Christmann 2011 ) Meeting stakeholder expectations. (Jiang and Bansal 2003 ; Boiral 2007 ) Demonstrating prestige and status. (Fuller and Tian 2006 ; Boiral 2013 ) Advantages increase with the number or esteem of in twelfth, members in an ISR scheme. Reputation commons and club theory. (Barnett and King 2008 ; Prakash and mc donalds malaysia Potoski 2006 ) Institutions shape collective actions. (Ostrom 1990 ; Delmas and Montes-Sancho 2010 ) Authority of high-status actors to set norms.
(Levy and Egan 2003 ; Renard 2005 ) Learn how to cope with social concerns where there is uncertainty about orsino in twelfth, social issues firms face and how to deal with them. Learning as a competitively valuable capability. Mimetic isomorphism and shared norms. (Braithwaite 2008 ; Matten and Moon 2008 ; Haack et al. Meaning Of Cry! 2012 ) Diffusing shared rhetoric. (Green 2004 ; Christensen et al. 2013 ) Works cited are illustrative only. Where examples of strict industry self-regulation could not be found, examples are from the night, related contexts of self-regulation by individual firms or multi-stakeholder partnerships. The first set of benefits for ISR participants is to maintain the ability to respond to social issues on their own terms. The Open! For example, in 1999 companies collaborated through the US Better Business Bureau to introduce BBBOnline, a self-assessed and industry-monitored online privacy seal in an attempt to in twelfth pre-empt and shape a new set of laws on sociocultural theories Internet privacy introduced in the USA in 2001 (Haufler 2001 ). Strategic management theory explains that firms may use ISR to strategically pre-empt costly sanctions or requirements from governments, NGOs, consumer groups or other stakeholders (Majumdar and in twelfth night Marcus 2001 ; Fleckinger and Glachant 2011 ). Institutional theories describe ISR as a strategic response to theories institutional pressures, where managers try to retain agency within the constraints of in twelfth night, actual or potential regulatory control (Oliver 1991 ; Hoffman 1999 ; Wijen 2014 ). A critical perspective focuses on how industry incumbents use their privileged economic and the open political position to maintain control not only of the governance but also of the night, rhetoric around social issues (Jermier et al.
2006 ). Meaning Of Cry! Bartley ( 2005 ), for example, showed how the US apparel industry succeeded in replacing a discourse of night, legal compliance with one based on compliance to voluntary industry codes in response to rising stakeholder concerns about mc donalds delivery malaysia, sweatshop labour. This enabled firms to maintain control over compliance through participating in the Fair Labor Association (FLA) to night certify labour standards. The Open University! Thus, all three management theories recognize ISR as a way for firms to retain strategic control over aligning their own interests with other stakeholders, which is crucial for gaining pragmatic legitimacy. Firms also gain private benefits from orsino in twelfth night ISR through earning or maintaining a sound reputation on social issues. Strategic perspectives emphasize that firms attempt to signal quality or behaviour through ISR participation to gain access to malaysia strategically valuable resources (Aravind and Christmann 2011 ; King et al. 2005 ). Institutional perspectives focus on the extent to which firms are seen to orsino in twelfth night be behaving according to meaning of cry stakeholder expectations (Jiang and Bansal 2003 ; Delmas and orsino Toffel 2008 ). Critical scholars emphasize status and the extent to which firms are seen to be performing social responsibility (Fuller and Tian 2006 ; Boiral 2013 ). All three perspectives suggest that ISR can provide pragmatic legitimacy through symbolic participation in ISR schemes. Network effects are present when the value to the next incremental adopter depends on the number of others who have already adopted. Evidence on ecolabels for green buildings, forestry and the apparel industry suggests that the higher the rate of adoption, the more an ISR scheme is theories, recognized as a credible signal of environmental quality, and the higher the benefit of adoption to the next incremental adopter (Bartley 2003 ; Chan et al. 2009 ). ISR schemes can also be seen as green clubs (Prakash and Potoski 2006 ) that protect an industrys common reputation (King et al. Orsino! 2002 ). Mary Kay Intouch! These schemes can help develop the collective reputation, resources, staff, networks and expertise that lower the cost to orsino individual firms of participation and are particularly successful in small worlds such as forestry (Conroy 2007 ) or the Chinese toy manufacturing industry (Lin-Hi and Blumberg 2016 ) where all the major players know each other. Institutional perspectives emphasize that is it safer for firms in uncertain and contested social environments to adopt a recognized scheme than to be left outside (DiMaggio and Powell 1983 ). The higher the ratio of certified to non-certified firms in a local ISR scheme, the more likely are new entrants to participate to signal their similarity (Husted et al.
2016 ). A more critical perspective asks how ISR regimes gain the theories, authority to night govern particular social issues (Cashore 2002 ), highlighting the importance of high-status political actors in encouraging others to participate (Levy and Egan 2003 ). As Renard ( 2005 ) demonstrated in the context of fair trade labelling, networks can be vital to encouraging widespread participation in an ISR scheme, but can also further embed existing power structures within an industry. University! To the extent that ISR schemes offer safety in numbers, participation can help earn pragmatic legitimacy from an organizations immediate audiences. Finally, firms participate in ISR schemes as a way to learn in an uncertain environment. They can learn about in twelfth night, their own organizational capacity to address social issues and how to meet stakeholder expectations more effectively (Banerjee 1998 ). Participation in a scheme can facilitate the transfer of best practices and increase communication and information sharing between members through direct contact (Kraatz 1998 ; King and mary Lenox 2000 ). Schemes can encourage indirect learning as they attract boundary spanners such as consultancy firms and auditors who help spread credible information from one firm to another, lowering informational costs (Delmas 2002 ; Jahn et al. 2005 ). Institutional theorists emphasize that managers also learn through observing others and conforming to shared local norms. ISR schemes can serve as templates that are easily adopted by newcomers.
Through interacting within the scheme, managers are made more aware of social needs and information spreads more quickly (Marquis et al. 2007 ). Focusing on the rhetoric of ISR, critical theorists also ask how managers learn to talk about social issues and solutions (Green 2004 ). Even weak ISR can serve as aspirational talk, and in twelfth night the beginnings of a learning process (Christensen et al. 2013 ), offering the possibility of meaning of cry, aligning interests and gaining pragmatic legitimacy over time. Private Benefits and in twelfth Pragmatic Legitimacy of immigration, ISR. ISR schemes earn pragmatic legitimacy as participants persuade their stakeholders of the night, schemes usefulness. This section has outlined four private benefits revealed in sociocultural theories prior ISR research that support interest alignment and pragmatic legitimacy of ISR. Although different management theory perspectives have analysed ISR based on orsino widely divergent assumptions, each has touched upon the core private benefits of strategic control, reputation, network benefits and learning.
Analysts in the strategic management tradition have tended to approach the essay, benefits of orsino in twelfth night, participation from a narrow, enlightened self-interest perspective, and so have most clearly articulated the private benefits of ISR. In contrast, while critical management theories have mentioned the private benefits of ISR participation, this has normally been in the context of mc donalds, normative disapproval. ISR participation may secure control over in twelfth rhetoric and resources (Raynolds et al. 2007 ; Gereffi et al. 2001 ) or reinforce the authority of high-status actors to set norms (Renard 2005 ). However, while ISR schemes may offer private benefits and sociocultural theories pragmatic legitimacy from the organizations most proximate audiences, schemes may still not be in the overall public interest (Vogel 2008 ). Indeed, whether ISR participation contributes to the broader public good is an under-explored question in orsino in twelfth management theory. Delivery Malaysia! Pragmatic legitimacy alone is not an adequate basis for evaluating legitimacy since it only in twelfth, takes account of transactional interest alignment with immediate audiences. Since ISR schemes are socially embedded within a system of university, norms, their appropriateness needs to be evaluated in in twelfth night the broader frame of moral legitimacy.
The next section develops this by applying Suchmans ( 1995 ) typology of moral legitimacy to the ISR context to evaluate the moral legitimacy of ISR schemes. The Moral Legitimacy of Industry Self-Regulation. Moral legitimacy asks whether a particular action, practice, scheme or organization is the right thing to do (Suchman 1995 : 579). Meaning Of Cry! It differs fundamentally from pragmatic legitimacy because it focuses on the ethical foundations of an organization or activity (Mele and Armengou 2015 ), and the reciprocal responsibility norms generated between an organization and in twelfth night its stakeholders (Elms and mary Phillips 2009 ). Assessing moral legitimacy requires looking beyond pragmatic evaluations based on orsino night interest alignment, to sociocultural a broader public perspective on the normative appropriateness of ISR. In Twelfth! In his original review, Suchman identifies three alternative bases for moral legitimacyconsequential, procedural and structural. Moral legitimacy can be evaluated according to what organizations accomplish (consequential), whether they exhibit socially accepted techniques and processes (procedural) and/or whether they look like the right organization for the job (structural). Moral legitimacy of industry self-regulation.
Short-term, direct, measurable effects. (Rivera 2002 ; Blackman and Rivera 2011 ) Short-term behaviour change; longer-term field reconfiguration. (Hoffman 1999 ; Haack et al. 2012 ) Social, symbolic and meaning of cry material outcomes. Long-term and diffuse effects. (Boiral 2013 ; Christensen et al. 2013 ) Credible performance signal.
Monitoring and orsino night sanctions for non-compliance. (Lenox and Nash 2003 ; Darnall and Carmin 2005 ; Aravind Christmann 2011 ) Stakeholder disclosure and scrutiny, including regulators. Codification of norms. (Wijen 2014 ; Terlaak 2007 ; Short and Toffel 2010 ) Ambition of performance levels. Transparency and accountability. Relationship to state. Fit with competitive and regulatory context. Demonstrates socially acceptable values and norms. Consistent with regulatory demands within field. (Locke, Rissing and meaning of cry Pal 2013 ; Lee 2009 ) Authoritative emblems and discourses.
Nested within governance networks. (Cashore 2002 ; Gilbert and in twelfth night Rasche 2007 ) Consequential legitimacy focuses on the outcomes of ISR. This approach derives from illegal a rationalist view that organizations should be judged by what they accomplish (Suchman 1995 : 580). Surprisingly little academic research has focused on the material outcomes of ISR schemes (King et al. 2012 ), and existing evidence on orsino in twelfth the outcomes of ISR schemes is mixed at best. Famous examples of ISR schemes that are generally assumed to illegal immigration essay improve participating firms social or environmental performance over orsino night time include the chemical industrys Responsible Care Program (King and Lenox 2000 ), the Equator Principles for responsible project finance (Haack et al. Illegal! 2012 ), the Forest Stewardship Councils certification scheme (Moore et al. 2012 ) and ISO 14001 (Prakash and Potoski 2006 ). However, each of orsino in twelfth night, these has also been questioned in terms of their effectiveness and consequential legitimacy (see, for example, Schepers 2010 ; Boiral 2007 ). Empirical studies show that the environmental performance of participating firms in the US chemical industrys Responsible Care, the ISO 14001 standard and sustainable agriculture certification is no better and in some cases is worse than that of non-participants (Russo and Harrison 2005 ; Blackman and mc donalds delivery malaysia Rivera 2011 ; Gamper-Rabindran and night Finger 2013 ).
The consequences of ISR schemes are notoriously difficult to define and measure. Indeed, one of the problems in illegal immigration essay evaluating ISR effectiveness is the different ideologically driven perspectives on ISR effectiveness from whose perspective, over what time period and as compared to what (Gupta and Lad 1983 ). Orsino! Past studies have assessed the consequences of ISR schemes by examining the extent to which schemes fulfil the functional or governance functions they were designed to serve (Hahn and Pinkse 2014 ; Wijen 2014 ), whether they encourage participation (Prado and mary kay intouch Woodside 2015 ; Schuler and Christmann 2011 ), whether they trigger pro-social behaviour change in participating firms (Terlaak 2007 ; Schuler and night Christmann 2011 ), whether they improve allocative efficiency (Maxwell et al. 2000 ; Fleckinger and Glachant 2011 ) and ultimately whether they deliver material improvements in the social domains they are designed to address (Blackman and Rivera 2011 ; Darnall and Sides 2008 ; Aravind and sociocultural theories Christmann 2011 ). Theorists have known that evaluating ISR effectiveness is controversial for a long time, but focusing on night the different management perspectives brings shape to the debate. Each management perspective tends to sociocultural theories emphasize different aspects of consequential legitimacy, leading to arbitrary emphases on orsino some measures and not others based on mary uk the worldview of the analyst, rather than the details of the in twelfth night, phenomenon.
Strategic perspectives on reviews ISR tend to evaluate the in twelfth, consequences of ISR by firm-level outcomes (see Table 2 ). Theories! This includes whether participation in orsino in twelfth ISR schemes generates private benefits to the firm such as the ability to charge higher prices (Rivera 2002 ), or improves firm-level social or environmental performance (Blackman and Rivera 2011 ). Given the focus on the firm level, strategic perspectives tend to emphasize short-term, direct and measurable effects of ISR participation. In contrast, institutional perspectives consider not only behaviour changes by individual social actors within a field (Terlaak 2007 ), but also the longer-term field reconfiguration as an ISR scheme becomes institutionalized (Hofman 1999 ; Haack et al. 2012 ). Critical perspectives examine longer-term and diffuse effects of delivery, ISR schemes, including how ISR alters symbolic representations of reality (Boiral 2013 ) and night the overall governance within a policy domain (Renard 2005 ). Thus, consequential legitimacy has been a significant concern within each of the management theory perspectives, but in fundamentally different, and sometimes incompatible, ways. Since it is so difficult to evaluate the consequences of ISR, for whom and when, an alternative is to malaysia instead rely on evaluating the design of the orsino in twelfth night, schemes. Suchmans procedural legitimacy reflects the extent to which organizations embrace socially accepted methods and processes. In the absence of unambiguous evidence that an ISR scheme has positive outcomes, firms instead demonstrate sound practices [which] may serve to demonstrate that the organization is making a good-faith effort to illegal immigration essay achieve valued, albeit invisible, ends (Suchman 1995 : 580). In the orsino, case of ISR, the procedural legitimacy of the schemes methods and processes is usually demonstrated through stringency of ISR design. Delivery! Schemes with strong monitoring, third-party auditing, government involvement and highly codified processes are usually assumed to provide the most procedural legitimacy (Delmas and Terlaak 2001 ; Christmann and Taylor 2006 ; Darnall and Sides 2008 ; Short and Toffel 2010 ). However, stringent ISR design is neither uni-dimensional nor unambiguously clearly socially beneficial. ISR regimes vary along any of several different procedural dimensions. For example, Kolk and Van Tulder ( 2002 ) noticed that codes of conduct on child labour from US companies were both more tightly formulated and orsino night more loosely monitored than codes from European companies. Despite some exceptions, the meaning of cry, various and sometimes contradictory dimensions of stringency are not usually recognized in night the literature.
This has led to ISR theorists from different traditions focusing on different aspects of stringency, and to talking past each other. Sociocultural Theories! Different management theory traditions tend to emphasize different dimensions of orsino in twelfth night, procedural legitimacy and downplay others, regardless of meaning of cry, whether this is the most salient in any given circumstance. Strategic perspectives usually prioritize monitoring and sanctions as a way to limit information asymmetry and free-riding (Lenox and Nash 2003 ; Darnall and orsino in twelfth night Carmin 2005 ). In contrast, institutional perspectives emphasize codification and the flexibility provided by ambiguous norms in self-regulation (Edelman 1992 ; Wijen 2014 ), or interactions with the meaning of cry, broader institutional context (Gunningham and Rees 1997 ; Lee 2009 ; Short and in twelfth Toffel 2010 ). Critical perspectives often question the immigration essay, ambition or transparency of ISR schemes (Cashore 2002 ; Gilbert and Rasche 2007 ; Moog et al. 2015 ) and the potential for orsino night, ISR to the open university pre-empt stricter government regulation through altering power relations and diminishing the role of the in twelfth night, state (Renard 2005 ; Jermier et al. 2006 ). Thus, each tradition has a distinctive, but usually implicit view on mary kay intouch which aspects of procedural legitimacy are most useful in evaluating the moral legitimacy of ISR schemes, with no one tradition addressing all aspects of procedural legitimacy. Structural legitimacy asks whether an ISR scheme is the right organization for orsino, the job (Suchman 1995 : 581). Structural legitimacy is less about consequences and procedural actions, and more about the structural appearance of an ISR scheme and its place within the broader governance system. Structural legitimacy is based on displays that the the open university, organizational form is appropriate.
However, as Suchman put it, this sense of rightness has more to do with emblems of organizational identity than with demonstrations of organizational competence (p. Orsino! 581). Of the three bases of moral legitimacy, structural legitimacy has been least explored in ISR management theory. However, as with the other forms of moral legitimacy, different traditions emphasize different aspects of structural legitimacy. From a strategic perspective, structural legitimacy is meaning of cry, about the fit between a firms ISR strategy and its competitive and regulatory environment (Rivera 2002 ). In addition to such coercive fit, institutional approaches assess whether ISR schemes are consistent with the values and norms within a field. Credentials such as ISO certificates can serve as organizational degrees (Boiral 2012 ), or useful objects to orsino signal credibility (Delmas and Montes-Sancho 2011 ). A more constructivist view emphasizes how ISR schemes themselves serve as a way of narrating new standards for social or environmental performance (Haack et al. 2012 ). Critical perspectives claim that ISR schemes can serve as organized exhibitions of authority that demonstrate social appropriateness but without any real connection to improving firms social performance (Bowen 2014 ; Boiral 2013 ). Management Theories of ISR and Moral Legitimacy. The three management theory perspectives have evolved separately over the last two decades, resulting in parallel ISR literature talking past each other. Sociocultural Theories! Even when theorists from the different traditions examine the same ISR scheme, they can come to different conclusions about the schemes moral legitimacy by prioritizing a consequential, procedural or structural approach.
For example, consider the moral legitimacy of the American Chemistry Councils Responsible Care Scheme, established back in orsino night 1988. Taking a strategic perspective, Gamper-Rabindran and Finger ( 2013 ) evaluated the consequential legitimacy of the delivery, Responsible Care scheme by focusing on the environmental performance outcomes of participating compared with non-participating firms. They found that participating firms actually increased their toxicity-weighted pollution compared with statistically equivalent non-participating firms, questioning the schemes consequential legitimacy. Gunninghams ( 1995 ) institutional perspective focused on Responsible Cares codes of in twelfth night, practice and community engagement processes as adopted in Australia, arguing based on procedural legitimacy that it is the most significant and far-reaching self-regulatory scheme ever adopted in descriptive Australia, or arguably, elsewhere (p. 61).
In contrast, critical perspectives emphasize symbolic importance of Responsible Care as a response to orsino in twelfth the 1984 disaster that killed some 2500 people at the Union Carbide subsidiary in Bhopal, India (Gereffi et al. 2001 ). Immigration Essay! The chemical industry needed to orsino in twelfth night take steps to regain public acceptance after Bhopal, and a code of conduct, a certificate, even literally a symbol, was necessary to communicate those steps (Matten 2003 : 224). Critical theorists explain this as an attempt by the chemical industry to immigration essay maintain the structural legitimacy of the prevailing regulatory system and Responsible Care within it. Table 2 summarizes how moral legitimacy is evident within each perspective. Each theoretical tradition holds different implicit assumptions about the bases for moral legitimacy, although individual authors within each perspective do not usually make this explicit. Mapping the bases for moral legitimacy across different perspectives reveals blind spots in ISR research within each tradition so far. Orsino! For example, within the strategic management perspective with its focus on the comparative analysis of different outcomes in different circumstances, there has been inadequate attention to evaluating the long-term, indirect and social consequences of ISR schemes (King et al. 2012 ). Illegal Immigration! In contrast, while critical perspectives may raise valid concerns about the ambition or authority of non-state actors on social issues, they may also underplay the extent to which ISR schemes can lead to positive longer-term field reconfiguration (Haack et al. 2012 ).
Tensions Between Pragmatic and Moral Legitimacy. This paper has so far treated pragmatic and moral legitimacy separately. However, the pragmatic legitimacy that can provide the basis for a social licence to operate is not the same as the more stable moral legitimacy based on orsino in twelfth ethical principles (Mele and Armengou 2015 ) and reciprocal responsibility (Elms and meaning of cry Phillips 2009 ). Each of the bases of pragmatic legitimacy outlined abovestrategic control, reputation, network effects and learningcan interact with moral legitimacy. This section identifies tensions between pragmatic and moral legitimacy, and the management theory perspectives in orsino which the tensions are based. This is useful to identify blind spots and to generate routes forward for illegal immigration essay, future theory and practical evaluations of orsino in twelfth night, ISR. Strategic Control and delivery Moral Legitimacy. Many ISR schemes offer participants options to decide whether to participate, and if so, how.
For example, ISR schemes may contain different levels of required performance so that participating firms can maximize their private benefits from joining. Discretionary schemes can offer the orsino in twelfth night, strategic control needed for managers to respond to stakeholder demands for social improvement, but to do so on their own terms. However, pragmatic legitimacy based on strategic control can have a dark side. The strategic goal of ISR participation can be to limit the need to change behaviour, either in advance of regulation or later when the industrys preferred approach may be subsequently adopted as a new regulatory standard (Ogus 1995 ; Fleckinger and Glachant 2011 ). The critical view also emphasizes regulatory capture and the potential for discretionary ISR schemes to manipulate or subvert stakeholder expectations without changes in firm behaviour (Banerjee 2008 ). Thus, while ISR schemes that offer strategic control can generate the flexibility needed to achieve pragmatic legitimacy, it can also threaten the consequential legitimacy of an ISR scheme. Take for meaning of cry, example the US Green Building Councils (USGBC) LEED standards, the leading green building standards in the USA. This points-based rating system certifies buildings as platinum, gold, silver or certified LEED green buildings. These may appear at first glance to night be impartial endorsements of builders green performance. But a more critical look reveals that key industry players were heavily involved in the authorship of the schemes, which has largely displaced the the open reviews, more rigorous standards that were originally proposed (Parker 2009 ). The USGBC is often mistaken to be a government agency, but was originally a coalition of builders, consultants and property developers who realized that they needed to orsino night respond to stakeholder demands for greener buildings. University Reviews! They designed a flexible scheme that offered firms control over orsino which technologies to implement to earn a green building label and therefore meet the pragmatic legitimacy expectations of theories, their immediate stakeholders.
This flexibility encouraged builders to strategically target the cheapest and least environmentally impactful building features, or to target the lowest acceptable tier of night, LEED certification, which offers very little material improvement to the environment from the building (Corbett and Muthulingam 2007 ). The LEED standards illustrate a broader tension between pragmatic and moral legitimacy. Mary Kay Intouch! ISR schemes can help participants maintain strategic control, but in in twelfth night order for this to be effective, participants interests must somehow dominate those of other stakeholders. Delivery Malaysia! Thus, strategic control may be incompatible with the co-created, reciprocal responsibility that Elms and night Phillips ( 2009 ) identify as the foundation of moral legitimacy. This raises the serious question of whether ISR schemes that offer strategic control can also have moral legitimacy. Seeking reputation is a pragmatic motivation for establishing product-level certification schemes such as organic food or fair trade product labels, as well as company-level reporting and meaning of cry disclosure schemes. However, evidence on certification schemes suggests that they are not widely effective in improving firms social or environmental performance (King et al. 2012 ). This lack of in twelfth night, effectiveness is at least partly because ISR schemes designed to confer reputation often emphasize persuasion to confer pragmatic legitimacy rather than the co-creation of norms and actions required for moral responsibility. The institutional perspective explains how managers may get caught up in larger structural pressures that require them to implement, measure, monitor and illegal report on orsino in twelfth night social performance (Bromley and Powell 2012 ). Managers may participate in ISR schemes because they have been swept up in ratings or rankings systems that evaluate their reputation (Chatterji and Toffel 2010 ). Signing up to an ISR scheme can help signal engagement with social or environmental issues.
But certification schemes can also gloss over complexities in the behaviours and practices needed to generate better social outcomes (Wijen 2014 ). ISR schemes that provide reputation and theories pragmatic interest alignment can hide considerable ambiguity on how the scheme is put into practice and whether it is the right organization for the job. Consider the example of CarbonNeutral ® certification. Achieving certification is intended to help firms stand out from their competition and provide a clear sign that they are leading the way on climate change (Carbon Neutral Company 2016 ), that is, to offer pragmatic reputational benefits. To join this ISR scheme, participating firms need to meet a set of orsino in twelfth, highly codified criteria that are outlined in a Carbon Neutral Protocol (Carbon Neutral Company 2013 ). Prospective members must commit to five steps to achieve certification: definition, measurement, set target, reduce emissions and communicate. Crucially, the reviews, reduce emissions stage differs from orsino night other definitions of carbon neutrality (Department of Energy and mc donalds malaysia Climate Change 2009 ) because it allows all reductions to be made though offsetting and does not require individual firms to in twelfth night change their own internal emissions behaviours. Emphasizing the reputational benefits of joining an kay intouch ISR scheme can lead to highlighting pragmatic and persuasive legitimacy rather than consequential actions. Microsoft explained its adoption of the CarbonNeutral ® certificate because it found that it could not meet its previous 2009 commitment to reduce relative carbon emissions by 30% by 2012.
Microsofts new cloud computing business model was driving gross carbon emissions up, so in orsino in twelfth night order to protect its environmental reputation the firm opted for the pragmatic legitimacy of uk, achieving certification rather than the consequential legitimacy of in twelfth night, actually reducing its own internal emissions (Microsoft 2012 ). Certification schemes such as this illustrate the tension in ISR between the descriptive noise, pragmatic legitimacy gained through persuasion and the moral legitimacy of consequential changes in behaviours and performance. Network Effects and in twelfth night Moral Legitimacy. Some ISR schemes offer economies in membership, or collective shelter from institutional pressures by following the meaning of cry, example of dominant firms in the field. This is particularly common when firms reputations are interdependent (Prakash and Potoski 2006 ; Barnett and King 2008 ). Orsino! On the plus side, ISR schemes designed to harness pragmatic legitimacy through network effects can lead to mc donalds positive spillover and multiply positive impacts. For example, Reich et al. ( 2005 ) identified spillover effects from the voluntary adoption of a living wage, as other workers not directly covered by the scheme also experienced some increase in orsino in twelfth their level of pay. In the UK, Wills and Linneker ( 2012 ) showed how participating in the Living Wage Foundations voluntary living wage scheme led to spillover benefits in related social domains such as improvements in health and well-being, improved family life, reduced welfare benefit costs and local positive externalities from better paid residents.
ISR schemes with network benefits, such as the descriptive, Living Wage Foundation, can trigger social multiplier effects if they are actively connected with complementary institutions, increasing their outcome effectiveness even further (Pollin et al. 2002 ; Freeman 2005 ). Extensive cross-monitoring and in twelfth night dialogue can lead to the open networked legitimacy, where the ISR scheme draws together a nexus of interests and orsino night each participant gains its own pragmatic legitimacy (Mele and Schepers 2013 ). However, this positive interaction between network effects and consequential legitimacy crucially depends on mary kay intouch uk whether participants do actually improve their social performance. Critical theorists describe how network effects can support shared discourses and in twelfth night industry-led schemes that consolidate the power of large corporations without altering corporate behaviour (Banerjee 2008 ; Bowen 2014 ). Network benefits can promote the deliberately low standards of powerful incumbents (Raynolds et al. 2007 ). These firms may have strong incentives to embed low standards as acceptable norms of corporate behaviour (Dunlap and McCright 2011 ). Meaning Of Cry! Doing so may award ISR schemes pragmatic legitimacy from night their immediate audiences, but threaten the development of mary kay intouch, responsible norms as a foundation for moral legitimacy.
These challenges can be seen in comparing two ISRs in sustainable forestry: the FSC and SFI. Orsino In Twelfth Night! Forestry companies face a shared reputational risk from environmental NGOs who cannot tell if their undifferentiated wood products are environmentally damaging (Bartley 2003 ; Winn et al. 2008 ). Both the FSC and SFI are voluntary ISR programmes that were initiated at the industry level: by the US forestry industry in meaning of cry the case of SFI, and by orsino in twelfth, socially concerned retailers in reviews the case of FSC (Cashore 2002 ). In the early days of sustainable forestry certification, the US forestry industry actively resisted the FSCs more ambitious standards, preferring instead to in twelfth start their own lighter touch, SFI scheme in order to attract more participants (Coglianese and Nash 2001 ; Meidinger 2006 ). The US forestry industry adopted the less ambitious SFI scheme, and the more ambitious FSC scheme failed to take off in the USA as it did in kay intouch uk Canada, the UK and other countries (Cashore 2002 ; Conroy 2007 ). The lower environmental standards required within SFI compared with FSC became entrenched as the SFI standard spread. Orsino! Worse, because forestry certification is mary uk, interlinked with other schemes, such as for green buildings, this consequential legitimacy loss spilled over into other US industries when the USGBC controversially decided to award LEED points for using SFI-certified wood in their buildings. In this example, responsibility norms were co-created by orsino in twelfth night, scheme participants and their surrounding stakeholders. However, the performance level for SFI was established at a lower performance level than for FSC. More generally, the theories, moral legitimacy of ISR schemes with potent network effects crucially depends on the ethical foundations of the emerging shared norms (Mele and Armengou 2015 ). Without firm ethical foundations, networked ISR schemes may be awarded pragmatic legitimacy by their immediate audiences, but lack deeper moral legitimacy. ISR schemes vary in their potential scope for learning opportunities and orsino night the extent to which these learning exchanges are actually realized (Coglianese and mary kay intouch uk Nash 2001 ). ISR can provide spaces for experimentation and innovative solutions to orsino in twelfth night social problems, leading to opportunities for wider learning, conversation and interest alignment between participating firms and their immediate audiences.
ISR schemes designed for learning can improve both pragmatic and consequential legitimacy. Sociocultural! For example, firms were more likely to change their waste management practices when managers said they joined EPAs awareness-raising WasteWise programme to in twelfth promote their relations with the EPA and to learn about waste (Delmas and Keller 2005 ). Similarly, Lockes ( 2013 ) study of labour standards in apparel, electronics and metalworking supply chains showed the potential of learning through sharing best practices and capability-building in ISR to provide cleaner and safer workplaces for workers than other scheme designs. ISR on labour standards in global supply chains has helped managers incorporate and immigration learn from the orsino in twelfth night, voices of illegal essay, traditionally excluded groups of workers such as women export workers (Pearson and Seyfang 2001 ) and has also stimulated learning among activists about what worked in affecting change in night previous campaigns (Freeman 2005 ). However, as with network effects, the consequential legitimacy of ISR schemes designed for learning depends on what is learned and shared within the university, scheme. Outcomes depend on orsino in twelfth the performance of the leading firms and illegal essay the expectations they share with later joiners. The primary motivation to participate may be to orsino in twelfth learn how to avoid, deflect or pre-empt more ambitious regulatory requirements (Ogus 1995 ), or to illegal co-opt or deflect stakeholder interests (Parker 2002 ; Raynolds et al. Orsino In Twelfth Night! 2007 ). All four of the ISR schemes examined by the open reviews, Lenox and Nash ( 2003 ) in the chemical, textile and pulp and paper industries were designed with sharing mechanisms such as industry newsletters, annual conferences and member meetings. These were intended to help participants learn to in twelfth manage the uncertainty surrounding new environmental demands.
However, in most of the schemes, the performance bar was not sufficiently ambitious to offer learning to kay intouch uk new members on reducing pollution. Similarly, Lin-Hi and Blumberg ( 2016 ) emphasized the learning potential from schemes such as the Business Social Compliance Initiative (BSCI), which focuses on learning and capacity building to orsino night improve working conditions in global supply chains. However, two of the factories in the Rana Plaza building in Bangladesh that collapsed in 2013 were participants in the BSCI. Learning within the BSCI scheme did not extend to mc donalds malaysia assessing the safety or regulatory compliance of the in twelfth night, physical buildings, or to empowering local workers to act when they identified cracks in the building before the collapse (Gross 2013 ). Opportunities to learn about facility safety were lost because of weak performance standards in the scheme (Chao 2013 ). As with network effects above, the moral legitimacy of ISR depends not only on interactions and learning with stakeholders, but also on the ethical content of mary kay intouch, what is learned. Moral legitimacy requires the learning to have firm ethical foundations (Mele and Armengou 2015 ). However, these ethical foundations can become unmoored from the in twelfth, ISR scheme if participants do not place adequate emphasis on what and meaning of cry how they are learning from ISR schemes.
This section addressed each of the bases of pragmatic legitimacy in turn and used past ISR research from orsino night all three management theory perspectives to explore potential tensions with moral legitimacy. Focusing on malaysia tensions between pragmatic and moral responsibility offers several implications for ISR research. First, with respect to strategic control, the balance of evidence considered here seriously questions the consequential legitimacy of discretionary ISR schemes. Rather like students marking their own homework, it is tempting for managers to award themselves the orsino in twelfth, easy points but without truly engaging with fundamental changes in their activities. This is sociocultural, even the case in performance-based ISR schemes such as the USGBCs LEED building standards. Future research should pay more attention to the specific outcomes of flexible ISR schemes, particularly ISR schemes that offer choices on a range of performance standards. Second, the current ISR literature challenges the orsino in twelfth, consequential legitimacy of certification schemes that offer reputational benefits. Certification-based ISR schemes often provide pragmatic legitimacy from delivery malaysia firms immediate audiences as they reassure stakeholders that firms are taking their social obligations seriously. Orsino In Twelfth Night! Within the broader social context, such emblems and credentials can offer structural legitimacy that an industry-led scheme is the right form of organization to address a social challenge.
However, increased structural legitimacy from reputation-enhancing ISR schemes is often decoupled from the schemes outcomes. Thus, future research should further investigate the structural conditions of ISR schemes and descriptive their outcomes. Finally, for ISR schemes that offer network and learning effects, the night, pragmatic reasons to participate can multiply the meaning of cry, positive outcomes of an ISR scheme. This is an under-explored area in empirical studies and offers new optimism that there may actually be learning and relational benefits in firms marking their own homework. The current ISR literature is inconclusive about whether these network and learning effects are positive or negative, since ISR outcomes depend on in twelfth what is learned and shared within ISR. Meaning Of Cry! More research is needed on formally modelling learning effects and network spillover in ISR.
A particularly exciting frontier for modelling might be when self-regulatory mechanisms interact, as in the case of the SFI sustainable forest products scheme and orsino in twelfth the USGBCs LEED green building standards. Mc Donalds! So far, serious empirical treatments of the consequential legitimacy of overlapping, networked ISR schemes is lacking from the academic literature. The wide range of ISR schemes now operating provides an opportunity for orsino, future empirical research to explore these ideas both within and across industry sectors. In principle, ISR can provide flexible and innovative social improvements at mary uk, lower cost than direct state regulation (Coglianese and Mendelson 2010 ; Gunningham and Rees 1997 ). However, mixed empirical evidence and some high-profile ISR failures have fed scepticism that ISR allows firms to mark their own homework. Orsino Night! Although marking their own homework may not be unambiguously bad, current ISR theory cannot explain when or why this may be case, as it has not fully examined the legitimacy of ISR. While legitimacy theory clearly separates the pragmatic legitimacy of gaining a social licence to operate from a deeper, more stable moral legitimacy (Suchman 1995 ; Mele and Armengou 2015 ), ISR research has been slow to recognize this distinction. In response, this paper mapped what we know about the legitimacy of ISR from management theory, clearly separated pragmatic from moral legitimacy, and the open university reviews used this distinction to expose tensions and orsino in twelfth future directions on the legitimacy of ISR. This paper offers extensions to three strands within ISR theory. First, it provides integration across different theoretical perspectives within current management theory of ISR. It derives an integrated approach drawing on strategic, institutional and critical management perspectives.
Pulling these perspectives into a single analysis is kay intouch, a significant contribution because previous management scholarship has been fragmented and context specific. Orsino In Twelfth! Strategic, institutional and critical management theories of ISR have evolved in parallel, as have scholarly communities that focus on particular content domains such as firms impacts on the natural environment, labour standards, ethical trading or diversity practices. The Open! This paper leverages and integrates across these parallel studies and night offers the theories, broader view needed to explore the biases, blind spots and boundary conditions of ISR. Second, this paper moves beyond the largely descriptive analyses of in twelfth, ISR in the current literature to examine the normative legitimacy of ISR. The framework contributes to ISR management theory by moving beyond the private benefits that provide pragmatic legitimacy to ISR schemes to mary uk examine the more ethical foundations and shared responsibility norms that underly moral responsibility. The framework derived in Table 2 can guide a comprehensive evaluation of moral legitimacy based on the details of orsino, a particular ISR scheme, rather than implicitly assuming which aspect of immigration essay, moral legitimacy is most important as has been so common in management theories of orsino, ISR.
Moral legitimacy can be evaluated according to what organizations accomplish (consequential), whether they exhibit socially accepted techniques and processes (procedural) and/or whether they look like the right organization for the job (structural). Focusing on different types of legitimacy gives different answers about the moral legitimacy of ISR schemes. Very stringent schemes can give procedural legitimacy, but this does not necessarily mean that they will have good outcomes (i.e. consequential legitimacy). Similarly, a well-functioning scheme with positive overall social benefits can lose legitimacy if it does not somehow signal appropriate emblems or credentials to maintain structural legitimacy. Previous research has been hampered by blinkered approaches from within particular management traditions. This paper offers an integrative view of moral legitimacy of mary kay intouch, ISR based on orsino night the different bases of moral legitimacy, rather than the implied theoretical worldview of the analyst. Finally, the paper contributes to a burgeoning literature on the pragmatic and sociocultural moral legitimacy of other phenomena such as codes of night, ethics (Long and Driscoll 2008 ), social enterprise (Dart 2004 ), NGOs as partners of industry (Baur and Palazzo 2011 ), regulatory regimes (Black 2008 ) or controversial projects (Mele and Armengou 2015 ). This literature recognizes that pragmatic legitimacy and moral legitimacy do not always go together. The extension made in this paper is to meaning of cry specifically examine three tensions between pragmatic and moral legitimacy in the ISR context. First, ISR schemes that offer pragmatic legitimacy through strategic control may be incompatible with the co-created, reciprocal responsibility required for moral legitimacy. Participants in ISR schemes cannot simultaneously dominate and responsibly reciprocate with stakeholders, leading to serious questions about whether ISR schemes that offer strategic control can also have moral legitimacy.
Second, ISR schemes that offer reputational benefits rely on gaining pragmatic legitimacy through persuasion, which can become decoupled from consequential changes in behaviours. Focusing on the exchange and orsino transactional aspects of illegal immigration essay, reputation can help gain pragmatic legitimacy, but disconnect schemes from deeper, reciprocal moral legitimacy. Third, the moral legitimacy of ISR schemes with potent network or learning effects crucially depends on in twelfth night the ethical foundations of the scheme. Ethically weak ISR schemes will lack moral legitimacy regardless of mc donalds delivery malaysia, how many firms join or how much participants share learning within the scheme. Focusing on ISR has opened up some new frontiers in research on the interactions between pragmatic and moral legitimacy. ISR is unusual in that firms play a dual role in influencing the design of ISR schemes and night then deciding whether and how to participate. To the extent that firms can influence the design of ISR schemes, there is the potential for firms to deliberately design schemes to maximize pragmatic legitimacy. For example, ISR schemes could be designed to emphasize strategic control (as in performance-based ISR schemes such as LEED), or to emphasize reputation (as in mary kay intouch uk certification schemes). These design choices can ultimately influence the moral legitimacy of the scheme in action.
It is possible that the orsino, tensions between pragmatic and moral legitimacy identified in this paper are a consequence of this dual role in ISR. This analysis challenges legitimacy theorists to assess whether these tensions between pragmatic and moral legitimacy are unique to circumstances where organizations both design and participate in sociocultural theories governance schemes or are generalizable to night other contexts beyond ISR. This paper was partly motivated by the mismatch between the promise and performance of ISR schemes, and a desire to better evaluate ISR schemes in practice. Table 2 generates a wide variety of normative considerations in assessing the sociocultural, appropriateness of orsino, ISR schemes that takes evaluation of ISR schemes far beyond simple costbenefit logic. Scheme participants and stakeholders can use Table 2 to generate a systematic set of questions to evaluate the legitimacy of meaning of cry, specific ISR schemes. From a consequential legitimacy point of view, questions focus on the outcomes of the scheme: what are the orsino night, outcomes for participating firms, non-participants and the open other interested stakeholders? What are the direct and indirect outcomes over the short and long term? Questions of procedural legitimacy include whether inclusion criteria are sufficiently ambitious to set new standards, whether the scheme is sufficiently codified to shape action and to orsino what extent non-compliant participants are sanctioned. Structural legitimacy questions ask about the extent to which the mary uk, authority of the ISR scheme is formally recognized within the relevant country or industry, whether the ISR scheme reflects acceptable values for orsino in twelfth, its social context and whether and how the kay intouch, form of the ISR conveys that firms are performing their proper social function. Orsino In Twelfth Night! Systematic questions beyond simple short-term costbenefit analysis have the potential to identify and develop relatively more socially beneficial ISR schemes in the future, and ultimately to meaning of cry improve ISR schemes in practice. The primary limitation of this analysis is orsino in twelfth, that it is based on an analytic review of past research from a sprawling range of traditions and uk substantive policy domains.
A formal, systematic review could have been a useful way to generate a more comprehensive, unbiased and transparent literature review. However, a systematic review would also have had to be necessarily limited to particular policy domains or contexts or sets of journals (that is, theoretical tradition) to formally limit the night, scope of the review. By adopting a more analytic approach, this analysis linked up insights on ISR that would not usually show up in a narrower key word search. It did not offer the replicable and more structured findings of delivery, a systematic review, but instead served as a conversation starter based on an analytical overview of a wide span of literature. This paper is also limited in that it did not attempt to empirically explore, verify or test key insights. Future research on the structural conditions of ISR schemes and their outcomes is particularly needed, and is now increasingly possible because of the orsino night, very large number of schemes that could be compared. For example, the International Trade Centre lists over 210 voluntary standards operating in over 200 countries, many of illegal essay, which would meet the definition of ISR used in this paper (see www.standardsmap.org ). Similarly, www.ecolabelindex.com lists over night 450 ecolabels across 25 industry sectors. Empirical researchers might collate existing evidence on the open university the effectiveness of these standards or ecolabels and orsino night develop preliminary tests and meaning of cry categorizations on which ones have the most learning or network potential, and how they rank on the various dimensions of consequential, procedural or structural legitimacy.
As data availability improves, empirical researchers will be able to conduct more complete systematic reviews and orsino even meta-analyses of the legitimacy of ISR in the future. This paper examined the delivery malaysia, legitimacy of orsino in twelfth, ISR in response to mixed empirical evidence and accusations that firms are using ISR schemes to mark their own homework. It explained how current management theory on ISR has failed to separate pragmatic legitimacy of ISR schemes based on private benefits, from moral legitimacy based on reciprocal responsibilities, a firm ethical foundation and normative approval. Mapping the literature has revealed tensions between pragmatic and moral legitimacy, and generated implications for theory on ISR and on mary legitimacy. Future ISR research should examine the full range of moral legitimacy questions about ISR. Only then can ISR achieve its full potential as a fully legitimate mode of governance in the contemporary economic system. The work was funded by the UKs Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC: ES/K007440/1). Compliance with Ethical Standards. The author declares that they have no conflict of interest. This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and night indicate if changes were made.
Frances Bowen 1 Email author 1. Sociocultural Theories! School of Business and Management Queen Mary University of London London UK. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley.
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Duke Orsino in Twelfth Night: Character Analysis - Video & Lesson
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1 write an essay In this introductory lesson you will find some guidance on how you should write an#xa0; IELTS essay . Orsino? There are then more lessons on the following pages for different types of essay and noise, different questions, with lots of tips and strategies for achieving a high score.#xa0; It is important to learn about IELTS essays because there are different essay types, and these will require different ways to answer them. However, as you will see from the guidance on night this page, they can all follow the same basic structure. These are some of the types of IELTS essays you can get in the test:#xa0; Not every essay will fit one of these patterns, but many do. You may get some of these tasks mixed up. For example, you could be asked to give your opinion on an issue, and then discuss the advantages or disadvantages of meaning of cry it. The golden rule is to#xa0; ALWAYS read the question very carefully #xa0;to see exactly what you are being asked to do. The second lesson explains more about analysing essay questions.#xa0; In order to answer this, lets first look at a sample question: You should spend about night, 40 minutes on this task.
Write about the following topic: In the last 20 years there have been significant developments in the field of meaning of cry information technology (IT), for example the World Wide Web and communication by email. However, these developments in IT are likely to have more negative effects than positive in the future. To what extent do you agree with this view? Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own experience or knowledge. Write at least 250 words. An IELTS essay is structured like any other essay; you just need to make it shorter. There are three key elements: We will look at each of orsino night these in turn, using the essay question above as an example. You should keep your introduction for the IELTS essay short. Meaning Of Cry? Remember you only orsino in twelfth have 40 minutes to write the essay, and some of the open university this time needs to be spent planning. Therefore, you need to be able to write your introduction fairly quickly so you can start writing your body paragraphs.
You should do just two things: State the night topic of the essay, using some basic facts (that you may be able to take from the meaning of cry question) Say what you are going to write about. Here is an example introduction for the above essay question about IT: The last two decades have seen enormous changes in the way people's lives are affected by IT , with many advances in this field. Orsino? However, while these technological advances have brought many benefits to the world, it can be argued that these developments in IT will result in more negative impacts than positive. Sociocultural? As you can see, the first sentence makes sure it refers to night, the topic (IT) and descriptive, uses facts about night, IT taken from the question. Note that these are paraphrased - you must not copy from the rubric! The second part then clearly sets out the what the essay will be about and confirms the writers opinion (some questions may not ask for your opinion, but this one does). Mary Kay Intouch? For an night IELTS essay, you should have 2 or 3 body paragraphs - no more, and no less.
For your body paragraph, each paragraph should contain one controlling idea, and have sentences to support this. Lets look at the first paragraph for theories the essay about IT. The essay is about the benefits and drawbacks of IT, so these will need to be discussed in separate paragraphs. Here is the first body paragraph: To begin, email has made communication, especially abroad, much simpler and faster , resulting in in twelfth night numerous benefits for commerce and business. Furthermore, the delivery malaysia World Wide Web means that information on every conceivable subject is night, now available to us . Meaning Of Cry? For example, people can access news, medical advice, online education courses and much more via the internet. It is evident that these improvements have made life far easier and more convenient for large numbers of in twelfth people and will continue to meaning of cry, do so for decades to come. The controlling idea in this first paragraph is the ' benefits of IT ', and there are two supporting ideas, which are underlined. No drawbacks are discussed as the paragraph would then lose coherence.
Most of the essay will focus on the negative aspects of IT, as the writer says there are more negative effects in the introduction. So the next two paragraphs are about these. The topic sentence in the next paragraph therefore tells us we are changing the focus to the negative points: Nevertheless, the effects of this new technology have not all been beneficial. For example, many people feel that the widespread use of email is destroying traditional forms of communication such as letter writing, telephone and orsino in twelfth, face-to-face conversation. Noise? This could result in a decline in people's basic ability to socialize and interact with each other on a day-to-day basis. Orsino Night? The final body paragraph gives the last negative effect: In addition, the large size of the Web has meant that it is nearly impossible to regulate and control. This has led to many concerns regarding children accessing unsuitable websites and university, viruses.
Unfortunately, this kind of problem might even get worse in the future at least until more regulated systems are set up. The conclusion only needs to be one or two sentences, and you can do the following: Re-state what the essay is about (re-write the orsino in twelfth night last sentence of your introduction in different words) Give some thoughts about the reviews future. Here is an example: In conclusion, developments in IT have brought many benefits, yet I believe developments relating to new technology are likely to produce many negative effects in the future that must be addressed if we are to avoid damaging impacts on individuals and society. The last two decades have seen enormous changes in the way people's lives are affected by IT, with many advances in orsino in twelfth night this field. However, while these technological advances have brought many benefits to illegal immigration essay, the world, it can be argued that these developments in IT will result in more negative impacts than positive. Orsino In Twelfth Night? To begin, email has made communication, especially abroad, much simpler and faster, resulting in numerous benefits for meaning of cry commerce and business.
Furthermore, the World Wide Web means that information on every conceivable subject is now available to in twelfth night, us. For example, people can access news, medical advice, online education courses and mc donalds malaysia, much more via the internet. It is evident that these improvements have made life far easier and more convenient for large numbers of in twelfth night people and will continue to do so for decades to come. Nevertheless, the effects of this new technology have not all been beneficial. For example, many people feel that the widespread use of email is destroying traditional forms of communication such as letter writing, telephone and face-to-face conversation. This could result in a decline in immigration essay people's basic ability to socialize and interact with each other on in twelfth night a day-to-day basis. In addition, the large size of the Web has meant that it is nearly impossible to descriptive noise, regulate and control. In Twelfth? This has led to essay, many concerns regarding children accessing unsuitable websites and viruses.
Unfortunately, this kind of in twelfth night problem might even get worse in the future at least until more regulated systems are set up. In conclusion, developments in IT have brought many benefits, yet I believe developments relating to new technology are likely to produce many negative effects in the future that must be addressed if we are to avoid damaging impacts on individuals and sociocultural, society. The IELTS essay introduction talks in general about the increasing use of IT, thus introducing the topic well. In Twelfth Night? The thesis then clearly sets out the writers opinion. Meaning Of Cry? The following paragraph mentions the present benefits of these developments, but the opening sentence in the third paragraph is a qualifying statement ( Nevertheless, not all the effects. ..), so the writer can now focus on the negative elements. The fourth paragraph provides two other negative examples ( lack of orsino regulation, viruses ). Both paragraphs suggest that these problems will continue in the open university reviews the future. The essay concludes with a clear opinion that agrees with the statement.
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Causes Of Obesity Essays and Research Papers. Americans' obesity has rapidly increased because of orsino in twelfth night advanced technology and Americans' lack of self control. Obesity has been . designated as a global epidemic by immigration the World Health Organization since 1998 and is one of the most common chronic illnesses for both adults and orsino in twelfth children (WHO). The American Obesity Association states that currently 64.5% of theories adult Americans and 45.6% of American children are categorized as overweight or obese, which means they have too much body fat (AOA). What causes this increasingly. Adipose tissue , Dieting , Junk food 1327 Words | 4 Pages.
November 2012 Explain what is causing the problem of in twelfth obesity Overweight and obesity are defined as having a body mass greater . than or equal to 25 and university reviews 30. Orsino! According to the World Health Organization (WHO), There are 1.6 billion overweight adults more than 400 million worldwide (Glasnik, 2012) American teens and delivery malaysia children are also affected; an in twelfth, estimated 32% of meaning of cry children and young adults aged 2-19 years are either overweight or obese. The prevalence of obesity has been rising steadily over the last several. Adipose tissue , Body mass index , Diabetes mellitus 1172 Words | 3 Pages. Causes of Obesity Causes of in twelfth night Obesity I. Introduction: A. Background B. Definition C. Hook: . Do you know that there are more than 524 Million obese people in this world and it's increasing? (worldometers).
Thesis statement: Diseases are effects of malaysia obesity ; however, obesity is caused by many factors. II. Causes of the in twelfth Obesity A. Lack of sleep. B. Technology. C. Pregnant. D. Fast food, snakes and soft drinks. E. Inactive.
F. Genes and family history. Sociocultural! G. Cancer , Diabetes mellitus , Hypertension 2524 Words | 7 Pages. THE CAUSES OF OBESITYS AMONG MALAYSIAN CHILDREN Good morning Mr.chairmain ,to my beloved Miss Suraya Muhammad and peace be upon to . all fellow students.Hopefully you all in full bless of god.On this great day,it would be better if we be start our conversation with smiling.As you know,I am consultant of obesity.Before that,did you know what is childhoodobesitys?And, if you look around you these days,do you know that many children are overweight? According to International Joural of night obesity(2001)state. Dieting , Health , Hypertension 867 Words | 3 Pages. The Leading Causes of Obesity Did you know that 1 in 5 Americans is obese? America is one of the fattest countries in the . World. Serving sizes are getting larger in proportions and essay are getting more and orsino in twelfth night more unhealthy. It also been said by Jenny Murphy that about 300,000 Americans die each year form obesity related causes . But why, why we getting so obese?
Americas obesity is descriptive noise, sky rocketing by the effects of high glucose, fructose, and sucrose consumption, having unhealthy food so accessible. Carbohydrate , Disaccharide , Fructose 833 Words | 3 Pages. Causes of Childhood Obesity Works Cited Axmaker, Larry. Childhood Obesity Should be Taken Seriously. . Online Posting 24 November 2004. Accessed 9 April 2005. 1-4.
Bastin, Sandra. Perils of Childhood Obesity . American Academy of orsino in twelfth Pediatrics Quarterly. Volume 31 (11/2001): 44-49. Retrieved Medline 9 April 2005. 1-5. Buffington, Cynthia. Causes of Childhood Obesity . Beyond Change: Information Regarding Obesity and Obesity Surgery. Volume 17 (12/2003): 12-17.
Retrieved Academic. Adipose tissue , Childhood , Childhood obesity 1288 Words | 4 Pages. CAUSE AND EFFECT ESSAY ON OBESITY. ? CAUSE AND EFFECT ESSAY ON OBESITY We say one is obese when his body fat is accumulated abnormally within the body . usually, 20% or more over immigration, an individuals ideal body weight. The most commonly used modification, established categorizes obesity into three (WHO, 2000).
Like any other problem, obesity has its causes and effects. Some of the causes include, diet (unbalanced diet), environment, as well as genes and family history. On the other hand, the orsino effects can be categorized into three. Adipose tissue , Body shape , Dieting 769 Words | 6 Pages. The Causes and Effects of Childhood Obesity. The Causes and Effects of Childhood Obesity Karla Bertram ENG122: English Composition II Instructor Tamara Dorris September . Illegal Immigration! 21, 2011 The Causes and Effects of Childhood Obesity Recently, childhood obesity has grown to epidemic proportions. It has tripled in the last three decades and orsino now approximately one in three children are overweight or obese. According to Blacks Medical Dictionary, obesity is mc donalds delivery malaysia, a condition in which the energy stores of the body (mainly fat) are too great (Aamp;C. Childhood obesity , Diabetes mellitus , Health 656 Words | 3 Pages.
The Causes and Effects of Childhood Obesity. The Causes and Effects of Childhood Obesity One of the biggest concerns among health care providers and parents in in twelfth night the . last few decades has been childhood obesity . This has caused many problems; among the most concerning is a preventable health problem. Professionals have even considered it an epidemic, which raises even more concern about the future of our youth. It also opens our eyes to see that the problem is much bigger than we thought it to be. The major causes for obesity are the rise. Causality , Eating , Energy 953 Words | 3 Pages. Causes and Solutions of Obesity Unknown Unknown Unknown Causes and Solutions of Obesity If . The Open Reviews! you can prolong your life, and make yourself feel better about who you are then why not overcome this overweight issue. In todays world we are facing an epidemic that seems to be affecting even are young at an early age.
We all know that obesity can have adverse effects on health, well-being, and relationship, and can be solved by eating organic food, exercising, and discipline. We are here to. Adipose tissue , Cancer , Diabetes mellitus 1914 Words | 5 Pages. Childhood Obesity: Cause and Effect. Childhood Obesity : Cause and Effect December 3, 2012 Childhood Obesity Gone are the days of children . playing hide and seek outside, walking long distances to and from school, walking to a friends house to play on the weekends and walking to the bus stop to orsino night, go to mall with friends and in essence exerting physically. It is rare to find a child carrying a sack lunch to school which would include a healthy lunch of peanut butter and delivery malaysia jelly sandwiches, an apple and perhaps a cookie or chips. Adolescence , Childhood , Childhood obesity 2429 Words | 6 Pages. Causes of Childhood Obesity By: Shara Gatlin English ENC 1011-425 Ms. Orsino Night! Warren November 15, 2012 . Causes of sociocultural Childhood Obesity Childhood obesity is a serious medical condition not only in America but also in other countries. Orsino In Twelfth! It can lead to illegal, many medical issues that will follow a child into adulthood. Orsino In Twelfth! Obesity is on the rise among American children of all ages, gender, and essay ethnic background; some of the causes for this in our young Americans are a decrease in physical activity, an increase.
Body shape , Childhood , Childhood obesity 1781 Words | 5 Pages. Cause and Effect of Obesity Essay. buzzle.com/articles/obesity.html Overweight and obesity is the second leading cause of death, killing 300,000 people a year, . . Night! There is not a miracle pill that will lead to weight loss. Richard Carmona Obesity is perhaps one of the most dangerous health problems increasing at an alarming rate due to various factors most of which are related to the changing lifestyles. Here is some basic information about obesity . What is obesity ? Obesity is a condition where the fat layer accumulates. Adipose tissue , Body mass index , Dieting 1069 Words | 4 Pages. Causes of American Obesity : Obesity is a medical condition in human . beings, in which the body overproduces body fats, to such an extent that the excess body fats which usually accumulates within the body, can lead to other health problems like increase in body size or the thickening of blood vessels, which may eventually lead to heart attack or high blood pressure. Illegal Immigration Essay! Obesity is a global health issue, but its mostly common in the west, due to the kind of life. Hypertension , Nutrition , Obesity 1963 Words | 6 Pages. Causes of Childhood Obesity Obesity is a superfluous amount of orsino in twelfth night fat in mc donalds delivery malaysia the body.
Obesity happens . when a persons body receives many more calories than it can burn by itself during the day. In other words it means that people eat generous helpings of processed food; moreover, this food can consist of a lot of in twelfth cholesterol, which is extremely dangerous for the human body. Childhood obesity today has grown rapidly and has become a disturbing epidemic in many countries in the past few decades. Illegal Immigration Essay! Studies. Body mass index , Body shape , Childhood 1121 Words | 3 Pages. Causes of Childhood Obesity Childhood Obesity has become a growing problem with children today. . Obesity now affects 17% of all children in orsino night the United States-triple the rate from just one generation ago (CDC). There are multiple reasons that more and more children are becoming obese. The decrease in physical activity, along with increased amounts of television, computers, and video games is one. Higher calorie and malaysia sugar intake is another reason for the rising numbers. Childhood obesity is.
Childhood , Childhood obesity , Diabetes mellitus 1383 Words | 4 Pages. Cause and Effect Essay on night, Obesity. Tiffany Nali Period 3 May 20,2012 Cause and immigration Effect Essay on Obesity . Obesity is in twelfth night, one of the main topics in America including one of the main reasons of university reviews death.-(begin with a subject) Detecting obesity is easy, but treating it can be very hard to night, do. Never have there have been so many teens and mc donalds delivery children not only overweight but obese. Orsino! In some ways, it could be called the kay intouch plague of the twenty- first century due to adolescents and teenagers indulging.
Cancer , Food , Hamburger 963 Words | 3 Pages. English 61 20 November 2012 Causes Of Childhood Obesity In America Obesity in in twelfth night children has dramatically . increased in meaning of cry the last twenty years, and has become a growing issue in the United States. According to the 1999-2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 16 percent of in twelfth night children age 6-19 years are overweight, and another 15 percent are at the risk of becoming overweight or obese. The Open Reviews! Although specific causes for the increase in orsino in twelfth prevalence of childhood obesity is not clear, researchers have. Childhood , Childhood obesity , Dieting 846 Words | 3 Pages. The Causes of Obesity in America In 1835, Adolphe Quetelet defined the meaning of cry body measurements of the orsino night average person based on height . and descriptive weight. Night! For an noise, adult to in twelfth, be considered at a healthy weight, their body mass index must be between 18.5 and descriptive 24.9. An adult with a body mass index between 25 and 29 are considered overweight, and anyone above 30 is considered obese. (HBO Documentary Films) Obesity has become a major health issue in many countries around the world. Doubling since the 1980s, obesity now.
Body mass index , Body shape , Fast food 1009 Words | 3 Pages. Obesity Obesity is the mother of all diseases and, I chose the subject partly due to a personal interest, and due to that . it is a big problem for society. Obesity is a growing issue, not only in the USA, but in our own back yard. - Obese people would most likely end up having a stroke, or he or she will suffer from orsino night a heart disease so he or she needs to be operated on, which costs a lot of money, thus making it a problem for society. Diseases. There is no benefit in being obese. Not. Childhood obesity , Diabetes mellitus , Diabetes mellitus type 2 1053 Words | 4 Pages. the causes and effects of obesity in the united states. ?The causes and effects of obesity in the United States Introduction Obesity , a medical condition where people are . overweight in an unhealthy way, has become increasingly serious in recent decades. It has numerous destructive influences on peoples health.
Thus, it is necessary to analyse the causes and effects of obesity . In the United States, one of the most obesity -epidemic nations, approximately 17 per cent of meaning of cry adolescents and in twelfth 33.8 per cent of adults are obese (Centres for university Disease Control and. Adipose tissue , Dieting , Fast food 2390 Words | 7 Pages. childhood obesity has increased by orsino night 54 percent in meaning of cry children ages six to eleven. In children twelve to orsino night, seventeen it has increased by 39 percent. . (Silberstein, 1) Childhood obesity is so prevalent among these age groups that it has reached epidemic proportions. One cause of childhood obesity is immigration essay, genetics. Children who have parents or siblings who are overweight have an increased risk of becoming obese themselves. Orsino! Genetics accounts for mc donalds delivery approximately 25 percent to 40 percent to childhood obesity . ( Causes of. Cancer , Childhood obesity , Diabetes mellitus 943 Words | 3 Pages.
Obesity Is Cause from the Lack of Responsibility. personal responsibility, the fast food industry, or the government involvement? All fours authors, Radley Balko, Yves Engler, Eric Schlosser, and orsino in twelfth Dr. . Richard H. Carmona express their own point of view about their ideas on the causes of obesity ? They all believe that the cause is due to the lack of responsibility people put in for themselves and their families, especially their children. Radley Balko, the author of the essay, What you eat is your business writes about how Americans should be responsible. Fast food , Junk food , Nutrition 1673 Words | 4 Pages.
Obesity : A Growing Epidemic In recent years, obesity turned into mary uk, a hot topic in the news. Whether it is orsino in twelfth night, childhood . Illegal Essay! obesity , obesity in America, or the rapid growth of obesity , it seems that obesity is continually in the news cycle. However, the reason obesity has become so puzzling is that the growth has increased rapidly in the last forty years. This has led to many studies attempting to find out why the growth has increased so greatly. With all the different studies and orsino in twelfth countless research. Burger King , Fast food , Fast food restaurant 1812 Words | 6 Pages. Obesity; Root cause of many diseases. Obesity : root cause of many disease Outline What is obesity Its measurement Global trends . Reasons Energy rich foods Lack of exercise genetic predisposition Related Morbidity Cardiovascular diseases Diabetes Mellitus Other diseases e.g bone and joint diseases, asthma, skin diseases, certain cancers etc Social implications How to fight obesity Diet Exercise Drugs and surgical procedures Conclusion. Obesity is mary uk, a medical. Body mass index , Cancer , Diabetes mellitus 1059 Words | 4 Pages. Millions of people die each year because of orsino night different causes , but do the majority know obesity ranks second among . Descriptive Noise! causes of death?
Even though obesity is a serious concern in orsino in twelfth night society, the majority of people dont care or are too busy to kay intouch, care about the health effect it caused. Obesity is night, a genuine problem in America, but our nation debate on the subject has become nothing short of hysterical, (David Martosko, Center from consumer freedom) Obesity might be taken as a joke for most people but as it. Binge eating disorder , Childhood obesity , Diabetes mellitus 2178 Words | 6 Pages. Obesity : A Complex Problem with a Simple Solution Many people in the United States believe that if it werent for fast food restaurants, . they would not be obese. McDonalds has been blamed 100% and sued for individual weight problems of Americans. While fast food may be one of the the open reviews contributors to the obesity epidemic, it surely doesnt stand-alone.
Obesity is caused by many factors, depression, sedentary lifestyle, overeating disorders and food choices. Many of those factors are learned and. Bariatrics , Childhood obesity , Diabetes mellitus 1174 Words | 3 Pages. ? Obesity Veronica Ross GEN 499 Instructor Hamlin November 17, 2014 Obesity Topic: I have chosen the topic, . obesity . Orsino Night! Obesity has been defined as the excessive accumulation of body fat occurring in children and people being more than 10 pounds over the weight for their height and body type (The American Academy of Child and the open Adolescent Psychiatry, 2011). I chose obesity because it has taken over a lot of our young children. Obesity in young children has become a big issue because. Body shape , Childhood , Health 1447 Words | 7 Pages. Public Health Related Problems. Night! . Meaning Of Cry! OBESITY . . Public health is the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting health through the organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals. There are different. Body mass index , Dieting , Nutrition 1551 Words | 4 Pages. ? Obesity Obesity is orsino in twelfth night, seen everywhere around us.
Obesity is more than just eating two Big Macs rather than one. . Obesity is a lifestyle disease which is spreading rapidly worldwide. Individuals of meaning of cry all age, gender and ethnicity are affected by in twelfth this disease. Still, a general trend has been observed that women are affected more than the noise men. Orsino Night! The tendency to gain weight also increases with the growing age. However, an alarming trend of childhood obesity is being noticed in the recent years . In definition.
Appetite , Dieting , Hypertension 847 Words | 3 Pages. Health and Wellness Term paper Obesity in children Obesity is a growing problem with children in noise the world. . In Twelfth Night! Obesity is descriptive, not an issue that is in twelfth, just United States specific, many countries are dealing with overweight and obese children. Obesity in children has more than doubled in the past 30 years and it is the open, thought to orsino in twelfth, continue to grow (Whiteman). The Open University! With obesity in children on the rise diseases and health issues is also rising. There are two reasons for these rises in obesity , and they are children do not. Body shape , Childhood , Childhood obesity 1893 Words | 7 Pages. Taking a Deeper Look Obesity is a serious problem in America.
It is a much bigger problem than people perceive. In fact, over night, a third of the . nations population is obese. Being obese and being overweight is not the university reviews same thing, although they are often perceived as being the night same. Mc Donalds! Being overweight means that a person weighs too much in night comparison with their height; however, obesity is observed by the amount of sociocultural theories body fat a person has (Winters 44). Orsino In Twelfth Night! Americans perceive being obese the same way they perceive. African American , Body shape , Childhood 2209 Words | 6 Pages. ? Obesity at a Glance in America Rikki Higgs Mrs. Abernathy English IIV 10 December 2013 . Essay! Rikki Higgs Mrs. Abernathy English IV 10 December 2013 Obesity at a Glance in America In America, obesity rates have shot up exorbitantly high in the latest year. In Twelfth Night! Obesity , which is illegal, a form of overweight, has become a common problem throughout America (Macnair, Trisha). Even though obesity is excess proportion of total body fat, it can cause major damage.
Obesity. Adipose tissue , Body mass index , Cancer 1912 Words | 7 Pages. ? Obesity Obesity is orsino in twelfth, a growing health problem in meaning of cry many nations of the world and should now be considered as a chronic disease that . is reaching epidemic proportions. In most simple term obesity means having excess body fat. The most common measure of obesity is the body mass index, or BMI. BMI is mass (kg) divided by the square of the height (meters); it is highly correlate with the orsino night body fat. Healthy people have a BMI of 20-25, those with a BMI of 25-30 are deemed to be overweight, those with. Adipose tissue , Body mass index , Diabetes mellitus 1186 Words | 4 Pages. Chapter 8: Addressing the Obesity Epidemic: An issue for Public Health Policy These notes contain some outline on mc donalds delivery, obesity . You . Orsino In Twelfth! have to read the references from the illegal immigration essay CDC to further learn about obesity meaning that All the orsino in twelfth night Online References are Mandatory.
The video on titled Childhood Obesity Epidemic is mandatory and you watch it when you click content. 1. Kay Intouch! Defining the terms Obesity and Overweight as they apply to adults and orsino in twelfth night children: http://www.cdc.gov/ obesity /defining.html Definitions. Bariatrics , Body mass index , Body shape 1046 Words | 4 Pages. Obesity : An Epidemic Ailments such as cancer, emphysema, and multiple sclerosis are usually associated with a painful death. University! However, . diseases like these are not the exclusive killers of Americans.
Many fall prey to orsino, a more silent killer, but one that should be respected just as much as any other serious physical ailment: obesity . Noise! Obesity is a disease with severe repercussions such as heart disease or stroke. Though largely overlooked in importance, it is an epidemic, and like other epidemics. Adipose tissue , Body mass index , Junk food 1974 Words | 6 Pages. Obesity Takes Over Obesity is a growing worldwide problem causing over 400 million people to become obese . ( Obesity ). Orsino! The numbers will keep climbing to be about 700 million in 2015 ( Obesity ). As the numbers keep growing in both adults and children, people will remain obese until they can make their life healthier. Sociocultural! Throughout the orsino United States, obesity has affected a large number of people from lack of exercise, consuming too much food and causing various types of health problems. People have. Body mass index , Dieting , Health 857 Words | 3 Pages. In the meaning of cry United States today, obesity has become an orsino, enormous problem. In the last three decades, the theories number of people overweight has increased . dramatically. A study done by night the Centers of Disease Control showed that since 1980, one third of descriptive our adult population has become overweight. America is the richest but also the fattest nation in the world and our obese backsides are the butt of jokes in every other country ( Obesity ). According to orsino, a report in the Journal of the American Medical Association.
Appetite , Cancer , Dieting 1433 Words | 4 Pages. Obesity Name Subject Date Obesity which has today become a major health problem globally is as a result of descriptive . abnormal and orsino in twelfth accumulated excessive fats in the human body. Consequently it has become a global problem and a major risk factor for many chronic diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and noise cancer to name a few. There are many causes attributed to orsino, obesity which mostly focus on lifestyle in general today in our changing world. Consumption of fast foods that contain. Atherosclerosis , Epidemiology , Fast food 744 Words | 3 Pages. Angelica Pisano Dr. Boyle Sociology 105 April 8, 2013 Obesity in America Obesity is a common disease in the United States . that has many causes and immigration consequences. Orsino In Twelfth! Genetics, the environment and the media are all common causes of obesity leading to health problems as well as economic issues. Descriptive Noise! Another variable that contributes to in twelfth night, obesity , less obvious than diet and illegal immigration heredity, is social networking (Schaefer 106).
Today, over two-thirds of Americans fall into the categories of orsino night being overweight or. Body mass index , Diabetes mellitus , Dieting 1279 Words | 5 Pages. business people. Everyone knows that McDonalds has the best fast food around over any other restaurant. Weve grown up on their food and they have been . around for decades. We have continuously eaten their food and mc donalds delivery not knowing that in the long run it will cause us serious health problems even though they portray their food as being healthy. Orsino Night! Even their healthy food is not really healthy.
They just say that so people that are on descriptive, diets will want to go there and orsino buy their food. A bacon ranch salad has as much. Coffee , Drink , Eating 1062 Words | 4 Pages. Background of the Study Obesity is kay intouch uk, a major global epidemic and orsino a burden to society and health systems. It is well known risk factor for a . number of chronic medical conditions with high morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to provide an estimate of the direct costs associated to malaysia, outpatient and orsino inpatient care of overweight and obesity related diseases in descriptive the perspective of the Brazilian Health System (SUS).
Obesity poses a major public health challenge. Each year, obesity contributes to an estimated. Body mass index , Childhood obesity , Diabetes mellitus 829 Words | 3 Pages. Obesity HCS/465 August 25, 2014 Ann Impens Obesity Obesity is orsino night, a major problem around the world and mc donalds delivery malaysia it . affects everyone. Children are predisposed to being obese due to their parents. There have been a number of studies done to see if a child is orsino, prone to meaning of cry, being overweight because of their parent. In Twelfth Night! Data has been collected and the open analyzed and it shows that children are obese because of orsino night their parents. Definition of the Problem The study was conducted to resolve childhood obesity in children. Bariatrics , Body shape , Cancer 687 Words | 5 Pages.
Obesity is an epidemic that affects millions of mary people in in twelfth the United States everyday. It is a lifestyle disease that affects individuals of mary all . Orsino In Twelfth Night! races, age and gender. Childhood obesity has been increasing rapidly over illegal immigration, the past few years. The problem with obesity is that it makes individuals highly susceptible to diseases like diabetes and hypertension. Seventeen percent of all children in the United States suffer from obesity today. Obesity is generally caused when the calories eaten exceed the calories. Fast food , Health , Health care 979 Words | 3 Pages.
What Are the Causes and Effects of Childhood Obesity. What are the Causes and Effects of Childhood Obesity ? How can they best be addressed? Veronica Clark Eng 122 English . Composition 11 Jason Romero November 19, 2012 What are the Causes and Effects of night Childhood Obesity ? How can they best be addressed? Childhood obesity has become a big important issue over the years. This issue should be addressed immediately. The problems seem to be the food that the sociocultural children and orsino adolescents eat and a little. High school , Meal , Middle school 2080 Words | 6 Pages.
?Destiny Behny English 111-42B Prof. Rebecca Faught 28 Oct. 2013 Paper 3 MLA Obesity Obesity is a problem that has been . on the rise for many decades. Not only is it starting at a young age, it is starting to affect the health of the open university many around the world. There are many health concerns related to the topic of obesity , over nourishment can also cause obesity and health concerns. A lot of people like to night, blame an excessive amount of food consumed as part of them being obese. One does not have to.
Eating , Fast food , Fast food restaurant 1680 Words | 4 Pages. ?What can Samoan parents do to prevent obesity and diabetes in their children? Samoan culture is greatly respected by its people. Mary Kay Intouch Uk! In their . opinion, no other culture is even close to theirs in values, respect, tradition, mentality, form of orsino in twelfth government etc. Descriptive! They want to keep things that way and hopefully nothing could come in between. Orsino! Samoa may be perfect in such ways but, like they say, there is always a bad apple in immigration a society. I believe obesity and diabetes are that. Orsino In Twelfth Night! Merriam-Webster's Collegiate. Body shape , Childhood obesity , Diabetes mellitus 912 Words | 3 Pages. ? Obesity Obesity is the state of being over-weight. It is common to have over-weight in mary kay intouch recent days.
Due to night, . obesity , the theories tendency of orsino in twelfth night gyming is also increasing in current days. Obesity typically results from meaning of cry over-eating (especially an unhealthy diet) and lack of enough exercise. In our modern world with increasingly cheap, high calorie food (example, fast food or junk food), prepared foods that are high in things like salt, sugars or fat, combined with our increasingly sedentary lifestyles. Adipose tissue , Cancer , Dieting 1037 Words | 4 Pages. Obesity Among Young Americans Michelle LeDrappier Professor Tovey VanAulen College English October 29, 2010 LeDrappier, 1 Michelle . LeDrappier Professor Tovey VanAulen College English October 29, 2010 Obesity Among Young Americans Children are filled with energy and orsino in twelfth night youth, but something is increasingly slowing them down. Child obesity has become one of the major epidemics in America today. The twenty-first generation is the only one whose members may be expected to have shorter life.
Body shape , Childhood , Childhood obesity 2514 Words | 7 Pages. 101 6:00 am Professor Cardenas-Adame November 9, 2012 The Cure for Obesity As an sociocultural theories, American society we all share a similar fear for . obesity . Everyone can be succumbed by obesity and most are. Orsino In Twelfth! The percentage is over 70% of America that are borderline line of being obese and 36 in the us that are obese. Also its a triadic to mc donalds delivery malaysia, see that Americans are rated the highest in world for obesity . Orsino In Twelfth! Many may ask why is obesity such a curse. Sociocultural Theories! Many say you may get looked down upon in today society or so forth. Body mass index , Dieting , Human body 1026 Words | 3 Pages. Obesity means having excess body fat. In Twelfth Night! For adults 35 and the open university older, having a BMI (Body Mass Index) greater than 30 is considered obese. . Obesity is a chronic medical disease that can lead to night, diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease, gallstones, and other chronic illnesses. Obesity is sociocultural, difficult to in twelfth, treat and has a high relapse rate. Greater than 95% of those who lose weight regain the uk weight within five years.
Obesity means having too much body fat. It is in twelfth, not the theories same as being overweight, which. Adipose tissue , Appetite , Dieting 1206 Words | 4 Pages. ?Introduction Obesity is a disorder that causes an orsino in twelfth, excess gain in noise body mass, or body weight. Along with this, the disorder can . account for any diseases. Because of a lack of exercise, unhealthy foods and new advances in technology, the percentage of obesity throughout the world increases dramatically. The reason behind choosing this topic is because I am one who really wants to orsino, assist people. I am also strict about the aspects of sociocultural exercise and healthy habits. Orsino In Twelfth! Because obesity is an epidemic in the. Body mass index , Body shape , Childhood obesity 2181 Words | 6 Pages.
breath. In America today this is the reality that many children face. Obesity has become an epidemic in America, it has many contributing . factors, and affects learning abilities but there are preventive manners for it. Although little is being done about obesity , its negative effect on children is caused by multitude of factors. The rising numbers of obese children has reached an alarming rate.
With many Americans, obesity carries the connotation of being extremely overweight. [But] health professionals. Body shape , Childhood obesity , Health 2075 Words | 6 Pages. these contributed to the rise of obesity rates in developed nations. Conversely for developing countries, undernourished mothers produced . babies who are genetically prone to mary kay intouch uk, obesity , and in in twelfth countries like Mexico where the source of meaning of cry water is unreliable, the population turned to soft-drinks, making them the leading consumer of orsino in twelfth night Coca-Cola in noise the world today. Orsino In Twelfth! Be it certain cultures or traditions of specific society considering obese as signs of prosperity or affection, obesity is undoubtedly a grave problem. Body shape , Childhood obesity , Diabetes mellitus 890 Words | 3 Pages. urbanization, affluence, and change in lifestyles and nutritional status of the population. Mary! Obesity among adult has became serious problem in . health department as it increases rapidly. Orsino! Hence, I will discuss on obesity as a contemporary issue in Malaysia.
World health Organization (WHO) had defined that obesity is an abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that presents a risk to health. A crude population measure of obesity is the body mass index (BMI), a persons weight (in kilograms) divided by the square. Eating , Fast food , Food 2869 Words | 10 Pages. Present day American culture promotes unhealthy eating habits in children. Childhood obesity is a major public health concern, and has more . than doubled since the 1970s (Ludmila 1). This can be a big dilemma because kids are developing an unhealthily lifestyle so young. Americas public schooling system needs to be held responsible for the causes of child obesity and make changes to accommodate the effects.
Changes should be made in schools lunch menus and the types of foods found in vending machines. Childhood , Childhood obesity , Health 1169 Words | 3 Pages. or fast food (Allison). Obesity is the abnormal accumulation of body fat, usually twenty percent or more over an individual's ideal body . weight (Greenblatt). Obesity is meaning of cry, becoming an overwhelming epidemic in America.
It is in twelfth, more prevalent in mary African Americans, American-Indians, and orsino in twelfth children (Richards). In fact, nearly two out of three Americans are overweight or obese and the number of overweight children has tripled over the last twenty years (Greenblatt). Due to obesity , there are many deaths or. Fast food , Fast Food Nation , Food 1977 Words | 6 Pages. ?Elaine Chen V. Fong English 110.14 12 Feb 2014 An Analysis of the illegal issue: Obesity When it comes to the topic of orsino in twelfth night obesity , . most of us will readily agree that it is a major issue the in the United States. Where this agreement usually ends, however, is on the question of what should be done in order to mary kay intouch, solve this issue. Whereas some are convinced that government and industries should take the responsibility, others maintain that letting the government involve will make the problem worst, it is. Fast food , Junk food , Nutrition 1125 Words | 5 Pages.
Eating Fast Food May Cause Obesity. Elizabeth Collins English 1302 March 27, 2013 Eating Fast Food May Cause Obesity Most American eat out daily and . fast food is fried and high in calories, the bottom line is its all about choices. Making the decision to choose fried, baked or grilled food is a choice. Fast food, namely McDonalds, tends to get a bad rap, McDonalds got a bad rap because it is not only convenient but they made their food look attractive and orsino night desirable to kids. They placed those golden arches high. Eating , Fast food restaurant , Food 860 Words | 3 Pages. humiliating for the overweight people. Maybe to better comprehend this law or policy we need to know what obesity is and what . causes this condition. The dictionary definition of obesity refers to uk, it as a medical condition whereby surplus body fat has accumulated to orsino in twelfth, the point that it may have adverse health effects, leading to a reduced life expectancy and essay increased health problems (Brethauer SA 19). Obesity is calculated using the Body mass index (BMI) which compares height and orsino in twelfth weight.
A person is defined. Adipose tissue , Airline , Avianca 2667 Words | 7 Pages.
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leo tolstoy essay Fasting! And even an orsino night, analysis of reviews how to fast, and where to in twelfth night, begin! The notion seems ridiculous and descriptive wild to the majority of men. I remember how, with pride at his originality, an Evangelical preacher, who was attacking monastic asceticism, once said to me Ours is not a Christianity of fasting and privations, but of beefsteaks.
Christianity, or virtue in general?and beefsteaks! During a long period of darkness and lack of all guidance, Pagan or Christian, so many wild, immoral ideas have made their way into our life (especially into in twelfth night that lower region of the first steps toward a good life?our relation to food, to which no one paid any attention), that it is difficult for us even to understand the audacity and senselessness of upholding, in our days, Christianity or virtue with beefsteaks. We are not horrified by this association, solely because a strange thing has befallen us. We look and see not: listen and hear not. Noise? There is no bad odor, no sound, no monstrosity, to which man cannot become so accustomed that he ceases to remark what would strike a man unaccustomed to it. Precisely so it is in the moral region. Christianity and morality with beefsteaks! A few days ago I visited the slaughter house in orsino night our town of Toula. Meaning Of Cry? It is built on the new and in twelfth night improved system practised in large towns, with a view to the open university, causing the orsino, animals as little suffering as possible. It was on a Friday, two days before Trinity Sunday.
There were many cattle there. [?] Long before this [?], I had wished to visit a slaughter house, in order to see with my own eyes the meaning of cry, reality of the question raised when vegetarianism is discussed. But at first I felt ashamed to do so, as one is always ashamed of orsino night going to look at suffering which one knows is about to take place, but which one cannot avert; and so I kept putting off my visit. But a little while ago I met on the road a butcher returning to Toula after a visit to his home. He is illegal essay not yet an in twelfth, experienced butcher, and his duty is to stab with a knife.
I asked him whether he did not feel sorry for the animals that he killed. He gave me the usual answer: Why should I feel sorry? It is necessary. University? But when I told him that eating flesh is not necessary, but is only a luxury, he agreed; and then he admitted that he was sorry for the animals. But what can I do? I must earn my bread, he said. At first I was afraid to kill. My father, he never even killed a chicken in all his life. The majority of Russians cannot kill; they feel pity, and express the feeling by the word fear. This man had also been afraid, but he was so no longer.
He told me that most of the orsino in twelfth, work was done on Fridays, when it continues until the evening. Not long ago I also had a talk with a retired soldier, a butcher, and he, too, was surprised at sociocultural my assertion that it was a pity to orsino, kill, and mc donalds delivery said the usual things about its being ordained; but afterwards he agreed with me: Especially when they are quiet, tame cattle. In Twelfth Night? They come, poor things! trusting you. It is very pitiful. This is dreadful! Not the suffering and death of the mc donalds malaysia, animals, but that man suppresses in himself, unnecessarily, the highest spiritual capacity?that of sympathy and pity toward living creatures like himself?and by violating his own feelings becomes cruel. Orsino Night? And how deeply seated in essay the human heart is the injunction not to orsino in twelfth, take life! Once, when walking from Moscow, I was offered a lift by meaning of cry some carters who were going from Serpouhof to a neighboring forest to fetch wood. Orsino Night? It was the Thursday before Easter. I was seated in the first cart, with a strong, red, coarse carman, who evidently drank.
On entering a village we saw a well-fed, naked, pink pig being dragged out of the first yard to be slaughtered. It squealed in a dreadful voice, resembling the shriek of a man. Just as we were passing they began to kill it. A man gashed its throat with a knife. The pig squealed still more loudly and piercingly, broke away from the men, and ran off covered with blood. Mc Donalds Delivery? Being near-sighted I did not see all the orsino, details.
I saw only the human-looking pink body of the illegal essay, pig and heard its desperate squeal; but the carter saw all the details and watched closely. They caught the pig, knocked it down, and finished cutting its throat. When its squeals ceased the carter sighed heavily. Do men really not have to in twelfth night, answer for such things? he said. So strong is man's aversion to all killing. But by example, by encouraging greediness, by the assertion that God has allowed it, and, above all, by habit, people entirely lose this natural feeling. On Friday I decided to go to Toula, and, meeting a meek, kind acquaintance of mine, I invited him to noise, accompany me. Yes, I have heard that the arrangements are good, and have been wishing to go and see it; but if they are slaughtering I will not go in. Why not? That's just what I want to see! If we eat flesh it must be killed.
It is worth remarking that this man is a sportsman and himself kills animals and birds. So we went to the slaughter house. Even at the entrance one noticed the heavy, disgusting, fetid smell, as of in twelfth night carpenter's glue, or paint on glue. The nearer we approached, the stronger became the smell. The building is of red brick, very large, with vaults and high chimneys. We entered the gates. Essay? To the right was a spacious enclosed yard, three-quarters of an acre in extent?twice a week cattle are driven in here for sale?and adjoining this enclosure was the porter's lodge. To the left were the chambers, as they are called?i.e., rooms with arched entrances, sloping asphalt floors, and contrivances for moving and hanging up the carcasses. On a bench against the wall of the porter's lodge were seated half a dozen butchers, in aprons covered with blood, their tucked-up sleeves disclosing their muscular arms also besmeared with blood. Orsino In Twelfth Night? They had finished their work half an hour before, so that day we could only see the empty chambers. Though these chambers were open on both sides, there was an mc donalds malaysia, oppressive smell of warm blood; the night, floor was brown and theories shining, with congealed black blood in the cavities.
One of the butchers described thejirocess of slaughtering, and showed us the place where it was done. I did not quite understand him, and formed a wrong, but very horrible, idea of the in twelfth, way the animals are slaughtered; and I fancied that, as is often the case, the reality would very likely produce upon me a weaker impression than the kay intouch uk, imagination. But in this I was mistaken. The next time I visited the slaughter house I went in good time. It was the Friday before Trinity?a warm day in orsino in twelfth night June. The smell of mary kay intouch uk glue and in twelfth night blood was even stronger and more penetrating than on sociocultural theories, my first visit. Orsino In Twelfth? The work was at its height. The duty yard was full of cattle, and malaysia animals had been driven into all the enclosures beside the orsino in twelfth night, chambers. In the street, before the theories, entrance, stood carts to which oxen, calves, and in twelfth night cows were tied.
Other carts drawn by good horses and filled with live calves, whose heads hung down and swayed about, drew up and were unloaded; and illegal similar carts containing the carcasses of oxen, with trembling legs sticking out, with heads and bright red lungs and brown livers, drove away from the slaughter house. The dealers themselves, in their long coats, with their whips and knouts in in twelfth their hands, were walking about the yard, either marking with tar cattle belonging to the same owner, or bargaining, or else guiding oxen and bulls from the great yard into the enclosures which lead into the chambers. These men were evidently all preoccupied with money matters and calculations, and any thought as to meaning of cry, whether it was right or wrong to kill these animals was as far from in twelfth their minds as were questions about the chemical composition of the blood that covered the floor of the illegal, chambers. No butchers were to be seen in the yard; they were all in in twelfth night the chambers at work. That day about a hundred head of kay intouch uk cattle were slaughtered. I was on the point of entering one of the chambers, but stopped short at the door.
I stopped both because the chamber was crowded with carcasses which were being moved about, and also because blood was flowing on orsino in twelfth, the floor and dripping from above. All the butchers present were besmeared with blood, and had I entered I, too, should certainly have been covered with it. One suspended carcass was being taken down, another was being moved toward the door, a third, a slaughtered ox, was lying with its white legs raised, while a butcher with strong hand was ripping up its tight-stretched hide. Through the door opposite the one at which I was standing, a big, red, well-fed ox was led in. Two men were dragging it, and hardly had it entered when I saw a butcher raise a knife above its neck and stab it. Noise? The ox, as if all four legs had suddenly given way, fell heavily upon its belly, immediately turned over on one side, and began to work its legs and all its hind-quarters. Another butcher at once threw himself upon night, the ox from the side opposite to the open reviews, the twitching legs, caught its horns and twisted its head down to the ground, while another butcher cut its throat with a knife. From beneath the head there flowed a stream of blackish-red blood, which a besmeared boy caught in night a tin basin. All the time this was going on the ox kept incessantly twitching its head as if trying to get up, and waved its four legs in the air. The basin was quickly filling, but the illegal essay, ox still lived, and, its stomach heaving heavily, both hind and fore legs worked so violently that the butchers held aloof. When one basin was full, the boy carried it away on orsino night, his head to the albumen factory, while another boy placed a fresh basin, which also soon began to fill up.
But still the ox heaved its body and worked its hind legs. When the blood ceased to mary kay intouch, flow the butcher raised the animal's head and began to skin it. The ox continued to orsino, writhe. The head, stripped of its skin, showed red with white veins, and kept the noise, position given it by the butcher; on both sides hung the skin. In Twelfth? Still the animal did not cease to sociocultural, writhe. Than another butcher caught hold of one of the legs, broke it, and cut it off.
In the orsino night, remaining legs and the stomach the convulsions still continued. The other legs were cut off and thrown aside, together with those of other oxen belonging to the same owner. Then the carcass was dragged to the hoist and hung up, and the convulsions were over. Thus I looked on from the door at mc donalds delivery malaysia the second, third, fourth ox. It was the night, same with each: the same cutting off of the head with bitten tongue, and the open the same convulsed members. The only difference was that the butcher did not always strike at once so as to orsino in twelfth night, cause the animal's fall. University? Sometimes he missed his aim, whereupon the ox leaped up, bellowed, and, covered with blood, tried to escape.
But then his head was pulled under a bar, struck a second time, and he fell. I afterwards entered by the door at which the oxen were led in. Here I saw the same thing, only orsino in twelfth, nearer, and therefore more plainly. But chiefly I saw here, what I had not seen before, how the oxen were forced to enter this door. Each time an ox was seized in illegal the enclosure and pulled forward by a rope tied to its horns, the orsino in twelfth, animal, smelling blood, refused to advance, and sociocultural sometimes bellowed and drew back. It would have been beyond the strength of two men to orsino in twelfth, drag it in by force, so one of the descriptive, butchers went round each time, grasped the animal's tail and orsino in twelfth night twisted it so violently that the gristle crackled, and the ox advanced. When they had finished with the meaning of cry, cattle of one owner, they brought in those of another. The first animal of his next lot was not an ox, but a bull ?a fine, well-bred creature, black, with white spots on its legs, young, muscular, full of energy. He was dragged forward, but he lowered his head and resisted sturdily.
Then the butcher who followed behind seized the tail, like an engine-driver grasping the orsino, handle of a whistle, twisted it, the gristle crackled, and sociocultural theories the bull rushed forward, upsetting the in twelfth, men who held the rope. Then it stopped, looking sideways with its black eyes, the whites of mary uk which had filled with blood. Night? But again the tail crackled, and university the bull sprang forward and in twelfth night reached the required spot. The striker approached, took aim, and struck. Mc Donalds Malaysia? But the blow missed the mark. The bull leaped up, shook his head, bellowed, and, covered with blood, broke free and rushed back. The men at the doorway all sprang aside: but the experienced butchers, with the dash of night men inured to danger, quickly caught the rope; again the reviews, tail operation was repeated, and again the bull was in the chamber, where he was dragged under the bar, from which he did not again escape. The striker quickly took aim at the spot where the hair divides like a star, and, notwithstanding the blood, found it, struck, and the fine animal, full of life, collapsed, its head and legs writhing while it was bled and the head skinned.
There, the cursed devil hasn't even fallen the right way! grumbled the butcher as he cut the skin from the head. Five minutes later the head was stuck up, red instead of black, without skin; the eyes, that had shone with such splendid color five minutes before, fixed and orsino night glassy. Afterwards I went into the compartment where small animals are slaughtered?a very large chamber with asphalt floor, and tables with backs, on which sheep and the open calves are killed. Here the work was already finished; in the long room, impregnated with the smell of in twelfth blood, were only two butchers. One was blowing into the leg of a dead lamb and mc donalds patting the swollen stomach with his hand; the other, a young fellow in orsino in twelfth night an apron besmeared with blood, was smoking a bent cigarette. There was no one else in reviews the long, dark chamber, filled with a heavy smell. After me there entered a man, apparently an ex-soldier, bringing in a young yearling ram, black with a white mark on its neck, and orsino its legs tied. This animal he placed upon one of the tables, as if upon a bed. The old soldier greeted the butchers, with whom he was evidently acquainted, and began to ask when their master allowed them leave.
The fellow with the cigarette approached with a knife, sharpened it on the edge of the table, and answered that they were free on holidays. Descriptive Noise? The live ram was lying as quietly as the dead inflated one, except that it was briskly wagging its short little tail and its sides were heaving more quickly than usual. The soldier pressed down its uplifted head gently, without effort; the butcher, still continuing the conversation, grasped with his left hand the head of the ram and orsino cut its throat. The ram quivered, and the little tail stiffened and ceased to wave. The fellow, while waiting for theories the blood to flow, began to relight his cigarette, which had gone out. The blood flowed and orsino night the ram began to writhe. The conversation continued without the slightest interruption. It was horribly revolting. [?] [A]nd how about those hens and chickens which daily, in thousands of descriptive kitchens, with heads cut off and streaming with blood, comically, dreadfully, flop about, jerking their wings? And see, a kind, refined lady will devour the carcasses of orsino in twelfth night these animals with full assurance that she is doing right, at the same time asserting two contradictory propositions: First, that she is, as her doctor assures her, so delicate that she cannot be sustained by vegetable food alone, and that for her feeble organism flesh is indispensable; and, secondly, that she is so sensitive that she is unable, not only herself to inflict suffering on animals, but even to bear the sight of suffering.
Whereas the poor lady is weak precisely because she has been taught to live upon meaning of cry, food unnatural to man; and she cannot avoid causing suffering to animals?for she eats them. will inevitably follow one definite sequence, and in this sequence the first thing will be self-control in orsino in twelfth night food?fasting. And in fasting, if he be really and seriously seeking to malaysia, live a good life, the first thing from which he will abstain will always be the use of animal food, because, to say nothing of the in twelfth, excitation of the passions caused by such food, its use is sociocultural theories simply immoral, as it involves the performance of an act which is contrary to the moral feeling?killing; and is called forth only by greediness and the desire for tasty food. [?] [W]e cannot pretend that we do not know this. We are not ostriches, and cannot believe that if we refuse to look at what we do not wish to see, it will not exist. This is especially the case when what we do not wish to see is what we wish to eat. If it were really indispensable, or, if not indispensable, at least in some way useful! But it is orsino quite unnecessary, and only serves to develop animal feelings, to excite desire, and to sociocultural, promote fornication and drunkenness.
And this is continually being confirmed by the fact that young, kind, undepraved people?especially women and girls?without knowing how it logically follows, feel that virtue is incompatible with beefsteaks, and, as soon as they wish to in twelfth night, be good, give up eating flesh. What, then, do I wish to say? That in order to be moral people must cease to eat meat? Not at all. I only wish to say that for a good life a certain order of delivery malaysia good actions is indispensable; that if a man's aspirations toward right living be serious they will inevitably follow one definite sequence; and that in this sequence the first virtue a man will strive after will be self-control, self-restraint.
And in seeking for self-control a man will inevitably follow one definite sequence, and in this sequence the first thing will be self-control in orsino food ?fasting. And in fasting, if he be really and seriously seeking to live a good life, the first thing from which he will abstain will always be the mc donalds delivery, use of animal, food, because, to say nothing of the night, excitation of the passions caused by such food, its use is simply immoral, as it involves the performance of an act which is contrary to the moral feeling ?killing; and essay is called forth only by greediness and the desire for tasty food.